Commits

Tj Hariharan committed 2303972 Merge

idk why...laptop merging

Signed-off-by: Tj Hariharan <Tj@archlinux.us>

  • Participants
  • Parent commits 742f563, 83c8427

Comments (0)

Files changed (24)

File 1125/docs/integ275/Connection-D_Poem.txt

+ Falling
+---------
+The velvety red of a rose was all I could smell,
+as the world faded before my eyes;
+Now freed from their duty, they wandered to a smile;
+the one which graced your lips and crept into mine.
+My soul leapt out to its only vision;
+the soft brown eyes,
+like a blind mans vision,
+will forever haunt.
+
+

File 1125/docs/integ275/Connections-D_Intro.pdf

Binary file added.

File 1125/docs/integ275/Connections-D_MindMap.pdf

Binary file added.

File 1125/docs/integ275/Cxn-D.txt

-Japan-anime-yuruyuri-lesbian-lgbt-
-                         \-(Cultures who accepting of LGBT)-Romans-Anthro
+Japan-anime-Inuyasha (Name of Anime)-Demon-Daemon-Maxwell's Daemon-Max-Max Powers-Homer-Simpsons-Cartoons for Adults-Pornography-Sex-Love-Death of Loved One-Fountain (Movie)-Movies-Popcorn-Corn-Cornucopia
 
 
  Poem
 ======
-Love=the only one i can recognise
+Love=the only one i can recognise
+----
+Convergence: 7 (Approximate)
+Flexibility: 140+
+Fluency: 200 (Approximate)

File 1125/docs/integ275/MM_Part.jpeg

Added
New image

File 1125/docs/iss131r/imow3.pdf

Binary file added.

File 1125/docs/iss131r/imow3.tex

+\documentclass[notitlepage,12pt,english]{article} %report for homework
+
+\usepackage{babel}
+\usepackage{times}
+\usepackage{pifont}
+\usepackage{alltt}  
+\usepackage{setspace}
+\doublespacing
+\usepackage{fullpage}
+%-------------
+\begin{document}
+\renewcommand{\subitem}{\item[\ding{229}]}
+\renewcommand{\it}{\item[\ding{225}]}
+
+\title{IMOW 3: Neo-Liberalism}
+\author{Tejas (Tj) Hariharan [ID: 20205237]}
+\maketitle %title page.
+%
+
+
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it 40s - 50s: Period of `golden age of controlled capitalism' (shift to reform liberalism), working class, factories etc.
+  \it After WWII: Rebuilding of war-torn countries, expansion of international trade and creation of international organisations (IM, World Bank etc) gave a new perspective on global monetary practices.
+  \subitem By 1970 we see the issue with Keynsian welfare state. High inflations and the oil crisis etc.
+   \it Collapse of Soviet Union in the late 80s.
+   \it Most significant events in neo-liberalism development:
+   \begin{enumerate}
+      \item Internationalisation of trade and finance.
+      \item Increasing power of the transnational corporation requires reconsideration of `corporation' and the power they have.
+      \item Enhanced role of economic institutions such as IMF, WB and WTO.
+    \end{enumerate}
+    \it \textbf{Neo Liberalism: } De-emphasises the role of government in economic practices, back to ideas of CL from welfare type ideas of RL.
+    \subitem Focus on Freemarket and fewer restrictions of business operations.
+    \subitem Privatisation of enterprises, Tax Cuts, reduction sof public spending in social programs (back to CL type economy), small government with small role, and (different from CL due to era) expansion of international market.
+    \subitem Role of govt. now more toward external players than toward monitoring internal politics?
+    \it \emph{Rights based liberalism, Meritocracy}
+    \subitem DIfferent from equalist ideas of RL and Marxism, to NLs if you earn it fair and square then you deserve it out of merit, thus economic equality is not something that is to be sought, money is a form of recognition. 
+\end{itemize}
+
+\section{Hayek}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it Disagrees with keynes, private investements in the public markets WILL foster good economic growth, better than govt. intervention. 
+  \subitem Minimal State.
+  \subitem Advocates self regulating, Free Market. 
+  \subitem Maximum freedom to persue goals, little to no taxation and limited govt. intervention (which is destructive to personal liberty).
+  \it Capitalism vs Democracy: with large state control the govt. will worry more about getting votes (and enough money to get those votes) and special interest groups rather than doing the right thing.
+  \it All co-ercive actions of the govt. restricted to enforcement of general rules of conduct/social rules etc.
+\end{itemize}
+
+\section{Olson}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it Individuals act in groups due to some seperate and selective interest shared in common. 
+  \subitem Why do individuals join groups?
+  \subitem Small vs Large groups: the latter requires more incentive and is harder to handle.
+  \it Free-rider problem (what to do about `free rider's in society).
+  \it Small govt. that looks out for general interest and not special interest groups.
+\end{itemize}
+
+\section{Nozick}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it Right trumps utilitarian concerns.
+  \it Notions of Self-ownership (c.f Locke and similar ideas in RL, leading to ideas of ownership of items and labour).
+  \subitem Redistribution of wealth is thus illegetimate as it amounts to the state forcing labour whose fruits you cannot use, even though the labour was done by you (the state is stealing from you?)
+  \it No distributive justice, wants entitlement theory of justice.
+  \it Existence of state explained via `invisible hand' rather than an extension of the social contract. Protective associations are formed from the state of nature to deal with the issues present therein.
+\end{itemize}
+
+\section{Strengths and Weaknesses}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it Back to maximum individualism and freedom and minimal state. And other strengths of RL.
+  \it \textbf{Weakness: } Too much emphasis on economic issues and economic institutions, may be ignoring social issues that need the state.
+  \it \textbf{Weakness: } Too much emphasis on the individual as rational and self-interested. Assumes meritocracy .
+  \it \textbf{Weakness: } Extenal state intervention is maximised (intervening in the lives of developing countries) etc.
+  \subitem Issues with the last recession.
+\end{itemize}
+\end{document}

File 1125/docs/phil324/Essay1.doc

Binary file added.

File 1125/docs/rs205/text2.doc

Binary file added.

File 1125/notes/integ275/Lec_May29.pdf

Binary file added.

