Source

pypy / lib-python / 2.7 / json / __init__.py

r"""JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) <http://json.org> is a subset of
JavaScript syntax (ECMA-262 3rd edition) used as a lightweight data
interchange format.

:mod:`json` exposes an API familiar to users of the standard library
:mod:`marshal` and :mod:`pickle` modules. It is the externally maintained
version of the :mod:`json` library contained in Python 2.6, but maintains
compatibility with Python 2.4 and Python 2.5 and (currently) has
significant performance advantages, even without using the optional C
extension for speedups.

Encoding basic Python object hierarchies::

    >>> import json
    >>> json.dumps(['foo', {'bar': ('baz', None, 1.0, 2)}])
    '["foo", {"bar": ["baz", null, 1.0, 2]}]'
    >>> print json.dumps("\"foo\bar")
    "\"foo\bar"
    >>> print json.dumps(u'\u1234')
    "\u1234"
    >>> print json.dumps('\\')
    "\\"
    >>> print json.dumps({"c": 0, "b": 0, "a": 0}, sort_keys=True)
    {"a": 0, "b": 0, "c": 0}
    >>> from StringIO import StringIO
    >>> io = StringIO()
    >>> json.dump(['streaming API'], io)
    >>> io.getvalue()
    '["streaming API"]'

Compact encoding::

    >>> import json
    >>> json.dumps([1,2,3,{'4': 5, '6': 7}], sort_keys=True, separators=(',',':'))
    '[1,2,3,{"4":5,"6":7}]'

Pretty printing::

    >>> import json
    >>> s = json.dumps({'4': 5, '6': 7}, sort_keys=True, indent=4)
    >>> print '\n'.join([l.rstrip() for l in  s.splitlines()])
    {
        "4": 5,
        "6": 7
    }

Decoding JSON::

    >>> import json
    >>> obj = [u'foo', {u'bar': [u'baz', None, 1.0, 2]}]
    >>> json.loads('["foo", {"bar":["baz", null, 1.0, 2]}]') == obj
    True
    >>> json.loads('"\\"foo\\bar"') == u'"foo\x08ar'
    True
    >>> from StringIO import StringIO
    >>> io = StringIO('["streaming API"]')
    >>> json.load(io)[0] == 'streaming API'
    True

Specializing JSON object decoding::

    >>> import json
    >>> def as_complex(dct):
    ...     if '__complex__' in dct:
    ...         return complex(dct['real'], dct['imag'])
    ...     return dct
    ...
    >>> json.loads('{"__complex__": true, "real": 1, "imag": 2}',
    ...     object_hook=as_complex)
    (1+2j)
    >>> from decimal import Decimal
    >>> json.loads('1.1', parse_float=Decimal) == Decimal('1.1')
    True

Specializing JSON object encoding::

    >>> import json
    >>> def encode_complex(obj):
    ...     if isinstance(obj, complex):
    ...         return [obj.real, obj.imag]
    ...     raise TypeError(repr(o) + " is not JSON serializable")
    ...
    >>> json.dumps(2 + 1j, default=encode_complex)
    '[2.0, 1.0]'
    >>> json.JSONEncoder(default=encode_complex).encode(2 + 1j)
    '[2.0, 1.0]'
    >>> ''.join(json.JSONEncoder(default=encode_complex).iterencode(2 + 1j))
    '[2.0, 1.0]'


Using json.tool from the shell to validate and pretty-print::

    $ echo '{"json":"obj"}' | python -m json.tool
    {
        "json": "obj"
    }
    $ echo '{ 1.2:3.4}' | python -m json.tool
    Expecting property name: line 1 column 2 (char 2)
"""
__version__ = '2.0.9'
__all__ = [
    'dump', 'dumps', 'load', 'loads',
    'JSONDecoder', 'JSONEncoder',
]

__author__ = 'Bob Ippolito <bob@redivi.com>'

from .decoder import JSONDecoder
from .encoder import JSONEncoder

_default_encoder = JSONEncoder(
    skipkeys=False,
    ensure_ascii=True,
    check_circular=True,
    allow_nan=True,
    indent=None,
    separators=None,
    encoding='utf-8',
    default=None,
)

def dump(obj, fp, skipkeys=False, ensure_ascii=True, check_circular=True,
        allow_nan=True, cls=None, indent=None, separators=None,
        encoding='utf-8', default=None, **kw):
    """Serialize ``obj`` as a JSON formatted stream to ``fp`` (a
    ``.write()``-supporting file-like object).

    If ``skipkeys`` is true then ``dict`` keys that are not basic types
    (``str``, ``unicode``, ``int``, ``long``, ``float``, ``bool``, ``None``)
    will be skipped instead of raising a ``TypeError``.

