The Flask-Testing extension provides unit testing utilities for Flask.
Source code and issue tracking at Bitbucket.
Install with pip and easy_install:
pip install Flask-Testing
or download the latest version from Bitbucket:
hg clone http://bitbucket.org/danjac/flask-testing cd flask-testing python setup.py develop
If you are using virtualenv, it is assumed that you are installing Flask-Testing in the same virtualenv as your Flask application(s).
Writing unit tests
Simply subclass the TestCase class:
from flaskext.testing import TestCase class MyTest(TestCase): pass
You must specify the create_app method, which should return a Flask instance:
from flaskext.testing import TestCase class MyTest(TestCase): def create_app(self): app = Flask(__name__) app.config['TESTING'] = True return app
If you don't define create_app a NotImplementedError will be raised.
Testing JSON responses
If you are testing a view that returns a JSON response, you can test the output using a special json attribute appended to the Response object:
@app.route("/ajax/") def some_json(): return jsonify(success=True) class TestViews(TestCase): def test_some_json(self): response = self.client.get("/ajax/") self.assertEquals(response.json, dict(success=True))
Using with Twill
Twill is a simple language for browing the Web through a command line interface.
Flask-Testing comes with a helper class for creating functional tests using Twill:
def test_something_with_twill(self): with Twill(self.app, port=3000) as t: t.browser.go(t.url("/"))
The older TwillTestCase has been deprecated.
Testing with SQLAlchemy
This covers a couple of points if you are using Flask-Testing with SQLAlchemy. It is assumed that you are using the Flask-SQLAlchemy extension, but if not the examples should not be too difficult to adapt to your own particular setup.
First, ensure you set the database URI to something other than your production database ! Second, it's usually a good idea to create and drop your tables with each test run, to ensure clean tests:
from flaskext.testing import TestCase from myapp import create_app, db class MyTest(TestCase): SQLALCHEMY_DATABASE_URI = "sqlite://" TESTING = True def create_app(self): # pass in test configuration return create_app(self) def setUp(self): db.create_all() def tearDown(self): db.session.remove() db.drop_all()
Notice also that db.session.remove() is called at the end of each test, to ensure the SQLAlchemy session is properly removed and that a new session is started with each test run - this is a common "gotcha".
Another gotcha is that Flask-SQLAlchemy also removes the session instance at the end of every request (as should any threadsafe application using SQLAlchemy with scoped_session). Therefore the session is cleared along with any objects added to it every time you call client.get() or another client method.
class SomeTest(MyTest): def test_something(self): user = User() db.session.add(user) db.session.commit() # this works assert user in db.session response = self.client.get("/") # this raises an AssertionError assert user in db.session
You now have to re-add the "user" instance back to the session with db.session.add(user), if you are going to make any further database operations on it.
Also notice that for this example the SQLite in-memory database is used : while it is faster for tests, if you have database-specific code (e.g. for MySQL or PostgreSQL) it may not be applicable.
You may also want to add a set of instances for your database inside of a setUp() once your database tables have been created. If you want to work with larger sets of data, look at Fixture which includes support for SQLAlchemy.