File 1125/notes/integ275/Lec_May29.tex

+\documentclass[letterpaper,12pt,english]{article} %report for homework
+
+\usepackage{babel}
+\usepackage{times}
+\usepackage{pifont}
+\usepackage{moreverb}
+\usepackage{alltt}
+\usepackage[pdfauthor={Tejas (Tj) Hariharan}]{hyperref}
+
+\begin{document}
+\renewcommand{\subitem}{\item[\ding{229}]}
+\renewcommand{\it}{\item[\ding{225}]}
+
+\title{Lecture: May 29 (Week 5) }\author{Tejas (Tj) Hariharan 
+\footnote{Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share 
+Alike 3.0 License. c.f. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ for full license}} 
+\maketitle
+
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it \textbf{Filter Bubble: } Only hearing certain types of thing, ``filtered through'' certain things (e.g. when you search something on google you only see the results that google thinks you would WANT to see, rather than show you something unexpected).
+  \subitem The main point here is that you would only be shown things that you would likely expect anyways. 
+  \it Csiksenmihalyi: Try to use it in the midterm, and spell it right (c.f.: Slides).
+\end{itemize}
+\end{document}

File 1125/notes/integ275/Lec_May8.pdf

Binary file added.

File 1125/notes/integ275/Lec_May8.tex

+\documentclass[letterpaper,12pt,english]{article} %report for homework
+
+\usepackage{babel}
+\usepackage{times}
+\usepackage{pifont}
+\usepackage{moreverb}
+\usepackage{alltt}
+\usepackage[pdfauthor={Tejas (Tj) Hariharan}]{hyperref}
+
+\begin{document}
+\renewcommand{\subitem}{\item[\ding{229}]}
+\renewcommand{\it}{\item[\ding{225}]}
+
+\title{Lecture: May 8 (Week 2) }\author{Tejas (Tj) Hariharan 
+\footnote{Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share 
+Alike 3.0 License. c.f. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ for full license}} 
+\maketitle
+
+\section{Best Practices}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it  Closed Problem. Solution Exist, we KNOW they exist and how to see them. Needs convergent thinking (Selecting and fitting solutions).
+  \subitem \textbf{Divergent thinking: } Generates ideas to populate a space.
+  \subitem Open problems need this type of thinking.
+  \it \textbf{Creativity is the production of new, useful ideas.} 
+  \subitem western idea about creativity: traditionally innate, uncontrollable and privileged. People now disagree with that view.
+  \it Free Association: Blurting things out, useful to creativity (divergent process).
+  \it Forced and remote association is more convergent thinking.
+  \it Bibliomancy: Starting off (a way to) divergent thinking.
+  \it Priming: psychological phenomenon where prior experience biases response to stimuli.
+  \it Stereotype threat: reminding people of their agency can reduce stereotype threat.
+  \it Metacognition: ``thinking about thinking'' 
+  \subitem Last question on exam = guess your mark, if within 5percent then you get extra 3percent on exam.
+  \it Exam/course is about 2 things: 
+  \begin{itemize}
+     \item Knowing about scholastic knowledge/terms etc about creativity.
+     \item the actual creative process, and practising being creative.
+  \end{itemize}
+  \it In exam we must be able to go between the creative process and regular questions ABOUT creativity.
+  \it Copyright protects the `expression' of idea.
+  \subitem Related to Taylor's idea of: ``\underline{Ideas} as not important but the production and \underline{Expression} of the idea as what is important''.
+  \it Threshold Hypothesis:
+  \begin{itemize}
+    \it Torrance: There is a threshold up to which point IQ and creativity are linked, after that there is no strong link between them (Torrance says about IQ=120).
+    \subitem The idea is that, you need enough intelligence that you CAN be creative, after which intelligence has little to do with it.  
+  \end{itemize}
+  \it Torrance extends criteria for judging (4 at first, he added more later) alternative uses task.
+\end{itemize}
+
+\section{Brainstorming}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it Quantity matters, as in alternative uses task.
+  \it Edward De Bono: 
+  \subitem Lateral Thinking (Solving issues by approaching it from elsewhere).
+  \subitem Since the chances are `straight thinking' type solutions are already done/tried.
+  \it Rothberg - \textbf{Janusian Thinking: }Creativity related to being able to hold opposites in your head. (cf: JJ. Thomson and his son, physicists who discovered light as both particle and wave separately).
+\end{itemize}
+\section{For Next Class}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it Readings: Daily Routines (website link on learn), skim through and find a few people who you think are creative.
+  \subitem Creative practitioners talking about the creative process and `creative block'.
+  \it Divergent thinking - random pingy, all over the place, type thinking.
+  \subitem Mind-Mapping (more of `relational'/graphic representation): Useful for divergent thinking.
+  \it Connections Assignment: Due 29/May
+  \subitem Open Ended assignment, free-format for the creative part.
+  \begin{enumerate}
+    \item 2 Words (information) given, do mind map from each one separately then connect the two mind maps.
+    \item Pick 1 node on one of the bridges between the two 2 mind maps. Then "extend" that node into a concept and "express" it, i.e. do something creative with that word.
+  \end{enumerate}
+  \subitem You could say anything about the topic, the expression is anything as long as it is appropriate and only takes 5 minutes to go through.
+\end{itemize}
+\subsection{Deliverables} 
+\begin{enumerate}
+  \item Mind Map (As Creative as possible), Marked on:
+  \begin{itemize}
+    \item Fluency: Total number of nodes (200 at least).
+    \item Flexibility: Total number of nodes that are at least 3 away from both original starting points. (30 at least).
+    \item Convergence: Number of paths that connect both starting points. (5 at least).
+    \subitem Trivial Nodes: Nodes that are not contributing anything, e.g.: if you have "black" and then list 10 things that are black, only the first 2 are 3 are non-trivial.
+  \end{itemize}
+  \item Intro: Topic (Except the piece of the path that connects the topic node to the two starting points) and explain any links in the excerpt.
+  \subitem What are you going to do with the topic and why. 
+  \subitem Also mention all the mind map scores (as above) here, this is what will be used to mark.
+  \item Something Else: The most important part of the assignment, this is the creative part. As outlined above, can be anything, so long as it is appropriate (you have to explain your choice in the Intro).
+  \subitem An original piece of  ``Creative work'' based on the chosen ``topic''. 
+  \subitem Readable/Watchable etc, in no more than 5 minutes.
+  \subitem NO CEILING GRADE: Marks given by comparing to other works out there in the real world. If its a painting you will be compared to picasso, not other classmates.
+  \subitem Must stand on it's own as `art'.
+\end{enumerate} 
+\end{document}

File 1125/notes/iss131r/Lec_May10.pdf

Binary file added.

