Matthew Turk avatar Matthew Turk committed 2b36ab7

Initial test of leaflet as a map API

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+# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
+"""
+Bottle is a fast and simple micro-framework for small web applications. It
+offers request dispatching (Routes) with url parameter support, templates,
+a built-in HTTP Server and adapters for many third party WSGI/HTTP-server and
+template engines - all in a single file and with no dependencies other than the
+Python Standard Library.
+
+Homepage and documentation: http://bottlepy.org/
+
+Copyright (c) 2011, Marcel Hellkamp.
+License: MIT (see LICENSE.txt for details)
+"""
+
+from __future__ import with_statement
+
+__author__ = 'Marcel Hellkamp'
+__version__ = '0.10.dev'
+__license__ = 'MIT'
+
+import base64
+import cgi
+import email.utils
+import functools
+import hmac
+import httplib
+import imp
+import itertools
+import mimetypes
+import os
+import re
+import subprocess
+import sys
+import tempfile
+import thread
+import threading
+import time
+import warnings
+
+from Cookie import SimpleCookie
+from tempfile import TemporaryFile
+from traceback import format_exc
+from urllib import urlencode, quote as urlquote, unquote as urlunquote
+from urlparse import urlunsplit, urljoin, SplitResult as UrlSplitResult
+
+try: from collections import MutableMapping as DictMixin
+except ImportError: # pragma: no cover
+    from UserDict import DictMixin
+
+try: from urlparse import parse_qs
+except ImportError: # pragma: no cover
+    from cgi import parse_qs
+
+try: import cPickle as pickle
+except ImportError: # pragma: no cover
+    import pickle
+
+try: from json import dumps as json_dumps
+except ImportError: # pragma: no cover
+    try: from simplejson import dumps as json_dumps
+    except ImportError: # pragma: no cover
+        try: from django.utils.simplejson import dumps as json_dumps
+        except ImportError: # pragma: no cover
+            json_dumps = None
+
+NCTextIOWrapper = None
+if sys.version_info >= (3,0,0): # pragma: no cover
+    # See Request.POST
+    from io import BytesIO
+    def touni(x, enc='utf8', err='strict'):
+        """ Convert anything to unicode """
+        return str(x, enc, err) if isinstance(x, bytes) else str(x)
+    if sys.version_info < (3,2,0):
+        from io import TextIOWrapper
+        class NCTextIOWrapper(TextIOWrapper):
+            ''' Garbage collecting an io.TextIOWrapper(buffer) instance closes
+                the wrapped buffer. This subclass keeps it open. '''
+            def close(self): pass
+else:
+    from StringIO import StringIO as BytesIO
+    bytes = str
+    def touni(x, enc='utf8', err='strict'):
+        """ Convert anything to unicode """
+        return x if isinstance(x, unicode) else unicode(str(x), enc, err)
+
+def tob(data, enc='utf8'):
+    """ Convert anything to bytes """
+    return data.encode(enc) if isinstance(data, unicode) else bytes(data)
+
+# Convert strings and unicode to native strings
+if sys.version_info >= (3,0,0):
+    tonat = touni
+else:
+    tonat = tob
+tonat.__doc__ = """ Convert anything to native strings """
+
+
+# Backward compatibility
+def depr(message, critical=False):
+    if critical: raise DeprecationWarning(message)
+    warnings.warn(message, DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=3)
+
+
+# Small helpers
+def makelist(data):
+    if isinstance(data, (tuple, list, set, dict)): return list(data)
+    elif data: return [data]
+    else: return []
+
+
+class DictProperty(object):
+    ''' Property that maps to a key in a local dict-like attribute. '''
+    def __init__(self, attr, key=None, read_only=False):
+        self.attr, self.key, self.read_only = attr, key, read_only
+
+    def __call__(self, func):
+        functools.update_wrapper(self, func, updated=[])
+        self.getter, self.key = func, self.key or func.__name__
+        return self
+
+    def __get__(self, obj, cls):
+        if obj is None: return self
+        key, storage = self.key, getattr(obj, self.attr)
+        if key not in storage: storage[key] = self.getter(obj)
+        return storage[key]
+
+    def __set__(self, obj, value):
+        if self.read_only: raise AttributeError("Read-Only property.")
+        getattr(obj, self.attr)[self.key] = value
+
+    def __delete__(self, obj):
+        if self.read_only: raise AttributeError("Read-Only property.")
+        del getattr(obj, self.attr)[self.key]
+
+def cached_property(func):
+    ''' A property that, if accessed, replaces itself with the computed
+        value. Subsequent accesses won't call the getter again. '''
+    return DictProperty('__dict__')(func)
+
+class lazy_attribute(object): # Does not need configuration -> lower-case name
+    ''' A property that caches itself to the class object. '''
+    def __init__(self, func):
+        functools.update_wrapper(self, func, updated=[])
+        self.getter = func
+
+    def __get__(self, obj, cls):
+        value = self.getter(cls)
+        setattr(cls, self.__name__, value)
+        return value
+
+
+
+
+
+
+###############################################################################
+# Exceptions and Events ########################################################
+###############################################################################
+
+
+class BottleException(Exception):
+    """ A base class for exceptions used by bottle. """
+    pass
+
+
+class HTTPResponse(BottleException):
+    """ Used to break execution and immediately finish the response """
+    def __init__(self, output='', status=200, header=None):
+        super(BottleException, self).__init__("HTTP Response %d" % status)
+        self.status = int(status)
+        self.output = output
+        self.headers = HeaderDict(header) if header else None
+
+    def apply(self, response):
+        if self.headers:
+            for key, value in self.headers.iterallitems():
+                response.headers[key] = value
+        response.status = self.status
+
+
+class HTTPError(HTTPResponse):
+    """ Used to generate an error page """
+    def __init__(self, code=500, output='Unknown Error', exception=None,
+                 traceback=None, header=None):
+        super(HTTPError, self).__init__(output, code, header)
+        self.exception = exception
+        self.traceback = traceback
+
+    def __repr__(self):
+        return template(ERROR_PAGE_TEMPLATE, e=self)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+###############################################################################
+# Routing ######################################################################
+###############################################################################
+
+
+class RouteError(BottleException):
+    """ This is a base class for all routing related exceptions """
+
+
+class RouteReset(BottleException):
+    """ If raised by a plugin or request handler, the route is reset and all
+        plugins are re-applied. """
+
+
+class RouteSyntaxError(RouteError):
+    """ The route parser found something not supported by this router """
+
+
+class RouteBuildError(RouteError):
+    """ The route could not been built """
+
+
+class Router(object):
+    ''' A Router is an ordered collection of route->target pairs. It is used to
+        efficiently match WSGI requests against a number of routes and return
+        the first target that satisfies the request. The target may be anything,
+        usually a string, ID or callable object. A route consists of a path-rule
+        and a HTTP method.
+
+        The path-rule is either a static path (e.g. `/contact`) or a dynamic
+        path that contains wildcards (e.g. `/wiki/:page`). By default, wildcards
+        consume characters up to the next slash (`/`). To change that, you may
+        add a regular expression pattern (e.g. `/wiki/:page#[a-z]+#`).
+
+        For performance reasons, static routes (rules without wildcards) are
+        checked first. Dynamic routes are searched in order. Try to avoid
+        ambiguous or overlapping rules.
+
+        The HTTP method string matches only on equality, with two exceptions:
+          * ´GET´ routes also match ´HEAD´ requests if there is no appropriate
+            ´HEAD´ route installed.
+          * ´ANY´ routes do match if there is no other suitable route installed.
+
+        An optional ``name`` parameter is used by :meth:`build` to identify
+        routes.
+    '''
+
+    default = '[^/]+'
+
+    @lazy_attribute
+    def syntax(cls):
+        return re.compile(r'(?<!\\):([a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z_0-9]*)?(?:#(.*?)#)?')
+
+    def __init__(self):
+        self.routes = {}  # A {rule: {method: target}} mapping
+        self.rules  = []  # An ordered list of rules
+        self.named  = {}  # A name->(rule, build_info) mapping
+        self.static = {}  # Cache for static routes: {path: {method: target}}
+        self.dynamic = [] # Cache for dynamic routes. See _compile()
+
+    def add(self, rule, method, target, name=None):
+        ''' Add a new route or replace the target for an existing route. '''
+
+        if rule in self.routes:
+            self.routes[rule][method.upper()] = target
+        else:
+            self.routes[rule] = {method.upper(): target}
+            self.rules.append(rule)
+            if self.static or self.dynamic: # Clear precompiler cache.
+                self.static, self.dynamic = {}, {}
+        if name:
+            self.named[name] = (rule, None)
+
+    def build(self, _name, *anon, **args):
+        ''' Return a string that matches a named route. Use keyword arguments
+            to fill out named wildcards. Remaining arguments are appended as a
+            query string. Raises RouteBuildError or KeyError.'''
+        if _name not in self.named:
+            raise RouteBuildError("No route with that name.", _name)
+        rule, pairs = self.named[_name]
+        if not pairs:
+            token = self.syntax.split(rule)
+            parts = [p.replace('\\:',':') for p in token[::3]]
+            names = token[1::3]
+            if len(parts) > len(names): names.append(None)
+            pairs = zip(parts, names)
+            self.named[_name] = (rule, pairs)
+        try:
+            anon = list(anon)
+            url = [s if k is None
+                   else s+str(args.pop(k)) if k else s+str(anon.pop())
+                   for s, k in pairs]
+        except IndexError:
+            msg = "Not enough arguments to fill out anonymous wildcards."
+            raise RouteBuildError(msg)
+        except KeyError, e:
+            raise RouteBuildError(*e.args)
+
+        if args: url += ['?', urlencode(args)]
+        return ''.join(url)
+
+    def match(self, environ):
+        ''' Return a (target, url_agrs) tuple or raise HTTPError(404/405). '''
+        targets, urlargs = self._match_path(environ)
+        if not targets:
+            raise HTTPError(404, "Not found: " + repr(environ['PATH_INFO']))
+        method = environ['REQUEST_METHOD'].upper()
+        if method in targets:
+            return targets[method], urlargs
+        if method == 'HEAD' and 'GET' in targets:
+            return targets['GET'], urlargs
+        if 'ANY' in targets:
+            return targets['ANY'], urlargs
+        allowed = [verb for verb in targets if verb != 'ANY']
+        if 'GET' in allowed and 'HEAD' not in allowed:
+            allowed.append('HEAD')
+        raise HTTPError(405, "Method not allowed.",
+                        header=[('Allow',",".join(allowed))])
+
+    def _match_path(self, environ):
+        ''' Optimized PATH_INFO matcher. '''
+        path = environ['PATH_INFO'] or '/'
+        # Assume we are in a warm state. Search compiled rules first.
+        match = self.static.get(path)
+        if match: return match, {}
+        for combined, rules in self.dynamic:
+            match = combined.match(path)
+            if not match: continue
+            gpat, match = rules[match.lastindex - 1]
+            return match, gpat.match(path).groupdict() if gpat else {}
+        # Lazy-check if we are really in a warm state. If yes, stop here.
