1. Matthew Turk
  2. rockstar


Matthew Turk  committed d59972e

Importing version 0.99 of Rockstar

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+The initial version of Rockstar would not have been possible without the contributions of a very large number of people.  Along with Risa Wechsler and Hao-Yi Wu, the co-authors of the original paper (http://arxiv.org/abs/1110.4372), we would like to thank Anatoly Klypin, Joel Primack, Michael Busha, Houjun Mo, Alexie Leauthaud, Andrey Kravtsov, James Bullock, Alex Knebe, Rachel Reddick, Yu Lu, Oliver Hahn, Matt Becker, Louie Strigari, Jeremy Tinker, Tom Abel, Steven Rieder, Markus Haider, Shea Garrison-Kimmel, Gus Evrard, Marcelo Alvarez, Joanne Cohn, Martin White, Simon White, Manodeep Sinha, and Annika Peters for interesting discussions, helpful suggestions, and testing. We gratefully acknowledge the support of Stuart Marshall and the SLAC computational team, as well as the computational resources at SLAC, NASA, and Teragrid/XSEDE.  I (PSB) and Risa (RHW) received support from NASA HST Theory grant HST-AR-12159.01-A; RHW was also supported by the National Science Foundation under grant NSF AST-0807312.  This work was additionally supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract number DE-AC02-76SF00515.
+Since the release of the initial public version (v0.96.2), I would also like to acknowledge the following contributors:
+*) Matt Turk: YT support
+*) Greg Stinson: TIPSY support


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+v0.99 (3/19/2012):
+*) Updated the unbinding calculation to use physical velocities instead of peculiar velocities.
+*) Improved network layer now supports transparent auto-healing in case of connection failures and better rejection of non-Rockstar connections.
+*) No lower boxsize limit for non-periodic boundary conditions.
+*) A utility for calculating host-subhalo relationships is now included (see README).
+*) Included example source code for reading the particle output formats (see examples/).
+v0.98.5 (1/10/2012):
+*) Fixed an important issue with calculating Vrms: previously, it was calculated using all particles associated to the halo, instead of just those within the halo radius R_delta (thanks to Michael Busha for catching this).
+*) Added support for easy restarting of Rockstar if it terminates in the middle of a run for any reason.  (See restart.cfg in README).
+*) Added support for specifying the GADGET halo particle type (if it is not the default, 1).
+*) Support for the undocumented "GADGET_INTERNAL" format was removed.
+*) Added missing support for auto server port when server address is specified.
+v0.98 (12/27/2011):
+*) Increased the speed of boundary checks; the particle distribution stage is now more efficient.
+*) Fixed an issue whereby duplicate halos could be output in merger trees; this only appears on certain versions of Linux when there are very few halos per processor (thanks to Markus Haider for finding this!).
+*) Fixed two issues where calculating the position and velocity variance of particle groups would in hang in rare instances (Thanks to Michael Busha for finding the first of these!).
+*) Fixed a mistake in the IO code which prevented TIPSY support from working (Thanks to Michael Busha for catching this!).
+*) Updated the readme to be clearer about how to run Rockstar in master/client mode.
+*) Added support for user-configurable load-balancing.
+v0.97 (11/1/2011):
+*) Fixed a race condition which was halting execution for snapshots without any halos.
+*) Included config files to run on the Ranger machine at TACC.
+*) Added YT support (from Matt Turk).
+*) Added initial/alpha support for reading TIPSY files (from Greg Stinson).
+v0.96.2 (10/20/2011):
+Initial public release


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+  13. Use with the GNU Affero General Public License.
+  Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have
+permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed
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+combination as such.
+  14. Revised Versions of this License.
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+the GNU General Public License from time to time.  Such new versions will
+be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
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+  If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future
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+  Later license versions may give you additional or different
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+reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates
+an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the
+Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a
+copy of the Program in return for a fee.
+                     END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
+            How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
+  If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
+possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
+free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
+  To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
+to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
+state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
+the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
+    <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
+    Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>
+    This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
+    it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+    the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
+    (at your option) any later version.
+    This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+    but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+    GNU General Public License for more details.
+    You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+    along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
+Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
+  If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short
+notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:
+    <program>  Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>
+    This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
+    This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
+    under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
+The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
+parts of the General Public License.  Of course, your program's commands
+might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an "about box".
+  You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school,
+if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary.
+For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see
+  The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program
+into proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine library, you
+may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with
+the library.  If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General
+Public License instead of this License.  But first, please read

File Makefile

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  • Ignore whitespace
+OFLAGS = -lm -O3 -std=c99
+DEBUGFLAGS = -lm -g -O3 -std=c99 -Dinline=
+PROFFLAGS = -lm -g -pg -O2 -std=c99
+CC = gcc
+CFILES = rockstar.c check_syscalls.c fof.c groupies.c subhalo_metric.c potential.c nfw.c jacobi.c fun_times.c universe_time.c distance.c config_vars.c config.c bounds.c litehash.c io/read_config.c client.c server.c merger.c inet/socket.c inet/rsocket.c inet/address.c io/meta_io.c io/io_internal.c io/io_ascii.c io/stringparse.c io/io_gadget.c io/io_generic.c io/io_art.c io/io_tipsy.c io/io_bgc2.c io/io_util.c
+	@make reg EXTRA_FLAGS="$(OFLAGS)"
+	@make reg EXTRA_FLAGS="$(PROFFLAGS)"
+dist: .REMAKE
+	cd ../ ; perl -ne 'print "$$1\n" if (/VERSION\s*\"([^\"]+)/)' Rockstar/version.h > Rockstar/VERSION; tar -czvf rockstar.tar.gz Rockstar/Makefile Rockstar/*.[ch] Rockstar/examples/Makefile Rockstar/[^st]*/*.[ch] Rockstar/quickstart.cfg Rockstar/parallel.cfg Rockstar/scripts/*.pbs Rockstar/scripts/*.cfg Rockstar/scripts/*.pl Rockstar/SOURCE_LAYOUT Rockstar/README Rockstar/LICENSE Rockstar/VERSION Rockstar/ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Rockstar/CHANGELOG; mv rockstar.tar.gz Rockstar
+	rm -rf dist
+	mkdir dist
+	cd dist; tar xzf ../rockstar.tar.gz ; perl -ne '/\#define.*VERSION\D*([\d\.]+)/ && print $$1' Rockstar/version.h > NUMBER ; mv Rockstar Rockstar-`cat NUMBER`; tar czf rockstar-`cat NUMBER`.tar.gz Rockstar-`cat NUMBER`
+	$(CC) $(CFLAGS) main.c $(CFILES) -o rockstar  $(EXTRA_FLAGS)
+	$(CC) $(CFLAGS) $(LDFLAGS) $(CFILES) -o librockstar.so $(OFLAGS)
+	$(CC) $(CFLAGS) io/extra_bgc2.c util/redo_bgc2.c $(CFILES) -o util/finish_bgc2  $(OFLAGS)
+	$(CC) $(CFLAGS) io/extra_bgc2.c util/bgc2_to_ascii.c $(CFILES) -o util/bgc2_to_ascii  $(OFLAGS)
+	$(CC) util/find_parents.c io/stringparse.c check_syscalls.c  -o util/find_parents $(CFLAGS) $(EXTRA_FLAGS)
+	$(CC) $(CFLAGS) util/subhalo_stats.c $(CFILES) -o util/subhalo_stats  $(OFLAGS)
+	rm -f *~ io/*~ inet/*~ util/*~ rockstar util/redo_bgc2 util/subhalo_stats