File 1125/notes/iss131r/Lec_May10.tex

+\documentclass[letterpaper,12pt,english]{article} %report for homework
+
+\usepackage{babel}
+\usepackage{times}
+\usepackage{pifont}
+\usepackage{moreverb}
+\usepackage{alltt}
+\usepackage[pdfauthor={Tejas (Tj) Hariharan}]{hyperref}
+
+\begin{document}
+\renewcommand{\subitem}{\item[\ding{229}]}
+\renewcommand{\it}{\item[\ding{225}]}
+
+\title{Lecture: Classic Liberalism (Week 2)}\author{Tejas (Tj) Hariharan 
+\footnote{Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share 
+Alike 3.0 License. c.f. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ for full license}} 
+\maketitle
+
+
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it Right on chart=Less involvement
+  \it Class is on bottom left quadrant from centre out at 45 angle. Liberal part of Canada is below Conservative party of Canada, but both are on top right quadrant.
+  \it Deregulation of banks=bad? (led to crisis in Canada)
+  \it Liberals=no agents of the state.
+\end{itemize}
+
+\section{Classic Liberalism}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it \textbf{Social Contract} Liberty=condition to be free from control/restriction. 
+  \it Liberalism=all about the increase in freedom
+  \subitem Focuses on rights of individual and \underline{role of the state} (people differ on what this means).
+  \subitem C.L: Small state instead of big (minimal role).
+  \it Developed in response to monarchy, scientific revolution, emergence of the nation state (instead of religious state as before).
+  \subitem \textbf{Should the state intervene to ensure everybody has a home?}
+  \subitem Is all about equality, rights of individual etc.
+  \subitem Assumption: Humans are rational self interested (Marx disagrees with this specifically) and competitive by nature.
+  \it \emph{All politics starts with the above (a statement about human nature)}
+  \subitem Western politics is based on the above assumption.
+  \it Atomic view of persons, look at each person as individuals instead of parts of an organic whole (Organic view).
+  \subitem Organic view related to `construction of the other'.
+  \it Equality: Equality of status not condition (give all people the same starting point in the race, the rest is up to them).
+  \it \textbf{Hobbes+Locke: }Start with the state of nature (pre-state condition/pre-social contract).
+  \it \textbf{Hobbes: } foundational to Locke/C.L but \textbf{not a Classic Liberalist} himself.
+  \subitem we are \textbf{not} (as per Hobbes) Rational. Thus in the state of 
+  nature, we are at \underline{war} (state of war).
+  \subitem Free men enter into the social contract, and give up sovereignty 
+  (to avoid state of war, but why they do this is unclear as they are 
+  apparently all non rational).
+  \subitem STATE (the result of a large scale contract like this) is ABSOLUTE 
+  since left to ourselves (without state) we are animals.  
+\end{itemize}
+
+\section{Locke}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it Rooted more in religion
+  \subitem State of nature is `god given', governed by the \underline{laws of 
+  nature/god}. 
+  \it \textbf{we are} rational and thus State of Nature is pretty harmonious 
+  (unlike Hobbes).
+  \it So unlike with Hobbes, Locke's State of Nature is normally pretty good, 
+  due to the `law of nature' and all of us being pretty decent to each other 
+  and rationality etc.  
+  \subitem So why enter into a contract at all, with Hobbes there was an 
+  obvious reason; peace of mind and civility and so on, but not so here.  
+  \subitem Social Contract is voluntarily entered into (\textbf{A Hobbesian 
+  Social Contract, by contrast, is entered into by force, we have no other 
+  choice in Hobbes' case it's either contract or die in a bloody war}).
+  \it \textbf{In Locke's case a person enters into a social contract 
+  after recogninsing that we need it to live with each other with the concept 
+  of private ownership}.
+  \subitem Thus the social contract is based on ownership as its primary goal, 
+  \emph{`to protect property'}.
+  \subitem In state of nature property is communal, and everyone has access to 
+  all (akin to animals).
+  \subitem We own stuff by attaching our labour power to it (``I own X because X 
+  is a result of my Labour'').
+  \subitem \textbf{Ownership of Body} -->  Ownership of Labour --> Ownership 
+  of Products of Labour. 
+  \subitem \textbf{Note: Women and Children count as the labour power of men, 
+  thus anything they do is also included part of the labour/ownership of the man}.
+  \subitem Claiming ownership like this is limited by the contract, mainly by 
+  `spoilage' i.e.: you can only cake as much as you need, to ensure spoilage 
+  does not happen and that everyone has a fair turn at taking. (The idea of 
+  `spoilage' however was made moot by the introduction of currency as it does 
+  not spoil, and thus there seems to be no risk in taking as much as you want).
+  \subitem Note: The idea behind this seems to lie in an assumption of 
+  infinite resources, so long as we ensure non-spoilage, though Locke, there 
+  would definitely be enough to go around. 
+  \it Since the state is based on property and property ownership, State represents only those who are `ACTIVE members' (ie \textbf{Men} those with 
+  the ability to own property). 
+  \subitem Only these ``perfect members'' can express consent/participate in 
+  society etc.  
+  
+  \it \textbf{Reasons for Rebellion: }
+  \begin{enumerate}
+    \item Unconstitutional alteration of legislation: For the 
+     society/state to function the basic nature of the contract 
+     has to be intact.  
+     \item Breach of trust rooted in invasion of property: As `property' 
+     is considered paramount any breach of this security is the worst.  
+  \end{enumerate}
+  \subitem Declaration of Independence (American) was based on this, a lot of 
+  the language used/reasons given in it were very much based on these two 
+  reasons given by Locke as ``good reasons to rebel''.
+
+  \it Locke starts to contradict himself due to issues that come up with the 
+  origin of the state of nature etc (in his case `God') and the nature of the 
+  state and it membership base (men only etc).
+  \it Problem with C.L: If you can't even run the race then can't do anything 
+  since STATE is only the ``watchman'' it doesn't care.  
+\end{itemize}
+
+\section{Adam Smith}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \subitem Foundation for modern Capitalist System (A lot of what he talks 
+  about). 
+  \it Humans=Rational, Self-Interested AND competitive. 
+  \subitem Like Locke speaking against: Mercantilism (M) and Physiocracy (P).
+  \item[\textbf{M:}] Measure of Wealth is in Gold etc.   One country could 
+  its wealth only in expense of another. Created colonisation/limitation in 
+  trade (colonies produce and trade with the mainland).
+  \it \textbf{Lassaize-Faire Economics (L-F Economics): }The idea that a free market will 
+  eventually work itself out (`invisible hand').
+  \subitem If something is good for a company then its good for the whole 
+  system.  
+  \subitem Countries produce only that which they are good at and put in on 
+  the global market (this is the idea behind L-F economics).
+  \item[\textbf{P:}] True basis of wealth is agriculture.  
+  \subitem Smith didn't like basing wealth on someTHING, that ends up with 
+  same issues as with Mercantile Economics above.  
+
+  \it Smith was PRO innovation and says that capitalism is all about 
+  innovation, the free market will allow anyone to make what they are best at 
+  and put in on the market.  
+  \subitem Full freedom to put what you CAN in the marketplace.  
+  \subitem Equality of competition not good, we are all \underline{free} to 
+  compete in marketplace.  
+  \subitem Part of the problem is that today we set up corporations in such a 
+  way that their main goal is not innovation or some particular 
+  idea/expertise, but to make as much money as possible in any event.  
+  \subitem Supports division of labour (Marx has issue with this).
+\end{itemize}
+\textbf{State: } Protect Borders, protect Justice/property and provide the 
+infrastructure necessary to conduct education etc. (Important so the 
+businesses are free to innovate and compete and all the people are ensured a place 
+to participate).
+
+\section{Kant}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it Enlightenment: You are smart enough to have enlightenment.  
+  \subitem Guidance vs Tutelage: Kant was all about Guidance instead of 
+  tutelage.   
+  \subitem Need to ask questions of the state.  
+  \subitem Freedom of thought and courage to know.  
+  \it State of nature=state of war (back to Hobbes, no rationality in state of nature).
+  \subitem BUT with the help of a little guidance from the state/collective we 
+  CAN do our best.  
+  \it Political equality for \textbf{all men} including slaves (not just 
+  property owners). Women still not included (women/children=passive citizens).
+\end{itemize}
+\end{document}

