Source

sqlalchemy-2422 / lib / sqlalchemy / pool.py

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# sqlalchemy/pool.py
# Copyright (C) 2005-2012 the SQLAlchemy authors and contributors <see AUTHORS file>
#
# This module is part of SQLAlchemy and is released under
# the MIT License: http://www.opensource.org/licenses/mit-license.php


"""Connection pooling for DB-API connections.

Provides a number of connection pool implementations for a variety of
usage scenarios and thread behavior requirements imposed by the
application, DB-API or database itself.

Also provides a DB-API 2.0 connection proxying mechanism allowing
regular DB-API connect() methods to be transparently managed by a
SQLAlchemy connection pool.
"""

import weakref, time, traceback

from sqlalchemy import exc, log, event, events, interfaces, util
from sqlalchemy.util import queue as sqla_queue
from sqlalchemy.util import threading, memoized_property, \
    chop_traceback

proxies = {}

def manage(module, **params):
    """Return a proxy for a DB-API module that automatically 
    pools connections.

    Given a DB-API 2.0 module and pool management parameters, returns
    a proxy for the module that will automatically pool connections,
    creating new connection pools for each distinct set of connection
    arguments sent to the decorated module's connect() function.

    :param module: a DB-API 2.0 database module

    :param poolclass: the class used by the pool module to provide
      pooling.  Defaults to :class:`.QueuePool`.

    :param \*\*params: will be passed through to *poolclass*

    """
    try:
        return proxies[module]
    except KeyError:
        return proxies.setdefault(module, _DBProxy(module, **params))

def clear_managers():
    """Remove all current DB-API 2.0 managers.

    All pools and connections are disposed.
    """

    for manager in proxies.itervalues():
        manager.close()
    proxies.clear()

reset_rollback = util.symbol('reset_rollback')
reset_commit = util.symbol('reset_commit')
reset_none = util.symbol('reset_none')


class Pool(log.Identified):
    """Abstract base class for connection pools."""

    def __init__(self, 
                    creator, recycle=-1, echo=None, 
                    use_threadlocal=False,
                    logging_name=None,
                    reset_on_return=True, 
                    listeners=None,
                    events=None,
                    _dispatch=None):
        """
        Construct a Pool.

        :param creator: a callable function that returns a DB-API
          connection object.  The function will be called with
          parameters.

        :param recycle: If set to non -1, number of seconds between
          connection recycling, which means upon checkout, if this
          timeout is surpassed the connection will be closed and
          replaced with a newly opened connection. Defaults to -1.

        :param logging_name:  String identifier which will be used within
          the "name" field of logging records generated within the 
          "sqlalchemy.pool" logger. Defaults to a hexstring of the object's 
          id.

        :param echo: If True, connections being pulled and retrieved
          from the pool will be logged to the standard output, as well
          as pool sizing information.  Echoing can also be achieved by
          enabling logging for the "sqlalchemy.pool"
          namespace. Defaults to False.

        :param use_threadlocal: If set to True, repeated calls to
          :meth:`connect` within the same application thread will be
          guaranteed to return the same connection object, if one has
          already been retrieved from the pool and has not been
          returned yet.  Offers a slight performance advantage at the
          cost of individual transactions by default.  The
          :meth:`unique_connection` method is provided to bypass the
          threadlocal behavior installed into :meth:`connect`.

        :param reset_on_return: If true, reset the database state of
          connections returned to the pool.  This is typically a
          ROLLBACK to release locks and transaction resources.
          Disable at your own peril.  Defaults to True.

        :param events: a list of 2-tuples, each of the form
         ``(callable, target)`` which will be passed to event.listen()
         upon construction.   Provided here so that event listeners
         can be assigned via ``create_engine`` before dialect-level
         listeners are applied.

        :param listeners: Deprecated.  A list of
          :class:`~sqlalchemy.interfaces.PoolListener`-like objects or
          dictionaries of callables that receive events when DB-API
          connections are created, checked out and checked in to the
          pool.  This has been superseded by 
          :func:`~sqlalchemy.event.listen`.

