1. Peter Gradwell
  2. bind9-clone


bind9-clone /

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	BIND version 9 is a major rewrite of nearly all aspects of the
	underlying BIND architecture.  Some of the important features of
	BIND 9 are:

		- DNS Security
			DNSSEC (signed zones)
			TSIG (signed DNS requests)

		- IP version 6
			Answers DNS queries on IPv6 sockets
			IPv6 resource records (AAAA)
			Experimental IPv6 Resolver Library

		- DNS Protocol Enhancements
			IXFR, DDNS, Notify, EDNS0
			Improved standards conformance

		- Views
			One server process can provide multiple "views" of
			the DNS namespace, e.g. an "inside" view to certain
			clients, and an "outside" view to others.

		- Multiprocessor Support

		- Improved Portability Architecture

	BIND version 9 development has been underwritten by the following

		Sun Microsystems, Inc.
		Hewlett Packard
		Compaq Computer Corporation
		Process Software Corporation
		Silicon Graphics, Inc.
		Network Associates, Inc.
		U.S. Defense Information Systems Agency
		USENIX Association
		Stichting NLnet - NLnet Foundation
		Nominum, Inc.

BIND 9.4.2

	BIND 9.4.2 is a maintenance release, containing fixes for
	a number of bugs in 9.4.1.

	Warning: If you installed BIND 9.4.2rc1 then any applications
	linked against this release candidate will need to be rebuilt.

BIND 9.4.1

	BIND 9.4.1 is a security release, containing a fix for
	a security bugs in 9.4.0.

BIND 9.4.0

	BIND 9.4.0 has a number of new features over 9.3,

	Implemented "additional section caching" (or "acache"), an
	internal cache framework for additional section content to
	improve response performance.  Several configuration options
	were provided to control the behavior.

	New notify type 'master-only'.  Enable notify for master
	zones only.

	Accept 'notify-source' style syntax for query-source.

	rndc now allows addresses to be set in the server clauses.

	New option "allow-query-cache".  This lets allow-query be
	used to specify the default zone access level rather than
	having to have every zone override the global value.
	allow-query-cache can be set at both the options and view
	levels. If allow-query-cache is not set then allow-recursion
	is used if set, otherwise allow-query is used if set, otherwise
	the default (localhost; localnets;) is used.

	rndc: the source address can now be specified.

	ixfr-from-differences now takes master and slave in addition
	to yes and no at the options and view levels.

	Allow the journal's name to be changed via named.conf.

	'rndc notify zone [class [view]]' resend the NOTIFY messages
	for the specified zone.

	'dig +trace' now randomly selects the next servers to try.
	Report if there is a bad delegation.

	Improve check-names error messages.

	Make public the function to read a key file, dst_key_read_public().

	dig now returns the byte count for axfr/ixfr.
	allow-update is now settable at the options / view level.

	named-checkconf now checks the logging configuration.

	host now can turn on memory debugging flags with '-m'.

	Don't send notify messages to self.

	Perform sanity checks on NS records which refer to 'in zone' names.

	New zone option "notify-delay".  Specify a minimum delay
	between sets of NOTIFY messages.

	Extend adjusting TTL warning messages.

	Named and named-checkzone can now both check for non-terminal
	wildcard records.

	"rndc freeze/thaw" now freezes/thaws all zones.

	named-checkconf now check acls to verify that they only
	refer to existing acls.

	The server syntax has been extended to support a range of

	Report differences between hints and real NS rrset and
	associated address records.

	Preserve the case of domain names in rdata during zone

	Restructured the data locking framework using architecture
	dependent atomic operations (when available), improving
	response performance on multi-processor machines significantly.
	x86, x86_64, alpha, powerpc, and mips are currently supported.

	UNIX domain controls are now supported.

	Add support for additional zone file formats for improving
	loading performance.  The masterfile-format option in
	named.conf can be used to specify a non-default format.  A
	separate command named-compilezone was provided to generate
	zone files in the new format.  Additionally, the -I and -O
	options for dnssec-signzone specify the input and output

	dnssec-signzone can now randomize signature end times
	(dnssec-signzone -j jitter).

	Add support for CH A record.

	Add additional zone data consistancy checks.  named-checkzone
	has extended checking of NS, MX and SRV record and the hosts
	they reference.  named has extended post zone load checks.
	New zone options: check-mx and integrity-check.

	edns-udp-size can now be overridden on a per server basis.

	dig can now specify the EDNS version when making a query.

	Added framework for handling multiple EDNS versions.