+        if self.static or self.dynamic or not self.routes: return None, {}
+        # Cold state: We have not compiled any rules yet. Do so and try again.
+        if not environ.get('wsgi.run_once'):
+            self._compile()
+            return self._match_path(environ)
+        # For run_once (CGI) environments, don't compile. Just check one by one.
+        epath = path.replace(':','\\:') # Turn path into its own static rule.
+        match = self.routes.get(epath) # This returns static rule only.
+        if match: return match, {}
+        for rule in self.rules:
+            #: Skip static routes to reduce re.compile() calls.
+            if rule.count(':') < rule.count('\\:'): continue
+            match = self._compile_pattern(rule).match(path)
+            if match: return self.routes[rule], match.groupdict()
+        return None, {}
+
+    def _compile(self):
+        ''' Prepare static and dynamic search structures. '''
+        self.static = {}
+        self.dynamic = []
+        def fpat_sub(m):
+            return m.group(0) if len(m.group(1)) % 2 else m.group(1) + '(?:'
+        for rule in self.rules:
+            target = self.routes[rule]
+            if not self.syntax.search(rule):
+                self.static[rule.replace('\\:',':')] = target
+                continue
+            gpat = self._compile_pattern(rule)
+            fpat = re.sub(r'(\\*)(\(\?P<[^>]*>|\((?!\?))', fpat_sub, gpat.pattern)
+            gpat = gpat if gpat.groupindex else None
+            try:
+                combined = '%s|(%s)' % (self.dynamic[-1][0].pattern, fpat)
+                self.dynamic[-1] = (re.compile(combined), self.dynamic[-1][1])
+                self.dynamic[-1][1].append((gpat, target))
+            except (AssertionError, IndexError), e: # AssertionError: Too many groups
+                self.dynamic.append((re.compile('(^%s$)'%fpat),
+                                    [(gpat, target)]))
+            except re.error, e:
+                raise RouteSyntaxError("Could not add Route: %s (%s)" % (rule, e))
+
+    def _compile_pattern(self, rule):
+        ''' Return a regular expression with named groups for each wildcard. '''
+        out = ''
+        for i, part in enumerate(self.syntax.split(rule)):
+            if i%3 == 0:   out += re.escape(part.replace('\\:',':'))
+            elif i%3 == 1: out += '(?P<%s>' % part if part else '(?:'
+            else:          out += '%s)' % (part or '[^/]+')
+        return re.compile('^%s$'%out)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+###############################################################################
+# Application Object ###########################################################
+###############################################################################
+
+
+class Bottle(object):
+    """ WSGI application """
+
+    def __init__(self, catchall=True, autojson=True, config=None):
+        """ Create a new bottle instance.
+            You usually don't do that. Use `bottle.app.push()` instead.
+        """
+        self.routes = [] # List of installed routes including metadata.
+        self.router = Router() # Maps requests to self.route indices.
+        self.ccache = {} # Cache for callbacks with plugins applied.
+
+        self.plugins = [] # List of installed plugins.
+
+        self.mounts = {}
+        self.error_handler = {}
+        #: If true, most exceptions are catched and returned as :exc:`HTTPError`
+        self.catchall = catchall
+        self.config = config or {}
+        self.serve = True
+        # Default plugins
+        self.hooks = self.install(HooksPlugin())
+        if autojson:
+            self.install(JSONPlugin())
+        self.install(TemplatePlugin())
+
+    def mount(self, app, prefix, **options):
+        ''' Mount an application to a specific URL prefix. The prefix is added
+            to SCIPT_PATH and removed from PATH_INFO before the sub-application
+            is called.
+
+            :param app: an instance of :class:`Bottle`.
+            :param prefix: path prefix used as a mount-point.
+
+            All other parameters are passed to the underlying :meth:`route` call.
+        '''
+        if not isinstance(app, Bottle):
+            raise TypeError('Only Bottle instances are supported for now.')
+        prefix = '/'.join(filter(None, prefix.split('/')))
+        if not prefix:
+            raise TypeError('Empty prefix. Perhaps you want a merge()?')
+        for other in self.mounts:
+            if other.startswith(prefix):
+                raise TypeError('Conflict with existing mount: %s' % other)
+        path_depth = prefix.count('/') + 1
+        options.setdefault('method', 'ANY')
+        options.setdefault('skip', True)
+        self.mounts[prefix] = app
+        @self.route('/%s/:#.*#' % prefix, **options)
+        def mountpoint():
+            request.path_shift(path_depth)
+            return app.handle(request.environ)
+
+    def install(self, plugin):
+        ''' Add a plugin to the list of plugins and prepare it for beeing
+            applied to all routes of this application. A plugin may be a simple
+            decorator or an object that implements the :class:`Plugin` API.
+        '''
+        if hasattr(plugin, 'setup'): plugin.setup(self)
+        if not callable(plugin) and not hasattr(plugin, 'apply'):
+            raise TypeError("Plugins must be callable or implement .apply()")
+        self.plugins.append(plugin)
+        self.reset()
+        return plugin
+
+    def uninstall(self, plugin):
+        ''' Uninstall plugins. Pass an instance to remove a specific plugin.
+            Pass a type object to remove all plugins that match that type.
+            Subclasses are not removed. Pass a string to remove all plugins with
+            a matching ``name`` attribute. Pass ``True`` to remove all plugins.
+            The list of affected plugins is returned. '''
+        removed, remove = [], plugin
+        for i, plugin in list(enumerate(self.plugins))[::-1]:
+            if remove is True or remove is plugin or remove is type(plugin) \
+            or getattr(plugin, 'name', True) == remove:
+                removed.append(plugin)
+                del self.plugins[i]
+                if hasattr(plugin, 'close'): plugin.close()
+        if removed: self.reset()
+        return removed
+
+    def reset(self, id=None):
+        ''' Reset all routes (force plugins to be re-applied) and clear all
+            caches. If an ID is given, only that specific route is affected. '''
+        if id is None: self.ccache.clear()
+        else: self.ccache.pop(id, None)
+        if DEBUG:
+            for route in self.routes:
+                if route['id'] not in self.ccache:
+                    self.ccache[route['id']] = self._build_callback(route)
+
+    def close(self):
+        ''' Close the application and all installed plugins. '''
+        for plugin in self.plugins:
+            if hasattr(plugin, 'close'): plugin.close()
+        self.stopped = True
+
+    def match(self, environ):
+        """ (deprecated) Search for a matching route and return a
+            (callback, urlargs) tuple.
+            The first element is the associated route callback with plugins
+            applied. The second value is a dictionary with parameters extracted
+            from the URL. The :class:`Router` raises :exc:`HTTPError` (404/405)
+            on a non-match."""
+        depr("This method will change semantics in 0.10.")
+        return self._match(environ)
+        
+    def _match(self, environ):
+        handle, args = self.router.match(environ)
+        environ['route.handle'] = handle # TODO move to router?
+        environ['route.url_args'] = args
+        try:
+            return self.ccache[handle], args
+        except KeyError:
+            config = self.routes[handle]
+            callback = self.ccache[handle] = self._build_callback(config)
+            return callback, args
+
+    def _build_callback(self, config):
+        ''' Apply plugins to a route and return a new callable. '''
+        wrapped = config['callback']
+        plugins = self.plugins + config['apply']
+        skip    = config['skip']
+        try:
+            for plugin in reversed(plugins):
+                if True in skip: break
+                if plugin in skip or type(plugin) in skip: continue
+                if getattr(plugin, 'name', True) in skip: continue
+                if hasattr(plugin, 'apply'):
+                    wrapped = plugin.apply(wrapped, config)
+                else:
+                    wrapped = plugin(wrapped)
+                if not wrapped: break
+                functools.update_wrapper(wrapped, config['callback'])
+            return wrapped
+        except RouteReset: # A plugin may have changed the config dict inplace.
+            return self._build_callback(config) # Apply all plugins again.
+
+    def get_url(self, routename, **kargs):
+        """ Return a string that matches a named route """
+        scriptname = request.environ.get('SCRIPT_NAME', '').strip('/') + '/'
+        location = self.router.build(routename, **kargs).lstrip('/')
+        return urljoin(urljoin('/', scriptname), location)
+
+    def route(self, path=None, method='GET', callback=None, name=None,
+              apply=None, skip=None, **config):
+        """ A decorator to bind a function to a request URL. Example::
+
+                @app.route('/hello/:name')
+                def hello(name):
+                    return 'Hello %s' % name
+
+            The ``:name`` part is a wildcard. See :class:`Router` for syntax
+            details.
+
+            :param path: Request path or a list of paths to listen to. If no
+              path is specified, it is automatically generated from the
+              signature of the function.
+            :param method: HTTP method (`GET`, `POST`, `PUT`, ...) or a list of
+              methods to listen to. (default: `GET`)
+            :param callback: An optional shortcut to avoid the decorator
+              syntax. ``route(..., callback=func)`` equals ``route(...)(func)``
+            :param name: The name for this route. (default: None)
+            :param apply: A decorator or plugin or a list of plugins. These are
+              applied to the route callback in addition to installed plugins.
+            :param skip: A list of plugins, plugin classes or names. Matching
+              plugins are not installed to this route. ``True`` skips all.
+
+            Any additional keyword arguments are stored as route-specific
+            configuration and passed to plugins (see :meth:`Plugin.apply`).
+        """
+        if callable(path): path, callback = None, path
+
+        plugins = makelist(apply)
+        skiplist = makelist(skip)
+
+        def decorator(callback):
+            for rule in makelist(path) or yieldroutes(callback):
+                for verb in makelist(method):
+                    verb = verb.upper()
+                    cfg = dict(rule=rule, method=verb, callback=callback,
+                               name=name, app=self, config=config,
+                               apply=plugins, skip=skiplist)
+                    self.routes.append(cfg)
+                    cfg['id'] = self.routes.index(cfg)
+                    self.router.add(rule, verb, cfg['id'], name=name)
+                    if DEBUG: self.ccache[cfg['id']] = self._build_callback(cfg)
+            return callback
+
+        return decorator(callback) if callback else decorator
+
+    def get(self, path=None, method='GET', **options):
+        """ Equals :meth:`route`. """
+        return self.route(path, method, **options)
+
+    def post(self, path=None, method='POST', **options):
+        """ Equals :meth:`route` with a ``POST`` method parameter. """
+        return self.route(path, method, **options)
+
+    def put(self, path=None, method='PUT', **options):
+        """ Equals :meth:`route` with a ``PUT`` method parameter. """
+        return self.route(path, method, **options)
+
+    def delete(self, path=None, method='DELETE', **options):
+        """ Equals :meth:`route` with a ``DELETE`` method parameter. """
+        return self.route(path, method, **options)
+
+    def error(self, code=500):
+        """ Decorator: Register an output handler for a HTTP error code"""
+        def wrapper(handler):
+            self.error_handler[int(code)] = handler
+            return handler
+        return wrapper
+
+    def hook(self, name):
+        """ Return a decorator that attaches a callback to a hook. """
+        def wrapper(func):
+            self.hooks.add(name, func)
+            return func
+        return wrapper
+
+    def handle(self, path, method='GET'):
+        """ (deprecated) Execute the first matching route callback and return
+            the result. :exc:`HTTPResponse` exceptions are catched and returned.