File 1125/notes/iss131r/Lec_May24.pdf

Binary file added.

File 1125/notes/iss131r/Lec_May24.tex

+\documentclass[notitlepage,12pt,english]{article} %report for homework
+
+\usepackage{babel}
+\usepackage{times}
+\usepackage{pifont}
+\usepackage{alltt}  
+\usepackage{setspace}
+\doublespacing
+\usepackage{fullpage}
+%-------------
+\begin{document}
+\renewcommand{\subitem}{\item[\ding{229}]}
+\renewcommand{\it}{\item[\ding{225}]}
+
+\title{Lecture (Week 4): Neo-Liberalism}
+\author{Tejas (Tj) Hariharan [ID: 20205237]}
+\date{May 24, 2012}
+\maketitle %title page.
+
+\textbf{Note: Notes taken from slides (and IMOW of classmate, and not from lecture material}
+
+
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it 40s - 50s: Period of `golden age of controlled capitalism' (shift to reform liberalism), working class, factories etc.
+  \it After WWII: Rebuilding of war-torn countries, expansion of international trade and creation of international organisations (IM, World Bank etc) gave a new perspective on global monetary practices.
+  \subitem By 1970 we see the issue with Keynsian welfare state. High inflations and the oil crisis etc.
+   \it Collapse of Soviet Union in the late 80s.
+   \it Most significant events in neo-liberalism development:
+   \begin{enumerate}
+      \item Internationalisation of trade and finance.
+      \item Increasing power of the transnational corporation requires reconsideration of `corporation' and the power they have.
+      \item Enhanced role of economic institutions such as IMF, WB and WTO.
+    \end{enumerate}
+    \it \textbf{Neo Liberalism: } De-emphasises the role of government in economic practices, back to ideas of CL from welfare type ideas of RL.
+    \subitem Focus on Free-market and fewer restrictions of business operations.
+    \subitem Privatisation of enterprises, Tax Cuts, reduction sof public spending in social programs (back to CL type economy), small government with small role, and (different from CL due to era) expansion of international market.
+    \subitem Role of govt. now more toward external players than toward monitoring internal politics?
+    \it \emph{Rights based liberalism, Meritocracy}
+    \subitem Different from equalist ideas of RL and Marxism, to NLs if you earn it fair and square then you deserve it out of merit, thus economic equality is not something that is to be sought, money is a form of recognition. 
+\end{itemize}
+
+\section{Hayek}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it Desires a minimal State.
+  \it Disagrees with keynes, private investments in the public markets WILL foster good economic growth, better than govt. intervention. 
+  \subitem Minimal State; Larger states will misuse power.
+  \subitem Advocates self regulating, Free Market. 
+  \subitem Maximum freedom to pursue goals, little to no taxation and limited govt. intervention (which is destructive to personal liberty).
+  \it Capitalism vs. Democracy: with large state control the govt. will worry more about getting votes (and enough money to get those votes) and special interest groups rather than doing the right thing.
+  \it All coercive actions of the govt. restricted to enforcement of general rules of conduct/social rules etc.
+  \subitem Equal freedom to all to pursue goals, no special attention to specific groups etc.
+\end{itemize}
+
+\section{Olson}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it Individuals act in groups due to some separate and selective interest shared in common. 
+  \it Believes that the Free Rider Program (Social Loafing) will likely occur within society.
+  \subitem ``Only a separate and selective incentive will stimulate a rational individual in a latent group to act in a group-oriented way''
+  \subitem Why do individuals join groups?
+  \subitem Small vs Large groups: the latter requires more incentive and is harder to handle.
+  \it Free-rider problem (what to do about `free rider's in society).
+  \it Small govt. that looks out for general interest and not special interest groups.
+  \it Advocates Public Choice Theory - the competitive interest of human beings will fixate on material possessions, ``material interest trumps''
+  \it As above, labels special interest groups as bad for the economy since they will attempt to sway voting in the best direction for particular needs.
+
+\end{itemize}
+
+\section{Nozick}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it Libertarian.
+  \it There was a shift from protective association to an ultra minimal state, and then to a minimal state (this shift took place because of the responsibilities one now had towards others)
+  \it Individual Right trumps utilitarian concerns.
+  \it Notions of Self-ownership and Labour Power (c.f Locke and similar ideas in RL, leading to ideas of ownership of items and labour).
+  \subitem Redistribution of wealth is thus illegetimate as it amounts to the state forcing labour whose fruits you cannot use, even though the labour was done by you (the state is stealing from you?)
+  \it No distributive justice, wants entitlement theory of justice: ``whoever makes something, having bought or contracted for the necessary resources used in the process, is entitled to it.''
+  \it Existence of state explained via `invisible hand' rather than an extension of the social contract. Protective associations are formed from the state of nature to deal with the issues present therein.
+  \it Believes that social contact was developed through protective association to help deal with the problems in the state of nature.
+\end{itemize}
+
+\section{Strengths and Weaknesses}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it Back to maximum individualism and freedom and minimal state. And other strengths of RL.
+  \it \textbf{Weakness: } Too much emphasis on economic issues and economic institutions, may be ignoring social issues that need the state.
+  \it \textbf{Weakness: } Too much emphasis on the individual as rational and self-interested. Assumes meritocracy .
+  \it \textbf{Weakness: } Extenal state intervention is maximised (intervening in the lives of developing countries) etc.
+  \subitem Issues with the last recession.
+\end{itemize}
+
+\end{document}

File 1125/notes/iss131r/Lec_May31.pdf

Binary file added.

