HTTPS SSH

NAME

OAuthomatic - automate setup of access to OAuth-secured resources. Intended especially for use in console scripts, ad hoc applications etc.

VERSION

version 0.0201

SYNOPSIS

Construct the object:

my $oauthomatic = OAuthomatic->new(
     app_name => "News trend parser",
     password_group => "OAuth tokens (personal)",
     server => OAuthomatic::Server->new(
         # OAuth protocol URLs, formally used in the protocol
         oauth_temporary_url => 'https://some.site/api/oauth/request_token',
         oauth_authorize_page => 'https://some.site/api/oauth/authorize',
         oauth_token_url  => 'https://some.site/api/oauth/access_token',
         # Extra info about remote site, not required (but may make users happier)
         site_name => "SomeSite.com",
         site_client_creation_page => "https://some.site.com/settings/oauth_apps",
         site_client_creation_desc => "SomeSite applications page",
         site_client_creation_help =>
             "Click Create App button and fill the form.\n"
             . "Use AppToken as client key and AppSecret as client secret.\n"),
);

and profit:

my $info = $oauthomatic->get_json(
    'https://some.site.com/api/get_issues',
    { type => 'bug', page_len => 10, release => '7.3' });

On first run user (maybe just you) will be led through OAuth initialization sequence, but the script need not care.

DESCRIPTION

WARNING: This is early release. Things may change (although I won't change crucial APIs without good reason).

Main purpose of this module: make it easy to start scripting around some OAuth-controlled site (at the moment, OAuth 1.0a is supported). The user needs only to check site docs for appropriate URLs, construct OAuthomatic object, and go.

I wrote this module as I always struggled with using OAuth-secured APIs from perl. Modules I found on CPAN were mostly low-level, not-too-well documented, and - worst of all - required my scripts to handle whole „get keys, acquire permissions, save tokens” sequence.

OAuthomatic is very opinionated. It shows instructions in English. It uses Passwd::Keyring::Auto to save (and restore) sensitive data. It assumes application keys are to be provided by the user on first run (not distributed with the script). It spawns web browser (and temporary in-process webserver to back it). It provides a few HTML pages and they are black-on-white, 14pt font, without pictures.

Thanks to all those assumptions it usually just works, letting the script author to think about job at hand instead of thinking about authorization. And, once script grows to application, all those opinionated parts can be tweaked or substituted where necessary.

PARAMETERS

server

Server-related parameters (in particular, all crucial URLs), usually found in appropriate server developer docs.

There are three ways to specify this parameter

  • by providing OAuthomatic::Server object instance. For example:

    OAuthomatic->new(
        # ... other params
        server => OAuthomatic::Server->new(
            oauth_temporary_url => 'https://api.linkedin.com/uas/oauth/requestToken',
            oauth_authorize_page => 'https://api.linkedin.com/uas/oauth/authenticate',
            oauth_token_url  => 'https://api.linkedin.com/uas/oauth/accessToken',
            # ...
        ));
    

    See OAuthomatic::Server for detailed description of all parameters.

  • by providing hash reference of parameters. This is equivalent to example above, but about 20 characters shorter:

    OAuthomatic->new(
        # ... other params
        server => {
            oauth_temporary_url => 'https://api.linkedin.com/uas/oauth/requestToken',
            oauth_authorize_page => 'https://api.linkedin.com/uas/oauth/authenticate',
            oauth_token_url  => 'https://api.linkedin.com/uas/oauth/accessToken',
            # ...
        });
    
  • by providing name of predefined server. As there exists OAuthomatic::ServerDef::LinkedIn module:

    OAuthomatic->new(
        # ... other params
        server => 'LinkedIn',
    );
    

    See OAuthomatic::ServerDef for more details about predefined servers.

app_name

Symbolic application name. Used in various prompts. Set to something script users will recognize (script name, application window name etc).

Examples: build_publisher.pl, XyZ sync scripts.

password_group

Password group/folder used to distinguish saved tokens (a few scripts/apps will share the same tokens if they refer to the same password_group). Ignored if you provide your own "secret_storage".

Default value: OAuthomatic tokens (remember to change if you have scripts working on few different accounts of the same website).

browser

Command used to spawn the web browser.

Default value: best guess (using Browser::Open).

Set to empty string to avoid spawning browser at all and show instructions (Open web browser on https://....) on the console instead.

html_dir

Directory containing HTML templates and related resources for pages generated by OAuthomatic (post-authorization page, application tokens prompt and confirmation).

To modify their look and feel, copy oauthomatic_html directory from OAuthomatic distribution somewhere, edit to your taste and provide resulting directory as html_dir.

By default, files distributed with OAuthomatic are used.

debug

Make object print various info to STDERR. Useful while diagnosing problems.

