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Anonymous committed 8f5ab1a

Fred Drake's new parser module

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Files changed (2)

 
 array arraymodule.c	# array objects
 math mathmodule.c -lm	# math library functions, e.g. sin()
-parser parsermodule.c	# raw interface to the Python parser
+parser parsermodule.c	# Fred Drake's interface to the Python parser
 regex regexmodule.c regexpr.c	# Regular expressions, GNU Emacs style
 strop stropmodule.c	# fast string operations implemented in C
 struct structmodule.c	# binary structure packing/unpacking

Modules/parsermodule.c

+/*  Parser.c
+ *
+ *  Copyright 1995 by Fred L. Drake, Jr. and Virginia Polytechnic Institute
+ *  and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.  Portions copyright
+ *  1991-1995 by Stichting Mathematisch Centrum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
+ *  Copying is permitted under the terms associated with the main Python
+ *  distribution, with the additional restriction that this additional notice
+ *  be included and maintained on all distributed copies.
+ *
+ *  This module serves to replace the original parser module written by
+ *  Guido.  The functionality is not matched precisely, but the original
+ *  may be implemented on top of this.  This is desirable since the source
+ *  of the text to be parsed is now divorced from this interface.
+ *
+ *  Unlike the prior interface, the ability to give a parse tree produced
+ *  by Python code as a tuple to the compiler is enabled by this module.
+ *  See the documentation for more details.
+ *
+ */
+
+#include "Python.h"			/* general Python API		  */
+#include "graminit.h"			/* symbols defined in the grammar */
+#include "node.h"			/* internal parser structure	  */
+#include "token.h"			/* token definitions		  */
+					/* ISTERMINAL() / ISNONTERMINAL() */
+
+/*
+ *  All the "fudge" declarations are here:
+ */
+
+
+/*  These appearantly aren't prototyped in any of the standard Python headers,
+ *  either by this name or as 'parse_string()/compile().'  This works at
+ *  cutting out the warning, but needs to be done as part of the mainstream
+ *  Python headers if this is going to be supported.  It is being handled as
+ *  part of the Great Renaming.
+ */
+extern node*	 PyParser_SimpleParseString(char*, int);
+extern PyObject* PyNode_Compile(node*, char*);
+
+
+/*  This isn't part of the Python runtime, but it's in the library somewhere.
+ *  Where it is varies a bit, so just declare it.
+ */
+extern char* strdup(const char*);
+
+
+/*
+ *  That's it!  Now, on to the module....
+ */
+
+
+
+/*  String constants used to initialize module attributes.
+ *
+ */
+static char*
+parser_copyright_string
+= "Copyright 1995 by Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University and\n"
+  "Fred L. Drake, Jr., Blacksburg, Virginia, USA.  Portions copyright\n"
+  "1991-1995 by Stichting Mathematisch Centrum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.";
+
+
+static char*
+parser_doc_string
+= "This is an interface to Python's internal parser.";
+
+static char*
+parser_version_string = "0.1";
+
+
+/*  The function below is copyrigthed by Stichting Mathematisch Centrum.
+ *  original copyright statement is included below, and continues to apply
+ *  in full to the function immediately following.  All other material is
+ *  original, copyrighted by Fred L. Drake, Jr. and Virginia Polytechnic
+ *  Institute and State University.  Changes were made to comply with the
+ *  new naming conventions.
+ */
+
 /***********************************************************
 Copyright 1991-1995 by Stichting Mathematisch Centrum, Amsterdam,
 The Netherlands.
 
 ******************************************************************/
 
-/* Raw interface to the parser. */
-
-#include "allobjects.h"
-#include "node.h"
-#include "token.h"
-#include "pythonrun.h"
-#include "graminit.h"
-#include "errcode.h"
-
-static object *
+static PyObject*
 node2tuple(n)
 	node *n;
 {
 	if (n == NULL) {
-		INCREF(None);
-		return None;
+		Py_INCREF(Py_None);
+		return Py_None;
 	}
 	if (ISNONTERMINAL(TYPE(n))) {
 		int i;
-		object *v, *w;
-		v = newtupleobject(1 + NCH(n));
+		PyObject *v, *w;
+		v = PyTuple_New(1 + NCH(n));
 		if (v == NULL)
 			return v;
-		w = newintobject(TYPE(n));
+		w = PyInt_FromLong(TYPE(n));
 		if (w == NULL) {
-			DECREF(v);
+			Py_DECREF(v);
 			return NULL;
 		}
-		settupleitem(v, 0, w);
+		PyTuple_SetItem(v, 0, w);
 		for (i = 0; i < NCH(n); i++) {
 			w = node2tuple(CHILD(n, i));
 			if (w == NULL) {
-				DECREF(v);
+				Py_DECREF(v);
 				return NULL;
 			}
-			settupleitem(v, i+1, w);
+			PyTuple_SetItem(v, i+1, w);
 		}
 		return v;
 	}
 	else if (ISTERMINAL(TYPE(n))) {
-		return mkvalue("(is)", TYPE(n), STR(n));
+		return Py_BuildValue("(is)", TYPE(n), STR(n));
 	}
 	else {
-		err_setstr(SystemError, "unrecognized parse tree node type");
+		PyErr_SetString(PyExc_SystemError,
+			   "unrecognized parse tree node type");
 		return NULL;
 	}
 }
+/*
+ *  End of material copyrighted by Stichting Mathematisch Centrum.
+ */
 
-static object *
-parser_parsefile(self, args)
-	object *self;
-	object *args;
+
+
+/*  There are two types of intermediate objects we're interested in:
+ *  'eval' and 'exec' types.  These constants can be used in the ast_type
+ *  field of the object type to identify which any given object represents.
+ *  These should probably go in an external header to allow other extensions
+ *  to use them, but then, we really should be using C++ too.  ;-)
+ *
+ *  The PyAST_FRAGMENT type is not currently supported.
+ */
+
+#define PyAST_EXPR	1
+#define PyAST_SUITE	2
+#define PyAST_FRAGMENT	3
+
+
+/*  These are the internal objects and definitions required to implement the
+ *  AST type.  Most of the internal names are more reminiscent of the 'old'
+ *  naming style, but the code uses the new naming convention.