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  • Ignore whitespace
+The Rockstar Halo Finder
+Most code: Copyright (C) 2011,2012 Peter Behroozi
+License: GNU GPLv3
+Documentation Paper: http://arxiv.org/abs/1110.4372
+1) Compiling
+2) Running
+   i) Quick start (single snapshot)
+   ii) More complete setup (multiple snapshots/input files)
+   iii) Merger Trees
+   iv) Host / Subhalo relationships
+   v) Lightcone setup
+   vi) Controlling Output Formats
+   vii) Infiniband/Network Connectivity Notes
+   viii) Full configuration options
+   ix) Full example scripts
+   x) Example source code for loading particle outputs
+1) Compiling:
+   If you use the GNU C compiler version 4.0 or above on a 64-bit machine,
+   compiling should be as simple as typing "make" at the command prompt.
+   Rockstar does not support compiling on 32-bit machines and has not been
+   tested with other compilers.  Additionally, Rockstar does not support
+   non-Unix environments.  (Mac OS X is fine; Windows is not).
+2) Running
+   i) Quick start (single snapshot):
+      Several example configuration files have been provided.  If you have a
+      small simulation file and you'd like to run Rockstar on a single processor
+      to test its output, edit the file "quickstart.cfg" and change the file
+      format to one of "ASCII", "GADGET", "ART", or "TIPSY" to match your
+      simulation file.  If you use the ART option, only PMss files are
+      currently supported.  (PMcrs files, which do not include particle IDs
+      explicitly, are not supported).
+      If you use "ASCII", "ART", or "TIPSY", you will additionally have to set
+      the particle mass; if you use "ASCII" or "TIPSY", you will also have to
+      set parameters for the cosmology and box size.
+      If you use GADGET, you should check to make sure that the length
+      and mass conversion multipliers are correct (GADGET_LENGTH_CONVERSION and
+      GADGET_MASS_CONVERSION) to convert Gadget internal units to comoving Mpc/h
+      and Msun/h.
+      Similarly, if you use TIPSY, you should set the length and velocity
+      conversion multipliers (TIPSY_LENGTH_CONVERSION and TIPSY_MASS_CONVERSION)
+      to convert Tipsy internal units to comoving Mpc/h and physical km/s.
+      *Note that TIPSY format is in an alpha stage of support---please contact
+       me if you have issues!*
+      Then, you can run Rockstar: "./rockstar -c quickstart.cfg <particle file>"
+      Note that periodic boundary conditions are *not* assumed for a single-cpu
+      run.  (For that, see the section on parallel IO).
+   ii) More complete setup (multiple snapshots/input files):
+      Note: Rockstar does *not* use MPI for its parallelization.  As such,
+      there should be no headaches with finding a working MPI installation
+      to use. :)
+      For running on multiple snapshots or simulations with multiple input
+      files per snapshot, Rockstar uses a master process to direct the
+      order of processing steps and several client processes to do the
+      actual work.
+      For historical reasons, enabling Rockstar to run on multiple input files
+      or multiple snapshots is controlled by setting the following "Parallel
+      IO" option in the config file:
+      	 PARALLEL_IO = 1
+      Several more options are necessary in the configuration file to specify
+      filenames, paths, and information about the number of processes you want
+      to use.
+      By default, the number of reading tasks is set to the number
+      of files being read for each simulation snapshot:
+         NUM_BLOCKS = <number of files per snapshot>
+      However, if you want to have a different (smaller) number of reading
+      tasks, you have to use:
+      	 NUM_READERS = <number of reading tasks>
+      (This is helpful if the number of files per snapshot exceeds the maximum
+      number of connections allowed by the system on a single socket.)
+      You will also have to provide information on where the data files are
+      located.  To do so, you will have to set:
+      	 INBASE = "/directory/where/files/are/located"
+         FILENAME = "my_sim.<snap>.<block>"
+      In this example, "my_sim" should be the base of your simulation filename.
+      For multiple snapshots, the text "<snap>" will be automatically replaced
+      by the snapshot number, and the text "<block>" will be automatically
+      replaced by the block number (0 to NUM_BLOCKS-1).  To specify the range
+      of snapshot numbers, you may set
+         NUM_SNAPS = <total number of snapshots>
+	 STARTING_SNAP = <first snap> #defaults to 0
+      If you have nonstandard names for your snapshots (e.g., "001" instead of
+      "1"), you may create a text file with one snapshot name per line and set:
+         SNAPSHOT_NAMES = </path/to/snapshot names>
+      This will automatically override the number of snapshots and the starting
+      snapshot if specified.  You may do the same thing for the block names,
+      too:
+         BLOCK_NAMES = </path/to/block names>
+      (Note that NUM_BLOCKS should still be specified in this case, so that the
+      server knows how many reader connections to accept).
+      The number of analysis tasks can be set to either 1 or a multiple of
+      8.  If set to 1, periodic boundary conditions are *not* assumed; otherwise
+      periodic boundary conditions *are* assumed (see also the "PERIODIC" option
+      in the full list of config options).  To set the number of analysis
+      tasks, set:
+      	  NUM_WRITERS = <number of analysis tasks>
+      Starting Rockstar (under the default options) is then accomplished by
+      first starting the server process: /path/to/rockstar -c server.cfg
+      The server process will generate a file called "auto-rockstar.cfg" in the
+      data output directory (OUTBASE, see below) with contact information;
+      you should then start client processes on all the machine(s) necessary
+      (/path/to/rockstar -c OUTBASE/auto-rockstar.cfg).
+      Specifically, you will have to start NUM_READERS (usually, NUM_BLOCKS)
+      reader tasks and NUM_WRITERS writer tasks.  To simplify this process,
+      there are two additional options you can set:
+	 FORK_PROCESSORS_PER_MACHINE = <number of processors per machine>
+      The first option will automatically split off the reader tasks for you
+      (which are idle most of the time) so that you only have to start the
+      analysis tasks.  The second option will automatically split each analysis
+      task into many separate tasks (according to the number of processors
+      you specify to use per machine).  Thus, if set, you would only have to
+      start Rockstar running once on each machine (instead of once per
+      processor).  The command to start Rockstar for the reading/analysis tasks
+      is (as explained above): /path/to/rockstar -c OUTBASE/auto-rockstar.cfg
+      In terms of memory usage, Rockstar will use about 60 bytes / particle
+      *maximum total* for a cosmological simulation.  Thus, if you have a
+      1024^3 simulation and 2G of memory available per processor, you should
+      plan on using at least 32 processors in parallel.  Note that this
+      includes the particle readers as well---readers delete particles from
+      memory as soon as they are sent to the analysis tasks so that no extra
+      memory is wasted.
+      If Rockstar is terminated for any reason, it is easy to restart it where
+      it left off.  Simply start the server process by running:
+      /path/to/rockstar -c OUTBASE/restart.cfg .  Then, start client processes
+      as you would normally (either from auto-rockstar.cfg or your usual
+      config file).  Rockstar will automatically start from the last snapshot
+      which was incomplete.
+   iii) Merger trees
+      By default, the output files for Rockstar include some basic descendant
+      information for each halo.  However, it is strongly recommended that
+      you use a more sophisticated package, such as Consistent Trees
+      ( http://code.google.com/p/consistent-trees ) to improve consistency
+      between timesteps before using the descendant information for science
+      purposes (e.g., calculating merger rates).  Rockstar includes a script
+      to autogenerate configuration files for Consistent Trees (see the
+      Consistent Trees README file for use).
+   iv) Host / Subhalo relationships
+      By default, the output files for Rockstar do not include information
+      about which halos are hosts (as opposed to subhalos).  This is because
+      the consistent tree code (see Merger trees, above) automatically
+      calculates such relationships.  However, if you do not intend to use the
+      merger tree code, then there is a utility included with Rockstar to
+      postprocess the output halo catalogs (i.e., the out_*.list files).  To
+      compile, run "make parents" from the Rockstar source directory.  Then,
+      run the following command
+      	  /path/to/rockstar/util/find_parents <box_size> out_XYZ.list
+      on each halo catalog for which you want to find host halos.  Information
+      about which halos are hosts and which are subs will be output as an
+      extra column, the parent ID.  Host halos will have a parent ID of -1;
+      subhaloes will have a parent ID which corresponds to their host halo ID.
+   v) Lightcone setup
+      Lightcones are currently only supported with parallel IO (see options
+      above).  To turn on lightcone support, set
+         LIGHTCONE = 1
+      The scale factor will be automatically computed (flat cosmologies only)
+      from the distance to the origin, which is set by
+         LIGHTCONE_ORIGIN = (x,y,z) # default: (0,0,0)
+      If you want a lightcone created by joining two different fields of view
+      from the same box, you will have to set the following options:
+         LIGHTCONE_ALT_SNAPS = /path/to/second_lightcone_snapnames
+	 LIGHTCONE_ALT_ORIGIN = (x,y,z) #default: (0,0,0)
+      (The LIGHTCONE_ALT_ORIGIN option translates all particles in the second
+      field of view from (x,y,z) to the first LIGHTCONE_ORIGIN.)  If using two
+      fields of view, it is assumed that they have equal numbers of input files;
+      NUM_BLOCKS should be set to the combined total number of input files.
+      If you have more than two fields of view from the same box, you will
+      have to make sure that their positions are already translated
+      appropriately so that they can be joined/unioned together without any
+      overlap issues.  In this case, you should not set any of the ALT lightcone
+      options.  Additionally, you should set IGNORE_PARTICLE_IDS = 1 so as
+      to prevent confusion with the same particle ID appearing multiple times.
+   vi) Controlling Output Formats:
+      Rockstar can currently output in either ascii or binary formats.
+      You can control the output directory for halo catalogs by setting:
+         OUTBASE = "/desired/output/path" # default is current directory
+      By default, both binary and ascii catalogs are printed.  You can change
+      this by setting:
+         OUTPUT_FORMAT = "BOTH" # or "ASCII" or "BINARY"
+      However, as the binary outputs are required for generating merger trees,
+      merger trees will *not* be generated if you select the "ASCII" option.
+      If you want merger trees but not the binary outputs (which take up
+      lots of space), you can set the following option:
