Christian Heimes avatar Christian Heimes committed 1a2a6df

Merged revisions 59323-59332 via svnmerge from
svn+ssh://pythondev@svn.python.org/python/trunk

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r59324 | georg.brandl | 2007-12-04 17:10:02 +0100 (Tue, 04 Dec 2007) | 3 lines

Add "Python on Unix" document, mostly written for GHOP
by Shriphani Palakodety.
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r59325 | facundo.batista | 2007-12-04 17:31:53 +0100 (Tue, 04 Dec 2007) | 3 lines

fma speedup by avoiding to create a Context. Thanks Mark Dickinson.
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r59326 | christian.heimes | 2007-12-04 17:36:20 +0100 (Tue, 04 Dec 2007) | 2 lines

Added warning that make install may overwrite or masquerade the default python binary. Use make altinstall instead.
A native English speaker may want to rephrase the paragraph. ;)
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r59327 | georg.brandl | 2007-12-04 17:50:28 +0100 (Tue, 04 Dec 2007) | 2 lines

Fix duplicate label and a typo.
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r59329 | georg.brandl | 2007-12-04 18:46:27 +0100 (Tue, 04 Dec 2007) | 2 lines

Add tutorial and examples to logging docs, from GHOP student "oscar8thegrouch".
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r59332 | christian.heimes | 2007-12-04 19:43:19 +0100 (Tue, 04 Dec 2007) | 1 line

These optimizations create smaller and a bit faster code on my machine. I've also disabled an optimization that may be dangerous. Intrinsic functions conflict with errno.
........

Comments (0)

Files changed (5)

Doc/library/logging.rst

 .. sectionauthor:: Vinay Sajip <vinay_sajip@red-dove.com>
 
 
-.. % These apply to all modules, and may be given more than once:
-
-
-
 .. index:: pair: Errors; logging
 
 This module defines functions and classes which implement a flexible error
 constrained to use these levels: you can specify your own and use a more general
 :class:`Logger` method, :meth:`log`, which takes an explicit level argument.
 