+            If :attr:`Bottle.catchall` is true, other exceptions are catched as
+            well and returned as :exc:`HTTPError` instances (500).
+        """
+        depr("This method will change semantics in 0.10. Try to avoid it.")
+        if isinstance(path, dict):
+            return self._handle(path)
+        return self._handle({'PATH_INFO': path, 'REQUEST_METHOD': method.upper()})
+        
+    def _handle(self, environ):
+        if not self.serve:
+            depr("Bottle.serve will be removed in 0.10.")
+            return HTTPError(503, "Server stopped")
+        try:
+            callback, args = self._match(environ)
+            return callback(**args)
+        except HTTPResponse, r:
+            return r
+        except RouteReset: # Route reset requested by the callback or a plugin.
+            del self.ccache[handle]
+            return self.handle(environ) # Try again.
+        except (KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit, MemoryError):
+            raise
+        except Exception, e:
+            if not self.catchall: raise
+            return HTTPError(500, "Internal Server Error", e, format_exc(10))
+
+    def _cast(self, out, request, response, peek=None):
+        """ Try to convert the parameter into something WSGI compatible and set
+        correct HTTP headers when possible.
+        Support: False, str, unicode, dict, HTTPResponse, HTTPError, file-like,
+        iterable of strings and iterable of unicodes
+        """
+
+        # Empty output is done here
+        if not out:
+            response.headers['Content-Length'] = 0
+            return []
+        # Join lists of byte or unicode strings. Mixed lists are NOT supported
+        if isinstance(out, (tuple, list))\
+        and isinstance(out[0], (bytes, unicode)):
+            out = out[0][0:0].join(out) # b'abc'[0:0] -> b''
+        # Encode unicode strings
+        if isinstance(out, unicode):
+            out = out.encode(response.charset)
+        # Byte Strings are just returned
+        if isinstance(out, bytes):
+            response.headers['Content-Length'] = str(len(out))
+            return [out]
+        # HTTPError or HTTPException (recursive, because they may wrap anything)
+        # TODO: Handle these explicitly in handle() or make them iterable.
+        if isinstance(out, HTTPError):
+            out.apply(response)
+            out = self.error_handler.get(out.status, repr)(out)
+            if isinstance(out, HTTPResponse):
+                depr('Error handlers must not return :exc:`HTTPResponse`.') #0.9
+            return self._cast(out, request, response)
+        if isinstance(out, HTTPResponse):
+            out.apply(response)
+            return self._cast(out.output, request, response)
+
+        # File-like objects.
+        if hasattr(out, 'read'):
+            if 'wsgi.file_wrapper' in request.environ:
+                return request.environ['wsgi.file_wrapper'](out)
+            elif hasattr(out, 'close') or not hasattr(out, '__iter__'):
+                return WSGIFileWrapper(out)
+
+        # Handle Iterables. We peek into them to detect their inner type.
+        try:
+            out = iter(out)
+            first = out.next()
+            while not first:
+                first = out.next()
+        except StopIteration:
+            return self._cast('', request, response)
+        except HTTPResponse, e:
+            first = e
+        except Exception, e:
+            first = HTTPError(500, 'Unhandled exception', e, format_exc(10))
+            if isinstance(e, (KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit, MemoryError))\
+            or not self.catchall:
+                raise
+        # These are the inner types allowed in iterator or generator objects.
+        if isinstance(first, HTTPResponse):
+            return self._cast(first, request, response)
+        if isinstance(first, bytes):
+            return itertools.chain([first], out)
+        if isinstance(first, unicode):
+            return itertools.imap(lambda x: x.encode(response.charset),
+                                  itertools.chain([first], out))
+        return self._cast(HTTPError(500, 'Unsupported response type: %s'\
+                                         % type(first)), request, response)
+
+    def wsgi(self, environ, start_response):
+        """ The bottle WSGI-interface. """
+        try:
+            environ['bottle.app'] = self
+            request.bind(environ)
+            response.bind()
+            out = self._handle(environ)
+            out = self._cast(out, request, response)
+            # rfc2616 section 4.3
+            if response.status in (100, 101, 204, 304) or request.method == 'HEAD':
+                if hasattr(out, 'close'): out.close()
+                out = []
+            status = '%d %s' % (response.status, HTTP_CODES[response.status])
+            start_response(status, response.headerlist)
+            return out
+        except (KeyboardInterrupt, SystemExit, MemoryError):
+            raise
+        except Exception, e:
+            if not self.catchall: raise
+            err = '<h1>Critical error while processing request: %s</h1>' \
+                  % environ.get('PATH_INFO', '/')
+            if DEBUG:
+                err += '<h2>Error:</h2>\n<pre>%s</pre>\n' % repr(e)
+                err += '<h2>Traceback:</h2>\n<pre>%s</pre>\n' % format_exc(10)
+            environ['wsgi.errors'].write(err) #TODO: wsgi.error should not get html
+            start_response('500 INTERNAL SERVER ERROR', [('Content-Type', 'text/html')])
+            return [tob(err)]
+
+    def __call__(self, environ, start_response):
+        return self.wsgi(environ, start_response)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+###############################################################################
+# HTTP and WSGI Tools ##########################################################
+###############################################################################
+
+
+class Request(threading.local, DictMixin):
+    """ Represents a single HTTP request using thread-local attributes.
+        The Request object wraps a WSGI environment and can be used as such.
+    """
+    def __init__(self, environ=None):
+        """ Create a new Request instance.
+
+            You usually don't do this but use the global `bottle.request`
+            instance instead.
+        """
+        self.bind(environ or {},)
+
+    def bind(self, environ):
+        """ Bind a new WSGI environment.
+
+            This is done automatically for the global `bottle.request`
+            instance on every request.
+        """
+        self.environ = environ
+        # These attributes are used anyway, so it is ok to compute them here
+        self.path = '/' + environ.get('PATH_INFO', '/').lstrip('/')
+        self.method = environ.get('REQUEST_METHOD', 'GET').upper()
+
+    def copy(self):
+        ''' Returns a copy of self '''
+        return Request(self.environ.copy())
+
+    def path_shift(self, shift=1):
+        ''' Shift path fragments from PATH_INFO to SCRIPT_NAME and vice versa.
+
+           :param shift: The number of path fragments to shift. May be negative
+                         to change the shift direction. (default: 1)
+        '''
+        script_name = self.environ.get('SCRIPT_NAME','/')
+        self['SCRIPT_NAME'], self.path = path_shift(script_name, self.path, shift)
+        self['PATH_INFO'] = self.path
+
+    def __getitem__(self, key): return self.environ[key]
+    def __delitem__(self, key): self[key] = ""; del(self.environ[key])
+    def __iter__(self): return iter(self.environ)
+    def __len__(self): return len(self.environ)
+    def keys(self): return self.environ.keys()
+    def __setitem__(self, key, value):
+        """ Shortcut for Request.environ.__setitem__ """
+        self.environ[key] = value
+        todelete = []
+        if key in ('PATH_INFO','REQUEST_METHOD'):
+            self.bind(self.environ)
+        elif key == 'wsgi.input': todelete = ('body','forms','files','params')
+        elif key == 'QUERY_STRING': todelete = ('get','params')
+        elif key.startswith('HTTP_'): todelete = ('headers', 'cookies')
+        for key in todelete:
+            if 'bottle.' + key in self.environ:
+                del self.environ['bottle.' + key]
+
+    @DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.urlparts', read_only=True)
+    def urlparts(self):
+        ''' Return a :class:`urlparse.SplitResult` tuple that can be used
+            to reconstruct the full URL as requested by the client.
+            The tuple contains: (scheme, host, path, query_string, fragment).
+            The fragment is always empty because it is not visible to the server.
+        '''
+        env = self.environ
+        http = env.get('wsgi.url_scheme', 'http')
+        host = env.get('HTTP_X_FORWARDED_HOST') or env.get('HTTP_HOST')
+        if not host:
+            # HTTP 1.1 requires a Host-header. This is for HTTP/1.0 clients.
+            host = env.get('SERVER_NAME', '127.0.0.1')
+            port = env.get('SERVER_PORT')
+            if port and port != ('80' if http == 'http' else '443'):
+                host += ':' + port
+        spath = self.environ.get('SCRIPT_NAME','').rstrip('/') + '/'
+        rpath = self.path.lstrip('/')
+        path = urlquote(urljoin(spath, rpath))
+        return UrlSplitResult(http, host, path, env.get('QUERY_STRING'), '')
+
+    @property
+    def url(self):
+        """ Full URL as requested by the client. """
+        return self.urlparts.geturl()
+
+    @property
+    def fullpath(self):
+        """ Request path including SCRIPT_NAME (if present). """
+        return urlunquote(self.urlparts[2])
+
+    @property
+    def query_string(self):
+        """ The part of the URL following the '?'. """
+        return self.environ.get('QUERY_STRING', '')
+
+    @property
+    def content_length(self):
+        """ Content-Length header as an integer, -1 if not specified """
+        return int(self.environ.get('CONTENT_LENGTH', '') or -1)
+
+    @DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.headers', read_only=True)
+    def headers(self):
+        ''' Request HTTP Headers stored in a :class:`HeaderDict`. '''
+        return WSGIHeaderDict(self.environ)
+
+    @DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.get', read_only=True)
+    def GET(self):
+        """ The QUERY_STRING parsed into an instance of :class:`MultiDict`. """
+        data = parse_qs(self.query_string, keep_blank_values=True)
+        get = self.environ['bottle.get'] = MultiDict()
+        for key, values in data.iteritems():
+            for value in values:
+                get[key] = value
+        return get
+
+    @DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.post', read_only=True)
+    def POST(self):
+        """ The combined values from :attr:`forms` and :attr:`files`. Values are
+            either strings (form values) or instances of
+            :class:`cgi.FieldStorage` (file uploads).
+        """
+        post = MultiDict()
+        safe_env = {'QUERY_STRING':''} # Build a safe environment for cgi
+        for key in ('REQUEST_METHOD', 'CONTENT_TYPE', 'CONTENT_LENGTH'):
+            if key in self.environ: safe_env[key] = self.environ[key]
+        if NCTextIOWrapper:
+            fb = NCTextIOWrapper(self.body, encoding='ISO-8859-1', newline='\n')
+        else:
+            fb = self.body
+        data = cgi.FieldStorage(fp=fb, environ=safe_env, keep_blank_values=True)
+        for item in data.list or []:
+            post[item.name] = item if item.filename else item.value
+        return post
+
+    @DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.forms', read_only=True)
+    def forms(self):
+        """ POST form values parsed into an instance of :class:`MultiDict`.
+
+            This property contains form values parsed from an `url-encoded`
+            or `multipart/form-data` encoded POST request bidy. The values are
+            native strings.