+      For the binary outputs, there is a 256-byte header (detailed in
+      io/meta_io.h) followed by a binary dump of the halo structures
+      (see halo.h), followed by a binary dump of the particle ids in
+      each halo (type int64_t).  See the load_binary_halos() routine in
+      io/meta_io.c for an example of how to read in the binary files.
+      To change the minimum particle size of output halos, set
+          MIN_HALO_OUTPUT_SIZE = <minimum number of particles> #default: 20
+      Note that this option does *not* specify the minimum number of particles
+      bound within the virial or other halo radius.  Instead, it specifies the
+      minimum number of particles which Rockstar identifies as uniquely assigned
+      to that halo.  The virial mass can (and usually will) be much less.
+      To avoid printing spurious halos, Rockstar excludes significantly 
+      unbound objects by default.  To change the threshold of what is considered
+      "significantly unbound"---e.g., for studying tidal remnants, you may
+      consider lowering the value of the following parameter:      
+      	 UNBOUND_THRESHOLD = <minimum fraction of bound mass> #default: 0.5
+      Generally, this affects the halo mass function at the few percent level
+      for halos of 100 bound particles or less.
+      Rockstar does not by default output full particle information to
+      save space.  In order to turn on this capability, set
+         FULL_PARTICLE_CHUNKS = <number of processes to output particles>
+      to the desired number of analysis processes which you want to output
+      particles (i.e., something between 1 and NUM_WRITERS) at every timestep.
+      Alternately, you can choose to use the BGC2 output format, which
+      records full particle information as well as some halo information for
+      an entire snapshot.  In order to turn on this capability, set
+         BGC2_SNAPNAMES = </path/to/snapshot_names>
+      Where the file contains a list of snapshots (formatted the same way as
+      in SNAPSHOT_NAMES, if you used that option) for which you want BGC2
+      output.  (Note that BGC2 output is the only way to obtain a fully SO
+      mass calculation, as all other mass calculations are performed on
+      FOF groups, which may not include all the particles out to the desired
+      mass threshold.)  Note that the BGC2 format is currently incompatible
+      with processing lightcones.
+      Once the BGC2 files have been generated, a short postprocessing step
+      is necessary to bring them into full compliance with the spec (calculating
+      subs/centrals, etc.).  You will need to compile the postprocessing
+      code with:
+         make bgc2
+      Then, for every BGC2 snapshot you have generated, you will need to run
+         /path/to/rockstar/util/finish_bgc2 -c rockstar.cfg -s <snap>
+   vii) Infiniband / Network Connectivity Notes:
+      As particle transfer is usually a small fraction of the total analysis
+      time, Rockstar performs well on pretty much any gigabit or faster network.
+      However, if you have IP over Infiniband, Rockstar can use this natively;
+      for the server address, you simply have to specify the IP address
+      assigned to the Infiniband port.  Alternately, if you have "auto"
+      specified for the server name, you may force Rockstar to use the
+      Infiniband interface (e.g., "ib0") with the following config option:
+      Rockstar supports IPv4 and IPv6 natively; addresses may be specified
+      in either format.
+   viii) Full Configuration Options:
+      For those options not mentioned directly above:
+      	  MASS_DEFINITION = <"vir" or "XXXc" or "XXXb" etc.> #default: vir
+      This lets you specify how you want masses calculated.  "vir" uses the
+      formula from Bryan & Norman 1998; a number plus "c" or "b" calculates
+      masses relative to the critical or background density, respectively.
+      (E.g. "200b" or "200c", or even "1600b").
+          SCALE_NOW = <current cosmological scale factor>
+	  h0 = <hubble constant today> # in units of 100 km/s/Mpc
+	  Ol = <Omega_Lambda> # in units of the critical density
+	  Om = <Omega_Matter> # in units of the critical density
+      These cosmology options are only relevant if one is reading from an ASCII
+      or TIPSY particle file.  (For TIPSY, the SCALE_NOW parameter may be
+      omitted).  For other data formats, these values are automatically
+      overwritten with values in the particle data files.
+          PARTICLE_MASS = <mass of each particle> #in Msun/h
+      It is not necessary to specify the particle mass for GADGET2 files.
+      However, for GADGET2 files, you will need to specify the conversion to
+      Rockstar's internal length (comoving Mpc/h) and mass (Msun/h) units:
+          GADGET_MASS_CONVERSION = <conversion from GADGET units to Msun/h>
+	  GADGET_LENGTH_CONVERSION = <conversion from GADGET units to Mpc/h>
+      In general, these will be ~1e10 (mass conversion) and either 1 or
+      1e-3 (length conversion for Mpc/h and kpc/h, respectively).
+      Similarly, for TIPSY files, you will need to convert lengths and
+      velocities to comoving MPC/h and physical km/s:
+	  TIPSY_LENGTH_CONVERSION = <conversion from TIPSY units to Mpc/h>
+          TIPSY_VELOCITY_CONVERSION = <conversion from TIPSY units to km/s>
+      *Note that TIPSY format is in an alpha stage of support---please contact
+       me if you have issues!*
+      To disable periodic boundary conditions (only applicable for PARALLEL_IO),
+      you can set:
+          PERIODIC = 0
+      *Note that setting this to 1 does not enable periodic boundary conditions
+      for single-processor halo finding.*
+      	  BOX_SIZE = <side length of cosmological box in comoving Mpc/h>
+      The box size is only necessary to set for ASCII particle data.
+      	  GADGET_SKIP_NON_HALO_PARTICLES = <0 or 1> #default = 1
+      By default, Rockstar only considers dark matter particles; the preceeding
+      option can be set to 0 to force consideration of other particles as well
+      in GADGET2 files.  The default halo particle type in GADGET is 1; however,
+      if you need to change this, you can use the following option:
+          GADGET_HALO_PARTICLE_TYPE = <0 to 5> #default = 1
+      Note that Rockstar has no current support for multiple particle masses.
+      	  RESCALE_PARTICLE_MASSES = <0 or 1> #default 1
+      If only dark matter particles are used from GADGET2 files in a simulation
+      which also includes gas particles, it is necessary to rescale the particle
+      masses so as to preserve the correct matter density; setting this option
+      tells Rockstar to do so.
+      If for some reason your simulation data has inconsistent or duplicate
+      particle IDs, you can set the following option to prevent problems with
+      halo finding:
+          IGNORE_PARTICLE_IDS = 1
+      Note that in this case, merger trees are disabled.
+      As mentioned above, Rockstar requires one master server accessible by
+      all reading/analyis tasks.  The server does not require access to any
+      data files, but it must be of the same architecture as the reading/
+      analysis tasks.  In order to contact the master server, the reading/
+      analysis tasks need to know its address, specified by the following two
+      options in the config file:
+      	 PARALLEL_IO_SERVER_ADDRESS = <server address> #default: auto
+	 PARALLEL_IO_SERVER_PORT = <server port> #default: auto
+      The server port should be in the range 1025-65000, and it should be
+      unblocked by the server firewall.  Alternately, you may specify
+      "auto" for both the server address and the server port.  In this case,
+      once you launch the server process, it will write to a file called
+      "auto-rockstar.cfg" in the launch directory (or the directory that
+      OUTBASE is set to).  This file will contain updated settings with
+      the machine name and port for the server, which you can then use
+      to launch the reading/analysis tasks.  To force Rockstar to use a
+      specified interface (useful for machines on multiple networks),
+      you can use:
+      	 PARALLEL_IO_SERVER_INTERFACE = <interface name> # ib0, for example
+      Since analysis tasks have to acquire particle data from reading tasks,
+      the analysis tasks need to be contactable by the reading tasks.  You
+      should choose a port number for the analysis tasks which is distinct
+      from the server port above:
+          PARALLEL_IO_WRITER_PORT = <port from 1025-65000>
+      If you have a firewall, you will have to open this port for access
+      *as well as* the N ports above this port, where N is the number of
+      analysis tasks you are running per machine.
+      The following options determine details of the halo finding.  To tell
+      Rockstar to calculate halo radii as well as Vmax, Rvmax, and other
+      halo properties from the *unbound* particles, set the following option
+      to 0:
+          BOUND_PROPS = <0 or 1> #default 1
+      To change the default FOF refinement fraction (see the Rockstar paper),
+      change:
+          FOF_FRACTION = <FOF refinement fraction> #default 0.7
+      To change the default 3D FOF linking length, set:
+          FOF_LINKING_LENGTH = <FOF linking length> #default 0.28
+      To set the force resolution (or equivalently, the softening length),
+      set:
+          FORCE_RES = <force resolution> #default: 0.0012, in comoving Mpc/h
+      To change the minimum (internal) number of particles considered to be
+      a halo seed, change:
+          MIN_HALO_PARTICLES = <minimum number of halo particles> #default: 10
+      See also MIN_HALO_OUTPUT_SIZE, above.
+      To run postprocessing scripts after each snapshot finishes, you can use
+      the RUN_ON_SUCCESS config option:
+      	  RUN_ON_SUCCESS = "/path/to/myscript"
+      The script will be executed with two arguments: the snapshot number
+      followed by the snapshot name (only different if specified via the
+      SNAPSHOT_NAMES file).
+      To specify your own load-balancing distribution, you can use the
+      LOAD_BALANCE_SCRIPT option.  There is an example of such a script in
+      the scripts directory; to use, set the LOAD_BALANCE_SCRIPT option to
+      "perl /path/to/rockstar/scripts/sample_loadbalance.pl".  The script is
+      given the number of writer tasks, the recommended dimensional divisions,
+      the box size, the scale factor, as well as the IP addresses and ports
+      of all the writer tasks.  The script is expected to reoutput the
+      information for each writer task along with an additional set of six
+      numbers specifying the boundary region (min_x, min_y, min_z) to
+      (max_x, max_y, max_z).  The boundary region *must* be contained within
+      the box size in each dimension; the boundary regions are also assumed to
+      be overlapping (it is up to your script to check this).
+    ix) Full Example Script
+      For a full example configuration file, used for running on the Bolshoi
+      simulation, see scripts/pleiades.cfg or scripts/ranger.cfg.
+      For the example PBS submission script used to run the halo finding on
+      Pleiades, see scripts/pleiades.pbs; for Ranger, see scripts/ranger.pbs.
+   x) Example source code for loading particle outputs
+      For additional useful source code to load in both the BGC2 and
+      FULL_PARTICLE halo/particle formats, check the examples/ subdirectory.