+
+Logging tutorial
+----------------
+
+The key benefit of having the logging API provided by a standard library module
+is that all Python modules can participate in logging, so your application log
+can include messages from third-party modules.
+
+It is, of course, possible to log messages with different verbosity levels or to
+different destinations.  Support for writing log messages to files, HTTP
+GET/POST locations, email via SMTP, generic sockets, or OS-specific logging
+mechnisms are all supported by the standard module.  You can also create your
+own log destination class if you have special requirements not met by any of the
+built-in classes.
+
+Simple examples
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+.. sectionauthor:: Doug Hellmann
+.. (see <http://blog.doughellmann.com/2007/05/pymotw-logging.html>)
+
+Most applications are probably going to want to log to a file, so let's start
+with that case. Using the :func:`basicConfig` function, we can set up the
+default handler so that debug messages are written to a file::
+
+   import logging
+   LOG_FILENAME = '/tmp/logging_example.out'
+   logging.basicConfig(filename=LOG_FILENAME,level=logging.DEBUG,)
+
+   logging.debug('This message should go to the log file')
+
+And now if we open the file and look at what we have, we should find the log
+message::
+
+   DEBUG:root:This message should go to the log file
+
+If you run the script repeatedly, the additional log messages are appended to
+the file.  To create a new file each time, you can pass a filemode argument to
+:func:`basicConfig` with a value of ``'w'``.  Rather than managing the file size
+yourself, though, it is simpler to use a :class:`RotatingFileHandler`::
+
+   import glob
+   import logging
+   import logging.handlers
+
+   LOG_FILENAME = '/tmp/logging_rotatingfile_example.out'
+
+   # Set up a specific logger with our desired output level
+   my_logger = logging.getLogger('MyLogger')
+   my_logger.setLevel(logging.DEBUG)
+
+   # Add the log message handler to the logger
+   handler = logging.handlers.RotatingFileHandler(
+                 LOG_FILENAME, maxBytes=20, backupCount=5)
+
+   my_logger.addHandler(handler)
+
+   # Log some messages
+   for i in range(20):
+       my_logger.debug('i = %d' % i)
+
+   # See what files are created
+   logfiles = glob.glob('%s*' % LOG_FILENAME)
+
+   for filename in logfiles:
+       print filename
+
+The result should be 6 separate files, each with part of the log history for the
+application::
+
+   /tmp/logging_rotatingfile_example.out
+   /tmp/logging_rotatingfile_example.out.1
+   /tmp/logging_rotatingfile_example.out.2
+   /tmp/logging_rotatingfile_example.out.3
+   /tmp/logging_rotatingfile_example.out.4
+   /tmp/logging_rotatingfile_example.out.5
+
+The most current file is always :file:`/tmp/logging_rotatingfile_example.out`,
+and each time it reaches the size limit it is renamed with the suffix
+``.1``. Each of the existing backup files is renamed to increment the suffix
+(``.1`` becomes ``.2``, etc.)  and the ``.5`` file is erased.
+
+Obviously this example sets the log length much much too small as an extreme
+example.  You would want to set *maxBytes* to an appropriate value.
+
+Another useful feature of the logging API is the ability to produce different
+messages at different log levels.  This allows you to instrument your code with
+debug messages, for example, but turning the log level down so that those debug
+messages are not written for your production system.  The default levels are
+``CRITICAL``, ``ERROR``, ``WARNING``, ``INFO``, ``DEBUG`` and ``UNSET``.
+
+The logger, handler, and log message call each specify a level.  The log message
+is only emitted if the handler and logger are configured to emit messages of
+that level or lower.  For example, if a message is ``CRITICAL``, and the logger
+is set to ``ERROR``, the message is emitted.  If a message is a ``WARNING``, and
+the logger is set to produce only ``ERROR``\s, the message is not emitted::
+
+   import logging
+   import sys
+
+   LEVELS = {'debug': logging.DEBUG,
+             'info': logging.INFO,
+             'warning': logging.WARNING,
+             'error': logging.ERROR,
+             'critical': logging.CRITICAL}
+
+   if len(sys.argv) > 1:
+       level_name = sys.argv[1]
+       level = LEVELS.get(level_name, logging.NOTSET)
+       logging.basicConfig(level=level)
+
+   logging.debug('This is a debug message')
+   logging.info('This is an info message')
+   logging.warning('This is a warning message')
+   logging.error('This is an error message')
+   logging.critical('This is a critical error message')
+
+Run the script with an argument like 'debug' or 'warning' to see which messages
+show up at different levels::
+
+   $ python logging_level_example.py debug
+   DEBUG:root:This is a debug message
+   INFO:root:This is an info message
+   WARNING:root:This is a warning message
+   ERROR:root:This is an error message
+   CRITICAL:root:This is a critical error message
+
+   $ python logging_level_example.py info
+   INFO:root:This is an info message
+   WARNING:root:This is a warning message
+   ERROR:root:This is an error message
+   CRITICAL:root:This is a critical error message
+
+You will notice that these log messages all have ``root`` embedded in them.  The
+logging module supports a hierarchy of loggers with different names.  An easy
+way to tell where a specific log message comes from is to use a separate logger
+object for each of your modules.  Each new logger "inherits" the configuration
+of its parent, and log messages sent to a logger include the name of that
+logger.  Optionally, each logger can be configured differently, so that messages
+from different modules are handled in different ways.  Let's look at a simple
+example of how to log from different modules so it is easy to trace the source
+of the message::
+
+   import logging
+
+   logging.basicConfig(level=logging.WARNING)
+
+   logger1 = logging.getLogger('package1.module1')
+   logger2 = logging.getLogger('package2.module2')
+
+   logger1.warning('This message comes from one module')
+   logger2.warning('And this message comes from another module')
+
+And the output::
+
+   $ python logging_modules_example.py
+   WARNING:package1.module1:This message comes from one module
+   WARNING:package2.module2:And this message comes from another module
+
+There are many more options for configuring logging, including different log
+message formatting options, having messages delivered to multiple destinations,
+and changing the configuration of a long-running application on the fly using a
+socket interface.  All of these options are covered in depth in the library
+module documentation.
+
+Loggers
+^^^^^^^
+
+The logging library takes a modular approach and offers the several categories
+of components: loggers, handlers, filters, and formatters.  Loggers expose the
+interface that application code directly uses.  Handlers send the log records to
+the appropriate destination. Filters provide a finer grained facility for
+determining which log records to send on to a handler.  Formatters specify the
+layout of the resultant log record.
+
+:class:`Logger` objects have a threefold job.  First, they expose several
+methods to application code so that applications can log messages at runtime.
+Second, logger objects determine which log messages to act upon based upon
+severity (the default filtering facility) or filter objects.  Third, logger
+objects pass along relevant log messages to all interested log handlers.
+
+The most widely used methods on logger objects fall into two categories:
+configuration and message sending.
+
+* :meth:`Logger.setLevel` specifies the lowest-severity log message a logger
+  will handle, where debug is the lowest built-in severity level and critical is
+  the highest built-in severity.  For example, if the severity level is info,
+  the logger will handle only info, warning, error, and critical messages and
+  will ignore debug messages.
+
+* :meth:`Logger.addFilter` and :meth:`Logger.removeFilter` add and remove filter
+  objects from the logger object.  This tutorial does not address filters.
+
+With the logger object configured, the following methods create log messages:
+
+* :meth:`Logger.debug`, :meth:`Logger.info`, :meth:`Logger.warning`,
+  :meth:`Logger.error`, and :meth:`Logger.critical` all create log records with
+  a message and a level that corresponds to their respective method names. The
+  message is actually a format string, which may contain the standard string
+  substitution syntax of :const:`%s`, :const:`%d`, :const:`%f`, and so on.  The
+  rest of their arguments is a list of objects that correspond with the
+  substitution fields in the message.  With regard to :const:`**kwargs`, the
+  logging methods care only about a keyword of :const:`exc_info` and use it to
+  determine whether to log exception information.
+
+* :meth:`Logger.exception` creates a log message similar to
+  :meth:`Logger.error`.  The difference is that :meth:`Logger.exception` dumps a
+  stack trace along with it.  Call this method only from an exception handler.
+
+* :meth:`Logger.log` takes a log level as an explicit argument.  This is a
+  little more verbose for logging messages than using the log level convenience
+  methods listed above, but this is how to log at custom log levels.
+
+:func:`getLogger` returns a reference to a logger instance with a name of name
+if a name is provided, or root if not.  The names are period-separated
+hierarchical structures.  Multiple calls to :func:`getLogger` with the same name
+will return a reference to the same logger object.  Loggers that are further
+down in the hierarchical list are children of loggers higher up in the list.
+For example, given a logger with a name of ``foo``, loggers with names of
+``foo.bar``, ``foo.bar.baz``, and ``foo.bam`` are all children of ``foo``.
+Child loggers propagate messages up to their parent loggers.  Because of this,
+it is unnecessary to define and configure all the loggers an application uses.
+It is sufficient to configure a top-level logger and create child loggers as
+needed.
+
+
+Handlers
+^^^^^^^^
+
+:class:`Handler` objects are responsible for dispatching the appropriate log
+messages (based on the log messages' severity) to the handler's specified
+destination.  Logger objects can add zero or more handler objects to themselves
+with an :func:`addHandler` method.  As an example scenario, an application may
+want to send all log messages to a log file, all log messages of error or higher
+to stdout, and all messages of critical to an email address.  This scenario
+requires three individual handlers where each hander is responsible for sending
+messages of a specific severity to a specific location.
+
+The standard library includes quite a few handler types; this tutorial uses only
+:class:`StreamHandler` and :class:`FileHandler` in its examples.
+
+There are very few methods in a handler for application developers to concern
+themselves with.  The only handler methods that seem relevant for application
+developers who are using the built-in handler objects (that is, not creating
+custom handlers) are the following configuration methods:
+
+* The :meth:`Handler.setLevel` method, just as in logger objects, specifies the
+  lowest severity that will be dispatched to the appropriate destination.  Why
+  are there two :func:`setLevel` methods?  The level set in the logger
+  determines which severity of messages it will pass to its handlers.  The level
+  set in each handler determines which messages that handler will send on.
+  :func:`setFormatter` selects a Formatter object for this handler to use.
+
+* :func:`addFilter` and :func:`removeFilter` respectively configure and
+  deconfigure filter objects on handlers.
+
+Application code should not directly instantiate and use handlers.  Instead, the
+:class:`Handler` class is a base class that defines the interface that all
+Handlers should have and establishes some default behavior that child classes
+can use (or override).
+
+
+Formatters
+^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Formatter objects configure the final order, structure, and contents of the log
+message.  Unlike the base logging.Handler class, application code may
+instantiate formatter classes, although you could likely subclass the formatter
+if your application needs special behavior.  The constructor takes two optional
+arguments: a message format string and a date format string.  If there is no
+message format string, the default is to use the raw message.  If there is no
+date format string, the default date format is::
+
+    %Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S
+
+with the milliseconds tacked on at the end.
+
+The message format string uses ``%(<dictionary key>)s`` styled string
+substitution; the possible keys are documented in :ref:`formatter-objects`.
+
+The following message format string will log the time in a human-readable
+format, the severity of the message, and the contents of the message, in that
+order::
+
+    "%(asctime)s - %(levelname)s - %(message)s"
+
+
+Configuring Logging
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Programmers can configure logging either by creating loggers, handlers, and
+formatters explicitly in a main module with the configuration methods listed
+above (using Python code), or by creating a logging config file.  The following
+code is an example of configuring a very simple logger, a console handler, and a
+simple formatter in a Python module::
+
+    import logging
+
+    # create logger
+    logger = logging.getLogger("simple_example")
+    logger.setLevel(logging.DEBUG)
+    # create console handler and set level to debug
+    ch = logging.StreamHandler()
+    ch.setLevel(logging.DEBUG)
+    # create formatter
+    formatter = logging.Formatter("%(asctime)s - %(name)s - %(levelname)s - %(message)s")
+    # add formatter to ch
+    ch.setFormatter(formatter)
+    # add ch to logger
+    logger.addHandler(ch)
+
+    # "application" code
+    logger.debug("debug message")
+    logger.info("info message")
+    logger.warn("warn message")
+    logger.error("error message")
+    logger.critical("critical message")
+
+Running this module from the command line produces the following output::
+
+    $ python simple_logging_module.py
+    2005-03-19 15:10:26,618 - simple_example - DEBUG - debug message
+    2005-03-19 15:10:26,620 - simple_example - INFO - info message
+    2005-03-19 15:10:26,695 - simple_example - WARNING - warn message
+    2005-03-19 15:10:26,697 - simple_example - ERROR - error message
+    2005-03-19 15:10:26,773 - simple_example - CRITICAL - critical message
+
+The following Python module creates a logger, handler, and formatter nearly
+identical to those in the example listed above, with the only difference being
+the names of the objects::
+
+    import logging
+    import logging.config
+
+    logging.config.fileConfig("logging.conf")
+
+    # create logger
+    logger = logging.getLogger("simpleExample")
+
+    # "application" code
+    logger.debug("debug message")
+    logger.info("info message")
+    logger.warn("warn message")
+    logger.error("error message")
+    logger.critical("critical message")
+
+Here is the logging.conf file::
+
+    [loggers]
+    keys=root,simpleExample
+
+    [handlers]
+    keys=consoleHandler
+
+    [formatters]
+    keys=simpleFormatter
+
+    [logger_root]
+    level=DEBUG
+    handlers=consoleHandler
+
+    [logger_simpleExample]
+    level=DEBUG
+    handlers=consoleHandler
+    qualname=simpleExample
+    propagate=0
+
+    [handler_consoleHandler]
+    class=StreamHandler
+    level=DEBUG
+    formatter=simpleFormatter
+    args=(sys.stdout,)
+
+    [formatter_simpleFormatter]
+    format=%(asctime)s - %(name)s - %(levelname)s - %(message)s
+    datefmt=
+
+The output is nearly identical to that of the non-config-file-based example::
+
+    $ python simple_logging_config.py
+    2005-03-19 15:38:55,977 - simpleExample - DEBUG - debug message
+    2005-03-19 15:38:55,979 - simpleExample - INFO - info message
+    2005-03-19 15:38:56,054 - simpleExample - WARNING - warn message
+    2005-03-19 15:38:56,055 - simpleExample - ERROR - error message
+    2005-03-19 15:38:56,130 - simpleExample - CRITICAL - critical message
+
+You can see that the config file approach has a few advantages over the Python
+code approach, mainly separation of configuration and code and the ability of
+noncoders to easily modify the logging properties.
+
+
+Logging Levels
+--------------
+
 The numeric values of logging levels are given in the following table. These are
 primarily of interest if you want to define your own levels, and need them to
 have specific values relative to the predefined levels. If you define a level
    Sends the record to the Web server as an URL-encoded dictionary.
 
 
+.. _formatter-objects:
+
 Formatter Objects
 -----------------
 
    sent as a file suitable for processing by :func:`fileConfig`. Returns a
    :class:`Thread` instance on which you can call :meth:`start` to start the
    server, and which you can :meth:`join` when appropriate. To stop the server,
-   call :func:`stopListening`. To send a configuration to the socket, read in the
-   configuration file and send it to the socket as a string of bytes preceded by a
-   four-byte length packed in binary using struct.\ ``pack('>L', n)``.
+   call :func:`stopListening`.
+
+   To send a configuration to the socket, read in the configuration file and
+   send it to the socket as a string of bytes preceded by a four-byte length
+   string packed in binary using ``struct.pack('>L', n)``.
 
 
 .. function:: stopListening()
 
-   Stops the listening server which was created with a call to :func:`listen`. This
-   is typically called before calling :meth:`join` on the return value from
+   Stops the listening server which was created with a call to :func:`listen`.
+   This is typically called before calling :meth:`join` on the return value from
    :func:`listen`.
 
 
 Configuration file format
 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
 
-.. % 
-
 The configuration file format understood by :func:`fileConfig` is based on
 ConfigParser functionality. The file must contain sections called ``[loggers]``,
 ``[handlers]`` and ``[formatters]`` which identify by name the entities of each
 :class:`Formatter` subclass.  Subclasses of :class:`Formatter` can present
 exception tracebacks in an expanded or condensed format.
 