	Additional memory debugging support to track size and mctx

	Detect duplicates of UDP queries we are recursing on and
	drop them.  New stats category "duplicates".

	Memory management. "USE INTERNAL MALLOC" is now runtime selectable.

	The lame cache is now done on a <qname,qclass,qtype> basis
	as some servers only appear to be lame for certain query

	Limit the number of recursive clients that can be waiting
	for a single query (<qname,qtype,qclass>) to resolve.  New
	options clients-per-query and max-clients-per-query.

	dig: report the number of extra bytes still left in the
	packet after processing all the records.

	Support for IPSECKEY rdata type.

	Raise the UDP receive buffer size to 32k if it is less than 32k.

	x86 and x86_64 now have separate atomic locking implementations.

	named-checkconf now validates update-policy entries.

	Attempt to make the amount of work performed in a iteration
	self tuning.  The covers nodes clean from the cache per
	iteration, nodes written to disk when rewriting a master
	file and nodes destroyed per iteration when destroying a
	zone or a cache.

	ISC string copy API.

	Automatic empty zone creation for D.F.IP6.ARPA and friends.
	Note: RFC 1918 zones are not yet covered by this but are
	likely to be in a future release.

	New options: empty-server, empty-contact, empty-zones-enable
	and disable-empty-zone.

	dig now has a '-q queryname' and '+showsearch' options.

	host/nslookup now continue (default)/fail on SERVFAIL.

	dig now warns if 'RA' is not set in the answer when 'RD'
	was set in the query.  host/nslookup skip servers that fail
	to set 'RA' when 'RD' is set unless a server is explicitly

	Integrate contributed DLZ code into named.

	Integrate contributed IDN code from JPNIC.

	Validate pending NS RRsets, in the authority section, prior
	to returning them if it can be done without requiring DNSKEYs
	to be fetched.

	It is now possible to configure named to accept expired
	RRSIGs.  Default "dnssec-accept-expired no;".  Setting
	"dnssec-accept-expired yes;" leaves named vulnerable to
	replay attacks.

	Additional memory leakage checks.

	The maximum EDNS UDP response named will send can now be
	set in named.conf (max-udp-size).  This is independent of
	the advertised receive buffer (edns-udp-size).

	Named now falls back to advertising EDNS with a 512 byte
	receive buffer if the initial EDNS queries fail.

	Control the zeroing of the negative response TTL to a soa
	query.  Defaults "zero-no-soa-ttl yes;" and
	"zero-no-soa-ttl-cache no;".
	Separate out MX and SRV to CNAME checks.

	dig/nslookup/host: warn about missing "QR".

	HMACSHA512 support.

	dnssec-signzone: output the SOA record as the first record
	in the signed zone.

	Two new update policies.  "selfsub" and "selfwild".

	dig, nslookup and host now advertise a 4096 byte EDNS UDP
	buffer size by default.

	Report when a zone is removed.

	DS/DLV SHA256 digest algorithm support.

	Implement "rrset-order fixed".

	Check the KSK flag when updating a secure dynamic zone.
	New zone option "update-check-ksk yes;".

	It is now possible to explicitly enable DNSSEC validation.
	default dnssec-validation no; to be changed to yes in 9.5.0.

	It is now possible to enable/disable DNSSEC validation
	from rndc.  This is useful for the mobile hosts where the
	current connection point breaks DNSSEC (firewall/proxy).

		rndc validation newstate [view]

	dnssec-signzone can now update the SOA record of the signed
	zone, either as an increment or as the system time().

	Statistics about acache now recorded and sent to log.

	libbind: corresponds to that from BIND 8.4.7.

BIND 9.3.0

	BIND 9.3.0 has a number of new features over 9.2,

	DNSSEC is now DS based (RFC 3658).
	See also RFC 3845, doc/draft/draft-ietf-dnsext-dnssec-*.

	DNSSEC lookaside validation.

	check-names is now implemented.
	rrset-order in more complete.

	IPv4/IPv6 transition support, dual-stack-servers.

	IXFR deltas can now be generated when loading master files,

	It is now possible to specify the size of a journal, max-journal-size.

	It is now possible to define a named set of master servers to be
	used in masters clause, masters.

	The advertised EDNS UDP size can now be set, edns-udp-size.

	allow-v6-synthesis has been obsoleted.

	* Zones containing MD and MF will now be rejected.
	* dig, nslookup name. now report "Not Implemented" as
	  NOTIMP rather than NOTIMPL.  This will have impact on scripts
	  that are looking for NOTIMPL.

	libbind: corresponds to that from BIND 8.4.5.