        """
        if logging_name:
            self.logging_name = self._orig_logging_name = logging_name
        else:
            self._orig_logging_name = None

        log.instance_logger(self, echoflag=echo)
        self._threadconns = threading.local()
        self._creator = creator
        self._recycle = recycle
        self._use_threadlocal = use_threadlocal
        if reset_on_return in ('rollback', True, reset_rollback):
            self._reset_on_return = reset_rollback
        elif reset_on_return in (None, False, reset_none):
            self._reset_on_return = reset_none
        elif reset_on_return in ('commit', reset_commit):
            self._reset_on_return = reset_commit
        else:
            raise exc.ArgumentError(
                        "Invalid value for 'reset_on_return': %r" 
                                    % reset_on_return)

        self.echo = echo
        if _dispatch:
            self.dispatch._update(_dispatch, only_propagate=False)
        if events:
            for fn, target in events:
                event.listen(self, target, fn)
        if listeners:
            util.warn_deprecated(
                        "The 'listeners' argument to Pool (and "
                        "create_engine()) is deprecated.  Use event.listen().")
            for l in listeners:
                self.add_listener(l)

    dispatch = event.dispatcher(events.PoolEvents)

    @util.deprecated(2.7, "Pool.add_listener is deprecated.  Use event.listen()")
    def add_listener(self, listener):
        """Add a :class:`.PoolListener`-like object to this pool.

        ``listener`` may be an object that implements some or all of
        PoolListener, or a dictionary of callables containing implementations
        of some or all of the named methods in PoolListener.

        """
        interfaces.PoolListener._adapt_listener(self, listener)

    def unique_connection(self):
        """Produce a DBAPI connection that is not referenced by any
        thread-local context.

        This method is different from :meth:`.Pool.connect` only if the
        ``use_threadlocal`` flag has been set to ``True``.

        """

        return _ConnectionFairy(self).checkout()

    def _create_connection(self):
        """Called by subclasses to create a new ConnectionRecord."""

        return _ConnectionRecord(self)

    def recreate(self):
        """Return a new :class:`.Pool`, of the same class as this one
        and configured with identical creation arguments.

        This method is used in conjunection with :meth:`dispose` 
        to close out an entire :class:`.Pool` and create a new one in 
        its place.

        """

        raise NotImplementedError()

    def dispose(self):
        """Dispose of this pool.

        This method leaves the possibility of checked-out connections
        remaining open, as it only affects connections that are
        idle in the pool.
        
        See also the :meth:`Pool.recreate` method.

        """

        raise NotImplementedError()

    def connect(self):
        """Return a DBAPI connection from the pool.

        The connection is instrumented such that when its 
        ``close()`` method is called, the connection will be returned to 
        the pool.

        """
        if not self._use_threadlocal:
            return _ConnectionFairy(self).checkout()

        try:
            rec = self._threadconns.current()
            if rec:
                return rec.checkout()
        except AttributeError:
            pass

        agent = _ConnectionFairy(self)
        self._threadconns.current = weakref.ref(agent)
        return agent.checkout()

    def _return_conn(self, record):
        """Given a _ConnectionRecord, return it to the :class:`.Pool`.

        This method is called when an instrumented DBAPI connection
        has its ``close()`` method called.

        """
        if self._use_threadlocal:
            try:
                del self._threadconns.current
            except AttributeError:
                pass
        self._do_return_conn(record)

    def _do_get(self):
        """Implementation for :meth:`get`, supplied by subclasses."""

        raise NotImplementedError()

    def _do_return_conn(self, conn):
        """Implementation for :meth:`return_conn`, supplied by subclasses."""