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+Short list of source code files and their contents:
+main.c: Main program execution path.
+rockstar.c: Master code for finding halos/subhalos.
+fof.c: Code for assembling FOF groups.
+groupies.c: Code for finding substructure within 3D FOF groups.
+subhalo_metric.c: Code for deciding particle-halo membership.
+potential.c: Code for calculating gravitational potentials.
+fun_times.c: Code for calculating likely progenitors of current halo seeds.
+merger.c: Code for calculating particle-based merger trees.
+halo.h: Halo structure definition
+particle.h: Particle structure definition
+universal_constants.h: Gravitational and conversion constants.
+jacobi.c: Code for calculating eigenvectors/eigenvalues of symmetric matrices.
+distance.c: Code for calculating cosmological distances.
+universe_time.c: Code for converting scale factors to times.
+nfw.c: Code for calculating the scale radius given a mass and vmax for an
+       NFW halo.
+io/meta_io.c: Code for reading and writing particle and halo data.
+   Code for reading particle formats.
+io/io_bgc2.c: Code for writing particles in the BGC2 format
+io/io_util.c: Code for reading FORTRAN formats and swapping endianness.
+io/read_config.c: Code for parsing configuration files.
+io/stringparse.c: Efficient scanf() replacement.
+server.c: Code for master task. (Parallel IO)
+client.c: Code for reading / analysis parallel tasks.  (Parallel IO)
+load_balance.c: Code for dividing work fairly among analysis tasks.
+inet/socket.c: Code for interfacing with TCP sockets.
+config.c: Code for loading configuration.
+config.template.h: Code for config variables.
+fast3tree.c: Binary Space Partitioning tree code.
+litehash.c: Lightweight hash tables.
+check_syscalls.c: Error-checking for fopen(), realloc(), fread(), and fwrite().