    If ``ensure_ascii`` is false, then the some chunks written to ``fp``
    may be ``unicode`` instances, subject to normal Python ``str`` to
    ``unicode`` coercion rules. Unless ``fp.write()`` explicitly
    understands ``unicode`` (as in ``codecs.getwriter()``) this is likely
    to cause an error.

    If ``check_circular`` is false, then the circular reference check
    for container types will be skipped and a circular reference will
    result in an ``OverflowError`` (or worse).

    If ``allow_nan`` is false, then it will be a ``ValueError`` to
    serialize out of range ``float`` values (``nan``, ``inf``, ``-inf``)
    in strict compliance of the JSON specification, instead of using the
    JavaScript equivalents (``NaN``, ``Infinity``, ``-Infinity``).

    If ``indent`` is a non-negative integer, then JSON array elements and
    object members will be pretty-printed with that indent level. An indent
    level of 0 will only insert newlines. ``None`` is the most compact
    representation.

    If ``separators`` is an ``(item_separator, dict_separator)`` tuple
    then it will be used instead of the default ``(', ', ': ')`` separators.
    ``(',', ':')`` is the most compact JSON representation.

    ``encoding`` is the character encoding for str instances, default is UTF-8.

    ``default(obj)`` is a function that should return a serializable version
    of obj or raise TypeError. The default simply raises TypeError.

    To use a custom ``JSONEncoder`` subclass (e.g. one that overrides the
    ``.default()`` method to serialize additional types), specify it with
    the ``cls`` kwarg; otherwise ``JSONEncoder`` is used.

    """
    # cached encoder
    if (not skipkeys and ensure_ascii and
        check_circular and allow_nan and
        cls is None and indent is None and separators is None and
        encoding == 'utf-8' and default is None and not kw):
        iterable = _default_encoder.iterencode(obj)
    else:
        if cls is None:
            cls = JSONEncoder
        iterable = cls(skipkeys=skipkeys, ensure_ascii=ensure_ascii,
            check_circular=check_circular, allow_nan=allow_nan, indent=indent,
            separators=separators, encoding=encoding,
            default=default, **kw).iterencode(obj)
    # could accelerate with writelines in some versions of Python, at
    # a debuggability cost
    for chunk in iterable:
        fp.write(chunk)


def dumps(obj, skipkeys=False, ensure_ascii=True, check_circular=True,
        allow_nan=True, cls=None, indent=None, separators=None,
        encoding='utf-8', default=None, **kw):
    """Serialize ``obj`` to a JSON formatted ``str``.

    If ``skipkeys`` is false then ``dict`` keys that are not basic types
    (``str``, ``unicode``, ``int``, ``long``, ``float``, ``bool``, ``None``)
    will be skipped instead of raising a ``TypeError``.

    If ``ensure_ascii`` is false, then the return value will be a
    ``unicode`` instance subject to normal Python ``str`` to ``unicode``
    coercion rules instead of being escaped to an ASCII ``str``.

    If ``check_circular`` is false, then the circular reference check
    for container types will be skipped and a circular reference will
    result in an ``OverflowError`` (or worse).

    If ``allow_nan`` is false, then it will be a ``ValueError`` to
    serialize out of range ``float`` values (``nan``, ``inf``, ``-inf``) in
    strict compliance of the JSON specification, instead of using the
    JavaScript equivalents (``NaN``, ``Infinity``, ``-Infinity``).

    If ``indent`` is a non-negative integer, then JSON array elements and
    object members will be pretty-printed with that indent level. An indent
    level of 0 will only insert newlines. ``None`` is the most compact
    representation.

    If ``separators`` is an ``(item_separator, dict_separator)`` tuple
    then it will be used instead of the default ``(', ', ': ')`` separators.
    ``(',', ':')`` is the most compact JSON representation.

    ``encoding`` is the character encoding for str instances, default is UTF-8.

    ``default(obj)`` is a function that should return a serializable version
    of obj or raise TypeError. The default simply raises TypeError.

    To use a custom ``JSONEncoder`` subclass (e.g. one that overrides the
    ``.default()`` method to serialize additional types), specify it with
    the ``cls`` kwarg; otherwise ``JSONEncoder`` is used.