        raise NotImplementedError()

    def status(self):
        raise NotImplementedError()


class _ConnectionRecord(object):
    finalize_callback = None

    def __init__(self, pool):
        self.__pool = pool
        self.connection = self.__connect()
        self.info = {}

        pool.dispatch.first_connect.exec_once(self.connection, self)
        pool.dispatch.connect(self.connection, self)

    def close(self):
        if self.connection is not None:
            self.__pool.logger.debug("Closing connection %r", self.connection)
            try:
                self.connection.close()
            except (SystemExit, KeyboardInterrupt):
                raise
            except:
                self.__pool.logger.debug("Exception closing connection %r",
                                self.connection)

    def invalidate(self, e=None):
        if e is not None:
            self.__pool.logger.info(
                "Invalidate connection %r (reason: %s:%s)",
                self.connection, e.__class__.__name__, e)
        else:
            self.__pool.logger.info(
                "Invalidate connection %r", self.connection)
        self.__close()
        self.connection = None

    def get_connection(self):
        if self.connection is None:
            self.connection = self.__connect()
            self.info.clear()
            if self.__pool.dispatch.connect:
                self.__pool.dispatch.connect(self.connection, self)
        elif self.__pool._recycle > -1 and \
                time.time() - self.starttime > self.__pool._recycle:
            self.__pool.logger.info(
                    "Connection %r exceeded timeout; recycling",
                    self.connection)
            self.__close()
            self.connection = self.__connect()
            self.info.clear()
            if self.__pool.dispatch.connect:
                self.__pool.dispatch.connect(self.connection, self)
        return self.connection

    def __close(self):
        try:
            self.__pool.logger.debug("Closing connection %r", self.connection)
            self.connection.close()
        except (SystemExit, KeyboardInterrupt):
            raise
        except Exception, e:
            self.__pool.logger.debug(
                        "Connection %r threw an error on close: %s",
                        self.connection, e)

    def __connect(self):
        try:
            self.starttime = time.time()
            connection = self.__pool._creator()
            self.__pool.logger.debug("Created new connection %r", connection)
            return connection
        except Exception, e:
            self.__pool.logger.debug("Error on connect(): %s", e)
            raise


def _finalize_fairy(connection, connection_record, pool, ref, echo):
    _refs.discard(connection_record)

    if ref is not None and \
                connection_record.fairy is not ref:
        return

    if connection is not None:
        try:
            if pool._reset_on_return is reset_rollback:
                connection.rollback()
            elif pool._reset_on_return is reset_commit:
                connection.commit()
            # Immediately close detached instances
            if connection_record is None:
                connection.close()
        except Exception, e:
            if connection_record is not None:
                connection_record.invalidate(e=e)
            if isinstance(e, (SystemExit, KeyboardInterrupt)):
                raise

    if connection_record is not None:
        connection_record.fairy = None
        if echo:
            pool.logger.debug("Connection %r being returned to pool", 
                                    connection)
        if connection_record.finalize_callback:
            connection_record.finalize_callback(connection)
            del connection_record.finalize_callback 
        if pool.dispatch.checkin:
            pool.dispatch.checkin(connection, connection_record)
        pool._return_conn(connection_record)

_refs = set()

class _ConnectionFairy(object):
    """Proxies a DB-API connection and provides return-on-dereference
    support."""

    __slots__ = '_pool', '__counter', 'connection', \
                '_connection_record', '__weakref__', \
                '_detached_info', '_echo'

    def __init__(self, pool):
        self._pool = pool
        self.__counter = 0
        self._echo = _echo = pool._should_log_debug()
        try:
            rec = self._connection_record = pool._do_get()
            conn = self.connection = self._connection_record.get_connection()
            rec.fairy = weakref.ref(
                            self, 
                            lambda ref:_finalize_fairy and _finalize_fairy(conn, rec, pool, ref, _echo)
                        )
            _refs.add(rec)
        except:
            # helps with endless __getattr__ loops later on
            self.connection = None 
            self._connection_record = None
            raise
        if self._echo:
            self._pool.logger.debug("Connection %r checked out from pool" %
                       self.connection)

    @property
    def _logger(self):
        return self._pool.logger

    @property
    def is_valid(self):
        return self.connection is not None

    @property
    def info(self):
        """An info collection unique to this DB-API connection."""

        try:
            return self._connection_record.info
        except AttributeError:
            if self.connection is None:
                raise exc.InvalidRequestError("This connection is closed")
            try:
                return self._detached_info
            except AttributeError:
                self._detached_info = value = {}
                return value

    def invalidate(self, e=None):
        """Mark this connection as invalidated.