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+0.99 (Beta)

File bounds.c

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+#include "config_vars.h"
+int _check_bounds(float *pos_i, float *pos_f, float *bounds) {
+  int64_t i;
+  for (i=0; i<3; i++) {
+    if (pos_i[i]>bounds[i+3]) {
+      if (bounds[i]<0 && PERIODIC) {
+        pos_f[i]=pos_i[i]-BOX_SIZE;
+        if (pos_f[i]>bounds[i+3] || pos_f[i] < bounds[i]) return 0;
+      } else return 0;
+    }
+    else if (pos_i[i]<bounds[i]) {
+      if (bounds[i+3]>BOX_SIZE && PERIODIC) {
+        pos_f[i]=pos_i[i]+BOX_SIZE;
+        if (pos_f[i]>bounds[i+3] || pos_f[i] < bounds[i]) return 0;
+      } else return 0;
+    }
+    else pos_f[i] = pos_i[i];
+  }
+  return 1;
+int _check_bounds_raw(float *pos_i, float *bounds) {
+  int64_t i;
+  for (i=0; i<3; i++)
+    if (pos_i[i]>bounds[i+3] || pos_i[i]<bounds[i]) return 0;
+  return 1;
+int _check_bounds_old(float *pos_i, float *pos_f, float *bounds) {
+  int64_t i, wrap, max_wrap;
+  for (i=0; i<3; i++) {
+    wrap = ((bounds[i]<0) && PERIODIC) ? -1 : 0;
+    max_wrap = ((bounds[i+3]>BOX_SIZE) && PERIODIC) ? 2 : 1;
+    for (; wrap < max_wrap; wrap++) {
+      pos_f[i] = pos_i[i]+wrap*BOX_SIZE;
+      if (pos_f[i]<=bounds[i+3] && pos_f[i] >= bounds[i]) break;
+    }
+    if (wrap == max_wrap) return 0; //Not in bounds
+  }
+  return 1;
+//Note that b2 is extended by "overlap" in all directions
+int bounds_overlap(float *b1, float *b2, float *b3, double overlap) {
+  int64_t i;
+  int wrap = 0, max_wrap;
+  float min, max;
+  for (i=0; i<3; i++) {
+    b3[i] = min = b2[i]-overlap;
+    b3[i+3] = max = b2[i+3]+overlap;
+    wrap = ((min < 0) && PERIODIC) ? -1 : 0;
+    max_wrap = ((max > BOX_SIZE) && PERIODIC) ? 2 : 1;
+    for (; wrap<max_wrap; wrap++) {
+      if (((b1[i]+wrap*BOX_SIZE) < max) &&
+          ((b1[i+3]+wrap*BOX_SIZE) > min)) break;
+    }
+    if (wrap == max_wrap) return 0;
+  }
+  return 1;

File bounds.h

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+#ifndef _BOUNDS_H_
+#define _BOUNDS_H_
+int _check_bounds(float *pos_i, float *pos_f, float *bounds);
+int _check_bounds_raw(float *pos_i, float *bounds);
+int bounds_overlap(float *b1, float *b2, float *b3, double overlap);
+#endif /* _BOUNDS_H_ */

File check_syscalls.c

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  • Ignore whitespace
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <inttypes.h>
+#include <sys/socket.h>
+#include <sys/wait.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <signal.h>
+//#define DEBUG_IO
+void system_error(char *errmsg) {
+  fprintf(stderr, "[Error] %s\n", errmsg);
+  perror("[Error] Reason");
+  exit(1);
+FILE *check_fopen(char *filename, char *mode) {
+  FILE *res = fopen(filename, mode);
+  if (res == NULL) {
+    if (mode[0] == 'w')
+      fprintf(stderr, "[Error] Failed to open file %s for writing!\n", filename);
+    else if (mode[0] == 'a')
+      fprintf(stderr, "[Error] Failed to open file %s for appending!\n", filename);
+    else
+      fprintf(stderr, "[Error] Failed to open file %s for reading!\n", filename);
+    exit(1);
+  }
+#ifdef DEBUG_IO
+  fprintf(stderr, "[Note] Opened file %s with mode '%s' in fileno %d.\n", 
+	  filename, mode, fileno(res));
+#endif /* DEBUG_IO */
+  return res;
+FILE *check_popen(char *command, char *mode) {
+  FILE *res = popen(command, mode);
+  if (res == NULL) {
+    fprintf(stderr, "[Error] Failed to start command %s!\n", command);
+    exit(1);
+  }
+#ifdef DEBUG_IO
+  fprintf(stderr, "[Note] Opened command %s with mode '%s' in fileno %d.\n", 
+	  command, mode, fileno(res));
+#endif /* DEBUG_IO */
+  return res;
+FILE *check_rw_socket(char *command, pid_t *pid) {
+  int sockets[2], status;
+  FILE *res;
+  if (socketpair(AF_UNIX, SOCK_STREAM, 0, sockets)<0)
+    system_error("Failed to create socket pair!");
+  *pid = fork();
+  if (*pid < 0) system_error("Failed to fork new process!");
+  if (!*pid) {
+    if (dup2(sockets[1], 0) < 0) system_error("Failed to reopen stdin!");
+    if (dup2(sockets[1], 1) < 0) system_error("Failed to reopen stdout!");
+    close(sockets[0]);
+    if (execlp("sh", "sh", "-c", command, NULL) < 0)
+      system_error("Failed to exec command!");
+  }
+  close(sockets[1]);
+  res = fdopen(sockets[0], "r+");
+  if (!res) system_error("Failed to convert socket to stream!");
+  if (waitpid(*pid, &status, WNOHANG)) {
+    fprintf(stderr, "[Error] Failed to start child process: %s\n", command);
+    exit(1);
+  }
+#ifdef DEBUG_IO
+  fprintf(stderr, "[Note] Started command %s with mode 'r+' in fileno %d.\n", 
+	  command, fileno(res));
+#endif /* DEBUG_IO */
+  return res;
+void rw_socket_close(FILE *res, pid_t pid) {
+  fclose(res);
+  kill(pid, 9);
+  waitpid(pid, NULL, 0);
+void *check_realloc(void *ptr, size_t size, char *reason) {
+  void *res = realloc(ptr, size);
+  if ((res == NULL) && (size > 0)) {
+    fprintf(stderr, "[Error] Failed to allocate memory (%s)!\n", reason);
+    exit(1);
+  }
+  return res;
+void _io_err(int rw, size_t size, size_t nitems, FILE *stream) {
+  char *verb = (rw) ? "write" : "read";
+  char *dir = (rw) ? "to" : "from";
+  char *items = (nitems == 1) ? "item" : "items";
+  fprintf(stderr, "[Error] Failed to %s %"PRIu64" %s of size "
+	  "%"PRIu64" bytes %s fileno %d!\n", 
+	  verb, (uint64_t)nitems, items, (uint64_t)size, dir, fileno(stream));
+  if (feof(stream))
+    fprintf(stderr, "[Error] Reason: end of file (offset %"PRIu64").\n",
+	    (uint64_t)ftello(stream));
+  else
+    perror("[Error] Reason");
+  exit(1);
+void check_fseeko(FILE *stream, off_t offset, int whence) {
+  if (fseeko(stream, offset, whence) < 0) {
+    fprintf(stderr, "[Error] Seek error in fileno %d: ", fileno(stream));
+    perror(NULL);
+    exit(1);
+  }
+size_t check_fread(void *ptr, size_t size, size_t nitems, FILE *stream) {
+  size_t res = 1, nread = 0;
+  while (nread < nitems) {
+    res = fread(ptr, size, nitems, stream);
+    if (res <= 0) _io_err(0, size, nitems, stream);
+    nread += res;
+  }
+  return nread;
+char *check_fgets(char *ptr, size_t size, FILE *stream) {
+  char *res = fgets(ptr, size, stream);
+  if (res <= 0) _io_err(0, size, 1, stream);
+  return res;
+size_t check_fwrite(void *ptr, size_t size, size_t nitems, FILE *stream) {
+  size_t res = 1, nwritten = 0;
+  while (nwritten < nitems) {
+    res = fwrite(ptr, size, nitems, stream);
+    if (res <= 0) _io_err(1, size-1, nitems, stream);
+    nwritten += res;
+  }
+  return nwritten;