File 1125/notes/iss131r/Lec_May31.tex

+\documentclass[notitlepage,12pt,english]{article} %report for homework
+
+\usepackage{babel}
+\usepackage{times}
+\usepackage{pifont}
+\usepackage{alltt}  
+\usepackage{setspace}
+\doublespacing
+\usepackage{fullpage}
+%-------------
+\begin{document}
+\renewcommand{\subitem}{\item[\ding{229}]}
+\renewcommand{\it}{\item[\ding{225}]}
+
+\title{Lecture (Week 5): Marxism}
+\author{Tejas (Tj) Hariharan [ID: 20205237]}
+\date{May 31, 2012}
+\maketitle %title page.
+
+\begin{itemize}
+  \item Midterm in Two Weeks.
+  \item There has been confusion about the time-line for Liberalism, so here it is:
+  \begin{itemize}
+     \item[1600] Classic Liberalism Start
+     \item[Mid 1800's] Child Labour Laws and Critique of Capitalism, RL Ideologies begin.
+     \item[1930 - 40] WWII/Great Depression, resulting in attraction toward RL policies. RL begins as a response to the great depression.
+     \item[1970s]  Problems with Welfare systems of RL (Oil Crisis). Renewed interest in CL with NL ideas.
+      \item[1980s] Major institutions such as World Bank, originally rooted in Keynesian economics start to change to adapt to Neo-Liberalism.
+  \end{itemize}
+\end{itemize}
+
+\section{Marx}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \subitem Founding father of Marxism.
+  \it Marx: ``Capitalism is just one way''.
+  \subitem Embraced Hegelian Method but disagreed with his ideology. 
+  \it \textbf{Historical Materialism: }Looking at the different types of socio-economic systems.
+  \subitem Social Change occurs in a dialectical fashion; two powers battle and a new thing emerges, eventually.
+  \subitem Marx applied the Hegelian idea of dialectics to the `real world', but unlike Hegel, concluded that the two opposing powers of history are the proletariat and the bourgeoisie.
+  \it Human Nature is plastic and \emph{not} self sufficient.
+  \subitem ``Human nature is a by-product of the Zeitgeist of the time.''
+  \it Believes in a bottom up influence, to Marx most cultural and institutional occurrences are DUE to the socio-economic system.
+  \subitem E.g. His views of religion are limited to religion under Capitalism, he doesn't even thing religion as a social occurrence would exist at all outside of capitalism.
+  \subitem ``Our economic system shapes the institutions above it'' $\leftarrow$ related to the non-plasticity of human nature.
+  \it Full Equality: Only possible in a classless society (communism).
+  \subitem State: is needed to GET US there, but withers away as unneeded, as communism comes to power.
+\end{itemize}
+\subsection{Critique of Capitalism}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it Capitalism is based on
+  \begin{enumerate}
+     \item Servitude.
+     \item Exploitation.
+     \item Alienation.
+  \end{enumerate}
+  \it Critique: Unequal distribution of surplus value (`extra money'), as Capitalism has the ability to produce immense surplus wealth, yet many are poor.
+  \subitem c.f.: Wealth Gap, contrast between rich and poor.
+  \subitem During Marx's time, britian had a \emph{huge} number of factories and produced a lot of material and wealth, but the wealth gap was \emph{very} big.
+  \it Dialectic: Struggle between ``owners'' and the ``workers'' (`poor and rich').
+  \subitem The change comes from this class struggle (this struggle is the `seed of destruction' in capitalism).
+  \it \textbf{Productive Work: } Once you remove the economic/status incentives there will be \emph{someone} who wants to do every necessary job, and they would do it willingly. `productive work' to marx, is `work that makes your heart sing', it is what YOU want to do, now that the money incentives are removed.
+  \it Marx was a pro-eduction, he wanted everyone to be what they want to be and modern societies are (to him) very capable of producing enough wealth and technology.
+  \it All the -isms are by products of Capitalism and Private ownership.
+  \subitem Engels: Oppression of Women also comes about like this (c.f. CL and views on `labour power' and women). The men want to `own' the women so as to be able to `own their progeny' in order to ensure inheritance (own the women=ensure the progeny is yours).
+  \it Alienation of Work: 
+  \begin{itemize}
+    \subitem \textbf{Product: }Workers being `removed' from the product (making something you would never be able to afford or use)
+    \subitem \textbf{Process: }Inability to drive the process, have a say in it or even fully comprehend it (`cog in the machine').
+    \subitem \textbf{Others: }`Zones' in workplace, the workers are not allowed to talk with each other or socialise, so as to `increase production'.
+    \subitem \textbf{Species Being: }Factory working as removing from your ``true self'', as being ``deadening'' where youa re removed/alienated from your true natures (unable to do what you REALLY want to).
+  \end{itemize}
+  \it Originally 4 Classes but reduced to 2.
+  \subitem Classes based on your relationship to `means of production'.
+  \it \textbf{Petite Bourgeoisie: }Small independent business owners. Will eventually fall and become `workers'.
+  \it \textbf{Lumpen-proletariat: }The `dregs' of society (prostitutes, beggars etc). Marx originally thought (and some still think) these will be the ones to lead the revolution out of Capitalism. But Marx lates says that this group depends on being outside of society, something only conveniently possible in the current capitalist system, meaning that they will remain regardless of change, and likely even oppose it (if to a `classes society').
+  \it Reserve Army of Labour: People who are `on reserve' for labour (women/children).
+  \subitem 2 Functions: To regulate wages by the implicit threat of replacement waiting (for the current workers). and To keep up with any increase in production or decrease in working class, if ever there is (e.g. war etc)
+  \subitem Marx: Capitalists \textbf{want} structural unemployment so that some can become part of the `reserve army of labour'.
+  \it False consciousness: ``so oppressed you don't even know it''.
+  \subitem Ties in with the `influenced by the Zeitgeist' thing, people don't even see the problems of their system because they are so used to it.
+  \it A historical era is defined via their `modes of production' and each one has a way the classes relate to the modes and each other.
+  \begin{enumerate}
+    \item Primitive Communism: NO ownership rights.
+    \item Ancient Society/Slavery: Increase levels of production, some own, others are mere slaves.
+    \item Feudalism: Lords are responsible for the serfs.
+    \subitem Lords own, serfs work, and the latter are taken care of by the former.
+    \subitem Serfs owned by the lords.
+    \item Capitalism: Land Becomes private property.
+    \subitem Serfs no longer owned and taken care of in exchange for mere work, land is now OWNED by people.
+    \subitem \textbf{Cash Crops}, workers now work for exchanging labour for money instead of `being owned' and just working and being taken care of, they no longer have direct access to production and are responsible for themselves.
+    \item Socialism: Capitalism falls, as economic systems begin to change more toward a classless type of society, but ideologies still remain.
+    \item Communism: Occurs AFTER the paradigm shift in ideals.
+  \end{enumerate}
+  \it Hegemonic Ideology: Ideology of the ruling class that is sold to the `workers'.
+  \it Socialism $\Rightarrow$ Elect in parties ``for the people''.
+  \subitem We need this time period to change dominant ideology from capitalism,
+  \subitem Move slowly to ``class for itself'' from ``class in itself''. 
+  \subitem Strong state needed for redistribution.
+  \subitem Marx saw the `strong state' eventually dissolving as the ideology changed, will this ever happen? The move from Socialism to communism seems to be something that would likely not happen within this model, why would a storng state give up power? (Change in state first THEN ideology due to Marx's belief about the economic system influencing everything, but this could be a bad way of doing it).
+  \subitem Is this what went wrong in Russia etc? The strong state never gave up power so they stayed in a state controlled socialism.
+  \it Marx saw the head of the revolution as being the intelligentia (``learned peoples'') \textbf{but} he said these people come from bourgeoisie (probably because he did as well, and he saw the rich class as being in a position to be able to lead the revolution).
+  \subitem Some had issues with the idea of the revolution being headed by the bourgeoisie.
+  \it Capitalism $\leftarrow$ Socialism change occurs when the proletariat become SO poor they HAVE to act.
+  \subitem RL's are making things worse by pushing the inevitable change of the `proletariat becoming poor enough to push for social change so socialism'.
+
+\subsection{Political Emancipation vs Human Emancipation/Religion.}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it What marx was talking about, was that at the time the jewish people were asking for more political rights and autonomy. 
+  \subitem  His answer to that was that they were asking for the wrong thing, what they REALLY needed to push for human emancipation. While he was writing this TO the jewish people, he was talking about ALL religions.
+  \subitem  Marx had a very specific view of religion:
+  \subitem  ``religion is the opium of the masses'', given this it makes sense that Religiousity is more popular among the poor rather than the rich. 
+  \subitem  Catholicism for example is on the rise in developing countries. Catholicism, for example, offers a lot of services for free for the people who are part of the religion.
+  \subitem  Evangelics, are popular, due to the idea of being `born again' as well as the idea of a personal relitionship with God, which may be attractive for the poor. Evangelicals, also, see it as a part of their mission to convert people. 
+   \it Marx's critique of religion, is actually a critique of religion UNDER capitalism, because he believes that the socio-economic models shapes the institutions above it.
+    \subitem  so much so, that he says that we wont even NEED religion without capitalism.
+\end{itemize}
+\end{itemize}
+
+\end{document}

