Getting Started with the Translation Toolchain and Development Process
- Trying out the translator
- Where to start reading the sources
- Running PyPy's unit tests
- Special Introspection Features of the Untranslated Python Interpreter
- Additional Tools for running (and hacking) PyPy
- Getting involved
The translator is a tool based on the PyPy interpreter which can translate sufficiently static RPython programs into low-level code (in particular it can be used to translate the full Python interpreter). To be able to experiment with it you need to:
To start the interactive translator shell do:
cd pypy python bin/translatorshell.py
Test snippets of translatable code are provided in the file pypy/translator/test/snippet.py, which is imported under the name snippet. For example:
>>> t = Translation(snippet.is_perfect_number) >>> t.view()
After that, the graph viewer pops up, that lets you interactively inspect the flow graph. To move around, click on something that you want to inspect. To get help about how to use it, press 'H'. To close it again, press 'Q'.
We have a type annotator that can completely infer types for functions like is_perfect_number (as well as for much larger examples):
>>> t.annotate([int]) >>> t.view()
Move the mouse over variable names (in red) to see their inferred types.
The graph can be turned into C code:
>>> t.rtype() >>> f = t.compile_c()
The first command replaces the operations with other low level versions that only use low level types that are available in C (e.g. int). To try out the compiled version:
>>> f(5) False >>> f(6) True
PyPy also contains a CLI backend and JVM backend which can translate flow graphs into .NET executables or a JVM jar file respectively. Both are able to translate the entire interpreter. You can try out the CLI and JVM backends from the interactive translator shells as follows:
>>> def myfunc(a, b): return a+b ... >>> t = Translation(myfunc) >>> t.annotate([int, int]) >>> f = t.compile_cli() # or compile_jvm() >>> f(4, 5) 9
The object returned by compile_cli or compile_jvm is a wrapper around the real executable: the parameters are passed as command line arguments, and the returned value is read from the standard output.
Once you have compiled the snippet, you can also try to launch the executable directly from the shell. You will find the executable in one of the /tmp/usession-* directories:
# For CLI: $ mono /tmp/usession-trunk-<username>/main.exe 4 5 9 # For JVM: $ java -cp /tmp/usession-trunk-<username>/pypy pypy.Main 4 5 9
To translate and run for the CLI you must have the SDK installed: Windows users need the .NET Framework SDK, while Linux and Mac users can use Mono. To translate and run for the JVM you must have a JDK installed (at least version 5) and java/javac on your path.
There is a small-to-medium demo showing the translator and the annotator:
cd demo ../pypy/translator/goal/translate.py --view --annotate bpnn.py
This causes bpnn.py to display itself as a call graph and class hierarchy. Clicking on functions shows the flow graph of the particular function. Clicking on a class shows the attributes of its instances. All this information (call graph, local variables' types, attributes of instances) is computed by the annotator.
To turn this example to C code (compiled to the executable bpnn-c), type simply:
To translate full RPython programs, there is the script translate.py in translator/goal. Examples for this are a slightly changed version of Pystone:
cd pypy/translator/goal python translate.py targetrpystonedalone
This will produce the executable "targetrpystonedalone-c".
PyPy is made from parts that are relatively independent of each other. You should start looking at the part that attracts you most (all paths are relative to the PyPy top level directory). You may look at our directory reference or start off at one of the following points:
- `pypy/interpreter`_ contains the bytecode interpreter: bytecode dispatcher in `pypy/interpreter/pyopcode.py`_, frame and code objects in `pypy/interpreter/eval.py`_ and `pypy/interpreter/pyframe.py`_, function objects and argument passing in `pypy/interpreter/function.py`_ and `pypy/interpreter/argument.py`_, the object space interface definition in `pypy/interpreter/baseobjspace.py`_, modules in `pypy/interpreter/module.py`_ and `pypy/interpreter/mixedmodule.py`_. Core types supporting the bytecode interpreter are defined in `pypy/interpreter/typedef.py`_.
- `pypy/interpreter/pyparser`_ contains a recursive descent parser, and grammar files that allow it to parse the syntax of various Python versions. Once the grammar has been processed, the parser can be translated by the above machinery into efficient code.
- `pypy/interpreter/astcompiler`_ contains the compiler. This contains a modified version of the compiler package from CPython that fixes some bugs and is translatable.
- `pypy/objspace/std`_ contains the Standard object space. The main file is `pypy/objspace/std/objspace.py`_. For each type, the files xxxtype.py and xxxobject.py contain respectively the definition of the type and its (default) implementation.
- `pypy/objspace`_ contains a few other object spaces: the `pypy/objspace/thunk.py`_, `pypy/objspace/trace.py`_ and `pypy/objspace/flow`_ object spaces. The latter is a relatively short piece of code that builds the control flow graphs when the bytecode interpreter runs in it.