+ */
+
+static PyObject*
+parser_error = 0;
+
+
+typedef struct _PyAST_Object {
+
+    PyObject_HEAD			/* standard object header	    */
+    node* ast_node;			/* the node* returned by the parser */
+    int	  ast_type;			/* EXPR or SUITE ?		    */
+
+} PyAST_Object;
+
+
+staticforward void parser_free(PyAST_Object* ast);
+staticforward int  parser_compare(PyAST_Object* left, PyAST_Object* right);
+staticforward long parser_hash(PyAST_Object* ast);
+
+
+/* static */
+PyTypeObject PyAST_Type = {
+
+    PyObject_HEAD_INIT(&PyType_Type)
+    0,
+    "ast",				/* tp_name		*/
+    sizeof(PyAST_Object),		/* tp_basicsize		*/
+    0,					/* tp_itemsize		*/
+    (destructor)parser_free,		/* tp_dealloc		*/
+    0,					/* tp_print		*/
+    0,					/* tp_getattr		*/
+    0,					/* tp_setattr		*/
+    (cmpfunc)parser_compare,		/* tp_compare		*/
+    0,					/* tp_repr		*/
+    0,					/* tp_as_number		*/
+    0,					/* tp_as_sequence	*/
+    0,					/* tp_as_mapping	*/
+    0,					/* tp_hash		*/
+    0,					/* tp_call		*/
+    0					/* tp_str		*/
+
+};  /* PyAST_Type */
+
+
+static int
+parser_compare_nodes(left, right)
+     node* left;
+     node* right;
 {
-	char *filename;
-	FILE *fp;
-	node *n = NULL;
-	object *res;
-	if (!getargs(args, "s", &filename))
-		return NULL;
-	fp = fopen(filename, "r");
-	if (fp == NULL) {
-		err_errno(IOError);
-		return NULL;
+    int j;
+
+    if (TYPE(left) < TYPE(right))
+	return (-1);
+
+    if (TYPE(right) < TYPE(left))
+	return (1);
+
+    if (ISTERMINAL(TYPE(left)))
+	return (strcmp(STR(left), STR(right)));
+
+    if (NCH(left) < NCH(right))
+	return (-1);
+
+    if (NCH(right) < NCH(left))
+	return (1);
+
+    for (j = 0; j < NCH(left); ++j) {
+	int v = parser_compare_nodes(CHILD(left, j), CHILD(right, j));
+
+	if (v)
+	    return (v);
+    }
+    return (0);
+
+}   /* parser_compare_nodes() */
+
+
+/*  int parser_compare(PyAST_Object* left, PyAST_Object* right)
+ *
+ *  Comparison function used by the Python operators ==, !=, <, >, <=, >=
+ *  This really just wraps a call to parser_compare_nodes() with some easy
+ *  checks and protection code.
+ *
+ */
+static int
+parser_compare(left, right)
+     PyAST_Object* left;
+     PyAST_Object* right;
+{
+    if (left == right)
+	return (0);
+
+    if ((left == 0) || (right == 0))
+	return (-1);
+
+    return (parser_compare_nodes(left->ast_node, right->ast_node));
+
+}   /* parser_compare() */
+
+
+/*  parser_newastobject(node* ast)
+ *
+ *  Allocates a new Python object representing an AST.  This is simply the
+ *  'wrapper' object that holds a node* and allows it to be passed around in
+ *  Python code.
+ *
+ */
+static PyObject*
+parser_newastobject(ast, type)
+     node* ast;
+     int   type;
+{
+    PyAST_Object* o = PyObject_NEW(PyAST_Object, &PyAST_Type);
+
+    if (o != 0) {
+	o->ast_node = ast;
+	o->ast_type = type;
+    }
+    return ((PyObject*)o);
+
+}   /* parser_newastobject() */
+
+
+/*  void parser_free(PyAST_Object* ast)
+ *
+ *  This is called by a del statement that reduces the reference count to 0.
+ *
+ */
+static void
+parser_free(ast)
+     PyAST_Object* ast;
+{
+    PyNode_Free(ast->ast_node);
+    PyMem_DEL(ast);
+
+}   /* parser_free() */
+
+
+/*  parser_ast2tuple(PyObject* self, PyObject* args)
+ *
+ *  This provides conversion from a node* to a tuple object that can be
+ *  returned to the Python-level caller.  The AST object is not modified.
+ *
+ */
+static PyObject*
+parser_ast2tuple(self, args)
+     PyObject* self;
+     PyObject* args;
+{
+    PyObject* ast;
+    PyObject* res = 0;
+
+    if (PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "O!:ast2tuple", &PyAST_Type, &ast)) {
+	/*
+	 *  Convert AST into a tuple representation.  Use Guido's function,
+	 *  since it's known to work already.
+	 */
+	res = node2tuple(((PyAST_Object*)ast)->ast_node);
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* parser_ast2tuple() */
+
+
+/*  parser_compileast(PyObject* self, PyObject* args)
+ *
+ *  This function creates code objects from the parse tree represented by
+ *  the passed-in data object.  An optional file name is passed in as well.
+ *
+ */
+static PyObject*
+parser_compileast(self, args)
+     PyObject* self;
+     PyObject* args;
+{
+    PyAST_Object* ast;
+    PyObject*     res = 0;
+    char*	  str = "<ast>";
+
+    if (PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "O!|s", &PyAST_Type, &ast, &str))
+	res = PyNode_Compile(ast->ast_node, str);
+
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* parser_compileast() */
+
+
+/*  PyObject* parser_isexpr(PyObject* self, PyObject* args)
+ *  PyObject* parser_issuite(PyObject* self, PyObject* args)
+ *
+ *  Checks the passed-in AST object to determine if it is an expression or
+ *  a statement suite, respectively.  The return is a Python truth value.
+ *
+ */
+static PyObject*
+parser_isexpr(self, args)
+     PyObject* self;
+     PyObject* args;
+{
+    PyAST_Object* ast;
+    PyObject* res = 0;
+
+    if (PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "O!:isexpr", &PyAST_Type, &ast)) {
+	/*
+	 *  Check to see if the AST represents an expression or not.
+	 */
+	res = (ast->ast_type == PyAST_EXPR) ? Py_True : Py_False;
+	Py_INCREF(res);
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* parser_isexpr() */
+
+
+static PyObject*
+parser_issuite(self, args)
+     PyObject* self;
+     PyObject* args;
+{
+    PyAST_Object* ast;
+    PyObject* res = 0;
+
+    if (PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "O!:isexpr", &PyAST_Type, &ast)) {
+	/*
+	 *  Check to see if the AST represents an expression or not.
+	 */
+	res = (ast->ast_type == PyAST_EXPR) ? Py_False : Py_True;
+	Py_INCREF(res);
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* parser_issuite() */
+
+
+/*  PyObject* parser_do_parse(PyObject* args, int type)
+ *
+ *  Internal function to actually execute the parse and return the result if
+ *  successful, or set an exception if not.
+ *
+ */
+static PyObject*
+parser_do_parse(args, type)
+     PyObject *args;
+     int      type;
+{
+    char*     string = 0;
+    PyObject* res    = 0;
+
+    if (PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "s", &string)) {
+	node* n = PyParser_SimpleParseString(string,
+					     (type == PyAST_EXPR)
+					     ? eval_input : file_input);
+
+	if (n != 0)
+	    res = parser_newastobject(n, type);
+	else
+	    PyErr_SetString(parser_error, "Could not parse string.");
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}  /* parser_do_parse() */
+
+
+/*  PyObject* parser_expr(PyObject* self, PyObject* args)
+ *  PyObject* parser_suite(PyObject* self, PyObject* args)
+ *
+ *  External interfaces to the parser itself.  Which is called determines if
+ *  the parser attempts to recognize an expression ('eval' form) or statement
+ *  suite ('exec' form).  The real work is done by parser_do_parse() above.
+ *
+ */
+static PyObject*
+parser_expr(self, args)
+     PyObject* self;
+     PyObject* args;
+{
+    return (parser_do_parse(args, PyAST_EXPR));
+
+}   /* parser_expr() */
+
+
+static PyObject*
+parser_suite(self, args)
+     PyObject* self;
+     PyObject* args;
+{
+    return (parser_do_parse(args, PyAST_SUITE));
+
+}   /* parser_suite() */
+
+
+
+/*  This is the messy part of the code.  Conversion from a tuple to an AST
+ *  object requires that the input tuple be valid without having to rely on
+ *  catching an exception from the compiler.  This is done to allow the
+ *  compiler itself to remain fast, since most of its input will come from
+ *  the parser directly, and therefore be known to be syntactically correct.
+ *  This validation is done to ensure that we don't core dump the compile
+ *  phase, returning an exception instead.