+        """
+        forms = MultiDict()
+        for name, item in self.POST.iterallitems():
+            if not hasattr(item, 'filename'):
+                forms[name] = item
+        return forms
+
+    @DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.files', read_only=True)
+    def files(self):
+        """ File uploads parsed into an instance of :class:`MultiDict`.
+
+            This property contains file uploads parsed from an
+            `multipart/form-data` encoded POST request body. The values are
+            instances of :class:`cgi.FieldStorage`.
+        """
+        files = MultiDict()
+        for name, item in self.POST.iterallitems():
+            if hasattr(item, 'filename'):
+                files[name] = item
+        return files
+
+    @DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.params', read_only=True)
+    def params(self):
+        """ A combined :class:`MultiDict` with values from :attr:`forms` and
+            :attr:`GET`. File-uploads are not included. """
+        params = MultiDict(self.GET)
+        for key, value in self.forms.iterallitems():
+            params[key] = value
+        return params
+
+    @DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.body', read_only=True)
+    def _body(self):
+        """ The HTTP request body as a seekable file-like object.
+
+            This property returns a copy of the `wsgi.input` stream and should
+            be used instead of `environ['wsgi.input']`.
+         """
+        maxread = max(0, self.content_length)
+        stream = self.environ['wsgi.input']
+        body = BytesIO() if maxread < MEMFILE_MAX else TemporaryFile(mode='w+b')
+        while maxread > 0:
+            part = stream.read(min(maxread, MEMFILE_MAX))
+            if not part: break
+            body.write(part)
+            maxread -= len(part)
+        self.environ['wsgi.input'] = body
+        body.seek(0)
+        return body
+
+    @property
+    def body(self):
+        self._body.seek(0)
+        return self._body
+
+    @property
+    def auth(self): #TODO: Tests and docs. Add support for digest. namedtuple?
+        """ HTTP authorization data as a (user, passwd) tuple. (experimental)
+
+            This implementation currently only supports basic auth and returns
+            None on errors.
+        """
+        return parse_auth(self.headers.get('Authorization',''))
+
+    @DictProperty('environ', 'bottle.cookies', read_only=True)
+    def COOKIES(self):
+        """ Cookies parsed into a dictionary. Signed cookies are NOT decoded
+            automatically. See :meth:`get_cookie` for details.
+        """
+        raw_dict = SimpleCookie(self.headers.get('Cookie',''))
+        cookies = {}
+        for cookie in raw_dict.itervalues():
+            cookies[cookie.key] = cookie.value
+        return cookies
+
+    def get_cookie(self, key, secret=None):
+        """ Return the content of a cookie. To read a `Signed Cookies`, use the
+            same `secret` as used to create the cookie (see
+            :meth:`Response.set_cookie`). If anything goes wrong, None is
+            returned.
+        """
+        value = self.COOKIES.get(key)
+        if secret and value:
+            dec = cookie_decode(value, secret) # (key, value) tuple or None
+            return dec[1] if dec and dec[0] == key else None
+        return value or None
+
+    @property
+    def is_ajax(self):
+        ''' True if the request was generated using XMLHttpRequest '''
+        #TODO: write tests
+        return self.header.get('X-Requested-With') == 'XMLHttpRequest'
+
+
+class Response(threading.local):
+    """ Represents a single HTTP response using thread-local attributes.
+    """
+
+    def __init__(self):
+        self.bind()
+
+    def bind(self):
+        """ Resets the Response object to its factory defaults. """
+        self._COOKIES = None
+        self.status = 200
+        self.headers = HeaderDict()
+        self.content_type = 'text/html; charset=UTF-8'
+
+    def copy(self):
+        ''' Returns a copy of self. '''
+        copy = Response()
+        copy.status = self.status
+        copy.headers = self.headers.copy()
+        copy.content_type = self.content_type
+        return copy
+
+    def wsgiheader(self):
+        ''' Returns a wsgi conform list of header/value pairs. '''
+        for c in self.COOKIES.values():
+            if c.OutputString() not in self.headers.getall('Set-Cookie'):
+                self.headers.append('Set-Cookie', c.OutputString())
+        # rfc2616 section 10.2.3, 10.3.5
+        if self.status in (204, 304) and 'content-type' in self.headers:
+            del self.headers['content-type']
+        if self.status == 304:
+            for h in ('allow', 'content-encoding', 'content-language',
+                      'content-length', 'content-md5', 'content-range',
+                      'content-type', 'last-modified'): # + c-location, expires?
+                if h in self.headers:
+                     del self.headers[h]
+        return list(self.headers.iterallitems())
+    headerlist = property(wsgiheader)
+
+    @property
+    def charset(self):
+        """ Return the charset specified in the content-type header.
+
+            This defaults to `UTF-8`.
+        """
+        if 'charset=' in self.content_type:
+            return self.content_type.split('charset=')[-1].split(';')[0].strip()
+        return 'UTF-8'
+
+    @property
+    def COOKIES(self):
+        """ A dict-like SimpleCookie instance. Use :meth:`set_cookie` instead. """
+        if not self._COOKIES:
+            self._COOKIES = SimpleCookie()
+        return self._COOKIES
+
+    def set_cookie(self, key, value, secret=None, **kargs):
+        ''' Add a cookie or overwrite an old one. If the `secret` parameter is
+            set, create a `Signed Cookie` (described below).
+
+            :param key: the name of the cookie.
+            :param value: the value of the cookie.
+            :param secret: required for signed cookies. (default: None)
+            :param max_age: maximum age in seconds. (default: None)
+            :param expires: a datetime object or UNIX timestamp. (defaut: None)
+            :param domain: the domain that is allowed to read the cookie.
+              (default: current domain)
+            :param path: limits the cookie to a given path (default: /)
+
+            If neither `expires` nor `max_age` are set (default), the cookie
+            lasts only as long as the browser is not closed.
+
+            Signed cookies may store any pickle-able object and are
+            cryptographically signed to prevent manipulation. Keep in mind that
+            cookies are limited to 4kb in most browsers.
+
+            Warning: Signed cookies are not encrypted (the client can still see
+            the content) and not copy-protected (the client can restore an old
+            cookie). The main intention is to make pickling and unpickling
+            save, not to store secret information at client side.
+        '''
+        if secret:
+            value = touni(cookie_encode((key, value), secret))
+        elif not isinstance(value, basestring):
+            raise TypeError('Secret missing for non-string Cookie.')
+
+        self.COOKIES[key] = value
+        for k, v in kargs.iteritems():
+            self.COOKIES[key][k.replace('_', '-')] = v
+
+    def delete_cookie(self, key, **kwargs):
+        ''' Delete a cookie. Be sure to use the same `domain` and `path`
+            parameters as used to create the cookie. '''
+        kwargs['max_age'] = -1
+        kwargs['expires'] = 0
+        self.set_cookie(key, '', **kwargs)
+
+    def get_content_type(self):
+        """ Current 'Content-Type' header. """
+        return self.headers['Content-Type']
+
+    def set_content_type(self, value):
+        self.headers['Content-Type'] = value
+
+    content_type = property(get_content_type, set_content_type, None,
+                            get_content_type.__doc__)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+###############################################################################
+# Plugins ######################################################################
+###############################################################################
+
+
+
+class JSONPlugin(object):
+    name = 'json'
+
+    def __init__(self, json_dumps=json_dumps):
+        self.json_dumps = json_dumps
+
+    def apply(self, callback, context):
+        dumps = self.json_dumps
+        if not dumps: return callback
+        def wrapper(*a, **ka):
+            rv = callback(*a, **ka)
+            if isinstance(rv, dict):
+                response.content_type = 'application/json'
+                return dumps(rv)
+            return rv
+        return wrapper
+
+
+
+class HooksPlugin(object):
+    name = 'hooks'
+
+    def __init__(self):
+        self.hooks = {'before_request': [], 'after_request': []}
+        self.app = None
+
+    def _empty(self):
+        return not (self.hooks['before_request'] or self.hooks['after_request'])
+
+    def setup(self, app):
+        self.app = app
+
+    def add(self, name, func):
+        ''' Attach a callback to a hook. '''
+        if name not in self.hooks:
+            raise ValueError("Unknown hook name %s" % name)
+        was_empty = self._empty()
+        self.hooks[name].append(func)
+        if self.app and was_empty and not self._empty(): self.app.reset()
+
+    def remove(self, name, func):
+        ''' Remove a callback from a hook. '''
+        if name not in self.hooks:
+            raise ValueError("Unknown hook name %s" % name)
+        was_empty = self._empty()
+        self.hooks[name].remove(func)
+        if self.app and not was_empty and self._empty(): self.app.reset()
+
+    def apply(self, callback, context):
+        if self._empty(): return callback
+        before_request = self.hooks['before_request']
+        after_request  = self.hooks['after_request']
+        def wrapper(*a, **ka):
+            for hook in before_request: hook()
+            rv = callback(*a, **ka)
+            for hook in after_request[::-1]: hook()
+            return rv
+        return wrapper
+
+
+
+class TypeFilterPlugin(object):
+    def __init__(self):
+        self.filter = []
+        self.app = None
+
+    def setup(self, app):
+        self.app = app
+
+    def add(self, ftype, func):
+        if not isinstance(ftype, type):
+            raise TypeError("Expected type object, got %s" % type(ftype))
+        self.filter = [(t, f) for (t, f) in self.filter if t != ftype]
+        self.filter.append((ftype, func))
+        if len(self.filter) == 1 and self.app: self.app.reset()
+
+    def apply(self, callback, context):
+        filter = self.filter
+        if not filter: return callback
+        def wrapper(*a, **ka):
+            rv = callback(*a, **ka)
+            for testtype, filterfunc in filter:
+                if isinstance(rv, testtype):
+                    rv = filterfunc(rv)
+            return rv
+        return wrapper
+
+
+class TemplatePlugin(object):
+    ''' This plugin applies the :func:`view` decorator to all routes with a
+        `template` config parameter. If the parameter is a tuple, the second
+        element must be a dict with additional options (e.g. `template_engine`)
+        or default variables for the template. '''
+    name = 'template'
+
+    def apply(self, callback, context):
+        conf = context['config'].get('template')
+        if isinstance(conf, (tuple, list)) and len(conf) == 2:
+            return view(conf[0], **conf[1])(callback)
+        elif isinstance(conf, str) and 'template_opts' in context['config']:
+            depr('The `template_opts` parameter is deprecated.') #0.9
+            return view(conf, **context['config']['template_opts'])(callback)
+        elif isinstance(conf, str):
+            return view(conf)(callback)
+        else:
+            return callback
+
+
+#: Not a plugin, but part of the plugin API. TODO: Find a better place.