BIND 9.2.0

	BIND 9.2.0 has a number of new features over 9.1,

	  - The size of the cache can now be limited using the
            "max-cache-size" option.

	  - The server can now automatically convert RFC1886-style
	    recursive lookup requests into RFC2874-style lookups, 
	    when enabled using the new option "allow-v6-synthesis".
            This allows stub resolvers that support AAAA records
            but not A6 record chains or binary labels to perform
            lookups in domains that make use of these IPv6 DNS

	  - Performance has been improved.

	  - The man pages now use the more portable "man" macros
	    rather than the "mandoc" macros, and are installed
            by "make install".

          - The named.conf parser has been completely rewritten.
            It now supports "include" directives in more
            places such as inside "view" statements, and it no
            longer has any reserved words.

          - The "rndc status" command is now implemented.

	  - rndc can now be configured automatically.

	  - A BIND 8 compatible stub resolver library is now
	    included in lib/bind.

	  - OpenSSL has been removed from the distribution.  This
	    means that to use DNSSEC, OpenSSL must be installed and
	    the --with-openssl option must be supplied to configure.
	    This does not apply to the use of TSIG, which does not
	    require OpenSSL.

	  - The source distribution now builds on Windows NT/2000.
	    See win32utils/readme1.txt and win32utils/win32-build.txt
	    for details.

	This distribution also includes a new lightweight stub
	resolver library and associated resolver daemon that fully
	support forward and reverse lookups of both IPv4 and IPv6
	addresses.  This library is considered experimental and
	is not a complete replacement for the BIND 8 resolver library.
	Applications that use the BIND 8 res_* functions to perform
	DNS lookups or dynamic updates still need to be linked against
	the BIND 8 libraries.  For DNS lookups, they can also use the
	new "getrrsetbyname()" API.

	BIND 9.2 is capable of acting as an authoritative server
	for DNSSEC secured zones.  This functionality is believed to
	be stable and complete except for lacking support for
	verifications involving wildcard records in secure zones.

	When acting as a caching server, BIND 9.2 can be configured
	to perform DNSSEC secure resolution on behalf of its clients.
	This part of the DNSSEC implementation is still considered
	experimental.  For detailed information about the state of the
	DNSSEC implementation, see the file doc/misc/dnssec.

	There are a few known bugs:

		On some systems, IPv6 and IPv4 sockets interact in
		unexpected ways.  For details, see doc/misc/ipv6.
		To reduce the impact of these problems, the server
		no longer listens for requests on IPv6 addresses
		by default.  If you need to accept DNS queries over
		IPv6, you must specify "listen-on-v6 { any; };"
		in the named.conf options statement.

		FreeBSD prior to 4.2 (and 4.2 if running as non-root)
		and OpenBSD prior to 2.8 log messages like
		"fcntl(8, F_SETFL, 4): Inappropriate ioctl for device".
		This is due to a bug in "/dev/random" and impacts the
		server's DNSSEC support.

		OS X 10.1.4 (Darwin 5.4), OS X 10.1.5 (Darwin 5.5) and
		OS X 10.2 (Darwin 6.0) reports errors like
		"fcntl(3, F_SETFL, 4): Operation not supported by device".
		This is due to a bug in "/dev/random" and impacts the
		server's DNSSEC support.

		--with-libtool does not work on AIX.

		--with-libtool does not work on SunOS 4.  configure
		requires "printf" which is not available.

	A bug in the Windows 2000 DNS server can cause zone transfers
	from a BIND 9 server to a W2K server to fail.  For details,
	see the "Zone Transfers" section in doc/misc/migration.

	For a detailed list of user-visible changes from
	previous releases, see the CHANGES file.


	BIND 9 currently requires a UNIX system with an ANSI C compiler,
	basic POSIX support, and a 64 bit integer type.

	We've had successful builds and tests on the following systems:

		COMPAQ Tru64 UNIX 5.1B
		FreeBSD 4.10, 5.2.1, 6.2
		HP-UX 11.11
		NetBSD 1.5
		Slackware Linux 8.1
		Solaris 8, 9, 9 (x86)
		Windows NT/2000/XP/2003

	Additionally, we have unverified reports of success building
	previous versions of BIND 9 from users of the following systems:

		AIX 5L
		SuSE Linux 7.0
		Slackware Linux 7.x, 8.0
	        Red Hat Linux 7.1
		Debian GNU/Linux 2.2 and 3.0
		Mandrake 8.1
		OpenBSD 2.6, 2.8, 2.9, 3.1, 3.6, 3.8
		UnixWare 7.1.1
		HP-UX 10.20
		BSD/OS 4.2
		Mac OS X 10.1, 10.3.8

	To build, just


	Do not use a parallel "make".