        The connection will be immediately closed.  The containing
        ConnectionRecord will create a new connection when next used.
        """

        if self.connection is None:
            raise exc.InvalidRequestError("This connection is closed")
        if self._connection_record is not None:
            self._connection_record.invalidate(e=e)
        self.connection = None
        self._close()

    def cursor(self, *args, **kwargs):
        return self.connection.cursor(*args, **kwargs)

    def __getattr__(self, key):
        return getattr(self.connection, key)

    def checkout(self):
        if self.connection is None:
            raise exc.InvalidRequestError("This connection is closed")
        self.__counter += 1

        if not self._pool.dispatch.checkout or self.__counter != 1:
            return self

        # Pool listeners can trigger a reconnection on checkout
        attempts = 2
        while attempts > 0:
            try:
                self._pool.dispatch.checkout(self.connection, 
                                            self._connection_record,
                                            self)
                return self
            except exc.DisconnectionError, e:
                self._pool.logger.info(
                "Disconnection detected on checkout: %s", e)
                self._connection_record.invalidate(e)
                self.connection = self._connection_record.get_connection()
                attempts -= 1

        self._pool.logger.info("Reconnection attempts exhausted on checkout")
        self.invalidate()
        raise exc.InvalidRequestError("This connection is closed")

    def detach(self):
        """Separate this connection from its Pool.

        This means that the connection will no longer be returned to the
        pool when closed, and will instead be literally closed.  The
        containing ConnectionRecord is separated from the DB-API connection,
        and will create a new connection when next used.

        Note that any overall connection limiting constraints imposed by a
        Pool implementation may be violated after a detach, as the detached
        connection is removed from the pool's knowledge and control.
        """

        if self._connection_record is not None:
            _refs.remove(self._connection_record)
            self._connection_record.fairy = None
            self._connection_record.connection = None
            self._pool._do_return_conn(self._connection_record)
            self._detached_info = \
              self._connection_record.info.copy()
            self._connection_record = None

    def close(self):
        self.__counter -= 1
        if self.__counter == 0:
            self._close()

    def _close(self):
        _finalize_fairy(self.connection, self._connection_record, 
                            self._pool, None, self._echo)
        self.connection = None
        self._connection_record = None

class SingletonThreadPool(Pool):
    """A Pool that maintains one connection per thread.

    Maintains one connection per each thread, never moving a connection to a
    thread other than the one which it was created in.

    Options are the same as those of :class:`.Pool`, as well as:

    :param pool_size: The number of threads in which to maintain connections 
        at once.  Defaults to five.

    :class:`.SingletonThreadPool` is used by the SQLite dialect
    automatically when a memory-based database is used.
    See :ref:`sqlite_toplevel`.

    """

    def __init__(self, creator, pool_size=5, **kw):
        kw['use_threadlocal'] = True
        Pool.__init__(self, creator, **kw)
        self._conn = threading.local()
        self._all_conns = set()
        self.size = pool_size

    def recreate(self):
        self.logger.info("Pool recreating")
        return self.__class__(self._creator, 
            pool_size=self.size, 
            recycle=self._recycle, 
            echo=self.echo, 
            logging_name=self._orig_logging_name,
            use_threadlocal=self._use_threadlocal, 
            _dispatch=self.dispatch)

    def dispose(self):
        """Dispose of this pool."""

        for conn in self._all_conns:
            try:
                conn.close()
            except (SystemExit, KeyboardInterrupt):
                raise
            except:
                # pysqlite won't even let you close a conn from a thread
                # that didn't create it
                pass

        self._all_conns.clear()

    def _cleanup(self):
        while len(self._all_conns) > self.size:
            c = self._all_conns.pop()
            c.close()

    def status(self):
        return "SingletonThreadPool id:%d size: %d" % \
                            (id(self), len(self._all_conns))

    def _do_return_conn(self, conn):
        pass

    def _do_get(self):
        try:
            c = self._conn.current()
            if c:
                return c
        except AttributeError:
            pass
        c = self._create_connection()
        self._conn.current = weakref.ref(c)
        self._all_conns.add(c)
        if len(self._all_conns) > self.size:
            self._cleanup()
        return c

class QueuePool(Pool):
    """A :class:`.Pool` that imposes a limit on the number of open connections.

