+TinyXML is a simple, small, C++ XML parser that can be easily
+integrated into other programs.
+<h2> What it does. </h2>
+In brief, TinyXML parses an XML document, and builds from that a
+Document Object Model (DOM) that can be read, modified, and saved.
+XML stands for "eXtensible Markup Language." It allows you to create
+your own document markups. Where HTML does a very good job of marking
+documents for browsers, XML allows you to define any kind of document
+markup, for example a document that describes a "to do" list for an
+organizer application. XML is a very structured and convenient format.
+All those random file formats created to store application data can
+all be replaced with XML. One parser for everything.
+The best place for the complete, correct, and quite frankly hard to
+read spec is at <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-xml-20040204/">
+http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-xml-20040204/</a>. An intro to XML
+(that I really like) can be found at
+There are different ways to access and interact with XML data.
+TinyXML uses a Document Object Model (DOM), meaning the XML data is parsed
+into a C++ objects that can be browsed and manipulated, and then
+written to disk or another output stream. You can also construct an XML document
+from scratch with C++ objects and write this to disk or another output
+TinyXML is designed to be easy and fast to learn. It is two headers
+and four cpp files. Simply add these to your project and off you go.
+There is an example file - xmltest.cpp - to get you started.
+TinyXML is released under the ZLib license,
+so you can use it in open source or commercial code. The details
+of the license are at the top of every source file.
+TinyXML attempts to be a flexible parser, but with truly correct and
+compliant XML output. TinyXML should compile on any reasonably C++
+compliant system. It does not rely on exceptions or RTTI. It can be
+compiled with or without STL support. TinyXML fully supports
+the UTF-8 encoding, and the first 64k character entities.
+<h2> What it doesn't do. </h2>
+TinyXML doesn't parse or use DTDs (Document Type Definitions) or XSLs
+(eXtensible Stylesheet Language.) There are other parsers out there
+(check out www.sourceforge.org, search for XML) that are much more fully
+featured. But they are also much bigger, take longer to set up in
+your project, have a higher learning curve, and often have a more
+restrictive license. If you are working with browsers or have more
+complete XML needs, TinyXML is not the parser for you.
+The following DTD syntax will not parse at this time in TinyXML:
+ <!ELEMENT Comment (#PCDATA)>
+because TinyXML sees this as a !DOCTYPE node with an illegally
+embedded !ELEMENT node. This may be addressed in the future.
+For the impatient, here is a tutorial to get you going. A great way to get started,
+but it is worth your time to read this (very short) manual completely.
+TinyXML is mature, tested code. It is very stable. If you find
+bugs, please file a bug report on the sourceforge web site
+(www.sourceforge.net/projects/tinyxml). We'll get them straightened
+out as soon as possible.
+There are some areas of improvement; please check sourceforge if you are
+interested in working on TinyXML.
+<h2> Related Projects </h2>
+TinyXML projects you may find useful! (Descriptions provided by the projects.)
+<li> <b>TinyXPath</b> (http://tinyxpath.sourceforge.net). TinyXPath is a small footprint
+ XPath syntax decoder, written in C++.</li>
+<li> <b>TinyXML++</b> (http://code.google.com/p/ticpp/). TinyXML++ is a completely new
+ interface to TinyXML that uses MANY of the C++ strengths. Templates,
+ exceptions, and much better error handling.</li>
+TinyXML can be compiled to use or not use STL. When using STL, TinyXML
+uses the std::string class, and fully supports std::istream, std::ostream,
+operator<<, and operator>>. Many API methods have both 'const char*' and
+'const std::string&' forms.
+When STL support is compiled out, no STL files are included whatsoever. All
+the string classes are implemented by TinyXML itself. API methods
+all use the 'const char*' form for input.
+Use the compile time #define:
+to compile one version or the other. This can be passed by the compiler,
+or set as the first line of "tinyxml.h".
+Note: If compiling the test code in Linux, setting the environment
+variable TINYXML_USE_STL=YES/NO will control STL compilation. In the
+Windows project file, STL and non STL targets are provided. In your project,
+It's probably easiest to add the line "#define TIXML_USE_STL" as the first
+TinyXML supports UTF-8 allowing to manipulate XML files in any language. TinyXML
+also supports "legacy mode" - the encoding used before UTF-8 support and
+probably best described as "extended ascii".