+ *
+ *  Two aspects can be broken out in this code:  creating a node tree from
+ *  the tuple passed in, and verifying that it is indeed valid.  It may be
+ *  advantageous to expand the number of AST types to include funcdefs and
+ *  lambdadefs to take advantage of the optimizer, recognizing those ASTs
+ *  here.  They are not necessary, and not quite as useful in a raw form.
+ *  For now, let's get expressions and suites working reliably.
+ */
+
+
+staticforward node* build_node_tree(PyObject*);
+staticforward int   validate_expr_tree(node*);
+staticforward int   validate_suite_tree(node*);
+
+
+/*  PyObject* parser_tuple2ast(PyObject* self, PyObject* args)
+ *
+ *  This is the public function, called from the Python code.  It receives a
+ *  single tuple object from the caller, and creates an AST object if the
+ *  tuple can be validated.  It does this by checking the first code of the
+ *  tuple, and, if acceptable, builds the internal representation.  If this
+ *  step succeeds, the internal representation is validated as fully as
+ *  possible with the various validate_*() routines defined below.
+ *
+ *  This function must be changed if support is to be added for PyAST_FRAGMENT
+ *  AST objects.
+ *
+ */
+static PyObject*
+parser_tuple2ast(self, args)
+     PyObject* self;
+     PyObject* args;
+{
+    PyObject* ast	= 0;
+    PyObject* tuple	= 0;
+    int	      start_sym;
+    int	      next_sym;
+
+    if ((PyTuple_Size(args) == 1)
+	&& (tuple = PyTuple_GetItem(args, 0))
+	&& PyTuple_Check(tuple)
+	&& (PyTuple_Size(tuple) >= 2)
+	&& PyInt_Check(PyTuple_GetItem(tuple, 0))
+	&& PyTuple_Check(PyTuple_GetItem(tuple, 1))
+	&& (PyTuple_Size(PyTuple_GetItem(tuple, 1)) >= 2)
+	&& PyInt_Check(PyTuple_GetItem(PyTuple_GetItem(tuple, 1), 0))) {
+
+	/*
+	 *  This might be a valid parse tree, but let's do a quick check
+	 *  before we jump the gun.
+	 */
+
+	start_sym = PyInt_AsLong(PyTuple_GetItem(tuple, 0));
+	next_sym = PyInt_AsLong(PyTuple_GetItem(PyTuple_GetItem(tuple, 1), 0));
+
+	if ((start_sym == eval_input) && (next_sym == testlist)) {
+	    /*
+	     *  Might be an expression.
+	     */
+	    node* expression = build_node_tree(PyTuple_GetItem(args, 0));
+
+	    puts("Parser.tuple2ast: built eval input tree.");
+	    if ((expression != 0) && validate_expr_tree(expression))
+		ast = parser_newastobject(expression, PyAST_EXPR);
 	}
-	n = parse_file(fp, filename, file_input);
-	fclose(fp);
-	if (n == NULL)
-		return NULL;
-	res = node2tuple(n);
-	freetree(n);
-	return res;
-}
+	else if ((start_sym == file_input) && (next_sym == stmt)) {
+	    /*
+	     *  This looks like a suite so far.
+	     */
+	    node* suite_tree = build_node_tree(PyTuple_GetItem(args, 0));
 
-static struct methodlist parser_methods[] = {
-	{"parsefile", parser_parsefile},
-	{0, 0} /* Sentinel */
-};
+	    puts("Parser.tuple2ast: built file input tree.");
+	    if ((suite_tree != 0) && validate_suite_tree(suite_tree))
+		ast = parser_newastobject(suite_tree, PyAST_SUITE);
+	}
+	/*
+	 *  Make sure we throw an exception on all errors.  We should never
+	 *  get this, but we'd do well to be sure something is done.
+	 */
+	if ((ast == 0) && !PyErr_Occurred()) {
+	    PyErr_SetString(parser_error, "Unspecified ast error occurred.");
+	}
+    }
+    else {
+	PyErr_SetString(PyExc_TypeError,
+			"parser.tuple2ast(): expected single tuple.");
+    }
+    return (ast);
+
+}   /* parser_tuple2ast() */
+
+
+/*  int check_terminal_tuple()
+ *
+ *  Check a tuple to determine that it is indeed a valid terminal node.  The
+ *  node is known to be required as a terminal, so we throw an exception if
+ *  there is a failure.  The portion of the resulting node tree already built
+ *  is passed in so we can deallocate it in the event of a failure.
+ *
+ *  The format of an acceptable terminal tuple is "(is)":  the fact that elem
+ *  is a tuple and the integer is a valid terminal symbol has been established
+ *  before this function is called.  We must check the length of the tuple and
+ *  the type of the second element.  We do *NOT* check the actual text of the
+ *  string element, which we could do in many cases.  This is done by the
+ *  validate_*() functions which operate on the internal representation.
+ *
+ */
+static int
+check_terminal_tuple(elem, result)
+     PyObject* elem;
+     node*     result;
+{
+    int   res = 0;
+    char* str = 0;
+
+    if (PyTuple_Size(elem) != 2) {
+	str = "Illegal terminal symbol; node too long.";
+    }
+    else if (!PyString_Check(PyTuple_GetItem(elem, 1))) {
+	str = "Illegal terminal symbol; expected a string.";
+    }
+    else
+	res = 1;
+
+    if ((res == 0) && (result != 0)) {
+	elem = Py_BuildValue("(os)", elem, str);
+	PyErr_SetObject(parser_error, elem);
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* check_terminal_tuple() */
+
+
+/*  node* build_node_children()
+ *
+ *  Iterate across the children of the current non-terminal node and build
+ *  their structures.  If successful, return the root of this portion of
+ *  the tree, otherwise, 0.  Any required exception will be specified already,
+ *  and no memory will have been deallocated.
+ *
+ */
+static node*
+build_node_children(tuple, root, line_num)
+     PyObject* tuple;
+     node*     root;
+     int*      line_num;
+{
+    int len = PyTuple_Size(tuple);
+    int i;
+
+    for (i = 1; i < len; ++i) {
+	/* elem must always be a tuple, however simple */
+	PyObject* elem = PyTuple_GetItem(tuple, i);
+	long      type = 0;
+	char*     strn = 0;
+
+	if ((!PyTuple_Check(elem)) || !PyInt_Check(PyTuple_GetItem(elem, 0))) {
+	    PyErr_SetObject(parser_error,
+			    Py_BuildValue("(os)", elem,
+					  "Illegal node construct."));
+	    return (0);
+	}
+	type = PyInt_AsLong(PyTuple_GetItem(elem, 0));
+
+	if (ISTERMINAL(type)) {
+	    if (check_terminal_tuple(elem, root))
+		strn = strdup(PyString_AsString(PyTuple_GetItem(elem, 1)));
+	    else
+		return (0);
+	}
+	else if (!ISNONTERMINAL(type)) {
+	    /*
+	     *  It has to be one or the other; this is an error.
+	     *  Throw an exception.
+	     */
+	    PyErr_SetObject(parser_error,
+			    Py_BuildValue("(os)", elem,
+					  "Unknown node type."));
+	    return (0);
+	}
+	PyNode_AddChild(root, type, strn, *line_num);
+
+	if (ISNONTERMINAL(type)) {
+	    node* new_child = CHILD(root, i - 1);
+
+	    if (new_child != build_node_children(elem, new_child))
+		return (0);
+	}
+	else if (type == NEWLINE)	/* It's true:  we increment the     */
+	    ++(*line_num);		/* line number *after* the newline! */
+    }
+    return (root);
+
+}   /* build_node_children() */
+
+
+static node*
+build_node_tree(tuple)
+     PyObject* tuple;
+{
+    node* res = 0;
+    long  num = PyInt_AsLong(PyTuple_GetItem(tuple, 0));
+
+    if (ISTERMINAL(num)) {
+	/*
+	 *  The tuple is simple, but it doesn't start with a start symbol.