File 1125/notes/rs205/Lec_May10.pdf

Binary file added.

File 1125/notes/rs205/Lec_May10.tex

+\documentclass[letterpaper,12pt,english]{article} %report for homework
+
+\usepackage{babel}
+\usepackage{times}
+\usepackage{pifont}
+\usepackage{moreverb}
+\usepackage{alltt}
+\usepackage[pdfauthor={Tejas (Tj) Hariharan}]{hyperref}
+
+\begin{document}
+\renewcommand{\subitem}{\item[\ding{229}]}
+\renewcommand{\it}{\item[\ding{225}]}
+
+\title{Lecture: May 10 (Week 2) }\author{Tejas (Tj) Hariharan 
+\footnote{Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share 
+Alike 3.0 License. c.f. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ for full license}} 
+\maketitle
+
+\section{For Today's Class}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it Next time: Ch. 9 (After Ch. 3)
+  \it Five Buddhist Paths.
+\end{itemize}
+
+\section{Five Buddhist Paths}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it Five Buddhist Paths to enlightenment, each is one stage higher than the one before it:
+  \begin{itemize}
+    \item Path of Accumulation: Collection of Merit (via deeds) and Wisdom (Take the Bodhisattva vow).
+    \item Path of Preperation
+    \item Path of Seeing.
+    \item Path of Meditation.
+    \item Path of No more Learning.
+  \end{itemize}
+  \subitem Note: All buddhist meditation assumes/presumes ``good qualities'' that are already cultivated.
+\end{itemize}
+
+\section{Accumulation}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it Four Mindfulnesses (Body, Feeling, Mind and Mental objects).
+  \it Four Abandonments (Abandon negative things).
+  \subitem \emph{Accumulate} positive things.
+  \begin{enumerate}
+    \item Non-virtuous things already accumulated.
+    \item No more bad virtuous habits.
+    \item Working on good qualities you have.
+    \item Get more positive qualities.
+  \end{enumerate}  
+  \subitem 4 Bases of magical emanation.
+  \subitem Works on stabilising meditation/concentration.
+\end{itemize}
+
+\section{Preparation}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it Heat - heat of non-conceptual understanding (Agni/Fire).
+  \it Begin meditation things.
+  \it Calm Abiding + Higher insight + emptiness as object (very hard to do)
+  \subitem Elimination of Concepts of emptiness or Suchness (Suchness=Yogacara's positive notion of emptiness, against madhyamaka's notion of emptiness).
+  \it Develop Virtuous roots and meditate longer on concept of ``suchness'', until the concept itself Nissa pears (due to familiarity). Familiarise mind with emptiness/suchness and overcome fear of emptiness.
+  \it \textbf{Rewards: }Patience, no more lower rebirths after this, no sense of ``subject/object''.
+\end{itemize}
+
+
+\section{Seeing}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it When Subject/Object distinction is overcome, one perceives the emptiness directly.
+  \it Contemplate both subject and four noble truths and understand its emptiness.
+  \subitem Bringing this ``view of emptiness'' into everyday life.
+  \it Because you see beyond the maya, one can then manipulate reality (akin to Neo), advanced bodhisattva then uses this to teach others.
+  \it \textbf{Result: }Attaining the supra-mundane existence.
+\end{itemize}
+
+\section{Meditation}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it Subtle traces of conception of Atman are removed.
+  \it Final 9 stages of ``bodhisattva path''.
+\end{itemize}
+
+\section{No More Learning}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it Arhant, Buddha (no longer exist).
+\end{itemize}
+
+\section{Tibetian Buddhism}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it Discipline of early Theravada.
+  \it Philosophy of Madhymaka and Yogacara.
+  \it Vajrayana meditation (meditation on images of previous buddha). Point is to create a buddha and meditate on his image until you become it.
+  \it B\"{o}n: Indigenous traditions prior to buddhism. 
+\end{itemize}
+
+\section{Mahayana/Vajrayana}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it Both emphasize bodhisattva ideals and compassion.
+  \it Tantra: ``fast'' way to full enlightenment, but very dangerous.
+  \subitem Incorporates the energy of desire to get to enlightenment, thus like playing with fire (thus the danger).
+  \subitem (Vajrayana) Uses the desire instead of trying to ignore it.
+  \subitem Happiness through blissful states of mind.
+  \it Tantra: Incorporating the forbidden things into ritual (alcohol, sex etc).
+  \it Vajrayana requires both Ritual AND meditation.
+  \it Vajra: Represents (Female) enlightenment, usually accompanied with a bell (skill in means/(Male) Compassion)) 
+  \subitem ``Om Nami Padme Hum'' Mantra used with Vajra and Bell, said loudly to send out the power of mantra to everyone else.
+\end{itemize}
+
+\section{Tantra}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \subitem Esoteric (not ``open-handed'' but secretive and only between teacher and initiated student), due to the recognition of its dangers.
+  \it Centered around a particular set of Root Texts and Commentaries.
+\end{itemize}
+
+
+
+
+\end{document}