+Normally, TinyXML will try to detect the correct encoding and use it. However,
+by setting the value of TIXML_DEFAULT_ENCODING in the header file, TinyXML
+can be forced to always use one encoding.
+TinyXML will assume Legacy Mode until one of the following occurs:
+ <li> If the non-standard but common "UTF-8 lead bytes" (0xef 0xbb 0xbf)
+ begin the file or data stream, TinyXML will read it as UTF-8. </li>
+ <li> If the declaration tag is read, and it has an encoding="UTF-8", then
+ TinyXML will read it as UTF-8. </li>
+ <li> If the declaration tag is read, and it has no encoding specified, then TinyXML will
+ read it as UTF-8. </li>
+ <li> If the declaration tag is read, and it has an encoding="something else", then TinyXML
+ will read it as Legacy Mode. In legacy mode, TinyXML will work as it did before. It's
+ not clear what that mode does exactly, but old content should keep working.</li>
+ <li> Until one of the above criteria is met, TinyXML runs in Legacy Mode.</li>
+What happens if the encoding is incorrectly set or detected? TinyXML will try
+to read and pass through text seen as improperly encoded. You may get some strange results or
+mangled characters. You may want to force TinyXML to the correct mode.
+You may force TinyXML to Legacy Mode by using LoadFile( TIXML_ENCODING_LEGACY ) or
+LoadFile( filename, TIXML_ENCODING_LEGACY ). You may force it to use legacy mode all
+the time by setting TIXML_DEFAULT_ENCODING = TIXML_ENCODING_LEGACY. Likewise, you may
+force it to TIXML_ENCODING_UTF8 with the same technique.
+For English users, using English XML, UTF-8 is the same as low-ASCII. You
+don't need to be aware of UTF-8 or change your code in any way. You can think
+of UTF-8 as a "superset" of ASCII.
+UTF-8 is not a double byte format - but it is a standard encoding of Unicode!
+TinyXML does not use or directly support wchar, TCHAR, or Microsoft's _UNICODE at this time.
+It is common to see the term "Unicode" improperly refer to UTF-16, a wide byte encoding
+of unicode. This is a source of confusion.
+For "high-ascii" languages - everything not English, pretty much - TinyXML can
+handle all languages, at the same time, as long as the XML is encoded
+in UTF-8. That can be a little tricky, older programs and operating systems
+tend to use the "default" or "traditional" code page. Many apps (and almost all
+modern ones) can output UTF-8, but older or stubborn (or just broken) ones
+still output text in the default code page.
+For example, Japanese systems traditionally use SHIFT-JIS encoding.
+Text encoded as SHIFT-JIS can not be read by TinyXML.
+A good text editor can import SHIFT-JIS and then save as UTF-8.
+The <a href="http://skew.org/xml/tutorial/">Skew.org link</a> does a great
+job covering the encoding issue.
+The test file "utf8test.xml" is an XML containing English, Spanish, Russian,
+and Simplified Chinese. (Hopefully they are translated correctly). The file
+"utf8test.gif" is a screen capture of the XML file, rendered in IE. Note that
+if you don't have the correct fonts (Simplified Chinese or Russian) on your
+system, you won't see output that matches the GIF file even if you can parse
+it correctly. Also note that (at least on my Windows machine) console output
+is in a Western code page, so that Print() or printf() cannot correctly display
+the file. This is not a bug in TinyXML - just an OS issue. No data is lost or
+destroyed by TinyXML. The console just doesn't render UTF-8.
+TinyXML recognizes the pre-defined "character entities", meaning special
+These are recognized when the XML document is read, and translated to there
+UTF-8 equivalents. For instance, text with the XML of:
+will have the Value() of "Far & Away" when queried from the TiXmlText object,
+and will be written back to the XML stream/file as an ampersand. Older versions
+of TinyXML "preserved" character entities, but the newer versions will translate
+Additionally, any character can be specified by its Unicode code point:
+The syntax " " or " " are both to the non-breaking space characher.
+TinyXML can print output in several different ways that all have strengths and limitations.
+- Print( FILE* ). Output to a std-C stream, which includes all C files as well as stdout.
+ - "Pretty prints", but you don't have control over printing options.