    :class:`.QueuePool` is the default pooling implementation used for 
    all :class:`.Engine` objects, unless the SQLite dialect is in use.

    """

    def __init__(self, creator, pool_size=5, max_overflow=10, timeout=30,
                 **kw):
        """
        Construct a QueuePool.

        :param creator: a callable function that returns a DB-API
          connection object.  The function will be called with
          parameters.

        :param pool_size: The size of the pool to be maintained,
          defaults to 5. This is the largest number of connections that
          will be kept persistently in the pool. Note that the pool
          begins with no connections; once this number of connections
          is requested, that number of connections will remain.
          ``pool_size`` can be set to 0 to indicate no size limit; to
          disable pooling, use a :class:`~sqlalchemy.pool.NullPool`
          instead.

        :param max_overflow: The maximum overflow size of the
          pool. When the number of checked-out connections reaches the
          size set in pool_size, additional connections will be
          returned up to this limit. When those additional connections
          are returned to the pool, they are disconnected and
          discarded. It follows then that the total number of
          simultaneous connections the pool will allow is pool_size +
          `max_overflow`, and the total number of "sleeping"
          connections the pool will allow is pool_size. `max_overflow`
          can be set to -1 to indicate no overflow limit; no limit
          will be placed on the total number of concurrent
          connections. Defaults to 10.

        :param timeout: The number of seconds to wait before giving up
          on returning a connection. Defaults to 30.

        :param recycle: If set to non -1, number of seconds between
          connection recycling, which means upon checkout, if this
          timeout is surpassed the connection will be closed and
          replaced with a newly opened connection. Defaults to -1.

        :param echo: If True, connections being pulled and retrieved
          from the pool will be logged to the standard output, as well
          as pool sizing information.  Echoing can also be achieved by
          enabling logging for the "sqlalchemy.pool"
          namespace. Defaults to False.

        :param use_threadlocal: If set to True, repeated calls to
          :meth:`connect` within the same application thread will be
          guaranteed to return the same connection object, if one has
          already been retrieved from the pool and has not been
          returned yet.  Offers a slight performance advantage at the
          cost of individual transactions by default.  The
          :meth:`unique_connection` method is provided to bypass the
          threadlocal behavior installed into :meth:`connect`.

        :param reset_on_return: Determine steps to take on 
          connections as they are returned to the pool.   
          As of SQLAlchemy 0.7.6, reset_on_return can have any 
          of these values:
          
          * 'rollback' - call rollback() on the connection,
            to release locks and transaction resources.
            This is the default value.  The vast majority
            of use cases should leave this value set.
          * True - same as 'rollback', this is here for 
            backwards compatibility.
          * 'commit' - call commit() on the connection,
            to release locks and transaction resources. 
            A commit here may be desirable for databases that
            cache query plans if a commit is emitted,
            such as Microsoft SQL Server.  However, this
            value is more dangerous than 'rollback' because
            any data changes present on the transaction
            are committed unconditionally.
           * None - don't do anything on the connection.
             This setting should only be made on a database
             that has no transaction support at all,
             namely MySQL MyISAM.   By not doing anything,
             performance can be improved.   This
             setting should **never be selected** for a 
             database that supports transactions,
             as it will lead to deadlocks and stale
             state.
            * False - same as None, this is here for
              backwards compatibility.
          
        :param listeners: A list of
          :class:`~sqlalchemy.interfaces.PoolListener`-like objects or
          dictionaries of callables that receive events when DB-API
          connections are created, checked out and checked in to the
          pool.