ADDITIONAL PARAMETERS

config

Object gathering all parameters except server. Usually constructed under the hood, but may be useful if you need those params for sth else (especially, if you customize object behaviour). For example:

my $server = OAuthomatic::Server->new(...);
my $config = OAuthomatic::Config->new(
    app_name => ...,
    password_group => ...,
    ... and the rest ...);
my $oauthomatic = OAuthomatic->new(
    server => $server,
    config => $config,  # instead of normal params
    user_interaction => OAuthomatic::UserInteraction::ConsolePrompts->new(
        config => $config, server => $server));

secret_storage

Pluggable behaviour: modify the method used to persistently save and restore various OAuth tokens. By default OAuthomatic::SecretStorage::Keyring (which uses Passwd::Keyring::Auto storage) is used, but any object implementing OAuthomatic::SecretStorage role can be substituted instead.

oauth_interaction

Pluggable behaviour: modify the way application uses to capture return redirect after OAuth access is granted. By default temporary web server is started on local address (it suffices to handle redirect to localhost) and used to capture traffic, but any object implementing OAuthomatic::OAuthInteraction role can be substituted instead.

In case default is used, look and feel of the final page can be modified using "html_dir".

user_interaction

Pluggable behaviour: modify the way application uses to prompt user for application keys. By default form is shown in the browser, but any object implementing OAuthomatic::UserInteraction role can be substituted instead.

Note: you can use OAuthomatic::UserInteraction::ConsolePrompts to be prompted in the console.

In case default is used, look and feel of the pages can be modified using "html_dir".

METHODS

erase_client_cred

$oa->erase_client_cred();

Drops current client (app) credentials both from the object and, possibly, from storage.

Use if you detect error which prove they are wrong, or if you want to forget them for privacy/security reasons.

erase_token_cred

$oa->erase_token_cred();

Drops access (app) credentials both from the object and, possibly, from storage.

Use if you detect error which prove they are wrong.

ensure_authorized

$oa->ensure_authorized();

Ensure object is ready to make calls.

If initialization sequence happened in the past and appropriate tokens are available, this method restores them.

If not, it performs all the work required to setup OAuth access to given website: asks user for application keys (or loads them if already known), leads the user through application authorization sequence, preserve acquired tokens for future runs.

Having done all that, it leaves object ready to make OAuth-signed calls (actual signatures are calculated using Net::OAuth.

Calling this method is not necessary - it will be called automatically before first request is executed, if not done earlier.

execute_request

$oa->execute_request(
    method => $method, url => $url, url_args => $args,
    body => $body,
    content_type => $content_type)

$oa->execute_request(
    method => $method, url => $url, url_args => $args,
    body_form => $body_form,
    content_type => $content_type)

Make OAuth-signed request to given url. Lowest level method, see below for methods which add additional glue or require less typing.

Parameters:

  • method

    One of 'GET', 'POST', 'PUT', 'DELETE'.

  • url

    Actual URL to call ('http://some.site.com/api/...')

  • url_args (optional)

    Additional arguments to escape and add to the URL. This is simply shortcut, three calls below are equivalent:

    $c->execute_oauth_request(method => "GET",
        url => "http://some.where/api?x=1&y=2&z=a+b");
    
    $c->execute_oauth_request(method => "GET",
        url => "http://some.where/api",
        url_args => {x => 1, y => 2, z => 'a b'});
    
    $c->execute_oauth_request(method => "GET",
        url => "http://some.where/api?x=1",
        url_args => {y => 2, z => 'a b'});
    
  • body_form OR body

    Exactly one of those must be specified for POST and PUT (none for GET or DELETE).

    Specifying body_form means, that we are creating www-urlencoded form. Specified values will be rendered appropriately and whole message will get proper content type. Example:

    $c->execute_oauth_request(method => "POST",
        url => "http://some.where/api",
        body_form => {par1 => 'abc', par2 => 'd f'});
    

    Note that this is not just a shortcut for setting body to already serialized form. Case of urlencoded form is treated in a special way by OAuth (those values impact OAuth signature). To avoid signature verification errors, OAuthomatic will reject such attempts:

    # WRONG AND WILL FAIL. Use body_form if you post form.
    $c->execute_oauth_request(method => "POST",
        url => "http://some.where/api",
        body => 'par1=abc&par2=d+f',
        content_type => 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded');
    

    Specifying body means, that we post non-form body (for example JSON, XML or even binary data). Example:

    $c->execute_oauth_request(method => "POST",
        url => "http://some.where/api",
        body => "<product><item-no>3434</item-no><price>334.22</price></product>",
        content_type => "application/xml; charset=utf-8");
    

    Value of body can be either binary string (which will be posted as-is), or perl unicode string (which will be encoded according to the content type, what by default means utf-8).

    Such content is not covered by OAuth signature, so less secure (at least if it is posted over non-SSL connection).