+
+Configuration server example
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Here is an example of a module using the logging configuration server::
+
+    import logging
+    import logging.config
+    import time
+    import os
+
+    # read initial config file
+    logging.config.fileConfig("logging.conf")
+
+    # create and start listener on port 9999
+    t = logging.config.listen(9999)
+    t.start()
+
+    logger = logging.getLogger("simpleExample")
+
+    try:
+        # loop through logging calls to see the difference
+        # new configurations make, until Ctrl+C is pressed
+        while True:
+            logger.debug("debug message")
+            logger.info("info message")
+            logger.warn("warn message")
+            logger.error("error message")
+            logger.critical("critical message")
+            time.sleep(5)
+    except KeyboardInterrupt:
+        # cleanup
+        logging.config.stopListening()
+        t.join()
+
+And here is a script that takes a filename and sends that file to the server,
+properly preceded with the binary-encoded length, as the new logging
+configuration::
+
+    #!/usr/bin/env python
+    import socket, sys, struct
+
+    data_to_send = open(sys.argv[1], "r").read()
+
+    HOST = 'localhost'
+    PORT = 9999
+    s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
+    print "connecting..."
+    s.connect((HOST, PORT))
+    print "sending config..."
+    s.send(struct.pack(">L", len(data_to_send)))
+    s.send(data_to_send)
+    s.close()
+    print "complete"
+
+
+More examples
+-------------
+
+Multiple handlers and formatters
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Loggers are plain Python objects.  The :func:`addHandler` method has no minimum
+or maximum quota for the number of handlers you may add.  Sometimes it will be
+beneficial for an application to log all messages of all severities to a text
+file while simultaneously logging errors or above to the console.  To set this
+up, simply configure the appropriate handlers.  The logging calls in the
+application code will remain unchanged.  Here is a slight modification to the
+previous simple module-based configuration example::
+
+    import logging
+
+    logger = logging.getLogger("simple_example")
+    logger.setLevel(logging.DEBUG)
+    # create file handler which logs even debug messages
+    fh = logging.FileHandler("spam.log")
+    fh.setLevel(logging.DEBUG)
+    # create console handler with a higher log level
+    ch = logging.StreamHandler()
+    ch.setLevel(logging.ERROR)
+    # create formatter and add it to the handlers
+    formatter = logging.Formatter("%(asctime)s - %(name)s - %(levelname)s - %(message)s")
+    ch.setFormatter(formatter)
+    fh.setFormatter(formatter)
+    # add the handlers to logger
+    logger.addHandler(ch)
+    logger.addHandler(fh)
+
+    # "application" code
+    logger.debug("debug message")
+    logger.info("info message")
+    logger.warn("warn message")
+    logger.error("error message")
+    logger.critical("critical message")
+
+Notice that the "application" code does not care about multiple handlers.  All
+that changed was the addition and configuration of a new handler named *fh*.
+
+The ability to create new handlers with higher- or lower-severity filters can be
+very helpful when writing and testing an application.  Instead of using many
+``print`` statements for debugging, use ``logger.debug``: Unlike the print
+statements, which you will have to delete or comment out later, the logger.debug
+statements can remain intact in the source code and remain dormant until you
+need them again.  At that time, the only change that needs to happen is to
+modify the severity level of the logger and/or handler to debug.
+
+
+Using logging in multiple modules
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+It was mentioned above that multiple calls to
+``logging.getLogger('someLogger')`` return a reference to the same logger
+object.  This is true not only within the same module, but also across modules
+as long as it is in the same Python interpreter process.  It is true for
+references to the same object; additionally, application code can define and
+configure a parent logger in one module and create (but not configure) a child
+logger in a separate module, and all logger calls to the child will pass up to
+the parent.  Here is a main module::
+
+    import logging
+    import auxiliary_module
+
+    # create logger with "spam_application"
+    logger = logging.getLogger("spam_application")
+    logger.setLevel(logging.DEBUG)
+    # create file handler which logs even debug messages
+    fh = logging.FileHandler("spam.log")
+    fh.setLevel(logging.DEBUG)
+    # create console handler with a higher log level
+    ch = logging.StreamHandler()
+    ch.setLevel(logging.ERROR)
+    # create formatter and add it to the handlers
+    formatter = logging.Formatter("%(asctime)s - %(name)s - %(levelname)s - %(message)s")
+    fh.setFormatter(formatter)
+    ch.setFormatter(formatter)
+    # add the handlers to the logger
+    logger.addHandler(fh)
+    logger.addHandler(ch)
+
+    logger.info("creating an instance of auxiliary_module.Auxiliary")
+    a = auxiliary_module.Auxiliary()
+    logger.info("created an instance of auxiliary_module.Auxiliary")
+    logger.info("calling auxiliary_module.Auxiliary.do_something")
+    a.do_something()
+    logger.info("finished auxiliary_module.Auxiliary.do_something")
+    logger.info("calling auxiliary_module.some_function()")
+    auxiliary_module.some_function()
+    logger.info("done with auxiliary_module.some_function()")
+
+Here is the auxiliary module::
+
+    import logging
+
+    # create logger
+    module_logger = logging.getLogger("spam_application.auxiliary")
+
+    class Auxiliary:
+        def __init__(self):
+            self.logger = logging.getLogger("spam_application.auxiliary.Auxiliary")
+            self.logger.info("creating an instance of Auxiliary")
+        def do_something(self):
+            self.logger.info("doing something")
+            a = 1 + 1
+            self.logger.info("done doing something")
+
+    def some_function():
+        module_logger.info("received a call to \"some_function\"")
+
+The output looks like this::
+
+    2005-03-23 23:47:11,663 - spam_application - INFO - 
+       creating an instance of auxiliary_module.Auxiliary
+    2005-03-23 23:47:11,665 - spam_application.auxiliary.Auxiliary - INFO - 
+       creating an instance of Auxiliary
+    2005-03-23 23:47:11,665 - spam_application - INFO - 
+       created an instance of auxiliary_module.Auxiliary
+    2005-03-23 23:47:11,668 - spam_application - INFO - 
+       calling auxiliary_module.Auxiliary.do_something
+    2005-03-23 23:47:11,668 - spam_application.auxiliary.Auxiliary - INFO - 
+       doing something
+    2005-03-23 23:47:11,669 - spam_application.auxiliary.Auxiliary - INFO - 
+       done doing something
+    2005-03-23 23:47:11,670 - spam_application - INFO - 
+       finished auxiliary_module.Auxiliary.do_something
+    2005-03-23 23:47:11,671 - spam_application - INFO - 
+       calling auxiliary_module.some_function()
+    2005-03-23 23:47:11,672 - spam_application.auxiliary - INFO - 
+       received a call to "some_function"
+    2005-03-23 23:47:11,673 - spam_application - INFO - 
+       done with auxiliary_module.some_function()
+