+ - The output is streamed directly to the FILE object, so there is no memory overhead
+ - used by Print() and SaveFile()
+- operator<<. Output to a c++ stream.
+ - Integrates with standart C++ iostreams.
+ - Outputs in "network printing" mode without line breaks. Good for network transmission
+ and moving XML between C++ objects, but hard for a human to read.
+- TiXmlPrinter. Output to a std::string or memory buffer.
+ - Future printing options will be put here.
+ - Printing may change slightly in future versions as it is refined and expanded.
+With TIXML_USE_STL on TinyXML supports C++ streams (operator <<,>>) streams as well
+as C (FILE*) streams. There are some differences that you may need to be aware of.
+ - the Print() and SaveFile() methods
+ Generates formatted output, with plenty of white space, intended to be as
+ human-readable as possible. They are very fast, and tolerant of ill formed
+ XML documents. For example, an XML document that contains 2 root elements
+ and 2 declarations, will still print.
+ - the Parse() and LoadFile() methods
+ A fast, tolerant read. Use whenever you don't need the C++ streams.
+ - based on std::ostream
+ Generates condensed output, intended for network transmission rather than
+ readability. Depending on your system's implementation of the ostream class,
+ these may be somewhat slower. (Or may not.) Not tolerant of ill formed XML:
+ a document should contain the correct one root element. Additional root level
+ elements will not be streamed out.
+ - based on std::istream
+ Reads XML from a stream, making it useful for network transmission. The tricky
+ part is knowing when the XML document is complete, since there will almost
+ certainly be other data in the stream. TinyXML will assume the XML data is
+ complete after it reads the root element. Put another way, documents that
+ are ill-constructed with more than one root element will not read correctly.
+ Also note that operator>> is somewhat slower than Parse, due to both
+ implementation of the STL and limitations of TinyXML.
+The world simply does not agree on whether white space should be kept, or condensed.
+For example, pretend the '_' is a space, and look at "Hello____world". HTML, and
+at least some XML parsers, will interpret this as "Hello_world". They condense white
+space. Some XML parsers do not, and will leave it as "Hello____world". (Remember
+to keep pretending the _ is a space.) Others suggest that __Hello___world__ should become
+It's an issue that hasn't been resolved to my satisfaction. TinyXML supports the
+first 2 approaches. Call TiXmlBase::SetCondenseWhiteSpace( bool ) to set the desired behavior.
+The default is to condense white space.
+If you change the default, you should call TiXmlBase::SetCondenseWhiteSpace( bool )
+before making any calls to Parse XML data, and I don't recommend changing it after
+Where browsing an XML document in a robust way, it is important to check
+for null returns from method calls. An error safe implementation can
+generate a lot of code like:
+TiXmlElement* root = document.FirstChildElement( "Document" );
+ TiXmlElement* element = root->FirstChildElement( "Element" );
+ TiXmlElement* child = element->FirstChildElement( "Child" );
+ TiXmlElement* child2 = child->NextSiblingElement( "Child" );
+ // Finally do something useful.
+Handles have been introduced to clean this up. Using the TiXmlHandle class,
+the previous code reduces to:
+TiXmlHandle docHandle( &document );
+TiXmlElement* child2 = docHandle.FirstChild( "Document" ).FirstChild( "Element" ).Child( "Child", 1 ).ToElement();
+Which is much easier to deal with. See TiXmlHandle for more information.
+<h3> Row and Column tracking </h3>
+Being able to track nodes and attributes back to their origin location
+in source files can be very important for some applications. Additionally,
+knowing where parsing errors occured in the original source can be very
+TinyXML can tracks the row and column origin of all nodes and attributes
+in a text file. The TiXmlBase::Row() and TiXmlBase::Column() methods return
+the origin of the node in the source text. The correct tabs can be
+configured in TiXmlDocument::SetTabSize().
+<h2> Using and Installing </h2>
+To Compile and Run xmltest:
+A Linux Makefile and a Windows Visual C++ .dsw file is provided.
+Simply compile and run. It will write the file demotest.xml to your
+disk and generate output on the screen. It also tests walking the
+DOM by printing out the number of nodes found using different
+The Linux makefile is very generic and runs on many systems - it
+is currently tested on mingw and
+MacOSX. You do not need to run 'make depend'. The dependecies have been
+<h3>Windows project file for VC6</h3>
+<li>tinyxml: tinyxml library, non-STL </li>
+<li>tinyxmlSTL: tinyxml library, STL </li>
+<li>tinyXmlTest: test app, non-STL </li>
+<li>tinyXmlTestSTL: test app, STL </li>
+At the top of the makefile you can set:
+PROFILE, DEBUG, and TINYXML_USE_STL. Details (such that they are) are in
+In the tinyxml directory, type "make clean" then "make". The executable
+file 'xmltest' will be created.
+<h3>To Use in an Application:</h3>
+Add tinyxml.cpp, tinyxml.h, tinyxmlerror.cpp, tinyxmlparser.cpp, tinystr.cpp, and tinystr.h to your
+project or make file. That's it! It should compile on any reasonably
+compliant C++ system. You do not need to enable exceptions or
+<h2> How TinyXML works. </h2>
+An example is probably the best way to go. Take:
+ <?xml version="1.0" standalone=no>
+ <!-- Our to do list data -->
+ <Item priority="1"> Go to the <bold>Toy store!</bold></Item>
+ <Item priority="2"> Do bills</Item>
+Its not much of a To Do list, but it will do. To read this file
+(say "demo.xml") you would create a document, and parse it in:
+ TiXmlDocument doc( "demo.xml" );
+And its ready to go. Now lets look at some lines and how they
+<?xml version="1.0" standalone=no>
+ The first line is a declaration, and gets turned into the
+ TiXmlDeclaration class. It will be the first child of the
+ This is the only directive/special tag parsed by TinyXML.
+ Generally directive tags are stored in TiXmlUnknown so the
+ commands wont be lost when it is saved back to disk.
+<!-- Our to do list data -->
+ A comment. Will become a TiXmlComment object.
+ The "ToDo" tag defines a TiXmlElement object. This one does not have
+ any attributes, but does contain 2 other elements.
+ Creates another TiXmlElement which is a child of the "ToDo" element.
+ This element has 1 attribute, with the name "priority" and the value
+ A TiXmlText. This is a leaf node and cannot contain other nodes.
+ It is a child of the "Item" TiXmlElement.
+ Another TiXmlElement, this one a child of the "Item" element.
+Looking at the entire object tree, you end up with:
+ TiXmlDeclaration "version='1.0'" "standalone=no"
+ TiXmlComment " Our to do list data"
+ TiXmlElement "Item" Attribtutes: priority = 1
+ TiXmlElement "Item" Attributes: priority=2
+<h2> Documentation </h2>
+The documentation is build with Doxygen, using the 'dox'
+TinyXML is released under the zlib license:
+This software is provided 'as-is', without any express or implied
+warranty. In no event will the authors be held liable for any
+damages arising from the use of this software.
+Permission is granted to anyone to use this software for any
+purpose, including commercial applications, and to alter it and
+redistribute it freely, subject to the following restrictions:
+1. The origin of this software must not be misrepresented; you must
+not claim that you wrote the original software. If you use this
+software in a product, an acknowledgment in the product documentation
+would be appreciated but is not required.
+2. Altered source versions must be plainly marked as such, and
+must not be misrepresented as being the original software.
+3. This notice may not be removed or altered from any source
+The World Wide Web Consortium is the definitive standard body for
+XML, and their web pages contain huge amounts of information.
+The definitive spec: <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-xml-20040204/">
+I also recommend "XML Pocket Reference" by Robert Eckstein and published by
+OReilly...the book that got the whole thing started.
+<h2> Contributors, Contacts, and a Brief History </h2>
+Thanks very much to everyone who sends suggestions, bugs, ideas, and
+encouragement. It all helps, and makes this project fun. A special thanks
+to the contributors on the web pages that keep it lively.
+So many people have sent in bugs and ideas, that rather than list here
+we try to give credit due in the "changes.txt" file.
+TinyXML was originally written by Lee Thomason. (Often the "I" still
+in the documentation.) Lee reviews changes and releases new versions,
+with the help of Yves Berquin, Andrew Ellerton, and the tinyXml community.
+We appreciate your suggestions, and would love to know if you
+use TinyXML. Hopefully you will enjoy it and find it useful.
+Please post questions, comments, file bugs, or contact us at:
+Lee Thomason, Yves Berquin, Andrew Ellerton