+class _ImportRedirect(object):
+    def __init__(self, name, impmask):
+        ''' Create a virtual package that redirects imports (see PEP 302). '''
+        self.name = name
+        self.impmask = impmask
+        self.module = sys.modules.setdefault(name, imp.new_module(name))
+        self.module.__dict__.update({'__file__': '<virtual>', '__path__': [],
+                                    '__all__': [], '__loader__': self})
+        sys.meta_path.append(self)
+
+    def find_module(self, fullname, path=None):
+        if '.' not in fullname: return
+        packname, modname = fullname.rsplit('.', 1)
+        if packname != self.name: return
+        return self
+
+    def load_module(self, fullname):
+        if fullname in sys.modules: return sys.modules[fullname]
+        packname, modname = fullname.rsplit('.', 1)
+        realname = self.impmask % modname
+        __import__(realname)
+        module = sys.modules[fullname] = sys.modules[realname]
+        setattr(self.module, modname, module)
+        module.__loader__ = self
+        return module
+
+
+
+
+
+
+###############################################################################
+# Common Utilities #############################################################
+###############################################################################
+
+
+class MultiDict(DictMixin):
+    """ A dict that remembers old values for each key """
+    # collections.MutableMapping would be better for Python >= 2.6
+    def __init__(self, *a, **k):
+        self.dict = dict()
+        for k, v in dict(*a, **k).iteritems():
+            self[k] = v
+
+    def __len__(self): return len(self.dict)
+    def __iter__(self): return iter(self.dict)
+    def __contains__(self, key): return key in self.dict
+    def __delitem__(self, key): del self.dict[key]
+    def keys(self): return self.dict.keys()
+    def __getitem__(self, key): return self.get(key, KeyError, -1)
+    def __setitem__(self, key, value): self.append(key, value)
+
+    def append(self, key, value): self.dict.setdefault(key, []).append(value)
+    def replace(self, key, value): self.dict[key] = [value]
+    def getall(self, key): return self.dict.get(key) or []
+
+    def get(self, key, default=None, index=-1):
+        if key not in self.dict and default != KeyError:
+            return [default][index]
+        return self.dict[key][index]
+
+    def iterallitems(self):
+        for key, values in self.dict.iteritems():
+            for value in values:
+                yield key, value
+
+
+class HeaderDict(MultiDict):
+    """ Same as :class:`MultiDict`, but title()s the keys and overwrites. """
+    def __contains__(self, key):
+        return MultiDict.__contains__(self, self.httpkey(key))
+    def __getitem__(self, key):
+        return MultiDict.__getitem__(self, self.httpkey(key))
+    def __delitem__(self, key):
+        return MultiDict.__delitem__(self, self.httpkey(key))
+    def __setitem__(self, key, value): self.replace(key, value)
+    def get(self, key, default=None, index=-1):
+        return MultiDict.get(self, self.httpkey(key), default, index)
+    def append(self, key, value):
+        return MultiDict.append(self, self.httpkey(key), str(value))
+    def replace(self, key, value):
+        return MultiDict.replace(self, self.httpkey(key), str(value))
+    def getall(self, key): return MultiDict.getall(self, self.httpkey(key))
+    def httpkey(self, key): return str(key).replace('_','-').title()
+
+
+class WSGIHeaderDict(DictMixin):
+    ''' This dict-like class wraps a WSGI environ dict and provides convenient
+        access to HTTP_* fields. Keys and values are native strings
+        (2.x bytes or 3.x unicode) and keys are case-insensitive. If the WSGI
+        environment contains non-native string values, these are de- or encoded
+        using a lossless 'latin1' character set.
+
+        The API will remain stable even on changes to the relevant PEPs.
+        Currently PEP 333, 444 and 3333 are supported. (PEP 444 is the only one
+        that uses non-native strings.)
+    '''
+    #: List of keys that do not have a 'HTTP_' prefix.
+    cgikeys = ('CONTENT_TYPE', 'CONTENT_LENGTH')
+
+    def __init__(self, environ):
+        self.environ = environ
+
+    def _ekey(self, key):
+        ''' Translate header field name to CGI/WSGI environ key. '''
+        key = key.replace('-','_').upper()
+        if key in self.cgikeys:
+            return key
+        return 'HTTP_' + key
+
+    def raw(self, key, default=None):
+        ''' Return the header value as is (may be bytes or unicode). '''
+        return self.environ.get(self._ekey(key), default)
+
+    def __getitem__(self, key):
+        return tonat(self.environ[self._ekey(key)], 'latin1')
+
+    def __setitem__(self, key, value):
+        raise TypeError("%s is read-only." % self.__class__)
+
+    def __delitem__(self, key):
+        raise TypeError("%s is read-only." % self.__class__)
+
+    def __iter__(self):
+        for key in self.environ:
+            if key[:5] == 'HTTP_':
+                yield key[5:].replace('_', '-').title()
+            elif key in self.cgikeys:
+                yield key.replace('_', '-').title()
+
+    def keys(self): return list(self)
+    def __len__(self): return len(list(self))
+    def __contains__(self, key): return self._ekey(key) in self.environ
+
+
+class AppStack(list):
+    """ A stack-like list. Calling it returns the head of the stack. """
+
+    def __call__(self):
+        """ Return the current default application. """
+        return self[-1]
+
+    def push(self, value=None):
+        """ Add a new :class:`Bottle` instance to the stack """
+        if not isinstance(value, Bottle):
+            value = Bottle()
+        self.append(value)
+        return value
+
+
+class WSGIFileWrapper(object):
+
+   def __init__(self, fp, buffer_size=1024*64):
+       self.fp, self.buffer_size = fp, buffer_size
+       for attr in ('fileno', 'close', 'read', 'readlines'):
+           if hasattr(fp, attr): setattr(self, attr, getattr(fp, attr))
+
+   def __iter__(self):
+       read, buff = self.fp.read, self.buffer_size
+       while True:
+           part = read(buff)
+           if not part: break
+           yield part
+
+
+
+
+
+
+###############################################################################
+# Application Helper ###########################################################
+###############################################################################
+
+
+def abort(code=500, text='Unknown Error: Application stopped.'):
+    """ Aborts execution and causes a HTTP error. """
+    raise HTTPError(code, text)
+
+
+def redirect(url, code=303):
+    """ Aborts execution and causes a 303 redirect. """
+    location = urljoin(request.url, url)
+    raise HTTPResponse("", status=code, header=dict(Location=location))
+
+
+def static_file(filename, root, mimetype='auto', download=False):
+    """ Open a file in a safe way and return :exc:`HTTPResponse` with status
+        code 200, 305, 401 or 404. Set Content-Type, Content-Encoding,
+        Content-Length and Last-Modified header. Obey If-Modified-Since header
+        and HEAD requests.
+    """
+    root = os.path.abspath(root) + os.sep
+    filename = os.path.abspath(os.path.join(root, filename.strip('/\\')))
+    header = dict()
+
+    if not filename.startswith(root):
+        return HTTPError(403, "Access denied.")
+    if not os.path.exists(filename) or not os.path.isfile(filename):
+        return HTTPError(404, "File does not exist.")
+    if not os.access(filename, os.R_OK):
+        return HTTPError(403, "You do not have permission to access this file.")
+
+    if mimetype == 'auto':
+        mimetype, encoding = mimetypes.guess_type(filename)
+        if mimetype: header['Content-Type'] = mimetype
+        if encoding: header['Content-Encoding'] = encoding
+    elif mimetype:
+        header['Content-Type'] = mimetype
+
+    if download:
+        download = os.path.basename(filename if download == True else download)
+        header['Content-Disposition'] = 'attachment; filename="%s"' % download
+
+    stats = os.stat(filename)
+    header['Content-Length'] = stats.st_size
+    lm = time.strftime("%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S GMT", time.gmtime(stats.st_mtime))
+    header['Last-Modified'] = lm
+
+    ims = request.environ.get('HTTP_IF_MODIFIED_SINCE')
+    if ims:
+        ims = parse_date(ims.split(";")[0].strip())
+    if ims is not None and ims >= int(stats.st_mtime):
+        header['Date'] = time.strftime("%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S GMT", time.gmtime())
+        return HTTPResponse(status=304, header=header)
+
+    body = '' if request.method == 'HEAD' else open(filename, 'rb')
+    return HTTPResponse(body, header=header)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+###############################################################################
+# HTTP Utilities and MISC (TODO) ###############################################
+###############################################################################
+
+
+def debug(mode=True):
+    """ Change the debug level.
+    There is only one debug level supported at the moment."""
+    global DEBUG
+    DEBUG = bool(mode)
+
+
+def parse_date(ims):
+    """ Parse rfc1123, rfc850 and asctime timestamps and return UTC epoch. """
+    try:
+        ts = email.utils.parsedate_tz(ims)
+        return time.mktime(ts[:8] + (0,)) - (ts[9] or 0) - time.timezone
+    except (TypeError, ValueError, IndexError, OverflowError):
+        return None
+
+
+def parse_auth(header):
+    """ Parse rfc2617 HTTP authentication header string (basic) and return (user,pass) tuple or None"""
+    try:
+        method, data = header.split(None, 1)
+        if method.lower() == 'basic':
+            name, pwd = base64.b64decode(data).split(':', 1)
+            return name, pwd
+    except (KeyError, ValueError, TypeError):
+        return None
+
+
+def _lscmp(a, b):
+    ''' Compares two strings in a cryptographically save way:
+        Runtime is not affected by length of common prefix. '''
+    return not sum(0 if x==y else 1 for x, y in zip(a, b)) and len(a) == len(b)
+
+
+def cookie_encode(data, key):
+    ''' Encode and sign a pickle-able object. Return a (byte) string '''
+    msg = base64.b64encode(pickle.dumps(data, -1))
+    sig = base64.b64encode(hmac.new(key, msg).digest())
+    return tob('!') + sig + tob('?') + msg
+
+
+def cookie_decode(data, key):
+    ''' Verify and decode an encoded string. Return an object or None.'''
+    data = tob(data)
+    if cookie_is_encoded(data):
+        sig, msg = data.split(tob('?'), 1)
+        if _lscmp(sig[1:], base64.b64encode(hmac.new(key, msg).digest())):
+            return pickle.loads(base64.b64decode(msg))
+    return None
+
+
+def cookie_is_encoded(data):
+    ''' Return True if the argument looks like a encoded cookie.'''
+    return bool(data.startswith(tob('!')) and tob('?') in data)
+
+
+def yieldroutes(func):
+    """ Return a generator for routes that match the signature (name, args)
+    of the func parameter. This may yield more than one route if the function
+    takes optional keyword arguments. The output is best described by example::
+
+        a()         -> '/a'
+        b(x, y)     -> '/b/:x/:y'
+        c(x, y=5)   -> '/c/:x' and '/c/:x/:y'
+        d(x=5, y=6) -> '/d' and '/d/:x' and '/d/:x/:y'
+    """
+    import inspect # Expensive module. Only import if necessary.
+    path = '/' + func.__name__.replace('__','/').lstrip('/')
+    spec = inspect.getargspec(func)
+    argc = len(spec[0]) - len(spec[3] or [])
+    path += ('/:%s' * argc) % tuple(spec[0][:argc])
+    yield path
+    for arg in spec[0][argc:]:
+        path += '/:%s' % arg
+        yield path
+
+
+def path_shift(script_name, path_info, shift=1):
+    ''' Shift path fragments from PATH_INFO to SCRIPT_NAME and vice versa.