+	 *  Throw an exception now and be done with it.
+	 */
+	tuple = Py_BuildValue("(os)", tuple,
+			      "Illegal ast tuple; cannot start with terminal symbol.");
+	PyErr_SetObject(parser_error, tuple);
+    }
+    else if (ISNONTERMINAL(num)) {
+	/*
+	 *  Not efficient, but that can be handled later.
+	 */
+	int line_num = 0;
+
+	res = PyNode_New(num);
+	if (res != build_node_children(tuple, res, &line_num)) {
+	    PyNode_Free(res);
+	    res = 0;
+	}
+    }
+    else {
+	/*
+	 *  The tuple is illegal -- if the number is neither TERMINAL nor
+	 *  NONTERMINAL, we can't use it.
+	 */
+	PyErr_SetObject(parser_error,
+			Py_BuildValue("(os)", tuple,
+				      "Illegal component tuple."));
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* build_node_tree() */
+
+
+#define	VALIDATER(n)	static int validate_##n(node*)
+#define	VALIDATE(n)	static int validate_##n(node* tree)
+
+
+/*
+ *  Validation for the code above:
+ */
+VALIDATER(expr_tree);
+VALIDATER(suite_tree);
+
+
+/*
+ *  Validation routines used within the validation section:
+ */
+staticforward int validate_terminal(node*, int, char*);
+
+#define	validate_ampersand(ch)	validate_terminal(ch,	   AMPER, "&")
+#define	validate_circumflex(ch)	validate_terminal(ch, CIRCUMFLEX, "^")
+#define validate_colon(ch)	validate_terminal(ch,	   COLON, ":")
+#define validate_comma(ch)	validate_terminal(ch,	   COMMA, ",")
+#define validate_dedent(ch)	validate_terminal(ch,	  DEDENT, "")
+#define	validate_equal(ch)	validate_terminal(ch,	   EQUAL, "=")
+#define validate_indent(ch)	validate_terminal(ch,	  INDENT, "")
+#define validate_lparen(ch)	validate_terminal(ch,	    LPAR, "(")
+#define	validate_newline(ch)	validate_terminal(ch,	 NEWLINE, "")
+#define validate_rparen(ch)	validate_terminal(ch,	    RPAR, ")")
+#define validate_semi(ch)	validate_terminal(ch,	    SEMI, ";")
+#define	validate_star(ch)	validate_terminal(ch,	    STAR, "*")
+#define	validate_vbar(ch)	validate_terminal(ch,	    VBAR, "|")
+
+#define	validate_compound_stmt(ch) validate_node(ch)
+#define	validate_name(ch, str)	validate_terminal(ch,    NAME, str)
+#define validate_small_stmt(ch)	validate_node(ch)
+
+VALIDATER(class);		VALIDATER(node);
+VALIDATER(parameters);		VALIDATER(suite);
+VALIDATER(testlist);		VALIDATER(varargslist);
+VALIDATER(fpdef);		VALIDATER(fplist);
+VALIDATER(stmt);		VALIDATER(simple_stmt);
+VALIDATER(expr_stmt);
+VALIDATER(print_stmt);		VALIDATER(del_stmt);
+VALIDATER(return_stmt);
+VALIDATER(raise_stmt);		VALIDATER(import_stmt);
+VALIDATER(global_stmt);
+VALIDATER(access_stmt);		VALIDATER(accesstype);
+VALIDATER(exec_stmt);		VALIDATER(compound_stmt);
+VALIDATER(while);		VALIDATER(for);
+VALIDATER(try);			VALIDATER(except_clause);
+VALIDATER(test);		VALIDATER(and_test);
+VALIDATER(not_test);		VALIDATER(comparison);
+VALIDATER(comp_op);		VALIDATER(expr);
+VALIDATER(xor_expr);		VALIDATER(and_expr);
+VALIDATER(shift_expr);		VALIDATER(arith_expr);
+VALIDATER(term);		VALIDATER(factor);
+VALIDATER(atom);		VALIDATER(lambdef);
+VALIDATER(trailer);		VALIDATER(subscript);
+VALIDATER(exprlist);		VALIDATER(dictmaker);
+
+
+#define	is_even(n)	(((n) & 1) == 0)
+#define	is_odd(n)	(((n) & 1) == 1)
+
+
+static int
+validate_ntype(n, t)
+     node* n;
+     int   t;
+{
+    int res = (TYPE(n) == t);
+
+    if (!res) {
+	char buffer[128];
+
+	sprintf(buffer, "Expected node type %d, got %d.", t, TYPE(n));
+	PyErr_SetString(parser_error, buffer);
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_ntype() */
+
+
+static int
+validate_terminal(terminal, type, string)
+     node* terminal;
+     int   type;
+     char* string;
+{
+    static char buffer[60];
+    int res = ((TYPE(terminal) == type)
+	       && (strcmp(string, STR(terminal)) == 0));
+
+    if (!res) {
+	sprintf(buffer, "Illegal NAME: expected \"%s\"", string);
+	PyErr_SetString(parser_error, buffer);
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_terminal() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(class) {
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = (((nch == 4)
+		|| ((nch == 7)
+		    && validate_lparen(CHILD(tree, 2))
+		    && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 3), testlist)
+		    && validate_testlist(CHILD(tree, 3))
+		    && validate_rparen(CHILD(tree, 4))))
+		&& validate_terminal(CHILD(tree, 0),	NAME, "class")
+		&& validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 1), NAME)
+		&& validate_colon(CHILD(tree, nch - 2))
+		&& validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, nch - 1), suite)
+		&& validate_suite(CHILD(tree, nch - 1)));
+
+    if (!res) {
+	if ((nch >= 2)
+	    && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 1), NAME)) {
+	    char buffer[128];
+
+	    sprintf(buffer, "Illegal classdef tuple for %s",
+		    STR(CHILD(tree, 1)));
+	    PyErr_SetString(parser_error, buffer);
+	}
+	else {
+	    PyErr_SetString(parser_error, "Illegal classdef tuple.");
+	}
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_class() */
+
+
+static int
+validate_elif(elif_node, test_node, colon_node, suite_node)
+     node* elif_node;
+     node* test_node;
+     node* colon_node;
+     node* suite_node;
+{
+    return (validate_ntype(test_node, test)
+	    && validate_ntype(suite_node, suite)
+	    && validate_name(elif_node, "elif")
+	    && validate_colon(colon_node)
+	    && validate_node(test_node)
+	    && validate_suite(suite_node));
+
+}   /* validate_elif() */
+
+
+static int
+validate_else(else_node, colon_node, suite_node)
+     node* else_node;
+     node* colon_node;
+     node* suite_node;
+{
+    return (validate_ntype(suite_node, suite)
+	    && validate_name(else_node, "else")
+	    && validate_colon(colon_node)
+	    && validate_suite(suite_node));
+
+}   /* validate_else() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(if) {
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = ((nch >= 4)
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 1), test)
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 3), suite)
+	       && validate_name(CHILD(tree, 0), "if")
+	       && validate_colon(CHILD(tree, 2))
+	       && validate_parameters(CHILD(tree, 1))
+	       && validate_suite(CHILD(tree, 3)));
+
+    if (res && ((nch % 4) == 3)) {
+	/*
+	 *  There must be a single 'else' clause, and maybe a series
+	 *  of 'elif' clauses.