        """
        Pool.__init__(self, creator, **kw)
        self._pool = sqla_queue.Queue(pool_size)
        self._overflow = 0 - pool_size
        self._max_overflow = max_overflow
        self._timeout = timeout
        self._overflow_lock = self._max_overflow > -1 and \
                                    threading.Lock() or None

    def recreate(self):
        self.logger.info("Pool recreating")
        return self.__class__(self._creator, pool_size=self._pool.maxsize, 
                          max_overflow=self._max_overflow,
                          timeout=self._timeout, 
                          recycle=self._recycle, echo=self.echo, 
                          logging_name=self._orig_logging_name,
                          use_threadlocal=self._use_threadlocal,
                          _dispatch=self.dispatch)

    def _do_return_conn(self, conn):
        try:
            self._pool.put(conn, False)
        except sqla_queue.Full:
            conn.close()
            if self._overflow_lock is None:
                self._overflow -= 1
            else:
                self._overflow_lock.acquire()
                try:
                    self._overflow -= 1
                finally:
                    self._overflow_lock.release()

    def _do_get(self):
        try:
            wait = self._max_overflow > -1 and \
                        self._overflow >= self._max_overflow
            return self._pool.get(wait, self._timeout)
        except sqla_queue.Empty:
            if self._max_overflow > -1 and \
                        self._overflow >= self._max_overflow:
                if not wait:
                    return self._do_get()
                else:
                    raise exc.TimeoutError(
                            "QueuePool limit of size %d overflow %d reached, "
                            "connection timed out, timeout %d" % 
                            (self.size(), self.overflow(), self._timeout))

            if self._overflow_lock is not None:
                self._overflow_lock.acquire()

            if self._max_overflow > -1 and \
                        self._overflow >= self._max_overflow:
                if self._overflow_lock is not None:
                    self._overflow_lock.release()
                return self._do_get()

            try:
                con = self._create_connection()
                self._overflow += 1
            finally:
                if self._overflow_lock is not None:
                    self._overflow_lock.release()
            return con

    def dispose(self):
        while True:
            try:
                conn = self._pool.get(False)
                conn.close()
            except sqla_queue.Empty:
                break

        self._overflow = 0 - self.size()
        self.logger.info("Pool disposed. %s", self.status())

    def status(self):
        return "Pool size: %d  Connections in pool: %d "\
                "Current Overflow: %d Current Checked out "\
                "connections: %d" % (self.size(), 
                                    self.checkedin(), 
                                    self.overflow(), 
                                    self.checkedout())

    def size(self):
        return self._pool.maxsize

    def checkedin(self):
        return self._pool.qsize()

    def overflow(self):
        return self._overflow

    def checkedout(self):
        return self._pool.maxsize - self._pool.qsize() + self._overflow

class NullPool(Pool):
    """A Pool which does not pool connections.

    Instead it literally opens and closes the underlying DB-API connection
    per each connection open/close.

    Reconnect-related functions such as ``recycle`` and connection
    invalidation are not supported by this Pool implementation, since
    no connections are held persistently.

    :class:`.NullPool` is used by the SQlite dialect automatically
    when a file-based database is used (as of SQLAlchemy 0.7).
    See :ref:`sqlite_toplevel`.

    """

    def status(self):
        return "NullPool"

    def _do_return_conn(self, conn):
        conn.close()

    def _do_get(self):
        return self._create_connection()

    def recreate(self):
        self.logger.info("Pool recreating")

        return self.__class__(self._creator, 
            recycle=self._recycle, 
            echo=self.echo, 
            logging_name=self._orig_logging_name,
            use_threadlocal=self._use_threadlocal, 
            _dispatch=self.dispatch)

    def dispose(self):
        pass


class StaticPool(Pool):
    """A Pool of exactly one connection, used for all requests.

    Reconnect-related functions such as ``recycle`` and connection
    invalidation (which is also used to support auto-reconnect) are not
    currently supported by this Pool implementation but may be implemented
    in a future release.

    """

    @memoized_property
    def _conn(self):
        return self._creator()

    @memoized_property
    def connection(self):
        return _ConnectionRecord(self)

    def status(self):
        return "StaticPool"

    def dispose(self):
        if '_conn' in self.__dict__:
            self._conn.close()
            self._conn = None

    def recreate(self):
        self.logger.info("Pool recreating")
        return self.__class__(creator=self._creator,
                              recycle=self._recycle,
                              use_threadlocal=self._use_threadlocal,
                              reset_on_return=self._reset_on_return,
                              echo=self.echo,
                              logging_name=self._orig_logging_name,
                              _dispatch=self.dispatch)

    def _create_connection(self):
        return self._conn

    def _do_return_conn(self, conn):
        pass

    def _do_get(self):
        return self.connection

class AssertionPool(Pool):
    """A :class:`.Pool` that allows at most one checked out connection at any given
    time.