+
+        :return: The modified paths.
+        :param script_name: The SCRIPT_NAME path.
+        :param script_name: The PATH_INFO path.
+        :param shift: The number of path fragments to shift. May be negative to
+          change the shift direction. (default: 1)
+    '''
+    if shift == 0: return script_name, path_info
+    pathlist = path_info.strip('/').split('/')
+    scriptlist = script_name.strip('/').split('/')
+    if pathlist and pathlist[0] == '': pathlist = []
+    if scriptlist and scriptlist[0] == '': scriptlist = []
+    if shift > 0 and shift <= len(pathlist):
+        moved = pathlist[:shift]
+        scriptlist = scriptlist + moved
+        pathlist = pathlist[shift:]
+    elif shift < 0 and shift >= -len(scriptlist):
+        moved = scriptlist[shift:]
+        pathlist = moved + pathlist
+        scriptlist = scriptlist[:shift]
+    else:
+        empty = 'SCRIPT_NAME' if shift < 0 else 'PATH_INFO'
+        raise AssertionError("Cannot shift. Nothing left from %s" % empty)
+    new_script_name = '/' + '/'.join(scriptlist)
+    new_path_info = '/' + '/'.join(pathlist)
+    if path_info.endswith('/') and pathlist: new_path_info += '/'
+    return new_script_name, new_path_info
+
+
+
+# Decorators
+#TODO: Replace default_app() with app()
+
+def validate(**vkargs):
+    """
+    Validates and manipulates keyword arguments by user defined callables.
+    Handles ValueError and missing arguments by raising HTTPError(403).
+    """
+    def decorator(func):
+        def wrapper(**kargs):
+            for key, value in vkargs.iteritems():
+                if key not in kargs:
+                    abort(403, 'Missing parameter: %s' % key)
+                try:
+                    kargs[key] = value(kargs[key])
+                except ValueError:
+                    abort(403, 'Wrong parameter format for: %s' % key)
+            return func(**kargs)
+        return wrapper
+    return decorator
+
+
+def auth_basic(check, realm="private", text="Access denied"):
+    ''' Callback decorator to require HTTP auth (basic).
+        TODO: Add route(check_auth=...) parameter. '''
+    def decorator(func):
+      def wrapper(*a, **ka):
+        user, password = request.auth or (None, None)
+        if user is None or not check(user, password):
+          response.headers['WWW-Authenticate'] = 'Basic realm="%s"' % realm
+          return HTTPError(401, text)
+        return func(*a, **ka)
+      return wrapper
+    return decorator
+
+
+def make_default_app_wrapper(name):
+    ''' Return a callable that relays calls to the current default app. '''
+    @functools.wraps(getattr(Bottle, name))
+    def wrapper(*a, **ka):
+        return getattr(app(), name)(*a, **ka)
+    return wrapper
+
+
+for name in '''route get post put delete error mount
+               hook install uninstall'''.split():
+    globals()[name] = make_default_app_wrapper(name)
+url = make_default_app_wrapper('get_url')
+del name
+
+
+
+
+
+
+###############################################################################
+# Server Adapter ###############################################################
+###############################################################################
+
+
+class ServerAdapter(object):
+    quiet = False
+    def __init__(self, host='127.0.0.1', port=8080, **config):
+        self.options = config
+        self.host = host
+        self.port = int(port)
+
+    def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
+        pass
+
+    def __repr__(self):
+        args = ', '.join(['%s=%s'%(k,repr(v)) for k, v in self.options.items()])
+        return "%s(%s)" % (self.__class__.__name__, args)
+
+
+class CGIServer(ServerAdapter):
+    quiet = True
+    def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
+        from wsgiref.handlers import CGIHandler
+        CGIHandler().run(handler) # Just ignore host and port here
+
+
+class FlupFCGIServer(ServerAdapter):
+    def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
+        import flup.server.fcgi
+        kwargs = {'bindAddress':(self.host, self.port)}
+        kwargs.update(self.options) # allow to override bindAddress and others
+        flup.server.fcgi.WSGIServer(handler, **kwargs).run()
+
+
+class WSGIRefServer(ServerAdapter):
+    def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
+        from wsgiref.simple_server import make_server, WSGIRequestHandler
+        if self.quiet:
+            class QuietHandler(WSGIRequestHandler):
+                def log_request(*args, **kw): pass
+            self.options['handler_class'] = QuietHandler
+        srv = make_server(self.host, self.port, handler, **self.options)
+        srv.serve_forever()
+
+
+class CherryPyServer(ServerAdapter):
+    def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
+        from cherrypy import wsgiserver
+        server = wsgiserver.CherryPyWSGIServer((self.host, self.port), handler)
+        server.start()
+
+
+class PasteServer(ServerAdapter):
+    def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
+        from paste import httpserver
+        if not self.quiet:
+            from paste.translogger import TransLogger
+            handler = TransLogger(handler)
+        httpserver.serve(handler, host=self.host, port=str(self.port),
+                         **self.options)
+
+class MeinheldServer(ServerAdapter):
+    def run(self, handler):
+        from meinheld import server
+        server.listen((self.host, self.port))
+        server.run(handler)
+
+
+class FapwsServer(ServerAdapter):
+    """ Extremely fast webserver using libev. See http://www.fapws.org/ """
+    def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
+        import fapws._evwsgi as evwsgi
+        from fapws import base, config
+        port = self.port
+        if float(config.SERVER_IDENT[-2:]) > 0.4:
+            # fapws3 silently changed its API in 0.5
+            port = str(port)
+        evwsgi.start(self.host, port)
+        # fapws3 never releases the GIL. Complain upstream. I tried. No luck.
+        if 'BOTTLE_CHILD' in os.environ and not self.quiet:
+            print "WARNING: Auto-reloading does not work with Fapws3."
+            print "         (Fapws3 breaks python thread support)"
+        evwsgi.set_base_module(base)
+        def app(environ, start_response):
+            environ['wsgi.multiprocess'] = False
+            return handler(environ, start_response)
+        evwsgi.wsgi_cb(('', app))
+        evwsgi.run()
+
+
+class TornadoServer(ServerAdapter):
+    """ The super hyped asynchronous server by facebook. Untested. """
+    def run(self, handler): # pragma: no cover
+        import tornado.wsgi
+        import tornado.httpserver
+        import tornado.ioloop
+        container = tornado.wsgi.WSGIContainer(handler)
+        server = tornado.httpserver.HTTPServer(container)
+        server.listen(port=self.port)
+        tornado.ioloop.IOLoop.instance().start()
+
+
+class AppEngineServer(ServerAdapter):
+    """ Adapter for Google App Engine. """
+    quiet = True
+    def run(self, handler):
+        from google.appengine.ext.webapp import util
+        # A main() function in the handler script enables 'App Caching'.
+        # Lets makes sure it is there. This _really_ improves performance.
+        module = sys.modules.get('__main__')
+        if module and not hasattr(module, 'main'):
+            module.main = lambda: util.run_wsgi_app(handler)
+        util.run_wsgi_app(handler)
+
+
+class TwistedServer(ServerAdapter):
+    """ Untested. """
+    def run(self, handler):
+        from twisted.web import server, wsgi
+        from twisted.python.threadpool import ThreadPool
+        from twisted.internet import reactor
+        thread_pool = ThreadPool()
+        thread_pool.start()
+        reactor.addSystemEventTrigger('after', 'shutdown', thread_pool.stop)
+        factory = server.Site(wsgi.WSGIResource(reactor, thread_pool, handler))
+        reactor.listenTCP(self.port, factory, interface=self.host)
+        reactor.run()
+
+
+class DieselServer(ServerAdapter):
+    """ Untested. """
+    def run(self, handler):
+        from diesel.protocols.wsgi import WSGIApplication
+        app = WSGIApplication(handler, port=self.port)
+        app.run()
+
+
+class GeventServer(ServerAdapter):
+    """ Untested. Options:
+
+        * `monkey` (default: True) fixes the stdlib to use greenthreads.
+        * `fast` (default: False) uses libevent's http server, but has some
+          issues: No streaming, no pipelining, no SSL.
+    """
+    def run(self, handler):
+        from gevent import wsgi as wsgi_fast, pywsgi as wsgi, monkey
+        if self.options.get('monkey', True):
+            monkey.patch_all()
+        if self.options.get('fast', False):
+            wsgi = wsgi_fast
+        wsgi.WSGIServer((self.host, self.port), handler).serve_forever()
+
+
+class GunicornServer(ServerAdapter):
+    """ Untested. """
+    def run(self, handler):
+        from gunicorn.arbiter import Arbiter
+        from gunicorn.config import Config
+        handler.cfg = Config({'bind': "%s:%d" % (self.host, self.port), 'workers': 4})
+        arbiter = Arbiter(handler)
+        arbiter.run()
+
+
+class EventletServer(ServerAdapter):
+    """ Untested """
+    def run(self, handler):
+        from eventlet import wsgi, listen
+        wsgi.server(listen((self.host, self.port)), handler)
+
+
+class RocketServer(ServerAdapter):
+    """ Untested. As requested in issue 63
+        https://github.com/defnull/bottle/issues/#issue/63 """
+    def run(self, handler):
+        from rocket import Rocket
+        server = Rocket((self.host, self.port), 'wsgi', { 'wsgi_app' : handler })
+        server.start()
+
+
+class BjoernServer(ServerAdapter):
+    """ Screamingly fast server written in C: https://github.com/jonashaag/bjoern """
+    def run(self, handler):
+        from bjoern import run
+        run(handler, self.host, self.port)
+
+
+class AutoServer(ServerAdapter):
+    """ Untested. """
+    adapters = [PasteServer, CherryPyServer, TwistedServer, WSGIRefServer]
+    def run(self, handler):
+        for sa in self.adapters:
+            try:
+                return sa(self.host, self.port, **self.options).run(handler)
+            except ImportError:
+                pass
+
+
+server_names = {
+    'cgi': CGIServer,
+    'flup': FlupFCGIServer,
+    'wsgiref': WSGIRefServer,
+    'cherrypy': CherryPyServer,
+    'paste': PasteServer,
+    'fapws3': FapwsServer,
+    'tornado': TornadoServer,
+    'gae': AppEngineServer,
+    'twisted': TwistedServer,
+    'diesel': DieselServer,
+    'meinheld': MeinheldServer,
+    'gunicorn': GunicornServer,
+    'eventlet': EventletServer,
+    'gevent': GeventServer,
+    'rocket': RocketServer,
+    'bjoern' : BjoernServer,
+    'auto': AutoServer,
+}
+
+
+
+
+
+
+###############################################################################
+# Application Control ##########################################################
+###############################################################################
+
+
+def _load(target, **vars):
+    """ Fetch something from a module. The exact behaviour depends on the the
+        target string:
+
+        If the target is a valid python import path (e.g. `package.module`),
+        the rightmost part is returned as a module object.
+        If the target contains a colon (e.g. `package.module:var`) the module
+        variable specified after the colon is returned.