- `pypy/translator`_ contains the code analysis and generation stuff. Start reading from translator.py, from which it should be easy to follow the pieces of code involved in the various translation phases.
- `pypy/annotation`_ contains the data model for the type annotation that can be inferred about a graph. The graph "walker" that uses this is in `pypy/annotation/annrpython.py`_.
- `pypy/rpython`_ contains the code of the RPython typer. The typer transforms annotated flow graphs in a way that makes them very similar to C code so that they can be easy translated. The graph transformations are controlled by the code in `pypy/rpython/rtyper.py`_. The object model that is used can be found in `pypy/rpython/lltypesystem/lltype.py`_. For each RPython type there is a file rxxxx.py that contains the low level functions needed for this type.
- `pypy/rlib`_ contains the RPython standard library, things that you can use from rpython.
The PyPy source tree comes with an inlined version of py.test which you can invoke by typing:
python pytest.py -h
This is usually equivalent to using an installed version:
If you encounter problems with the installed version make sure you have the correct version installed which you can find out with the --version switch.
Now on to running some tests. PyPy has many different test directories and you can use shell completion to point at directories or files:
py.test pypy/interpreter/test/test_pyframe.py # or for running tests of a whole subdirectory py.test pypy/interpreter/
See py.test usage and invocations for some more generic info on how you can run tests.
Beware trying to run "all" pypy tests by pointing to the root directory or even the top level subdirectory pypy. It takes hours and uses huge amounts of RAM and is not recommended.
To run CPython regression tests you can point to the lib-python directory:
This will usually take a long time because this will run the PyPy Python interpreter on top of CPython. On the plus side, it's usually still faster than doing a full translation and running the regression test with the translated PyPy Python interpreter.
If you are interested in the inner workings of the PyPy Python interpreter, there are some features of the untranslated Python interpreter that allow you to introspect its internals.
If you start an untranslated Python interpreter via:
If you press <Ctrl-C> on the console you enter the interpreter-level console, a usual CPython console. You can then access internal objects of PyPy (e.g. the object space) and any variables you have created on the PyPy prompt with the prefix w_:
>>>> a = 123 >>>> <Ctrl-C> *** Entering interpreter-level console *** >>> w_a W_IntObject(123)
The mechanism works in both directions. If you define a variable with the w_ prefix on the interpreter-level, you will see it on the app-level:
>>> w_l = space.newlist([space.wrap(1), space.wrap("abc")]) >>> <Ctrl-D> *** Leaving interpreter-level console *** KeyboardInterrupt >>>> l [1, 'abc']
Note that the prompt of the interpreter-level console is only '>>>' since it runs on CPython level. If you want to return to PyPy, press <Ctrl-D> (under Linux) or <Ctrl-Z>, <Enter> (under Windows).
You may be interested in reading more about the distinction between interpreter-level and app-level.
You can use the trace object space to monitor the interpretation of bytecodes in connection with object space operations. To enable it, set __pytrace__=1 on the interactive PyPy console:
>>>> __pytrace__ = 1 Tracing enabled >>>> a = 1 + 2 |- <<<< enter <inline>a = 1 + 2 @ 1 >>>> |- 0 LOAD_CONST 0 (W_IntObject(1)) |- 3 LOAD_CONST 1 (W_IntObject(2)) |- 6 BINARY_ADD |- add(W_IntObject(1), W_IntObject(2)) -> W_IntObject(3) |- 7 STORE_NAME 0 (a) |- hash(W_StringObject('a')) -> W_IntObject(-468864544) |- int_w(W_IntObject(-468864544)) -> -468864544 |-10 LOAD_CONST 2 (<W_NoneObject()>) |-13 RETURN_VALUE |- <<<< leave <inline>a = 1 + 2 @ 1 >>>>
The `demo/`_ directory contains examples of various aspects of PyPy, ranging from running regular Python programs (that we used as compliance goals) over experimental distribution mechanisms to examples translating sufficiently static programs into low level code.
We use some optional tools for developing PyPy. They are not required to run the basic tests or to get an interactive PyPy prompt but they help to understand and debug PyPy especially for the translation process.
graphviz and pygame are both necessary if you want to look at generated flow graphs:
The py.test testing tool drives all our testing needs.
We use the py library for filesystem path manipulations, terminal writing, logging and some other support functionality.
You don't necessarily need to install these two libraries because we also ship them inlined in the PyPy source tree.
PyPy employs an open development process. You are invited to join our pypy-dev mailing list or look at the other contact possibilities. Usually we give out commit rights fairly liberally, so if you want to do something with PyPy, you can become a committer. We are also doing coding Sprints which are separately announced and often happen around Python conferences such as EuroPython or Pycon. Upcoming events are usually announced on the blog.