    For longer bodies, references are supported:

    $c->execute_oauth_request(method => "POST",
        url => "http://some.where/api",
        body => \$body_string,
        content_type => "application/xml; charset=utf-8");
    
  • content_type

    Used to set content type of the request. If missing, it is set to text/plain; charset=utf-8 if body param is specified and to application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=utf-8 if body_form param is specified.

    Note that module author does not test behaviour on encodings different than utf-8 (although they may work).

Returns HTTP::Response object.

Throws structural exception on HTTP (40x, 5xx) and technical (like network) failures.

Example:

my $result = $oauthomatic->make_request(
    method => "GET", url => "https://some.api/get/things",
    url_args => {name => "Thingy", count => 4});
# $result is HTTP::Response object and we know request succeeded
# on HTTP level

build_request

$oa->build_request(method => $method, url => $url, url_args => $args,
                   body_form => $body_form, body => $body,
                   content_type => $content_type)

Build appropriate HTTP::Request, ready to be executed, with proper headers and signature, but do not execute it. Useful if you prefer to use your own HTTP client.

See "build_oauth_request" in OAuthomatic::Caller for the meaning of parameters.

Note: if you are executing requests yourself, consider detecting cases of wrong client credentials, obsolete token credentials etc, and calling or "erase_client_cred" or "erase_token_cred". The OAuthomatic::Error::HTTPFailure may be of help.

get

my $reply = $ua->get($url, { url => 'args', ...);

Shortcut. Make OAuth-signed GET request, ensure request succeeded and return it's body without parsing it (but decoding it from transport encoding).

get_xml

my $reply = $ua->get($url, { url => 'args', ...);

Shortcut. Make OAuth-signed GET request, ensure request succeeded and return it's body. Body is not parsed, it remains to be done in the outer program (there are so many XML parsers I did not want to vote for one).

This is almost equivalent to "get" (except it sets request content type to application/xml), mainly used to clearly signal intent.

get_json

my $reply = $oa->get_json($url, {url=>args, ...});
# $reply is hash or array ref

Shortcut. Make OAuth-signed GET request, ensure it succeeded, parse result as JSON, return resulting structure.

Example:

my $result = $oauthomatic->get_json(
    "https://some.api/things", {filter => "Thingy", count => 4});
# Grabs https://some.api/things?filter=Thingy&count=4 and parses as JSON
# $result is hash or array ref

post

my $reply = $ua->post($url, { body=>args, ... });
my $reply = $ua->post($url, { url=>args, ...}, { body=>args, ... });
my $reply = $ua->post($url, "body content");
my $reply = $ua->post($url, { url=>args, ...}, "body content");
my $reply = $ua->post($url, $ref_to_body_content);
my $reply = $ua->post($url, { url=>args, ...}, $ref_to_body_content);

Shortcut. Make OAuth-signed POST request, ensure request succeeded and return reply body without parsing it.

May take two or three parameters. In two-parameter form it takes URL to POST and body. In three-parameter, it takes URL, additional URL params (to be added to URI), and body.

Body may be specified as:

  • Hash reference, in which case contents of this hash are treated as form fields, urlencoded and whole request is executed as urlencoded POST.
  • Scalar or reference to scalar, in which case it is pasted verbatim as post body.

Note: use use "execute_request" for more control on parameters (in particular, content type).

post_xml

my $reply = $ua->post($url, "<xml>content</xml>");
my $reply = $ua->post($url, { url=>args, ...}, "<xml>content</xml>");
my $reply = $ua->post($url, $ref_to_xml_content);
my $reply = $ua->post($url, { url=>args, ...}, $ref_to_xml_content);

Shortcut. Make OAuth-signed POST request, ensure request succeeded and return reply body without parsing it.

May take two or three parameters. In two-parameter form it takes URL to POST and body. In three-parameter, it takes URL, additional URL params (to be added to URI), and body.

This is very close to "post" (XML is neither rendered, nor parsed here), used mostly to set proper content-type and to clearly signal intent in the code.

post_json

my $reply = $oa->post_json($url, { json=>args, ... });
my $reply = $oa->post_json($url, { url=>args, ...}, { json=>args, ... });
my $reply = $oa->post_json($url, "json content");
my $reply = $oa->post_json($url, { url=>args, ...}, "json content");
# $reply is hash or arrayref constructed by parsing output

Make OAuth-signed POST request. Parameter is formatted as JSON, result also i parsed as JSON.

May take two or three parameters. In two-parameter form it takes URL and JSON body. In three-parameter, it takes URL, additional URL params (to be added to URI), and JSON body.

JSON body may be specified as:

  • Hash or array reference, in which case contents of this reference are serialized to JSON and then used as request body.
  • Scalar or reference to scalar, in which case it is treated as already serialized JSON and posted verbatim as post body.