+        If the part after the colon contains any non-alphanumeric characters
+        (e.g. `package.module:func(var)`) the result of the expression
+        is returned. The expression has access to keyword arguments supplied
+        to this function.
+
+        Example::
+        >>> _load('bottle')
+        <module 'bottle' from 'bottle.py'>
+        >>> _load('bottle:Bottle')
+        <class 'bottle.Bottle'>
+        >>> _load('bottle:cookie_encode(v, secret)', v='foo', secret='bar')
+        '!F+hN4dQxaDJ4QxxaZ+Z3jw==?gAJVA2Zvb3EBLg=='
+
+    """
+    module, target = target.split(":", 1) if ':' in target else (target, None)
+    if module not in sys.modules:
+        __import__(module)
+    if not target:
+        return sys.modules[module]
+    if target.isalnum():
+        return getattr(sys.modules[module], target)
+    package_name = module.split('.')[0]
+    vars[package_name] = sys.modules[package_name]
+    return eval('%s.%s' % (module, target), vars)
+
+
+def load_app(target):
+    """ Load a bottle application based on a target string and return the
+        application object.
+
+        If the target is an import path (e.g. package.module), the application
+        stack is used to isolate the routes defined in that module.
+        If the target contains a colon (e.g. package.module:myapp) the
+        module variable specified after the colon is returned instead.
+    """
+    tmp = app.push() # Create a new "default application"
+    rv = _load(target) # Import the target module
+    app.remove(tmp) # Remove the temporary added default application
+    return rv if isinstance(rv, Bottle) else tmp
+
+
+def run(app=None, server='wsgiref', host='127.0.0.1', port=8080,
+        interval=1, reloader=False, quiet=False, **kargs):
+    """ Start a server instance. This method blocks until the server terminates.
+
+        :param app: WSGI application or target string supported by
+               :func:`load_app`. (default: :func:`default_app`)
+        :param server: Server adapter to use. See :data:`server_names` keys
+               for valid names or pass a :class:`ServerAdapter` subclass.
+               (default: `wsgiref`)
+        :param host: Server address to bind to. Pass ``0.0.0.0`` to listens on
+               all interfaces including the external one. (default: 127.0.0.1)
+        :param port: Server port to bind to. Values below 1024 require root
+               privileges. (default: 8080)
+        :param reloader: Start auto-reloading server? (default: False)
+        :param interval: Auto-reloader interval in seconds (default: 1)
+        :param quiet: Suppress output to stdout and stderr? (default: False)
+        :param options: Options passed to the server adapter.
+     """
+    app = app or default_app()
+    if isinstance(app, basestring):
+        app = load_app(app)
+    if isinstance(server, basestring):
+        server = server_names.get(server)
+    if isinstance(server, type):
+        server = server(host=host, port=port, **kargs)
+    if not isinstance(server, ServerAdapter):
+        raise RuntimeError("Server must be a subclass of ServerAdapter")
+    server.quiet = server.quiet or quiet
+    if not server.quiet and not os.environ.get('BOTTLE_CHILD'):
+        print "Bottle server starting up (using %s)..." % repr(server)
+        print "Listening on http://%s:%d/" % (server.host, server.port)
+        print "Use Ctrl-C to quit."
+        print
+    try:
+        if reloader:
+            interval = min(interval, 1)
+            if os.environ.get('BOTTLE_CHILD'):
+                _reloader_child(server, app, interval)
+            else:
+                _reloader_observer(server, app, interval)
+        else:
+            server.run(app)
+    except KeyboardInterrupt:
+        pass
+    if not server.quiet and not os.environ.get('BOTTLE_CHILD'):
+        print "Shutting down..."
+
+
+class FileCheckerThread(threading.Thread):
+    ''' Thread that periodically checks for changed module files. '''
+
+    def __init__(self, lockfile, interval):
+        threading.Thread.__init__(self)
+        self.lockfile, self.interval = lockfile, interval
+        #1: lockfile to old; 2: lockfile missing
+        #3: module file changed; 5: external exit
+        self.status = 0
+
+    def run(self):
+        exists = os.path.exists
+        mtime = lambda path: os.stat(path).st_mtime
+        files = dict()
+        for module in sys.modules.values():
+            path = getattr(module, '__file__', '')
+            if path[-4:] in ('.pyo', '.pyc'): path = path[:-1]
+            if path and exists(path): files[path] = mtime(path)
+        while not self.status:
+            for path, lmtime in files.iteritems():
+                if not exists(path) or mtime(path) > lmtime:
+                    self.status = 3
+            if not exists(self.lockfile):
+                self.status = 2
+            elif mtime(self.lockfile) < time.time() - self.interval - 5:
+                self.status = 1
+            if not self.status:
+                time.sleep(self.interval)
+        if self.status != 5:
+            thread.interrupt_main()
+
+
+def _reloader_child(server, app, interval):
+    ''' Start the server and check for modified files in a background thread.
+        As soon as an update is detected, KeyboardInterrupt is thrown in
+        the main thread to exit the server loop. The process exists with status
+        code 3 to request a reload by the observer process. If the lockfile
+        is not modified in 2*interval second or missing, we assume that the
+        observer process died and exit with status code 1 or 2.
+    '''
+    lockfile = os.environ.get('BOTTLE_LOCKFILE')
+    bgcheck = FileCheckerThread(lockfile, interval)
+    try:
+        bgcheck.start()
+        server.run(app)
+    except KeyboardInterrupt:
+        pass
+    bgcheck.status, status = 5, bgcheck.status
+    bgcheck.join() # bgcheck.status == 5 --> silent exit
+    if status: sys.exit(status)
+
+
+def _reloader_observer(server, app, interval):
+    ''' Start a child process with identical commandline arguments and restart
+        it as long as it exists with status code 3. Also create a lockfile and
+        touch it (update mtime) every interval seconds.
+    '''
+    fd, lockfile = tempfile.mkstemp(prefix='bottle-reloader.', suffix='.lock')
+    os.close(fd) # We only need this file to exist. We never write to it
+    try:
+        while os.path.exists(lockfile):
+            args = [sys.executable] + sys.argv
+            environ = os.environ.copy()
+            environ['BOTTLE_CHILD'] = 'true'
+            environ['BOTTLE_LOCKFILE'] = lockfile
+            p = subprocess.Popen(args, env=environ)
+            while p.poll() is None: # Busy wait...
+                os.utime(lockfile, None) # I am alive!
+                time.sleep(interval)
+            if p.poll() != 3:
+                if os.path.exists(lockfile): os.unlink(lockfile)
+                sys.exit(p.poll())
+            elif not server.quiet:
+                print "Reloading server..."
+    except KeyboardInterrupt:
+        pass
+    if os.path.exists(lockfile): os.unlink(lockfile)
+
+
+
+
+
+
+###############################################################################
+# Template Adapters ############################################################
+###############################################################################
+
+
+class TemplateError(HTTPError):
+    def __init__(self, message):
+        HTTPError.__init__(self, 500, message)
+
+
+class BaseTemplate(object):
+    """ Base class and minimal API for template adapters """
+    extentions = ['tpl','html','thtml','stpl']
+    settings = {} #used in prepare()
+    defaults = {} #used in render()
+
+    def __init__(self, source=None, name=None, lookup=[], encoding='utf8', **settings):
+        """ Create a new template.
+        If the source parameter (str or buffer) is missing, the name argument
+        is used to guess a template filename. Subclasses can assume that
+        self.source and/or self.filename are set. Both are strings.
+        The lookup, encoding and settings parameters are stored as instance
+        variables.
+        The lookup parameter stores a list containing directory paths.
+        The encoding parameter should be used to decode byte strings or files.
+        The settings parameter contains a dict for engine-specific settings.
+        """
+        self.name = name
+        self.source = source.read() if hasattr(source, 'read') else source
+        self.filename = source.filename if hasattr(source, 'filename') else None
+        self.lookup = map(os.path.abspath, lookup)
+        self.encoding = encoding
+        self.settings = self.settings.copy() # Copy from class variable
+        self.settings.update(settings) # Apply
+        if not self.source and self.name:
+            self.filename = self.search(self.name, self.lookup)
+            if not self.filename:
+                raise TemplateError('Template %s not found.' % repr(name))
+        if not self.source and not self.filename:
+            raise TemplateError('No template specified.')
+        self.prepare(**self.settings)
+
+    @classmethod
+    def search(cls, name, lookup=[]):
+        """ Search name in all directories specified in lookup.
+        First without, then with common extensions. Return first hit. """
+        if os.path.isfile(name): return name
+        for spath in lookup:
+            fname = os.path.join(spath, name)
+            if os.path.isfile(fname):
+                return fname
+            for ext in cls.extentions:
+                if os.path.isfile('%s.%s' % (fname, ext)):
+                    return '%s.%s' % (fname, ext)
+
+    @classmethod
+    def global_config(cls, key, *args):
+        ''' This reads or sets the global settings stored in class.settings. '''
+        if args:
+            cls.settings[key] = args[0]
+        else:
+            return cls.settings[key]
+
+    def prepare(self, **options):
+        """ Run preparations (parsing, caching, ...).
+        It should be possible to call this again to refresh a template or to
+        update settings.
+        """
+        raise NotImplementedError
+
+    def render(self, *args, **kwargs):
+        """ Render the template with the specified local variables and return
+        a single byte or unicode string. If it is a byte string, the encoding
+        must match self.encoding. This method must be thread-safe!
+        Local variables may be provided in dictionaries (*args)
+        or directly, as keywords (**kwargs).
+        """
+        raise NotImplementedError
+
+
+class MakoTemplate(BaseTemplate):
+    def prepare(self, **options):
+        from mako.template import Template
+        from mako.lookup import TemplateLookup
+        options.update({'input_encoding':self.encoding})
+        options.setdefault('format_exceptions', bool(DEBUG))
+        lookup = TemplateLookup(directories=self.lookup, **options)
+        if self.source:
+            self.tpl = Template(self.source, lookup=lookup, **options)
+        else:
+            self.tpl = Template(uri=self.name, filename=self.filename, lookup=lookup, **options)
+
+    def render(self, *args, **kwargs):
+        for dictarg in args: kwargs.update(dictarg)
+        _defaults = self.defaults.copy()
+        _defaults.update(kwargs)
+        return self.tpl.render(**_defaults)
+
+
+class CheetahTemplate(BaseTemplate):
+    def prepare(self, **options):
+        from Cheetah.Template import Template
+        self.context = threading.local()
+        self.context.vars = {}
+        options['searchList'] = [self.context.vars]
+        if self.source:
+            self.tpl = Template(source=self.source, **options)
+        else:
+            self.tpl = Template(file=self.filename, **options)
+
+    def render(self, *args, **kwargs):
+        for dictarg in args: kwargs.update(dictarg)
+        self.context.vars.update(self.defaults)
+        self.context.vars.update(kwargs)
+        out = str(self.tpl)
+        self.context.vars.clear()
+        return out
+
+
+class Jinja2Template(BaseTemplate):
+    def prepare(self, filters=None, tests=None, **kwargs):
+        from jinja2 import Environment, FunctionLoader
+        if 'prefix' in kwargs: # TODO: to be removed after a while
+            raise RuntimeError('The keyword argument `prefix` has been removed. '
+                'Use the full jinja2 environment name line_statement_prefix instead.')