Doc/using/index.rst

 .. toctree::
 
    cmdline.rst
+   unix.rst
    windows.rst
    mac.rst
 

Doc/using/unix.rst

+.. highlightlang:: none
+
+.. _using-on-unix:
+
+********************************
+ Using Python on Unix platforms
+********************************
+
+.. sectionauthor:: Shriphani Palakodety
+
+
+Getting and installing the latest version of Python
+===================================================
+
+On Linux
+--------
+
+Python comes preinstalled on most Linux distributions, and is available as a
+package on all others.  However there are certain features you might want to use
+that are not available on your distro's package.  You can easily compile the
+latest version of Python from source.
+	
+In the event Python doesn't come preinstalled and isn't in the repositories as
+well, you can easily make packages for your own distro.  Have a look at the
+following links:
+
+.. seealso::
+
+   http://www.linux.com/articles/60383
+      for Debian users
+   http://linuxmafia.com/pub/linux/suse-linux-internals/chapter35.html
+      for OpenSuse users
+   http://docs.fedoraproject.org/drafts/rpm-guide-en/ch-creating-rpms.html
+      for Fedora users
+   http://www.slackbook.org/html/package-management-making-packages.html
+      for Slackware users
+
+
+On FreeBSD and OpenBSD
+----------------------
+
+* FreeBSD users, to add the package use::
+
+     pkg_add -r python
+
+* OpenBSD users use::
+
+     pkg_add ftp://ftp.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/4.2/packages/<insert your architecture here>/python-<version>.tgz 
+	
+  For example i386 users get the 2.5.1 version of Python using::
+
+     pkg_add ftp://ftp.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/4.2/packages/i386/python-2.5.1p2.tgz
+
+
+On OpenSolaris
+--------------
+
+To install the newest Python versions on OpenSolaris, install blastwave
+(http://www.blastwave.org/howto.html) and type "pkg_get -i python" at the
+prompt.
+
+
+Building Python
+===============
+
+If you want to compile CPython yourself, first thing you should do is get the
+`source <http://python.org/download/source/>`_. You can download either the
+latest release's source or just grab a fresh `checkout
+<http://www.python.org/dev/faq/#how-do-i-get-a-checkout-of-the-repository-read-only-and-read-write>`_.
+
+The build process consists the usual ::
+
+   ./configure
+   make
+   make install
+
+invocations. Configuration options and caveats for specific Unix platforms are
+extensively documented in the :file:`README` file in the root of the Python
+source tree.
+
+.. warning::
+
+   ``make install`` can overwrite or masquerade the :file:`python` binary.
+   ``make altinstall`` is therefore recommended instead of ``make install``
+   since it only installs :file:`{exec_prefix}/bin/python{version}`.
+
+
+Python-related paths and files
+==============================
+ 
+These are subject to difference depending on local installation conventions;
+:envvar:`prefix` (``${prefix}``) and :envvar:`exec_prefix` (``${exec_prefix}``)
+are installation-dependent and should be interpreted as for GNU software; they
+may be the same.
+
+For example, on most Linux systems, the default for both is :file:`/usr`.
+
++-----------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------+
+| File/directory                                | Meaning                                  |
++===============================================+==========================================+
+| :file:`{exec_prefix}/bin/python`              | Recommended location of the interpreter. |
++-----------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------+
+| :file:`{prefix}/lib/python{version}`,         | Recommended locations of the directories |
+| :file:`{exec_prefix}/lib/python{version}`     | containing the standard modules.         |
++-----------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------+
+| :file:`{prefix}/include/python{version}`,     | Recommended locations of the directories |
+| :file:`{exec_prefix}/include/python{version}` | containing the include files needed for  |
+|                                               | developing Python extensions and         |
+|                                               | embedding the interpreter.               |
++-----------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------+
+| :file:`~/.pythonrc.py`                        | User-specific initialization file loaded |
+|                                               | by the user module; not used by default  |
+|                                               | or by most applications.                 |
++-----------------------------------------------+------------------------------------------+
+ 
+
+Miscellaneous
+=============
+
+To easily use Python scripts on Unix, you need to make them executable,
+e.g. with ::
+
+   $ chmod +x script
+
+and put an appropriate Shebang line at the top of the script.  A good choice is
+usually ::
+
+   #!/usr/bin/env python
+
+which searches for the Python interpreter in the whole :envvar:`PATH`.  However,
+some Unices may not have the :program:`env` command, so you may need to hardcode
+``/usr/bin/python`` as the interpreter path.
+
+To use shell commands in your python scripts, look at the :mod:`subprocess` module.
+
+
+Editors
+=======
+
+Vim and Emacs are excellent editors which support Python very well.  For more
+information on how to code in python in these editors, look at:
+
+http://www.vim.org/scripts/script.php?script_id=790
+http://sourceforge.net/projects/python-mode
+
+Geany is an excellent IDE with support for a lot of languages. For more
+information, read: http://geany.uvena.de/
+
+Komodo edit is another extremely good IDE.  It also has support for a lot of
+languages. For more information, read:
+http://www.activestate.com/store/productdetail.aspx?prdGuid=20f4ed15-6684-4118-a78b-d37ff4058c5f