File 1125/notes/rs205/Lec_May15.tex

-\documentclass[letterpaper,12pt,english]{article} %report for homework
-
-\usepackage{babel}
-\usepackage{times}
-\usepackage{pifont}
-\usepackage{moreverb}
-\usepackage{alltt}
-\usepackage[pdfauthor={Tejas (Tj) Hariharan}]{hyperref}
-
-\begin{document}
-\renewcommand{\subitem}{\item[\ding{229}]}
-\renewcommand{\it}{\item[\ding{225}]}
-
-\title{Lecture: \today }\author{Tejas (Tj) Hariharan 
-\footnote{Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share 
-Alike 3.0 License. c.f. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ for full license}} 
-\maketitle
-
-\section{For Today's Class}
-\begin{itemize}
-  \it Tantra Kinds and Practices.  
-  \it Tests are going to cover exactly what the review sheet has. 
-  \it Thursday at 10.20 prof will show a movie in her rs100 class.  
-\end{itemize}
-
-\section{Four Kinds of Tantra}
-\begin{itemize}
-  \it Remember, tantra is more than just a practice, there are root texts, 
-commentaries and practices as well (Cycle of texts and a grouping of practices).
-  \subitem also remember that one MUST be initiated into the practice before 
-doing anything.   
-  \it Four kinds are: \textbf{Action, Performance, Yoga, Highest Yoga}.
-  \subitem Each one of the `four levels of tantric desires' are increasingly 
-difficult.   
-  \it Each of the types work on purification, for instance action tantra works 
-on purification via action (of body, speech and mind). 
-  \subitem For instance, construction of ritual objects, with the right 
-thought and speech and so on can be considered.  
-  \it  At the level of Action Tantra, the relation to the gods, are `god and devotee'
-  \it Performance tantra: You are still doing external activities but 
-introducing internal meditations etc as well.  
-  \subitem There are two types of yoga here: Yoga with signs, and Formless 
-yoga (in the latter the relationship with the devotee is more of one of 
-companion or friends).
-  \it Yoga Tantra: The third level of Tantra, here there is no external 
-actions anymore, it is all internal. You get into the deeper levels of 
-meditations etc, you begin to envision yourself as the actual deity.
-  \subitem Like the above, there are two parts (see slides): Outer (self and 
-deity are separate) and Inner (once you get deeper into the meditation, the 
-deity enters the self). You don't merge with the deity, so much as generate the 
-deity. 
-  \subitem The highest yoga tantra have to do with certain 
-texts/traditions each requiring separate initiations (or practices etc) (like Hevajra etc, see slides, these have the highest amount of sexual unity 
-images, ie: unity of deities).
-  \it Mind of Clear Light: Buddha Nature, true nature of consciousness etc.    
-  \it The last stage of the highest form of \textbf{Yoga Tantra} is sexual 
-practice, but a lot of this was done in a visualisation form instead of actual 
-practice, as monks were to be celibate. 
-  \it KaalaCakra (kaala=time) traditions is the one dalai lama most does initiation into.   
-\end{itemize}
-
-\section{Four Initiations}
-\begin{itemize}
-  \it Guru yoga (meditate on the guru as a deity) is unique to Tibetan yoga. 
-  \it The use of impure substances in secret initiation is to demonstrate the 
-illusory nature of the `pure/impure distinction'. 
-\end{itemize}
-
-\end{document}
+\documentclass[letterpaper,12pt,english]{article} %report for homework
+
+\usepackage{babel}
+\usepackage{times}
+\usepackage{pifont}
+\usepackage{moreverb}
+\usepackage{alltt}
+\usepackage[pdfauthor={Tejas (Tj) Hariharan}]{hyperref}
+
+\begin{document}
+\renewcommand{\subitem}{\item[\ding{229}]}
+\renewcommand{\it}{\item[\ding{225}]}
+
+\title{Lecture: \today }\author{Tejas (Tj) Hariharan 
+\footnote{Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share 
+Alike 3.0 License. c.f. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ for full license}} 
+\maketitle
+
+\section{For Today's Class}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it Tantra Kinds and Practices.  
+  \it Tests are going to cover exactly what the review sheet has. 
+  \it Thursday at 10.20 prof will show a movie in her rs100 class.  
+\end{itemize}
+
+\section{Four Kinds of Tantra}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it Remember, tantra is more than just a practice, there are root texts, 
+commentaries and practices as well (Cycle of texts and a grouping of practices).
+  \subitem also remember that one MUST be initiated into the practice before 
+doing anything.   
+  \it Four kinds are: \textbf{Action, Performance, Yoga, Highest Yoga}.
+  \subitem Each one of the `four levels of tantric desires' are increasingly 
+difficult.   
+  \it Each of the types work on purification, for instance action tantra works 
+on purification via action (of body, speech and mind). 
+  \subitem For instance, construction of ritual objects, with the right 
+thought and speech and so on can be considered.  
+  \it  At the level of Action Tantra, the relation to the gods, are `god and devotee'
+  \it Performance tantra: You are still doing external activities but 
+introducing internal meditations etc as well.  
+  \subitem There are two types of yoga here: Yoga with signs, and Formless 
+yoga (in the latter the relationship with the devotee is more of one of 
+companion or friends).
+  \it Yoga Tantra: The third level of Tantra, here there is no external 
+actions anymore, it is all internal. You get into the deeper levels of 
+meditations etc, you begin to envision yourself as the actual deity.
+  \subitem Like the above, there are two parts (see slides): Outer (self and 
+deity are separate) and Inner (once you get deeper into the meditation, the 
+deity enters the self). You don't merge with the deity, so much as generate the 
+deity. 
+  \subitem The highest yoga tantra have to do with certain 
+texts/traditions each requiring separate initiations (or practices etc) (like Hevajra etc, see slides, these have the highest amount of sexual unity 
+images, ie: unity of deities).
+  \it Mind of Clear Light: Buddha Nature, true nature of consciousness etc.    
+  \it The last stage of the highest form of \textbf{Yoga Tantra} is sexual 
+practice, but a lot of this was done in a visualisation form instead of actual 
+practice, as monks were to be celibate. 
+  \it KaalaCakra (kaala=time) traditions is the one dalai lama most does initiation into.   
+\end{itemize}
+
+\section{Four Initiations}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it Guru yoga (meditate on the guru as a deity) is unique to Tibetan yoga. 
+  \it The use of impure substances in secret initiation is to demonstrate the 
+illusory nature of the `pure/impure distinction'. 
+\end{itemize}
+
+\end{document}

