A `python-based build system <http://www.buildout.org>`_ for creating,
assembling and deploying applications from multiple parts, any of
which may be non-python based. It lets you create a buildout
configuration and reproduce the same software later.
Buildout is commonly used to install and manage Python distributions.
It differentiates itself from :doc:`<pip>` in a few ways: Buildout
takes a configuration file as input, where as pip is run from the
command-line. Buildout can run any arbitrary recipe during installation
and so can manage non-python parts, such as config files, databases,
etc. Buildout by default installs packages in a multi-version manner,
so that each distribution is contained in a separate directory, and
Buildout be configured so that other Buildout installations can re-use
a multi-version archive of installed distributions. In contrast, Pip
installs distributions into a single location, such that it's only
possible to have a single version of each distribution installed at
a time. However, it's possible to use different recipes with Buildout
to create single location installations in the same fashion as pip.
CPAN is the Comprehensive Perl Archive Network, a large collection of
:term:`Perl` software and documentation. You can begin exploring from
either http://www.cpan.org/, http://www.perl.com/CPAN/ or any of the
mirrors listed at http://www.cpan.org/SITES.html. [CPAN]_
The person developing the package.
A Python distribution is a versioned compressed archive file
that contains Python packages, modules, and other resource
files. The distribution file is what an end-user will downloaded
from the internet and install.
In other fields of computing, a distribution is often called a
package. For example, Mac OS X and Debian call these files
package files. However, in Python, the term package refers to an
importable directory. In order to distinguish between these two
concepts, the compressed archive file containing code is called
It is not uncommon in Python to refer to a distribution using the
term package. While the two meanings of the term package is not always
100% unambigous, the context of the term package is usually sufficient
to distinguish the meaning of the word. For example, the python
installation tool pip is an acronym for "pip installs packages",
while technically the tool installs distribution files, the name
package is used as it's meaning is more widely understood.
A standard and basic package that comes with the Python
standard library. It is used for creating distributions
(where it is imported in the ``setup.py`` file for that
A module written in the low-level language of the Python
implementation: C/C++ for Python, Java for Jython. Typically
contained in a single dynamically loadable pre-compiled file, e.g.
a shared object (.so) file for Python extensions on Unix, a DLL
(given the .pyd extension) for Python extensions on Windows, or a
Java class file for Jython extensions.
Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a form of real-time Internet text messaging
(chat) or synchronous conferencing. It is mainly designed for group
communication in discussion forums, called channels, but also allows
one-to-one communication via private message as well as chat and data
transfers via Direct Client-to-Client. [WikipediaIRC]_
A python source code file (ex. ``mymodule.py``), most often
found in a package (``mypackage/mymodule.py``). You can import
a module: ``import mymodule``, or ``import mypackage.mymodule``
if it lives in ``mypackage``.
A directory containing an ``__init__.py`` file (ex.
``mypackage/__init__.py``), and also usually containing
modules (possibly along with other packages). You can import
a package: ``import mypackage``
A package should not be confused with a compressed archive file
used to install Python code.
A repository of distributions with a web interface to automate
distribution discovery and consumption.
.. seealso:: The :ref:`pypi_info` is the default packaging
index for the Python community. It is open to all
Python developers to consume and distribute their
The person packaging the package for a particular operating system
Perl is a high-level programming language with an eclectic heritage
written by Larry Wall and a cast of thousands. It derives from the
ubiquitous C programming language and to a lesser extent from sed, awk,
the Unix shell, and at least a dozen other tools and languages. Perl's
process, file, and text manipulation facilities make it particularly
well-suited for tasks involving quick prototyping, system utilities,
software tools, system management tasks, database access, graphical
programming, networking, and world wide web programming. These strengths
make it especially popular with system administrators and CGI script
authors, but mathematicians, geneticists, journalists, and even managers
also use Perl. [PERL]_
:doc:`<pip>` is a command-line tool for downloading and installing
A library, framework, script, plugin, application, or collection of
data or other resources, or some combination thereof.
Python projects must have unique names, which are registered on
PyPI. Each project will then contain one or more releases, and
each release may comprise one or more distributions.
Note that there is a strong convention to name a project after the
name of the package that is imported to run that project. However,
this doesn't have to hold true. It's possible to install a distribution
from the project 'spam' and have it provide a package importable only
Pure Python Module
A module written in Python and contained in a single .py file
(and possibly associated .pyc and/or .pyo files). Sometimes referred
to as a "pure module."
A snapshot of a project at a particular point in time, denoted by a
Making a release may entail the publishing of multiple distributions.
For example, if version 1.0 of a project was released, it could be
available in both a source distribution format and a Windows
installer distribution format.
A plain text format used in many Python projects for documentation. The
reStructuredText format is used in this document. For more information,
please see the `reStructuredText Documentation
Python's standard library is very extensive, offering a wide range of
facilities as indicated by the long table of contents listed below. The
library contains built-in modules (written in C) that provide access to
system functionality such as file I/O that would otherwise be
inaccessible to Python programmers, as well as modules written in Python
that provide standardized solutions for many problems that occur in
everyday programming. Some of these modules are explicitly designed to
encourage and enhance the portability of Python programs by abstracting
away platform-specifics into platform-neutral APIs. [StandardLibrary]_
.. seealso:: `Python Standard Library Documentation
A package provided by in a format native to the operating system.
e.g. rpm or dpkg file.
An archive format for collected a group of files together as one. The
format's extension is usually ``.tar``, which represents its meaning,
Tape ARchive. The format is often used in conjunction with a
compression format such as gzip or bzip.
A collection of distributions available for importing. These are the
distributions that are on the `sys.path` variable. At most one
version a distribution is possible in a working set.
Working sets include all distributions available for importing, not
just the sub-set of distributions which have actually been imported.
.. [CPAN] `What is CPAN? <http://www.cpan.org/misc/cpan-faq.html#What_is_CPAN>`_
.. [PERL] `What is Perl? <http://www.cpan.org/misc/cpan-faq.html#What_is_Perl>`_
.. [StandardLibrary] `Python Standard Library Documentation
.. [WikipediaIRC] `Internet Relay Chat (Wikipedia)