hhgp / source / glossary.txt

========
Glossary
========

.. glossary::

   CPAN
       CPAN is the Comprehensive Perl Archive Network, a large collection of
       :term:`Perl` software and documentation. You can begin exploring from
       either http://www.cpan.org/, http://www.perl.com/CPAN/ or any of the
       mirrors listed at http://www.cpan.org/SITES.html. [CPAN]_

   Developer
       The person developing the package.

   distribution
       A Python distribution is a versioned compressed archive file
       that contains Python packages, modules, and other resource
       files. The distribution file is what an end-user will downloaded
       from the internet and install.
       
       In other fields of computing, a distribution is often called a
       package. For example, Mac OS X and Debian call these files
       package files. However, in Python, the term package refers to an
       importable directory. In order to distinguish between these two
       concepts, the compressed archive file containing code is called
       a distribution.

       It is not uncommon in Python to refer to a distribution using the
       term package. While not 100% technically correct, the context of
       the term package is usually sufficient to distinguish the meaning
       of the word.

   distutils
       A standard and basic package that comes with the Python
       standard library. It is used for creating distributions
       (where it is imported in the ``setup.py`` file for that
       distribution).

   IRC
       Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a form of real-time Internet text messaging
       (chat) or synchronous conferencing. It is mainly designed for group
       communication in discussion forums, called channels, but also allows
       one-to-one communication via private message as well as chat and data
       transfers via Direct Client-to-Client. [WikipediaIRC]_

   module
       A python source code file (ex. ``mymodule.py``), most often
       found in a package (``mypackage/mymodule.py``). You can import
       a module: ``import mymodule``, or ``import mypackage.mymodule``
       if it lives in ``mypackage``.

   package
       A directory containing an ``__init__.py`` file (ex.
       ``mypackage/__init__.py``), and also usually containing
       modules (possibly along with other packages). You can import
       a package: ``import mypackage``

       A package should not be confused with a compressed archive file
       used to install Python code.

   package index
       A repository of distributions with a web interface to automate
       distribution discovery and consumption.

       .. seealso:: The :ref:`pypi_info` is the default packaging
                    index for the Python community. It is open to all
                    Python developers to consume and distribute their
                    distributions.

   Packager
       The person packaging the package for a particular operating system
       (e.g. Debian).

   Perl
       Perl is a high-level programming language with an eclectic heritage
       written by Larry Wall and a cast of thousands. It derives from the
       ubiquitous C programming language and to a lesser extent from sed, awk,
       the Unix shell, and at least a dozen other tools and languages. Perl's
       process, file, and text manipulation facilities make it particularly
       well-suited for tasks involving quick prototyping, system utilities,
       software tools, system management tasks, database access, graphical
       programming, networking, and world wide web programming. These strengths
       make it especially popular with system administrators and CGI script
       authors, but mathematicians, geneticists, journalists, and even managers
       also use Perl. [PERL]_

   reStructuredText
       A plain text format used in many Python projects for documentation. The
       reStructuredText format is used in this document. For more information,
       please see the `reStructuredText Documentation 
       <http://docutils.sourceforge.net/rst.html>`_.

   standard library
       Python's standard library is very extensive, offering a wide range of
       facilities as indicated by the long table of contents listed below. The
       library contains built-in modules (written in C) that provide access to
       system functionality such as file I/O that would otherwise be
       inaccessible to Python programmers, as well as modules written in Python
       that provide standardized solutions for many problems that occur in
       everyday programming. Some of these modules are explicitly designed to
       encourage and enhance the portability of Python programs by abstracting
       away platform-specifics into platform-neutral APIs. [StandardLibrary]_

       .. seealso:: `Python Standard Library Documentation
          <http://docs.python.org/library/>`_

   tarball
       An archive format for collected a group of files together as one. The
       format's extension is usually ``.tar``, which represents its meaning,
       Tape ARchive. The format is often used in conjunction with a
       compression format such as gzip or bzip. 

Citations
---------

.. [CPAN] `What is CPAN? <http://www.cpan.org/misc/cpan-faq.html#What_is_CPAN>`_
.. [PERL] `What is Perl? <http://www.cpan.org/misc/cpan-faq.html#What_is_Perl>`_
.. [StandardLibrary] `Python Standard Library Documentation
   <http://docs.python.org/library/>`_
.. [WikipediaIRC] `Internet Relay Chat (Wikipedia)
   <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Relay_Chat>`_
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