File check_syscalls.h

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  • Ignore whitespace
+void system_error(char *errmsg);
+FILE *check_fopen(char *filename, char *mode);
+FILE *check_popen(char *command, char *mode);
+void *check_realloc(void *ptr, size_t size, char *reason);
+size_t check_fread(void *ptr, size_t size, size_t nitems, FILE *stream);
+size_t check_fwrite(void *ptr, size_t size, size_t nitems, FILE *stream);
+void check_fseeko(FILE *stream, off_t offset, int whence);
+char *check_fgets(char *ptr, size_t size, FILE *stream);
+FILE *check_rw_socket(char *command, pid_t *pid);
+void rw_socket_close(FILE *res, pid_t pid);
+#define check_fprintf(file, ...) { if (fprintf(file, __VA_ARGS__) <= 0)	{  \
+      fprintf(stderr, "[Error] Failed printf to fileno %d!\n", fileno(file)); \
+      perror("[Error] Reason"); \
+      exit(1); \
+    }}
+#endif /* CHECK_SYSCALLS_H */

File client.c

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  • Ignore whitespace
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <stdint.h>
+#include <inttypes.h>
+#include <assert.h>
+#include <sys/select.h>
+#include <sys/wait.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <time.h>
+#include "check_syscalls.h"
+#include "particle.h"
+#include "rockstar.h"
+#include "groupies.h"
+#include "inet/rsocket.h"
+#include "io/meta_io.h"
+#include "config_vars.h"
+#include "server.h"
+#include "client.h"
+#include "merger.h"
+#include "distance.h"
+#include "bounds.h"
+#include "fun_times.h"
+#include "universe_time.h"
+#define CLIENT_DEBUG 0
+struct recipient *recipients = NULL;
+int64_t num_recipients = 0;
+int64_t *part_ids = NULL;
+int64_t *part_id_buffer = NULL;
+int64_t num_buffer_part_ids = 0;
+struct projection *prj = NULL;
+struct projection_request *prq = NULL;
+int64_t num_proj = 0;
+int64_t in_error_state = 0;
+int64_t RECIPIENT_BUFFER=100000;
+void network_io_err(int64_t s) {
+  if (in_error_state) return;
+  in_error_state = 1;
+  send_to_socket(s, "err!", 4);
+void network_error_cleanup() {
+  p = check_realloc(p, 0, "Freeing particle memory");
+  num_p = 0;
+  halos = check_realloc(halos, 0, "Freeing halos");
+  num_halos = 0;
+  rockstar_cleanup();
+  clear_merger_tree();
+  in_error_state = 0;
+void reset_projection_count(void) {
+  prj = check_realloc(prj, sizeof(struct projection)*num_proj,
+		      "Allocating projections.");
+  prq = check_realloc(prq, sizeof(struct projection_request)*num_proj,
+		      "Allocating projection requests.");
+struct recipient *add_recipient(int halo_recipient, int64_t c) {
+  struct recipient *r;
+  int64_t struct_size;
+  num_recipients++;
+  recipients = check_realloc(recipients, (sizeof(struct recipient)
+					  * num_recipients), 
+			     "Allocating particle data recipients.");
+  r = recipients+num_recipients-1;
+  memset(r, 0, sizeof(struct recipient));
+  struct_size = (halo_recipient) ? sizeof(struct halo):sizeof(struct particle);
+  r->buffer = check_realloc(NULL, struct_size*RECIPIENT_BUFFER,
+			    "Allocating recipient transmit buffer.");
+  recv_from_socket(c, r->bounds, sizeof(float)*6);
+  r->address = recv_msg_nolength(c, r->address);
+  r->port = recv_msg_nolength(c, r->port);
+  return r;
+void clear_recipients(void) {
+  int64_t i;
+  for (i=0; i<num_recipients; i++) {
+    free(recipients[i].buffer);
+    free(recipients[i].port);
+    free(recipients[i].address);
+  }
+  free(recipients);
+  recipients = NULL;
+  num_recipients = 0;
+void calc_particle_bounds(float *bounds) {
+  int64_t i,j;
+  for (j=0; j<6; j++) bounds[j]=0;
+  if (!num_p) return;
+  memcpy(bounds, p[0].pos, sizeof(float)*3);
+  memcpy(bounds+3, p[0].pos, sizeof(float)*3);
+  for (i=1; i<num_p; i++) {
+    for (j=0; j<3; j++) {
+      if (bounds[j] > p[i].pos[j]) 
+	bounds[j] = p[i].pos[j];
+      if (bounds[j+3] < p[i].pos[j]) 
+	bounds[j+3] = p[i].pos[j];
+    }
+  }
+void trim_particles(float *bounds) {
+  int64_t i, j;
+  if (!TRIM_OVERLAP) return;
+  for (i=0; i<3; i++) {
+    bounds[i] += TRIM_OVERLAP;
+    bounds[i+3] -= TRIM_OVERLAP;
+  }
+    for (i=0; i<6; i++) 
+      bounds[i]=((int64_t)(bounds[i]/ROUND_AFTER_TRIM + 0.5))*ROUND_AFTER_TRIM;
+  for (i=0; i<num_p; i++)
+    for (j=0; j<3; j++)
+      if (bounds[j] > p[i].pos[j] || bounds[j+3] <= p[i].pos[j]) {
+	num_p--;
+	p[i] = p[num_p];
+	i--;
+	break;
+      }
+  p = check_realloc(p, sizeof(struct particle)*num_p, "Removing overlap.");
+void clear_particle_rbuffer(struct recipient *r) {
+  if (!r->buffered) return;
+  send_to_socket(r->cs, "part", 4);
+  send_msg(r->cs, r->buffer, sizeof(struct particle)*r->buffered);
+  r->buffered = 0;
+void clear_halo_rbuffer(struct recipient *r) {
+  int64_t i, pids=0;
+  struct halo *bh = r->buffer;
+  if (!r->buffered) return;
+  send_to_socket(r->cs, "halo", 4);
+  send_msg(r->cs, r->buffer, sizeof(struct halo)*r->buffered);
+  for (i=0; i<r->buffered; i++) pids+=bh[i].num_p;
+  if (pids>num_buffer_part_ids) {
+    part_id_buffer = check_realloc(part_id_buffer, sizeof(int64_t)*pids,
+				   "Allocating particle ID buffer.");
+    num_buffer_part_ids = pids;
+  }
+  pids = 0;
+  for (i=0; i<r->buffered; i++) {
+    memcpy(part_id_buffer + pids, part_ids + bh[i].p_start,
+	   sizeof(int64_t)*bh[i].num_p);
+    pids += bh[i].num_p;
+  }
+  send_to_socket(r->cs, "pids", 4);
+  send_msg(r->cs, part_id_buffer, sizeof(int64_t)*pids);
+  r->buffered = 0;
+void add_particle_to_buffer(struct recipient *r, struct particle *p1) {
+  struct particle *buffer = r->buffer;
+  if (r->buffered == RECIPIENT_BUFFER) clear_particle_rbuffer(r); 
+  buffer[r->buffered] = *p1;
+  r->buffered++;
+void add_halo_to_buffer(struct recipient *r, struct halo *h1) {
+  struct halo *buffer = r->buffer;
+  if (r->buffered == RECIPIENT_BUFFER) clear_halo_rbuffer(r); 
+  buffer[r->buffered] = *h1;
+  r->buffered++;
+void check_particle_bounds(struct particle *p1, struct recipient *r) {
+  struct particle pt = *p1;
+  if (_check_bounds(p1->pos, pt.pos, r->bounds)) add_particle_to_buffer(r, &pt);
+void check_halo_bounds(struct halo *h1, struct recipient *r) {
+  struct halo ht = *h1;
+  if (_check_bounds(h1->pos, ht.pos, r->bounds)) add_halo_to_buffer(r, &ht);
+int64_t check_projection_bounds(struct particle *p1, struct projection *pr) {
+  return (_check_bounds_raw(p1->pos, pr->bounds));
+void send_config(int64_t c) {
+  double data;
+#define snd(x) { data = x; send_to_socket_noconfirm(c, &data, sizeof(double)); }
+  snd(SCALE_NOW);
+  snd(BOX_SIZE);
+  snd(Ol);
+  snd(Om);
+  snd(h0);
+#undef snd
+void recv_config(int64_t c) {
+  int64_t i;
+#define rcv(x) { recv_from_socket(c, &x, sizeof(double)); }
+  rcv(SCALE_NOW);
+  rcv(BOX_SIZE);
+  rcv(Ol);
+  rcv(Om);
+  rcv(h0);
+#undef rcv
+  for (i=0; i<3; i++)
+  if (i==3) {
+    for (i=0; i<3; i++) LIGHTCONE_ORIGIN[i] = LIGHTCONE_ALT_ORIGIN[i] = BOX_SIZE/2.0;
+  }
+void send_particles(int64_t c) {
+  int64_t i,j;
+  for (j=0; j<num_recipients; j++) 
+    recipients[j].cs = 
+      connect_to_addr(recipients[j].address, recipients[j].port);
+  for (i=num_p-1; i>=0; i--) {
+    for (j=0; j<num_recipients; j++) check_particle_bounds(p+i, recipients+j);
+    if (!(i%PARTICLE_REALLOC_NUM)) 
+      p = check_realloc(p,sizeof(struct particle)*i,"Freeing particle memory.");
+  }
+  num_p = 0;
+  p = check_realloc(p,0,"Freeing particle memory.");
+  for (j=0; j<num_recipients; j++) {
+    clear_particle_rbuffer(recipients+j);
+    send_to_socket(recipients[j].cs, "done", 4);
+    close_rsocket(recipients[j].cs);
+  }
+  clear_recipients();
+  send_to_socket(c, "done", 4);
+void send_halos(char *c_address, char *c_port, int64_t snap, int64_t chunk) {
+  int64_t i,j, c;
+  struct binary_output_header bheader;
+  load_binary_halos(snap, chunk, &bheader, &halos, &part_ids);
+  for (j=0; j<num_recipients; j++)
+    recipients[j].cs=connect_to_addr(recipients[j].address, recipients[j].port);
+  for (i=0; i<bheader.num_halos; i++)
+    for (j=0; j<num_recipients; j++) check_halo_bounds(halos+i, recipients+j);
+  for (j=0; j<num_recipients; j++) {
+    clear_halo_rbuffer(recipients+j);
+    send_to_socket(recipients[j].cs, "cnfg", 4);
+    send_config(recipients[j].cs);
+    send_to_socket(recipients[j].cs, "done", 4);
+    close_rsocket(recipients[j].cs);
+  }
+  c = connect_to_addr(c_address, c_port);
+  send_to_socket(c, "rdne", 4);
+  exit(0);
+void close_connection(int64_t cs, int64_t *cslist, int64_t *num_cs) {
+  int64_t i;
+  for (i=0; i<*num_cs; i++) {
+    if (cslist[i] == cs) {
+      close_rsocket(cslist[i]);
+      *num_cs = (*num_cs)-1;
+      cslist[i] = cslist[*num_cs];
+      break;
+    }
+  }
+void receive_stuff(int64_t s, int64_t c, int64_t timestep) {
+  int64_t i, j, num_senders = 0, done = 0, length, new_p_start, *senders = NULL;
+  char cmd[5] = {0};
+  struct binary_output_header *bheader;
+  struct halo **halos_recv, *th;
+  int64_t max_conn, **pids_recv;
+  while (!in_error_state && (num_senders || !done)) {
+    clear_rsocket_tags();
+    if (!done) {
+      tag_rsocket(s);
+      tag_rsocket(c);
+    }
+    for (i=0; i<num_senders; i++) tag_rsocket(senders[i]);
+    max_conn = select_rsocket(RSOCKET_READ, 0);
+    for (i=0; i<max_conn; i++) {
+      if (!check_rsocket_tag(i)) continue;
+      if (i==s) {
+	num_senders++;
+	senders = check_realloc(senders, sizeof(int64_t)*num_senders,
+				"Allocating particle sender FDs.");
+	senders[num_senders-1] = accept_connection(s,NULL,NULL);
+      }
+      else if (i==c) {
+	recv_from_socket(c, cmd, 4);
+	if (!strcmp(cmd, "done")) { done = 1; }
+	else if (!strcmp(cmd, "err!")) {
+	  in_error_state = 1;
+	  for (j=0; j<num_senders; j++) close_rsocket(senders[j]);
+	  num_senders = 0;
+	  break;
+	}
+	else { fprintf(stderr, "[Error] Server protocol error rs (%s)!\n", cmd); exit(1); }
+      }
+      else {
+	if (recv_from_socket(i, cmd, 4)<=0) {
+	  network_io_err(c);
+	  for (j=0; j<num_senders; j++) close_rsocket(senders[j]);
+	  num_senders = 0;
+	  break;
+	}
+	if (!strcmp(cmd, "part")) {
+	  length = num_p*sizeof(struct particle);
+	  p = recv_msg(i, p, &length, length);
+	  assert(!(length%(sizeof(struct particle))));
+	  num_p = length / sizeof(struct particle);
+	}
+	else if (!strcmp(cmd, "halo")) {
+	  assert(timestep > 0);
+	  bheader = (timestep > 1) ? &head2 : &head1;
+	  pids_recv = (timestep > 1) ? &part2 : &part1;
+	  halos_recv = (timestep > 1) ? &halos2 : &halos1;
+	  length = bheader->num_halos*sizeof(struct halo);
+	  *halos_recv = recv_msg(i, *halos_recv, &length, length);
+	  assert(!(length%sizeof(struct halo)));
+	  length /= sizeof(struct halo);
+	  //Redo particle pointers
+	  new_p_start = bheader->num_particles;
+	  for (j=bheader->num_halos; j<length; j++) {
+	    th = (*halos_recv) + j;
+	    th->p_start = new_p_start;
+	    new_p_start += th->num_p;
+	  }
+	  bheader->num_halos = length;
+	  recv_from_socket(i, cmd, 4);
+	  assert(!strcmp(cmd, "pids"));
+	  length = bheader->num_particles*sizeof(int64_t);
+	  *pids_recv = recv_msg(i, *pids_recv, &length, length);
+	  assert(!(length%sizeof(int64_t)));
+	  bheader->num_particles = length / sizeof(int64_t);
+	}
+	else if (!strcmp(cmd, "cnfg")) {
+	  recv_config(i);
+	}
+	else if (!strcmp(cmd, "done"))
+	  close_connection(i, senders, &num_senders);
+	else if (!strcmp(cmd, "rdne")) {
+	  close_connection(i, senders, &num_senders);
+	  send_to_socket_noconfirm(c, "done", 4);
+	}
+	else { fprintf(stderr, "[Error] Client protocol error rs (%s)!\n", cmd); exit(1); }
+      }
+    }
+  }
+  free(senders);
+void do_projections(void) {
+  int64_t i, j, idx, dir;
+  assert(BOX_SIZE > 0);
+  for (i=0; i<num_proj; i++) {
+    prj[i].id = prq[i].id;
+    dir = prj[i].dir = prq[i].dir;
+    memcpy(prj[i].bounds, prq[i].bounds, sizeof(float)*6);
+    for (j=0; j<PROJECTION_SIZE; j++) prj[i].data[j] = 0;
+    for (j=0; j<num_p; j++) {
+      if (check_projection_bounds(p+j, prj+i)) {
+	idx = (double)PROJECTION_SIZE*p[j].pos[dir]/(double)BOX_SIZE;
+	prj[i].data[idx]++;
+      }
+    }
+  }
+void accept_workloads(char *c_address, char *c_port, int64_t snap, int64_t chunk) {
+  char *address = NULL, *port = NULL;
+  int64_t s = connect_to_addr(c_address, c_port);
+  int64_t m = s;
+  int64_t id = -1, new_bounds = 1;
+  char cmd[5] = {0};
+  float zero_bounds[6];
+  struct fof *fofs = NULL;
+  struct workunit_info w;
+  rockstar_cleanup();
+  p = check_realloc(p, 0, "Freeing particles.\n");
+  num_p = 0;
+  if (s < 0) exit(1);
+  memset(zero_bounds, 0, sizeof(float)*6);
+  send_to_socket(m, &chunk, sizeof(int64_t));
+  while (1) {
+    if (recv_from_socket(m, cmd, 4)<=0) {
+      fprintf(stderr, "[Warning] Failed to receive instruction from server for chunk %"PRId64" (shutting down)!\n", chunk);
+      send_to_socket(s, "clos", 4);
+      exit(1);
+    }
+    if (!strcmp(cmd, "wrku")) {
+      recv_from_socket(m, &w, sizeof(struct workunit_info));
+      assert(w.num_particles >= 0 && w.num_fofs >= 0 && !w.num_halos);
+      num_p = w.num_particles;
+      fofs = recv_and_alloc(m, fofs, sizeof(struct fof)*w.num_fofs);
+      p = recv_and_alloc(m, p, sizeof(struct particle)*w.num_particles);
+      if (CLIENT_DEBUG) fprintf(stderr, "Received %"PRId64" particles and %"PRId64" fofs from id %"PRId64" (Worker %"PRId64")\n", w.num_particles, w.num_fofs, id-NUM_READERS, chunk);
+      if (new_bounds && TEMPORAL_HALO_FINDING) {
+	new_bounds = 0;
+	if (!memcmp(w.bounds, zero_bounds, sizeof(float)*6))
+	  load_previous_halos(snap, w.chunk, NULL);
+	else load_previous_halos(snap, w.chunk, w.bounds);
+      }
+      do_workunit(&w, fofs);
+      if (CLIENT_DEBUG) fprintf(stderr, "Analyzed %"PRId64" particles and %"PRId64" fofs from id %"PRId64", and found %"PRId64" halos. (Worker %"PRId64")\n", w.num_particles, w.num_fofs, id-NUM_READERS, num_halos, chunk);
+      w.num_halos = num_halos;
+      send_to_socket(m, "wrkd", 4);
+      send_to_socket(m, &w, sizeof(struct workunit_info));
+      send_to_socket(m, fofs, sizeof(struct fof)*w.num_fofs);
+      send_to_socket(m, halos, sizeof(struct halo)*w.num_halos);
+      send_to_socket(m, extra_info, sizeof(struct extra_halo_info)*w.num_halos);
+      send_to_socket(m, p, sizeof(struct particle)*w.num_particles);
+    }
+    else if (!strcmp(cmd, "nmwk")) {
+      if (m != s) close_rsocket(m);
+      p = check_realloc(p, 0, "Freeing particles.");
+      send_to_socket(s, "nmwk", 4);
+      send_to_socket(s, &id, sizeof(int64_t));
+      m = s;
+    }
+    else if (!strcmp(cmd, "work")) {
+      assert(m==s);
+      recv_from_socket(s, &id, sizeof(int64_t));
+      address = recv_msg_nolength(s, address);
+      port = recv_msg_nolength(s, port);
+      m = connect_to_addr(address, port);
+      if (m<0) {
+	send_to_socket(s, "clos", 4);
+	exit(1);
+      }
+      send_to_socket(m, &chunk, sizeof(int64_t));
+      new_bounds = 1;
+    }
+    else if (!strcmp(cmd, "fini")) {
+      exit(0);
+    }
+    else {
+      fprintf(stderr, "[Error] Error in client protocol aw (%s)!\n", cmd);
+      send_to_socket_noconfirm(s, "clos", 4);
+      exit(1);
+    }
+  }
+int send_workunit(int64_t sock, struct workunit_info *w,
+		  struct fof **fofs, struct particle **particles,
+		  int64_t *no_more_work) {
+  if (!(*no_more_work)) find_unfinished_workunit(w, fofs, particles);
+  if ((*no_more_work) || (!w->num_fofs)) {
+    *no_more_work = 1;
+    send_to_socket(sock, "nmwk", 4);
+    return 0;
+  }
+  send_to_socket(sock, "wrku", 4);
+  send_to_socket(sock, w, sizeof(struct workunit_info));
+  send_to_socket(sock, *fofs, sizeof(struct fof)*w->num_fofs);
+  send_to_socket(sock, *particles, sizeof(struct particle)*w->num_particles);
+  if ((*particles >= p) && (*particles < p+num_p)) *particles = NULL;
+  return 1;
+void distribute_workloads(int64_t c, int64_t s, int64_t snap, int64_t chunk, float *bounds) {
+  int64_t i, j, num_workers = 0, no_more_work = 0, workdone = 0,
+    done = 0, id_offset, worker_chunk, hcnt, id;
+  int64_t *workers = NULL, max_cs = 0, child = -1, new_w, child_has_connected=0;
+  char *address = NULL, *port = NULL;
+  char cmd[5] = {0};
+  struct workunit_info w;
+  struct particle *parts = NULL;
+  struct fof *fofs = NULL;
+  struct halo *rhalos = NULL;
+  struct extra_halo_info *ehi = NULL;
+  if (bounds) memcpy(w.bounds, bounds, sizeof(float)*6);
+  else memset(w.bounds, 0, sizeof(float)*6);
+  w.chunk = chunk;