Example:

my $result = $oauthomatic->post_json(
    "https://some.api/things/prettything", {
       mode => 'simple',
    }, {
        name => "Pretty Thingy",
        description => "This is very pretty",
        tags => ['secret', 'pretty', 'most-important'],
    }, count => 4);
# Posts to https://some.api/things/prettything?mode=simple
# the following body (formatting and ordering may be different):
#     {
#         "name": "Pretty Thingy",
#         "description": "This is very pretty",
#         "tags": ['secret', 'pretty', 'most-important'],
#     }

put

my $reply = $ua->put($url, { body=>args, ... });
my $reply = $ua->put($url, { url=>args, ...}, { body=>args, ... });
my $reply = $ua->put($url, "body content");
my $reply = $ua->put($url, { url=>args, ...}, "body content");
my $reply = $ua->put($url, $ref_to_body_content);
my $reply = $ua->put($url, { url=>args, ...}, $ref_to_body_content);

Shortcut. Make OAuth-signed PUT request, ensure request succeeded and return reply body without parsing it.

May take two or three parameters. In two-parameter form it takes URL to PUT and body. In three-parameter, it takes URL, additional URL params (to be added to URI), and body.

Body may be specified in the same way as in "post": as scalar, scalar reference, or as hash reference which would be urlencoded.

put_xml

my $reply = $ua->put($url, "<xml>content</xml>");
my $reply = $ua->put($url, { url=>args, ...}, "<xml>content</xml>");
my $reply = $ua->put($url, $ref_to_xml_content);
my $reply = $ua->put($url, { url=>args, ...}, $ref_to_xml_content);

Shortcut. Make OAuth-signed PUT request, ensure request succeeded and return reply body without parsing it.

May take two or three parameters. In two-parameter form it takes URL to PUT and body. In three-parameter, it takes URL, additional URL params (to be added to URI), and body.

This is very close to "put" (XML is neither rendered, nor parsed here), used mostly to set proper content-type and to clearly signal intent in the code.

put_json

my $reply = $oa->put_json($url, { json=>args, ... });
my $reply = $oa->put_json($url, { url=>args, ...}, { json=>args, ... });
my $reply = $oa->put_json($url, "json content");
my $reply = $oa->put_json($url, { url=>args, ...}, "json content");
# $reply is hash or arrayref constructed by parsing output

Make OAuth-signed PUT request. Parameter is formatted as JSON, result also i parsed as JSON.

May take two or three parameters. In two-parameter form it takes URL and JSON body. In three-parameter, it takes URL, additional URL params (to be added to URI), and JSON body.

JSON body may be specified just as in "post_json": as hash or array reference (to be serialized) or as scalar or scalar reference (treated as already serialized).

Example:

my $result = $oauthomatic->put_json(
    "https://some.api/things/prettything", {
       mode => 'simple',
    }, {
        name => "Pretty Thingy",
        description => "This is very pretty",
        tags => ['secret', 'pretty', 'most-important'],
    }, count => 4);
# PUTs to https://some.api/things/prettything?mode=simple
# the following body (formatting and ordering may be different):
#     {
#         "name": "Pretty Thingy",
#         "description": "This is very pretty",
#         "tags": ['secret', 'pretty', 'most-important'],
#     }

delete_

$oa->delete_($url);
$oa->delete_($url, {url => args, ...});

Shortcut. Executes DELETE on given URL. Note trailing underscore in the name (to avoid naming conflict with core perl function).

Returns reply body content, if any.

ATTRIBUTES

client_cred

OAuth application identifiers - client_key and client_secret. As OAuthomatic::Types::ClientCred object.

Mostly used internally but can be of use if you need (or prefer) to use OAuthomatic only for initialization, but make actual calls using some other means.

Note that you must call "ensure_authorized" to bo be sure this object is set.

token_cred

OAuth application identifiers - access_token and access_token_secret. As OAuthomatic::Types::TokenCred object.

Mostly used internally but can be of use if you need (or prefer) to use OAuthomatic only for initialization, but make actual calls using some other means.

Note that you must call "ensure_authorized" to bo be sure this object is set.

THANKS

Keith Grennan, for writing Net::OAuth, which this module uses to calculate and verify OAuth signatures.

Simon Wistow, for writing Net::OAuth::Simple, which inspired some parts of my module.

E. Hammer-Lahav for well written and understandable RFC 5849.

SOURCE REPOSITORY

Source code is maintained in Mercurial repository at bitbucket.org/Mekk/perl-oauthomatic:

hg clone https://bitbucket.org/Mekk/perl-oauthomatic

See README-development.pod in source distribution for info how to build module from source.

ISSUE TRACKER

Issues can be reported at:

The former is slightly preferred but feel free using CPAN tracker if you find it more usable.

AUTHOR

Marcin Kasperski Marcin.Kasperski@mekk.waw.pl

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

This software is copyright (c) 2015 by Marcin Kasperski.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.