    This will raise an exception if more than one connection is checked out
    at a time.  Useful for debugging code that is using more connections
    than desired.
    
    :class:`.AssertionPool` also logs a traceback of where
    the original connection was checked out, and reports
    this in the assertion error raised (new in 0.7).

    """
    def __init__(self, *args, **kw):
        self._conn = None
        self._checked_out = False
        self._store_traceback = kw.pop('store_traceback', True)
        self._checkout_traceback = None
        Pool.__init__(self, *args, **kw)

    def status(self):
        return "AssertionPool"

    def _do_return_conn(self, conn):
        if not self._checked_out:
            raise AssertionError("connection is not checked out")
        self._checked_out = False
        assert conn is self._conn

    def dispose(self):
        self._checked_out = False
        if self._conn:
            self._conn.close()

    def recreate(self):
        self.logger.info("Pool recreating")
        return self.__class__(self._creator, echo=self.echo, 
                            logging_name=self._orig_logging_name,
                            _dispatch=self.dispatch)

    def _do_get(self):
        if self._checked_out:
            if self._checkout_traceback:
                suffix = ' at:\n%s' % ''.join(
                    chop_traceback(self._checkout_traceback))
            else:
                suffix = ''
            raise AssertionError("connection is already checked out" + suffix)

        if not self._conn:
            self._conn = self._create_connection()

        self._checked_out = True
        if self._store_traceback:
            self._checkout_traceback = traceback.format_stack()
        return self._conn

class _DBProxy(object):
    """Layers connection pooling behavior on top of a standard DB-API module.

    Proxies a DB-API 2.0 connect() call to a connection pool keyed to the
    specific connect parameters. Other functions and attributes are delegated
    to the underlying DB-API module.
    """

    def __init__(self, module, poolclass=QueuePool, **kw):
        """Initializes a new proxy.

        module
          a DB-API 2.0 module

        poolclass
          a Pool class, defaulting to QueuePool

        Other parameters are sent to the Pool object's constructor.

        """

        self.module = module
        self.kw = kw
        self.poolclass = poolclass
        self.pools = {}
        self._create_pool_mutex = threading.Lock()

    def close(self):
        for key in self.pools.keys():
            del self.pools[key]

    def __del__(self):
        self.close()

    def __getattr__(self, key):
        return getattr(self.module, key)

    def get_pool(self, *args, **kw):
        key = self._serialize(*args, **kw)
        try:
            return self.pools[key]
        except KeyError:
            self._create_pool_mutex.acquire()
            try:
                if key not in self.pools:
                    kw.pop('sa_pool_key', None)
                    pool = self.poolclass(lambda: 
                                self.module.connect(*args, **kw), **self.kw)
                    self.pools[key] = pool
                    return pool
                else:
                    return self.pools[key]
            finally:
                self._create_pool_mutex.release()

    def connect(self, *args, **kw):
        """Activate a connection to the database.

        Connect to the database using this DBProxy's module and the given
        connect arguments.  If the arguments match an existing pool, the
        connection will be returned from the pool's current thread-local
        connection instance, or if there is no thread-local connection
        instance it will be checked out from the set of pooled connections.

        If the pool has no available connections and allows new connections
        to be created, a new database connection will be made.

        """

        return self.get_pool(*args, **kw).connect()

    def dispose(self, *args, **kw):
        """Dispose the pool referenced by the given connect arguments."""

        key = self._serialize(*args, **kw)
        try:
            del self.pools[key]
        except KeyError:
            pass

    def _serialize(self, *args, **kw):
        if "sa_pool_key" in kw:
            return kw['sa_pool_key']

        return tuple(
            list(args) + 
            [(k, kw[k]) for k in sorted(kw)]
        )
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