+	 */
+	res = validate_else(CHILD(tree, nch-3), CHILD(tree, nch-2),
+			    CHILD(tree, nch-1));
+	nch -= 3;
+    }
+    if ((nch % 4) != 0)
+	res = 0;
+    else if (res && (nch > 4)) {
+	/*
+	 *  There might be a series of 'elif' clauses.
+	 */
+	int j = 4;
+	while ((j < nch) && res) {
+	    res = validate_elif(CHILD(tree, j),   CHILD(tree, j+1),
+				CHILD(tree, j+2), CHILD(tree, j+3));
+	    j += 4;
+	}
+    }
+    if (!res && !PyErr_Occurred()) {
+	PyErr_SetString(parser_error, "Illegal 'if' statement found.");
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_if() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(parameters) {
+    int res = 1;
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+
+    res = (((nch == 2)
+	    || ((nch == 3)
+		&& validate_varargslist(CHILD(tree, 1))))
+	   && validate_lparen(CHILD(tree, 0))
+	   && validate_rparen(CHILD(tree, nch - 1)));
+
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_parameters() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(suite) {
+    int res = 1;
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+
+    if (nch == 1) {
+	res = (validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 0), simple_stmt)
+	       && validate_simple_stmt(CHILD(tree, 0)));
+    }
+    else {
+	res = ((nch >= 5)
+	       && validate_newline(CHILD(tree, 0))
+	       && validate_indent(CHILD(tree, 1))
+	       && validate_dedent(CHILD(tree, nch - 1)));
+
+	if (res) {
+	    int i = 2;
+
+	    while (TYPE(CHILD(tree, i)) == NEWLINE)
+		++i;
+	    res = (validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, i), stmt)
+		   && validate_stmt(CHILD(tree, i)));
+
+	    if (res) {
+		++i;
+		while (TYPE(CHILD(tree, i)) == NEWLINE)
+		    ++i;
+
+		while (res && (TYPE(CHILD(tree, i)) != DEDENT)) {
+		    res = (validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, i), stmt)
+			   && validate_stmt(CHILD(tree, i)));
+
+		    if (res) {
+			++i;
+			while (TYPE(CHILD(tree, i)) == NEWLINE)
+			    ++i;
+		    }
+		}
+	    }
+	}
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_suite() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(testlist) {
+    int i;
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = ((nch >= 1)
+	       && (is_odd(nch)
+		   || validate_comma(CHILD(tree, nch - 1))));
+
+    /*
+     *	If there are an even, non-zero number of children, the last one
+     *	absolutely must be a comma.  Why the trailing comma is allowed,
+     *	I have no idea!
+     */
+    if ((res) && is_odd(nch)) {
+	/*
+	 *  If the number is odd, the last is a test, and can be
+	 *  verified.  What's left, if anything, can be verified
+	 *  as a list of [test, comma] pairs.
+	 */
+	--nch;
+	res = (validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, nch), test)
+	       && validate_test(CHILD(tree, nch)));
+    }
+    for (i = 0; res && (i < nch); i += 2) {
+	res = (validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, i), test)
+	       && validate_test(CHILD(tree, i))
+	       && validate_comma(CHILD(tree, i + 1)));
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_testlist() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(varargslist) {
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = (nch != 0);
+
+    if (res && (TYPE(CHILD(tree, 0)) == fpdef)) {
+	int pos = 0;
+
+	while (res && (pos < nch)) {
+	    res = (validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, pos), fpdef)
+		   && validate_fpdef(CHILD(tree, pos)));
+	    ++pos;
+	    if (res && (pos < nch) && (TYPE(CHILD(tree, pos)) == EQUAL)) {
+		res = ((pos + 1 < nch)
+		       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, pos + 1), test)
+		       && validate_test(CHILD(tree, pos + 1)));
+		pos += 2;
+	    }
+	    if (res && (pos < nch)) {
+		res = validate_comma(CHILD(tree, pos));
+		++pos;
+	    }
+	}
+    }
+    else {
+	int pos = 0;
+
+	res = ((nch > 1)
+	       && ((nch & 1) == 0)
+	       && validate_star(CHILD(tree, nch - 2))
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, nch - 1), NAME));
+
+	nch -= 2;
+	while (res && (pos < nch)) {
+	    /*
+	     *  Sequence of:	fpdef ['=' test] ','
+	     */
+	    res = (validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, pos), fpdef)
+		   && validate_fpdef(CHILD(tree, pos))
+		   && ((TYPE(CHILD(tree, pos + 1)) == COMMA)
+		       || (((pos + 2) < nch)
+			   && validate_equal(CHILD(tree, pos + 1))
+			   && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, pos + 2), test)
+			   && validate_test(CHILD(tree, pos + 2))
+			   && validate_comma(CHILD(tree, pos + 3)))));
+	}
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_varargslist() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(fpdef) {
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+
+    return (((nch == 1)
+	     && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 0), NAME))
+	    || ((nch == 3)
+		&& validate_lparen(CHILD(tree, 0))
+		&& validate_fplist(CHILD(tree, 1))
+		&& validate_rparen(CHILD(tree, 2))));
+
+} /* validate_fpdef() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(fplist) {
+    int j;
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = ((nch != 0) && validate_fpdef(CHILD(tree, 0)));
+
+    if (res && is_even(nch)) {
+	res = validate_comma(CHILD(tree, nch - 1));
+	--nch;
+    }
+    for (j = 1; res && (j < nch); j += 2) {
+	res = (validate_comma(CHILD(tree, j))
+	       && validate_fpdef(CHILD(tree, j + 1)));
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_fplist() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(stmt) {
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+
+    return ((nch == 1)
+	    && (((TYPE(CHILD(tree, 0)) == simple_stmt)
+		 && validate_simple_stmt(CHILD(tree, 0)))
+		|| (validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 0), compound_stmt)
+		    && validate_compound_stmt(CHILD(tree, 0)))));
+
+}   /* validate_stmt() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(simple_stmt) {
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = ((nch >= 2)
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 0), small_stmt)
+	       && validate_small_stmt(CHILD(tree, 0))
+	       && validate_newline(CHILD(tree, nch - 1)));
+
+    --nch;			/* forget the NEWLINE */
+    if (res && (nch >= 2)) {
+	if (TYPE(CHILD(tree, nch - 1)) == SEMI)
+	    --nch;
+    }
+    if (res && (nch > 2)) {
+	int i;
+
+	for (i = 1; res && (i < nch); i += 2) {
+	    res = (validate_semi(CHILD(tree, i))
+		   && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, i + 1), small_stmt)
+		   && validate_small_stmt(CHILD(tree, i + 1)));
+	}
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_simple_stmt() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(expr_stmt) {
+    int j;
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = (is_odd(nch)
+	       && (validate_testlist(CHILD(tree, 0))));
+
+    for (j = 1; res && (j < nch); j += 2) {
+	res = (validate_equal(CHILD(tree, j))
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, j + 1), testlist)
+	       && validate_testlist(CHILD(tree, j + 1)));
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_expr_stmt() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(print_stmt) {
+    int j;
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = ((nch != 0)
+	       && is_even(nch)
+	       && validate_name(CHILD(tree, 0), "print")
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 1), test)
+	       && validate_test(CHILD(tree, 1)));
+    
+    for (j = 2; res && (j < nch); j += 2) {
+	res = (validate_comma(CHILD(tree, j))
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, j + 1), test)
+	       && validate_test(CHILD(tree, 1)));
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_print_stmt() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(del_stmt) {
+
+    return ((NCH(tree) == 2)
+	    && validate_name(CHILD(tree, 0), "del")
+	    && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 1), exprlist)
+	    && validate_exprlist(CHILD(tree, 1)));
+
+}   /* validate_del_stmt() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(return_stmt) {
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = (((nch == 1)
+		|| (nch == 2))
+	       && validate_name(CHILD(tree, 0), "return"));
+