+        self.env = Environment(loader=FunctionLoader(self.loader), **kwargs)
+        if filters: self.env.filters.update(filters)
+        if tests: self.env.tests.update(tests)
+        if self.source:
+            self.tpl = self.env.from_string(self.source)
+        else:
+            self.tpl = self.env.get_template(self.filename)
+
+    def render(self, *args, **kwargs):
+        for dictarg in args: kwargs.update(dictarg)
+        _defaults = self.defaults.copy()
+        _defaults.update(kwargs)
+        return self.tpl.render(**_defaults)
+
+    def loader(self, name):
+        fname = self.search(name, self.lookup)
+        if fname:
+            with open(fname, "rb") as f:
+                return f.read().decode(self.encoding)
+
+
+class SimpleTALTemplate(BaseTemplate):
+    ''' Untested! '''
+    def prepare(self, **options):
+        from simpletal import simpleTAL
+        # TODO: add option to load METAL files during render
+        if self.source:
+            self.tpl = simpleTAL.compileHTMLTemplate(self.source)
+        else:
+            with open(self.filename, 'rb') as fp:
+                self.tpl = simpleTAL.compileHTMLTemplate(tonat(fp.read()))
+
+    def render(self, *args, **kwargs):
+        from simpletal import simpleTALES
+        from StringIO import StringIO
+        for dictarg in args: kwargs.update(dictarg)
+        # TODO: maybe reuse a context instead of always creating one
+        context = simpleTALES.Context()
+        for k,v in self.defaults.items():
+            context.addGlobal(k, v)
+        for k,v in kwargs.items():
+            context.addGlobal(k, v)
+        output = StringIO()
+        self.tpl.expand(context, output)
+        return output.getvalue()
+
+
+class SimpleTemplate(BaseTemplate):
+    blocks = ('if','elif','else','try','except','finally','for','while','with','def','class')
+    dedent_blocks = ('elif', 'else', 'except', 'finally')
+
+    @lazy_attribute
+    def re_pytokens(cls):
+        ''' This matches comments and all kinds of quoted strings but does
+            NOT match comments (#...) within quoted strings. (trust me) '''
+        return re.compile(r'''
+            (''(?!')|""(?!")|'{6}|"{6}    # Empty strings (all 4 types)
+             |'(?:[^\\']|\\.)+?'          # Single quotes (')
+             |"(?:[^\\"]|\\.)+?"          # Double quotes (")
+             |'{3}(?:[^\\]|\\.|\n)+?'{3}  # Triple-quoted strings (')
+             |"{3}(?:[^\\]|\\.|\n)+?"{3}  # Triple-quoted strings (")
+             |\#.*                        # Comments
+            )''', re.VERBOSE)
+
+    def prepare(self, escape_func=cgi.escape, noescape=False):
+        self.cache = {}
+        enc = self.encoding
+        self._str = lambda x: touni(x, enc)
+        self._escape = lambda x: escape_func(touni(x, enc))
+        if noescape:
+            self._str, self._escape = self._escape, self._str
+
+    @classmethod
+    def split_comment(cls, code):
+        """ Removes comments (#...) from python code. """
+        if '#' not in code: return code
+        #: Remove comments only (leave quoted strings as they are)
+        subf = lambda m: '' if m.group(0)[0]=='#' else m.group(0)
+        return re.sub(cls.re_pytokens, subf, code)
+
+    @cached_property
+    def co(self):
+        return compile(self.code, self.filename or '<string>', 'exec')
+
+    @cached_property
+    def code(self):
+        stack = [] # Current Code indentation
+        lineno = 0 # Current line of code
+        ptrbuffer = [] # Buffer for printable strings and token tuple instances
+        codebuffer = [] # Buffer for generated python code
+        multiline = dedent = oneline = False
+        template = self.source if self.source else open(self.filename).read()
+
+        def yield_tokens(line):
+            for i, part in enumerate(re.split(r'\{\{(.*?)\}\}', line)):
+                if i % 2:
+                    if part.startswith('!'): yield 'RAW', part[1:]
+                    else: yield 'CMD', part
+                else: yield 'TXT', part
+
+        def flush(): # Flush the ptrbuffer
+            if not ptrbuffer: return
+            cline = ''
+            for line in ptrbuffer:
+                for token, value in line:
+                    if token == 'TXT': cline += repr(value)
+                    elif token == 'RAW': cline += '_str(%s)' % value
+                    elif token == 'CMD': cline += '_escape(%s)' % value
+                    cline +=  ', '
+                cline = cline[:-2] + '\\\n'
+            cline = cline[:-2]
+            if cline[:-1].endswith('\\\\\\\\\\n'):
+                cline = cline[:-7] + cline[-1] # 'nobr\\\\\n' --> 'nobr'
+            cline = '_printlist([' + cline + '])'
+            del ptrbuffer[:] # Do this before calling code() again
+            code(cline)
+
+        def code(stmt):
+            for line in stmt.splitlines():
+                codebuffer.append('  ' * len(stack) + line.strip())
+
+        for line in template.splitlines(True):
+            lineno += 1
+            line = line if isinstance(line, unicode)\
+                        else unicode(line, encoding=self.encoding)
+            if lineno <= 2:
+                m = re.search(r"%.*coding[:=]\s*([-\w\.]+)", line)
+                if m: self.encoding = m.group(1)
+                if m: line = line.replace('coding','coding (removed)')
+            if line.strip()[:2].count('%') == 1:
+                line = line.split('%',1)[1].lstrip() # Full line following the %
+                cline = self.split_comment(line).strip()
+                cmd = re.split(r'[^a-zA-Z0-9_]', cline)[0]
+                flush() ##encodig (TODO: why?)
+                if cmd in self.blocks or multiline:
+                    cmd = multiline or cmd
+                    dedent = cmd in self.dedent_blocks # "else:"
+                    if dedent and not oneline and not multiline:
+                        cmd = stack.pop()
+                    code(line)
+                    oneline = not cline.endswith(':') # "if 1: pass"
+                    multiline = cmd if cline.endswith('\\') else False
+                    if not oneline and not multiline:
+                        stack.append(cmd)
+                elif cmd == 'end' and stack:
+                    code('#end(%s) %s' % (stack.pop(), line.strip()[3:]))
+                elif cmd == 'include':
+                    p = cline.split(None, 2)[1:]
+                    if len(p) == 2:
+                        code("_=_include(%s, _stdout, %s)" % (repr(p[0]), p[1]))
+                    elif p:
+                        code("_=_include(%s, _stdout)" % repr(p[0]))
+                    else: # Empty %include -> reverse of %rebase
+                        code("_printlist(_base)")
+                elif cmd == 'rebase':
+                    p = cline.split(None, 2)[1:]
+                    if len(p) == 2:
+                        code("globals()['_rebase']=(%s, dict(%s))" % (repr(p[0]), p[1]))
+                    elif p:
+                        code("globals()['_rebase']=(%s, {})" % repr(p[0]))
+                else:
+                    code(line)
+            else: # Line starting with text (not '%') or '%%' (escaped)
+                if line.strip().startswith('%%'):
+                    line = line.replace('%%', '%', 1)
+                ptrbuffer.append(yield_tokens(line))
+        flush()
+        return '\n'.join(codebuffer) + '\n'
+
+    def subtemplate(self, _name, _stdout, *args, **kwargs):
+        for dictarg in args: kwargs.update(dictarg)
+        if _name not in self.cache:
+            self.cache[_name] = self.__class__(name=_name, lookup=self.lookup)
+        return self.cache[_name].execute(_stdout, kwargs)
+
+    def execute(self, _stdout, *args, **kwargs):
+        for dictarg in args: kwargs.update(dictarg)
+        env = self.defaults.copy()
+        env.update({'_stdout': _stdout, '_printlist': _stdout.extend,
+               '_include': self.subtemplate, '_str': self._str,
+               '_escape': self._escape})
+        env.update(kwargs)
+        eval(self.co, env)
+        if '_rebase' in env:
+            subtpl, rargs = env['_rebase']
+            subtpl = self.__class__(name=subtpl, lookup=self.lookup)
+            rargs['_base'] = _stdout[:] #copy stdout
+            del _stdout[:] # clear stdout
+            return subtpl.execute(_stdout, rargs)
+        return env
+
+    def render(self, *args, **kwargs):
+        """ Render the template using keyword arguments as local variables. """
+        for dictarg in args: kwargs.update(dictarg)
+        stdout = []
+        self.execute(stdout, kwargs)
+        return ''.join(stdout)
+
+
+def template(*args, **kwargs):
+    '''
+    Get a rendered template as a string iterator.
+    You can use a name, a filename or a template string as first parameter.
+    Template rendering arguments can be passed as dictionaries
+    or directly (as keyword arguments).
+    '''
+    tpl = args[0] if args else None
+    template_adapter = kwargs.pop('template_adapter', SimpleTemplate)
+    if tpl not in TEMPLATES or DEBUG:
+        settings = kwargs.pop('template_settings', {})
+        lookup = kwargs.pop('template_lookup', TEMPLATE_PATH)
+        if isinstance(tpl, template_adapter):
+            TEMPLATES[tpl] = tpl
+            if settings: TEMPLATES[tpl].prepare(**settings)
+        elif "\n" in tpl or "{" in tpl or "%" in tpl or '$' in tpl:
+            TEMPLATES[tpl] = template_adapter(source=tpl, lookup=lookup, **settings)
+        else:
+            TEMPLATES[tpl] = template_adapter(name=tpl, lookup=lookup, **settings)
+    if not TEMPLATES[tpl]:
+        abort(500, 'Template (%s) not found' % tpl)
+    for dictarg in args[1:]: kwargs.update(dictarg)
+    return TEMPLATES[tpl].render(kwargs)
+
+mako_template = functools.partial(template, template_adapter=MakoTemplate)
+cheetah_template = functools.partial(template, template_adapter=CheetahTemplate)
+jinja2_template = functools.partial(template, template_adapter=Jinja2Template)
+simpletal_template = functools.partial(template, template_adapter=SimpleTALTemplate)
+
+
+def view(tpl_name, **defaults):
+    ''' Decorator: renders a template for a handler.
+        The handler can control its behavior like that:
+
+          - return a dict of template vars to fill out the template
+          - return something other than a dict and the view decorator will not
+            process the template, but return the handler result as is.
+            This includes returning a HTTPResponse(dict) to get,
+            for instance, JSON with autojson or other castfilters.
+    '''
+    def decorator(func):
+        @functools.wraps(func)
+        def wrapper(*args, **kwargs):
+            result = func(*args, **kwargs)
+            if isinstance(result, (dict, DictMixin)):
+                tplvars = defaults.copy()
+                tplvars.update(result)