    """
    # cached encoder
    if (not skipkeys and ensure_ascii and
        check_circular and allow_nan and
        cls is None and indent is None and separators is None and
        encoding == 'utf-8' and default is None and not kw):
        return _default_encoder.encode(obj)
    if cls is None:
        cls = JSONEncoder
    return cls(
        skipkeys=skipkeys, ensure_ascii=ensure_ascii,
        check_circular=check_circular, allow_nan=allow_nan, indent=indent,
        separators=separators, encoding=encoding, default=default,
        **kw).encode(obj)


_default_decoder = JSONDecoder(encoding=None, object_hook=None,
                               object_pairs_hook=None)


def load(fp, encoding=None, cls=None, object_hook=None, parse_float=None,
        parse_int=None, parse_constant=None, object_pairs_hook=None, **kw):
    """Deserialize ``fp`` (a ``.read()``-supporting file-like object containing
    a JSON document) to a Python object.

    If the contents of ``fp`` is encoded with an ASCII based encoding other
    than utf-8 (e.g. latin-1), then an appropriate ``encoding`` name must
    be specified. Encodings that are not ASCII based (such as UCS-2) are
    not allowed, and should be wrapped with
    ``codecs.getreader(fp)(encoding)``, or simply decoded to a ``unicode``
    object and passed to ``loads()``

    ``object_hook`` is an optional function that will be called with the
    result of any object literal decode (a ``dict``). The return value of
    ``object_hook`` will be used instead of the ``dict``. This feature
    can be used to implement custom decoders (e.g. JSON-RPC class hinting).

    ``object_pairs_hook`` is an optional function that will be called with the
    result of any object literal decoded with an ordered list of pairs.  The
    return value of ``object_pairs_hook`` will be used instead of the ``dict``.
    This feature can be used to implement custom decoders that rely on the
    order that the key and value pairs are decoded (for example,
    collections.OrderedDict will remember the order of insertion). If
    ``object_hook`` is also defined, the ``object_pairs_hook`` takes priority.

    To use a custom ``JSONDecoder`` subclass, specify it with the ``cls``
    kwarg; otherwise ``JSONDecoder`` is used.

    """
    return loads(fp.read(),
        encoding=encoding, cls=cls, object_hook=object_hook,
        parse_float=parse_float, parse_int=parse_int,
        parse_constant=parse_constant, object_pairs_hook=object_pairs_hook,
        **kw)


def loads(s, encoding=None, cls=None, object_hook=None, parse_float=None,
        parse_int=None, parse_constant=None, object_pairs_hook=None, **kw):
    """Deserialize ``s`` (a ``str`` or ``unicode`` instance containing a JSON
    document) to a Python object.

    If ``s`` is a ``str`` instance and is encoded with an ASCII based encoding
    other than utf-8 (e.g. latin-1) then an appropriate ``encoding`` name
    must be specified. Encodings that are not ASCII based (such as UCS-2)
    are not allowed and should be decoded to ``unicode`` first.

    ``object_hook`` is an optional function that will be called with the
    result of any object literal decode (a ``dict``). The return value of
    ``object_hook`` will be used instead of the ``dict``. This feature
    can be used to implement custom decoders (e.g. JSON-RPC class hinting).

    ``object_pairs_hook`` is an optional function that will be called with the
    result of any object literal decoded with an ordered list of pairs.  The
    return value of ``object_pairs_hook`` will be used instead of the ``dict``.
    This feature can be used to implement custom decoders that rely on the
    order that the key and value pairs are decoded (for example,
    collections.OrderedDict will remember the order of insertion). If
    ``object_hook`` is also defined, the ``object_pairs_hook`` takes priority.

    ``parse_float``, if specified, will be called with the string
    of every JSON float to be decoded. By default this is equivalent to
    float(num_str). This can be used to use another datatype or parser
    for JSON floats (e.g. decimal.Decimal).

    ``parse_int``, if specified, will be called with the string
    of every JSON int to be decoded. By default this is equivalent to
    int(num_str). This can be used to use another datatype or parser
    for JSON integers (e.g. float).

    ``parse_constant``, if specified, will be called with one of the
    following strings: -Infinity, Infinity, NaN, null, true, false.
    This can be used to raise an exception if invalid JSON numbers
    are encountered.

    To use a custom ``JSONDecoder`` subclass, specify it with the ``cls``
    kwarg; otherwise ``JSONDecoder`` is used.

    """
    if (cls is None and encoding is None and object_hook is None and
            parse_int is None and parse_float is None and
            parse_constant is None and object_pairs_hook is None and not kw):
        return _default_decoder.decode(s)
    if cls is None:
        cls = JSONDecoder
    if object_hook is not None:
        kw['object_hook'] = object_hook
    if object_pairs_hook is not None:
        kw['object_pairs_hook'] = object_pairs_hook
    if parse_float is not None:
        kw['parse_float'] = parse_float
    if parse_int is not None:
        kw['parse_int'] = parse_int
    if parse_constant is not None:
        kw['parse_constant'] = parse_constant
    return cls(encoding=encoding, **kw).decode(s)
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