	Several environment variables that can be set before running
	configure will affect compilation:

		The C compiler to use.	configure tries to figure
		out the right one for supported systems.

		C compiler flags.  Defaults to include -g and/or -O2
		as supported by the compiler.  

		System header file directories.	 Can be used to specify
		where add-on thread or IPv6 support is, for example.
		Defaults to empty string.

		Any additional preprocessor symbols you want defined.
		Defaults to empty string.

		Possible settings:
		Change the default syslog facility of named/lwresd.
		Enable DNSSEC signature chasing support in dig.
		Disable dropping queries from particular well known ports.
		Disable support for "rrset-order fixed".

		Linker flags. Defaults to empty string.

	The following need to be set when cross compiling.

		The native C compiler.
	    BUILD_CFLAGS (optional)
	    BUILD_CPPFLAGS (optional)
		Possible Settings:
		-DNEED_OPTARG=1		(optarg is not declared in <unistd.h>)
	    BUILD_LDFLAGS (optional)
	    BUILD_LIBS (optional)

	To build shared libraries, specify "--with-libtool" on the
	configure command line.

	For the server to support DNSSEC, you need to build it
	with crypto support.  You must have OpenSSL 0.9.5a
	or newer installed and specify "--with-openssl" on the
	configure command line.  If OpenSSL is installed under
	a nonstandard prefix, you can tell configure where to
	look for it using "--with-openssl=/prefix".

	To build libbind (the BIND 8 resolver library), specify
	"--enable-libbind" on the configure command line.

	On some platforms, BIND 9 can be built with multithreading
	support, allowing it to take advantage of multiple CPUs.
	You can specify whether to build a multithreaded BIND 9 
	by specifying "--enable-threads" or "--disable-threads"
	on the configure command line.  The default is operating
	system dependent.

	If your operating system has integrated support for IPv6, it
	will be used automatically.  If you have installed KAME IPv6
	separately, use "--with-kame[=PATH]" to specify its location.

	"make install" will install "named" and the various BIND 9 libraries.
	By default, installation is into /usr/local, but this can be changed
	with the "--prefix" option when running "configure".

	You may specify the option "--sysconfdir" to set the directory 
	where configuration files like "named.conf" go by default,
	and "--localstatedir" to set the default parent directory
	of "run/named.pid".   For backwards compatibility with BIND 8,
	--sysconfdir defaults to "/etc" and --localstatedir defaults to
	"/var" if no --prefix option is given.  If there is a --prefix
	option, sysconfdir defaults to "$prefix/etc" and localstatedir
	defaults to "$prefix/var".

	To see additional configure options, run "configure --help".
	Note that the help message does not reflect the BIND 8 
	compatibility defaults for sysconfdir and localstatedir.

	If you're planning on making changes to the BIND 9 source, you
	should also "make depend".  If you're using Emacs, you might find
	"make tags" helpful.

	If you need to re-run configure please run "make distclean" first.
	This will ensure that all the option changes take.

	Building with gcc is not supported, unless gcc is the vendor's usual
	compiler (e.g. the various BSD systems, Linux).
	Known compiler issues:
	* gcc-3.2.1 and gcc-3.1.1 is known to cause problems with solaris-x86.
	* gcc prior to gcc-3.2.3 ultrasparc generates incorrect code at -02.
	* gcc-3.3.5 powerpc generates incorrect code at -02.
	* Irix, MipsPRO 7.4.1m is known to cause problems.

	A limited test suite can be run with "make test".  Many of
	the tests require you to configure a set of virtual IP addresses
	on your system, and some require Perl; see bin/tests/system/README
	for details.


	The BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual is included with the
	source distribution in DocBook XML and HTML format, in the
	doc/arm directory.

	Some of the programs in the BIND 9 distribution have man pages
	in their directories.  In particular, the command line
	options of "named" are documented in /bin/named/named.8.
	There is now also a set of man pages for the lwres library.

	If you are upgrading from BIND 8, please read the migration
	notes in doc/misc/migration.  If you are upgrading from
	BIND 4, read doc/misc/migration-4to9.

	Frequently asked questions and their answers can be found in

Bug Reports and Mailing Lists

	Bugs reports should be sent to


	To join the BIND Users mailing list, send mail to


	archives of which can be found via


	If you're planning on making changes to the BIND 9 source
	code, you might want to join the BIND Forum as a Worker.
	This gives you access to the bind-workers@isc.org mailing
	list and pre-release access to the code.