Doc/using/windows.rst

 If you want to compile CPython yourself, first thing you should do is get the
 `source <http://python.org/download/source/>`_. You can download either the
 latest release's source or just grab a fresh `checkout
-<http://www.python.org/dev/faq/
-#how-do-i-get-a-checkout-of-the-repository-read-only-and-read-write>`_.
+<http://www.python.org/dev/faq/#how-do-i-get-a-checkout-of-the-repository-read-only-and-read-write>`_.
 
 For Microsoft Visual C++, which is the compiler with which official Python
 releases are built, the source tree contains solutions/project files.  View the
         """
 
         other = _convert_other(other, raiseit=True)
+
+        # compute product; raise InvalidOperation if either operand is
+        # a signaling NaN or if the product is zero times infinity.
+        if self._is_special or other._is_special:
+            if context is None:
+                context = getcontext()
+            if self._exp == 'N':
+                return context._raise_error(InvalidOperation, 'sNaN',
+                                        1, self)
+            if other._exp == 'N':
+                return context._raise_error(InvalidOperation, 'sNaN',
+                                        1, other)
+            if self._exp == 'n':
+                product = self
+            elif other._exp == 'n':
+                product = other
+            elif self._exp == 'F':
+                if not other:
+                    return context._raise_error(InvalidOperation,
+                                                'INF * 0 in fma')
+                product = Infsign[self._sign ^ other._sign]
+            elif other._exp == 'F':
+                if not self:
+                    return context._raise_error(InvalidOperation,
+                                                '0 * INF in fma')
+                product = Infsign[self._sign ^ other._sign]
+        else:
+            product = _dec_from_triple(self._sign ^ other._sign,
+                                       str(int(self._int) * int(other._int)),
+                                       self._exp + other._exp)
+
         third = _convert_other(third, raiseit=True)
-
-        if context is None:
-            context = getcontext()
-
-        # do self*other in fresh context with no traps and no rounding
-        mul_context = Context(traps=[], flags=[],
-                              _rounding_decision=NEVER_ROUND)
-        product = self.__mul__(other, mul_context)
-
-        if mul_context.flags[InvalidOperation]:
-            # reraise in current context
-            return context._raise_error(InvalidOperation,
-                                        'invalid multiplication in fma',
-                                        1, product)
-
-        ans = product.__add__(third, context)
-        return ans
+        return product.__add__(third, context)
 
     def _power_modulo(self, other, modulo, context=None):
         """Three argument version of __pow__"""
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