File 1125/notes/rs205/Lec_May17.pdf

Binary file modified.

File 1125/notes/rs205/Lec_May17.tex

-\documentclass[letterpaper,12pt,english]{article} %report for homework
-
-\usepackage{babel}
-\usepackage{times}
-\usepackage{pifont}
-\usepackage{moreverb}
-\usepackage{alltt}
-\usepackage[pdfauthor={Tejas (Tj) Hariharan}]{hyperref}
-
-\begin{document}
-\renewcommand{\subitem}{\item[\ding{229}]}
-\renewcommand{\it}{\item[\ding{225}]}
-
-\title{Lecture: \today }\author{Tejas (Tj) Hariharan 
-\footnote{Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share 
-Alike 3.0 License. c.f. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ for full license}} 
-\maketitle
-
-\section{Tantra: Preliminary Practices}
-\begin{itemize}
-  \it White as the colour of death in Asia, generally. 
-  \it Even after initiation there are some prelimanary practices before you 
-get into the real practices of the text.   
-  \it Sadhanas: Combination of physical movements and visualisation (a little 
-package of a practice combining movements, visualisations, chants etc).
-  \subitem The idea is to help reorient yourself to the religious goals and 
-the kind of orientation required to be a arhat. If you act like a arhat 
-eventually you will become one.   
-  \subitem Related to the idea that we all have to Buddha nature, and the 
-buddha nature acts in certain ways, and we need to orient ourselves to act and 
-think in order to bring OUT the buddha nature etc. 
-  \it Guru Yoga is unique to tibetian buddhism. 
-  \it Compassion is extended to ALL beings not just humans. 
-  \subitem Tibetian teachers say that going into Tantra requires the highest 
-level of compassion, due to the danger it requires one to face etc, one must 
-be compassionate to want to get into it. 
-  \it The mandala offering is about offering your universe, however 
-constructed, the intent is to offer your whole universe to the deity or the 
-guru in question. 
-  \subitem The idea of `giving to the religious leaders' as based on 
-individualism etc in america but as less of `selfish' thing in India. 
-Donating/Charity vs Giving as a part of your daily life and an automatic thing.  
-  \it The guru is the reflection of your goal, and is seen as neccesary in 
-reaching the correct place, the ability is within you, BUT the guru is 
-important to help in bringing it out.
-  \subitem Once one chooses ones guru, thats it, the Guru is the ultimate goal 
-and like a Buddha to you, he has ultimate control over your spiritual life. 
-This is especially a problem once the whole thing is removed from the cultural 
-context, western guru's would be more comfortable with going against the trust 
-due to the removal of the cultural context etc. 
-  \it This raises the issue of what an enlightened being, or a perfect Guru is 
-etc, especially in the west because westerners do not have the cultural 
-context to judge these things. (cf above; issues occuring more in western 
-schools etc due to absence of cultural context). 
-  \it      
-\end{itemize}
-
-\section{}
-\begin{itemize}
-  \item 
-\end{itemize}
-\end{document}
+\documentclass[letterpaper,12pt,english]{article} %report for homework
+
+\usepackage{babel}
+\usepackage{times}
+\usepackage{pifont}
+\usepackage{moreverb}
+\usepackage{alltt}
+\usepackage[pdfauthor={Tejas (Tj) Hariharan}]{hyperref}
+
+\begin{document}
+\renewcommand{\subitem}{\item[\ding{229}]}
+\renewcommand{\it}{\item[\ding{225}]}
+
+\title{Lecture: \today }\author{Tejas (Tj) Hariharan 
+\footnote{Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share 
+Alike 3.0 License. c.f. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ for full license}} 
+\maketitle
+
+\section{Tantra: Preliminary Practices}
+\begin{itemize}
+  \it White as the colour of death in Asia, generally. 
+  \it Even after initiation there are some prelimanary practices before you 
+get into the real practices of the text.   
+  \it Sadhanas: Combination of physical movements and visualisation (a little 
+package of a practice combining movements, visualisations, chants etc).
+  \subitem The idea is to help reorient yourself to the religious goals and 
+the kind of orientation required to be a arhat. If you act like a arhat 
+eventually you will become one.   
+  \subitem Related to the idea that we all have to Buddha nature, and the 
+buddha nature acts in certain ways, and we need to orient ourselves to act and 
+think in order to bring OUT the buddha nature etc. 
+  \it Guru Yoga is unique to tibetian buddhism. 
+  \it Compassion is extended to ALL beings not just humans. 
+  \subitem Tibetian teachers say that going into Tantra requires the highest 
+level of compassion, due to the danger it requires one to face etc, one must 
+be compassionate to want to get into it. 
+  \it The mandala offering is about offering your universe, however 
+constructed, the intent is to offer your whole universe to the deity or the 
+guru in question. 
+  \subitem The idea of `giving to the religious leaders' as based on 
+individualism etc in america but as less of `selfish' thing in India. 
+Donating/Charity vs Giving as a part of your daily life and an automatic thing.  
+  \it The guru is the reflection of your goal, and is seen as neccesary in 
+reaching the correct place, the ability is within you, BUT the guru is 
+important to help in bringing it out.
+  \subitem Once one chooses ones guru, thats it, the Guru is the ultimate goal 
+and like a Buddha to you, he has ultimate control over your spiritual life. 
+This is especially a problem once the whole thing is removed from the cultural 
+context, western guru's would be more comfortable with going against the trust 
+due to the removal of the cultural context etc. 
+  \it This raises the issue of what an enlightened being, or a perfect Guru is 
+etc, especially in the west because westerners do not have the cultural 
+context to judge these things. (cf above; issues occuring more in western 
+schools etc due to absence of cultural context). 
+\end{itemize}
+
+\end{document}