+    if (res && (nch == 2)) {
+	res = (validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 1), testlist)
+	       && validate_testlist(CHILD(tree, 1)));
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_return_stmt() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(raise_stmt) {
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = (((nch == 2) || (nch == 4))
+	       && validate_name(CHILD(tree, 0), "raise")
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 1), test)
+	       && validate_test(CHILD(tree, 1)));
+
+    if (res && (nch == 4)) {
+	res = (validate_comma(CHILD(tree, 2))
+	       && (TYPE(CHILD(tree, 3)) == test)
+	       && validate_test(CHILD(tree, 3)));
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_raise_stmt() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(import_stmt) {
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = ((nch >= 2)
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 0), NAME)
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 1), NAME));
+
+    if (res && (strcmp(STR(CHILD(tree, 0)), "import") == 0)) {
+	res = is_even(nch);
+	if (res) {
+	    int j;
+
+	    for (j = 2; res && (j < nch); j += 2) {
+		res = (validate_comma(CHILD(tree, j))
+		       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, j + 1), NAME));
+	    }
+	}
+    }
+    else if (res && validate_name(CHILD(tree, 0), "from")) {
+	res = ((nch >= 4)
+	       && is_even(nch)
+	       && validate_name(CHILD(tree, 2), "import"));
+	if (nch == 4) {
+	    res = ((TYPE(CHILD(tree, 3)) == NAME)
+		   || validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 3), STAR));
+	}
+	else {
+	    /* 'from' NAME 'import' NAME (',' NAME)* */
+	    int j;
+
+	    res = validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 3), NAME);
+	    for (j = 4; res && (j < nch); j += 2) {
+		res = (validate_comma(CHILD(tree, j))
+		       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, j + 1), NAME));
+	    }
+	}
+    }
+    else {
+	res = 0;
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_import_stmt() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(global_stmt) {
+    int j;
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = (is_even(nch)
+	       && validate_name(CHILD(tree, 0), "global")
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 1), NAME));
+
+    for (j = 2; res && (j < nch); j += 2) {
+	res = (validate_comma(CHILD(tree, j))
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, j + 1), NAME));
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_global_stmt() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(access_stmt) {
+    int pos = 3;
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = ((nch >= 4)
+	       && is_even(nch)
+	       && validate_name(CHILD(tree, 0), "access")
+	       && validate_accesstype(CHILD(tree, nch - 1)));
+
+    if (res && (TYPE(CHILD(tree, 1)) != STAR)) {
+	int j;
+
+	res = validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 1), NAME);
+	for (j = 2; res && (j < (nch - 2)); j += 2) {
+	    if (TYPE(CHILD(tree, j)) == COLON)
+		break;
+	    res = (validate_comma(CHILD(tree, j))
+		   && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, j + 1), NAME)
+		   && (pos += 2));
+	}
+    }
+    else {
+	res = validate_star(CHILD(tree, 1));
+    }
+    res = (res && validate_colon(CHILD(tree, pos - 1)));
+
+    for (; res && (pos < (nch - 1)); pos += 2) {
+	res = (validate_accesstype(CHILD(tree, pos))
+	       && validate_comma(CHILD(tree, pos + 1)));
+    }
+    return (res && (pos == (nch - 1)));
+
+}   /* validate_access_stmt() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(accesstype) {
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = (nch >= 1);
+    int i;
+
+    for (i = 0; res && (i < nch); ++i) {
+	res = validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, i), NAME);
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_accesstype() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(exec_stmt) {
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = (((nch == 2) || (nch == 4) || (nch == 6))
+	       && validate_name(CHILD(tree, 0), "exec")
+	       && validate_expr(CHILD(tree, 1)));
+
+    if (res && (nch > 2)) {
+	res = (validate_name(CHILD(tree, 2), "in")
+	       && validate_test(CHILD(tree, 3)));
+    }
+    if (res && (nch > 4)) {
+	res = (validate_comma(CHILD(tree, 4))
+	       && validate_test(CHILD(tree, 5)));
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_exec_stmt() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(while) {
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = (((nch == 4) || (nch == 7))
+	       && validate_name(CHILD(tree, 0), "while")
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 1), test)
+	       && validate_test(CHILD(tree, 1))
+	       && validate_colon(CHILD(tree, 2))
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 3), suite)
+	       && validate_suite(CHILD(tree, 3)));
+
+    if (res && (nch == 7)) {
+	res = (validate_name(CHILD(tree, 4), "else")
+	       && validate_colon(CHILD(tree, 5))
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 6), suite)
+	       && validate_suite(CHILD(tree, 6)));
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_while() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(for) {
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = (((nch == 6) || (nch == 9))
+	       && validate_name(CHILD(tree, 0), "for")
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 1), exprlist)
+	       && validate_exprlist(CHILD(tree, 1))
+	       && validate_name(CHILD(tree, 2), "in")
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 3), testlist)
+	       && validate_testlist(CHILD(tree, 3))
+	       && validate_colon(CHILD(tree, 4))
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 5), suite)
+	       && validate_suite(CHILD(tree, 5)));
+
+    if (res && (nch == 9)) {
+	res = (validate_name(CHILD(tree, 6), "else")
+	       && validate_colon(CHILD(tree, 7))
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 8), suite)
+	       && validate_suite(CHILD(tree, 8)));
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_for() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(try) {
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = ((nch >= 6)
+	       && ((nch % 3) == 0)
+	       && validate_name(CHILD(tree, 0), "try")
+	       && validate_colon(CHILD(tree, 1))
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 2), suite)
+	       && validate_suite(CHILD(tree, 2))
+	       && validate_colon(CHILD(tree, nch - 2))
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, nch - 1), suite)
+	       && validate_suite(CHILD(tree, nch - 1)));
+
+    if (res && (TYPE(CHILD(tree, 3)) == except_clause)) {
+	int groups = (nch / 3) - 2;
+
+	res = validate_except_clause(CHILD(tree, 3));
+
+	if (res && (groups != 0)) {
+	    int cln_pos = 4;
+	    int sui_pos = 5;
+	    int nxt_pos = 6;
+
+	    while (res && groups--) {
+		res = (validate_colon(CHILD(tree, cln_pos))
+		       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, sui_pos), suite)
+		       && validate_suite(CHILD(tree, sui_pos)));
+
+		if (res && (TYPE(CHILD(tree, nxt_pos)) == NAME)) {
+		    res = ((groups == 0)
+			   && validate_name(CHILD(tree, nxt_pos), "else"));
+		}
+		else if (res) {
+		    res = (validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, nxt_pos), except_clause)
+			   && validate_except_clause(CHILD(tree, nxt_pos)));
+		}
+		/* Update for next group. */
+		cln_pos += 3;
+		sui_pos += 3;
+		nxt_pos += 3;
+	    }
+	}
+    }
+    else if (res) {
+	res = ((nch == 6)
+	       && validate_name(CHILD(tree, 3), "finally"));
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_try() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(except_clause) {
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = (((nch == 1) || (nch == 2) || (nch == 4))
+	       && validate_name(CHILD(tree, 0), "except"));
+
+    if (res && (nch > 1)) {
+	res = (validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 1), test)
+	       && validate_test(CHILD(tree, 1)));
+    }
+    if (res && (nch == 4)) {
+	res = (validate_comma(CHILD(tree, 2))
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 3), test)
+	       && validate_test(CHILD(tree, 3)));
