Unfortunately I cannot reproduce your crash. Actually I cannot even get it to run on the desktop.
I guess the problem is not related to newCanvas, instead it has something to do with the shaders. The attached main.lua (the simple newCanvas example from the Löve wiki) works on my phone and on Desktop. Can you check with this file?
Also I have updated the Löve code to the newest GLES branch in case it is related.
edit: Just re-read that the problems are not related to newCanvas. Nevertheless I cannot get your main.lua to work on Desktop.
I encounter the same crash with your example. I furthered reduced the testcase to: