NiBackup (notification-based incremental backup) is a system created by Gregor Richards for continuous, incremental backup. "Ni" is not a backronym, but a happy coincidence. It is Linux-specific, requiring Linux's fanotify and inotify interfaces, and depends on bsdiff and xdelta3 for storing data.

It watches the filesystem with fanotify to continuously back up files, as well as performing complete backups at preset intervals. The entire history of every file is saved with reverse binary diffs using bsdiff or xdelta3 (chosen based on file size).

NiBackup is based on filesystem notification. This means it detects changes as they happen on the filesystem, and keeps continuous, incremental backups.

NiBackup is currently in a beta stage. Gregor is using it for his own backup, and making it publicly available, but there are some improvements yet to be made. Gregor is confident that NiBackup in this state works and will not destroy data (unless you ask it to).

Using NiBackup

NiBackup consists of four tools: nibackup (the daemon), nibackup-purge, nibackup-ls and nibackup-restore.

nibackup is the daemon. Running it is very simple: sudo nibackup <directory to back up> <backup directory>. It will start with a full synchronization, then use fanotify and inotify to watch for future changes. Additional options are available to control wait times, ignore dotfiles, etc. sudo is necessary to use fanotify, so is necessary, but nibackup will drop its root privileges as soon as it can. You may instead make nibackup setuid-root if you prefer. If the backup directory is within the directory to back up, the universe will implode. nibackup makes no attempt to detect or correct for this universe-imploding scenario.

nibackup-purge purges old data from a backup. nibackup-purge -a <age> <backup> deletes all unused backup increments older than age seconds. If age is 0, all old data will be removed, leaving only the current status backed up. The -n option is also supported to show what would be deleted without deleting it.

nibackup-ls lists the contents of a backup. nibackup-ls <backup> lists the content of the root of the backup directory, and nibackup-ls <backup> <selection> lists specific files within the backup. Other options are similar to ls.

nibackup-restore restores files from a backup. nibackup-restore -t <time> <backup> <target> restores the backup at time <time> (specified as a Unix timestamp) to <target>, nibackup-restore -a <age> <backup> <target> restores the state <age> seconds ago. The -i option restores only a subdirectory or specific file.

Features and Flaws

NiBackup backs up files, directories, symlinks and fifos. Sparse files are preserved as sparse, but old versions of sparse files can become unsparse: sparseness is only preserved in the latest version. All old versions of files are stored with reverse binary diffs, so it is always safe to remove old versions from the backup.

It does not support hard links (will back them up as separate files) or special files such as devices, and does not recognize moves as moves.

For continuous backup, NiBackup uses fanotify and inotify. fanotify is very limited: In particular, it does not not notify on file renames or removes. To alleviate this, NiBackup additionally uses inotify watches on 1024 recently-accessed directories. inotify enforces a restriction on the number of watches available, so it is insufficient for watching an entire filesystem itself, but it does support more filesystem changes than fanotify. As a result, it is impossible for NiBackup to perfectly track every change to the watched directory.

NiBackup runs a periodic full synchronization to make up for the lacks of the notification systems, but as a result, if you recover a backup from an intermediate time, it may e.g. restore both names of a rename or restore a file that was actually deleted. Nothing it does is (or can be) atomic, so the restore state is never guaranteed to be precisely what was on the disk at any given time, only the state of each file as it existed at some time.

NiBackup does not keep a log of its actions indexed by time. As such, nibackup-purge is very slow, as it must crawl the entire backup to check what can be deleted. As a point of reference, Gregor's backup is about 2TB, purged once a week, and nibackup-purge takes about two days to complete (with both low CPU and I/O priority). It is harmless, and indeed recommended, to run nibackup-purge concurrently with nibackup. In the future, NiBackup may be redesigned to store a time index in the form of a simple database.


NiBackup is fairly simple. Every file in the source is mirrored by several files in the destination, each named "ni", then a one-character type, then the filename. Increments are numbered from 0 (which is always "nonexistent") upwards.

  • nii: The increment file. Indicates how many increments this file has been backed up.
  • nim: The metadata directory. For each increment, a file <increment>.met represents the file metadata at that increment. The format is ASCII with the following lines: type, mode, uid, gid, size, mtime, ctime.
  • nic: Directory containing the file content for regular files, or link target for symlinks, for each increment. The newest increment is stored plain as <increment>.dat. Older increments are either stored as bsdiff patches (<increment>.bsp), xdelta3 patches (<increment>.x3p) or, if that fails, plain (<increment>.dat).
  • nid: Directory containing backups of every path in the backed up directory.