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_except_clause() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(test) {
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = is_odd(nch);
+
+    if (res && (TYPE(CHILD(tree, 0)) == lambdef)) {
+	res = ((nch == 1)
+	       && validate_lambdef(CHILD(tree, 0)));
+    }
+    else if (res) {
+	int pos;
+
+	res = (validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 0), and_test)
+	       && validate_and_test(CHILD(tree, 0)));
+
+	for (pos = 1; res && (pos < nch); pos += 2) {
+	    res = (validate_comma(CHILD(tree, pos))
+		   && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, pos + 1), and_test)
+		   && validate_and_test(CHILD(tree, pos + 1)));
+	}
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_test() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(and_test) {
+    int pos;
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = (is_odd(nch)
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 0), not_test)
+	       && validate_not_test(CHILD(tree, 0)));
+
+    for (pos = 1; res && (pos < nch); pos += 2) {
+	res = (validate_name(CHILD(tree, pos), "and")
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 0), not_test)
+	       && validate_not_test(CHILD(tree, 0)));
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_and_test() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(not_test) {
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+
+    return (((nch == 2)
+	     && validate_name(CHILD(tree, 0), "not")
+	     && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 1), not_test)
+	     && validate_not_test(CHILD(tree, 1)))
+	    || ((nch == 1)
+		&& validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 0), comparison)
+		&& validate_comparison(CHILD(tree, 0))));
+
+}   /* validate_not_test() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(comparison) {
+    int pos;
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = (is_odd(nch)
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 0), expr)
+	       && validate_expr(CHILD(tree, 0)));
+
+    for (pos = 1; res && (pos < nch); pos += 2) {
+	res = (validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, pos), comp_op)
+	       && validate_comp_op(CHILD(tree, pos))
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, pos + 1), expr)
+	       && validate_expr(CHILD(tree, 1)));
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_comparison() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(comp_op) {
+    int res = 0;
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+
+    if (nch == 1) {
+	/*
+	 *  Only child will be a terminal with a well-defined symbolic name
+	 *  or a NAME with a string of either 'is' or 'in'
+	 */
+	tree = CHILD(tree, 0);
+	switch (TYPE(tree)) {
+	    case LESS:
+	    case GREATER:
+	    case EQEQUAL:
+	    case EQUAL:
+	    case LESSEQUAL:
+	    case GREATEREQUAL:
+	    case NOTEQUAL:
+	      res = 1;
+	      break;
+	    case NAME:
+	      res = ((strcmp(STR(tree), "in") == 0)
+		     || (strcmp(STR(tree), "is") == 0));
+	      if (!res) {
+		  char buffer[128];
+
+		  sprintf(buffer, "Illegal comparison operator: '%s'.",
+			  STR(tree));
+		  PyErr_SetString(parser_error, buffer);
+	      }
+	      break;
+	  default:
+	      PyErr_SetString(parser_error,
+			      "Illegal comparison operator type.");
+	      break;
+	}
+    }
+    else if (nch == 2) {
+	res = (validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 0), NAME)
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 1), NAME)
+	       && (((strcmp(STR(CHILD(tree, 0)), "is") == 0)
+		    && (strcmp(STR(CHILD(tree, 1)), "not") == 0))
+		   || ((strcmp(STR(CHILD(tree, 0)), "not") == 0)
+		       && (strcmp(STR(CHILD(tree, 1)), "in") == 0))));
+    }
+
+    if (!res && !PyErr_Occurred()) {
+	PyErr_SetString(parser_error, "Unknown comparison operator.");
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_comp_op() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(expr) {
+    int j;
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = (is_odd(nch)
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 0), xor_expr)
+	       && validate_xor_expr(CHILD(tree, 0)));
+
+    for (j = 2; res && (j < nch); j += 2) {
+	res = (validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, j), xor_expr)
+	       && validate_xor_expr(CHILD(tree, j))
+	       && validate_vbar(CHILD(tree, j - 1)));
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_expr() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(xor_expr) {
+    int j;
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = (is_odd(nch)
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 0), and_expr)
+	       && validate_and_expr(CHILD(tree, 0)));
+
+    for (j = 2; res && (j < nch); j += 2) {
+	res = (validate_circumflex(CHILD(tree, j - 1))
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, j), and_expr)
+	       && validate_and_expr(CHILD(tree, j)));
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_xor_expr() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(and_expr) {
+    int pos;
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = (is_odd(nch)
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 0), shift_expr)
+	       && validate_shift_expr(CHILD(tree, 0)));
+
+    for (pos = 1; res && (pos < nch); pos += 2) {
+	res = (validate_ampersand(CHILD(tree, pos))
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, pos + 1), shift_expr)
+	       && validate_shift_expr(CHILD(tree, pos + 1)));
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_and_expr() */
+
+
+static int
+validate_chain_two_ops(tree, termtype, termvalid, op1, op2)
+     node*	tree;
+     int	termtype;
+     int (*termvalid)(node*);
+     int	op1, op2;
+{
+    int pos;
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = (is_odd(nch)
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 0), termtype)
+	       && (*termvalid)(CHILD(tree, 0)));
+
+    for (pos = 1; res && (pos < nch); pos += 2) {
+	res = (((TYPE(CHILD(tree, pos)) == op1)
+		|| validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, pos), op2))
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, pos + 1), termtype)
+	       && (*termvalid)(CHILD(tree, pos + 1)));
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_chain_two_ops() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(shift_expr) {
+
+    return (validate_chain_two_ops(tree, arith_expr,
+				   validate_arith_expr,
+				   LEFTSHIFT, RIGHTSHIFT));
+
+}   /* validate_shift_expr() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(arith_expr) {
+
+    return (validate_chain_two_ops(tree, term,
+				   validate_term,
+				   PLUS, MINUS));
+
+}   /* validate_arith_expr() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(term) {
+    int pos;
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = (is_odd(nch)
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 0), factor)
+	       && validate_factor(CHILD(tree, 0)));
+
+    for (pos = 1; res && (pos < nch); pos += 2) {
+	res= (((TYPE(CHILD(tree, pos)) == STAR)
+	       || (TYPE(CHILD(tree, pos)) == SLASH)
+	       || validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, pos), PERCENT))
+	      && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, pos + 1), factor)
+	      && validate_factor(CHILD(tree, pos + 1)));
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_term() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(factor) {
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = (((nch == 2)
+		&& ((TYPE(CHILD(tree, 0)) == PLUS)
+		    || (TYPE(CHILD(tree, 0)) == MINUS)
+		    || validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 0), TILDE))
+		&& validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 1), factor)
+		&& validate_factor(CHILD(tree, 1)))
+	       || ((nch >= 1)
+		   && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 0), atom)
+		   && validate_atom(CHILD(tree, 0))));
+
+    if (res && (TYPE(CHILD(tree, 0)) == atom)) {
+	int pos;
+
+	for (pos = 1; res && (pos < nch); ++pos) {
+	    res = (validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, pos), trailer)
+		   && validate_trailer(CHILD(tree, pos)));
+	}
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_factor() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(atom) {
+    int pos;
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = (nch >= 1);
+
+    if (res) {
+	switch (TYPE(CHILD(tree, 0))) {
+	  case LPAR:
+	    res = ((nch <= 3)
+		   && (validate_rparen(CHILD(tree, nch - 1))));
+
+	    if (res && (nch == 3)) {
+		res = (validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 1), testlist)
+		       && validate_testlist(CHILD(tree, 1)));
+	    }
+	    break;
+	  case LSQB:
+	    res = ((nch <= 3)
+		   && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, nch - 1), RSQB));
+
+	    if (res && (nch == 3)) {
+		res = (validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 1), testlist)
+		       && validate_testlist(CHILD(tree, 1)));
+	    }
+	    break;
+	  case LBRACE:
+	    res = ((nch <= 3)
+		   && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, nch - 1), RBRACE));
+
+	    if (res && (nch == 3)) {
+		res = (validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 1), dictmaker)
+		       && validate_dictmaker(CHILD(tree, 1)));
+	    }
+	    break;
+	  case BACKQUOTE:
+	    res = ((nch == 3)
+		   && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 1), testlist)
+		   && validate_testlist(CHILD(tree, 1))
+		   && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 2), BACKQUOTE));
+	    break;
+	  case NAME:
+	  case NUMBER:
+	    res = (nch == 1);
+	    break;
+	  case STRING:
+	    for (pos = 1; res && (pos < nch); ++pos) {
+		res = validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, pos), STRING);
+	    }
+	    break;
+	  default:
+	    res = 0;
+	    break;
+	}
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_atom() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(funcdef) {
+
+    return ((NCH(tree) == 5)
+	    && validate_name(CHILD(tree, 0), "def")
+	    && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 1), NAME)
+	    && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 2), parameters)
+	    && validate_colon(CHILD(tree, 3))
+	    && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 4), suite)
+	    && validate_parameters(CHILD(tree, 2))
+	    && validate_suite(CHILD(tree, 4)));
+
+}   /* validate_funcdef() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(lambdef) {
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = (((nch == 3) || (nch == 4))
+	       && validate_name(CHILD(tree, 0), "lambda")
+	       && validate_colon(CHILD(tree, nch - 2))
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, nch - 1), test)
+	       && validate_testlist(CHILD(tree, nch - 1)));
+
+    if (res && (nch == 4)) {
+	res = (validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 1), varargslist)
+	       && validate_varargslist(CHILD(tree, 1)));
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_lambdef() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(trailer) {
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = ((nch == 2) || (nch == 3));
+
+    if (res) {
+	switch (TYPE(CHILD(tree, 0))) {
+	  case LPAR:
+	    res = validate_rparen(CHILD(tree, nch - 1));
+	    if (res && (nch == 3)) {
+		res = (validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 1), testlist)
+		       && validate_testlist(CHILD(tree, 1)));
+	    }
+	    break;
+	  case LSQB:
+	    res = ((nch == 3)
+		   && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 1), subscript)
+		   && validate_subscript(CHILD(tree, 1))
+		   && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 2), RSQB));
+	    break;
+	  case DOT:
+	    res = ((nch == 2)
+		   && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 1), NAME));
+	    break;
+	  default:
+	    res = 0;
+	    break;
+	}
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_trailer() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(subscript) {
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = ((nch >= 1) && (nch <= 3));
+
+    if (res && is_odd(nch)) {
+	res = (validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 0), test)
+	       && validate_test(CHILD(tree, 0)));
+
+	if (res && (nch == 3)) {
+	    res = (validate_colon(CHILD(tree, 1))
+		   && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 2), test)
+		   && validate_test(CHILD(tree, 2)));
+	}
+    }
+    else if (res == 2) {
+	if (TYPE(CHILD(tree, 0)) == COLON) {
+	    res = (validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 1), test)
+		   && validate_test(CHILD(tree, 1)));
+	}
+	else {
+	    res = (validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 0), test)
+		   && validate_test(CHILD(tree, 0))
+		   && validate_colon(CHILD(tree, 1)));
+	}
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_subscript() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(exprlist) {
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = ((nch >= 1)
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 0), expr)
+	       && validate_expr(CHILD(tree, 0)));
+
+    if (res && is_even(nch)) {
+	res = validate_comma(CHILD(tree, --nch));
+    }
+    if (res && (nch > 1)) {
+	int pos;
+
+	for (pos = 1; res && (pos < nch); pos += 2) {
+	    res = (validate_comma(CHILD(tree, pos))
+		   && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, pos + 1), expr)
+		   && validate_expr(CHILD(tree, pos + 1)));
+	}
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_exprlist() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(dictmaker) {
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = ((nch >= 3)
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 0), test)
+	       && validate_test(CHILD(tree, 0))
+	       && validate_colon(CHILD(tree, 1))
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 2), test)
+	       && validate_test(CHILD(tree, 2)));
+
+    if (res && ((nch % 4) == 0)) {
+	res = validate_comma(CHILD(tree, --nch));
+    }
+    else if (res) {
+	res = ((nch % 4) == 3);
+    }
+    if (res && (nch > 3)) {
+	int pos = 3;
+
+	/* What's left are groups of:  ',' test ':' test  */
+	while (res && (pos < nch)) {
+	    res = (validate_comma(CHILD(tree, pos))
+		   && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, pos + 1), test)
+		   && validate_test(CHILD(tree, pos + 1))
+		   && validate_colon(CHILD(tree, pos + 2))
+		   && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, pos + 3), test)
+		   && validate_test(CHILD(tree, pos + 3)));
+	    pos += 4;
+	}
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_dictmaker() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(eval_input) {
+    int pos;
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = ((nch >= 2)
+	       && validate_testlist(CHILD(tree, 0))
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, nch - 1), ENDMARKER));
+
+    for (pos = 1; res && (pos < (nch - 1)); ++pos) {
+	res = validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, pos), NEWLINE);
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_eval_input() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(node) {
+    int   nch  = 0;			/* num. children on current node  */
+    int   res  = 1;			/* result value			  */
+    node* next = 0;			/* node to process after this one */
+    
+    while (res & (tree != 0)) {
+	nch  = NCH(tree);
+	next = 0;
+	switch (TYPE(tree)) {
+	    /*
+	     *  Definition nodes.
+	     */
+	  case funcdef:
+	    res = validate_funcdef(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case classdef:
+	    res = validate_class(tree);
+	    break;
+	    /*
+	     *  "Trivial" parse tree nodes.
+	     */
+	  case stmt:
+	    res = validate_stmt(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case small_stmt:
+	    res = ((nch == 1)
+		   && ((TYPE(CHILD(tree, 0)) == expr_stmt)
+		       || (TYPE(CHILD(tree, 0)) == print_stmt)
+		       || (TYPE(CHILD(tree, 0)) == del_stmt)
+		       || (TYPE(CHILD(tree, 0)) == pass_stmt)
+		       || (TYPE(CHILD(tree, 0)) == flow_stmt)
+		       || (TYPE(CHILD(tree, 0)) == import_stmt)
+		       || (TYPE(CHILD(tree, 0)) == global_stmt)
+		       || (TYPE(CHILD(tree, 0)) == access_stmt)
+		       || validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 0), exec_stmt))
+		   && (next = CHILD(tree, 0)));
+	    break;
+	  case flow_stmt:
+	    res  = ((nch == 1)
+		    && ((TYPE(CHILD(tree, 0)) == break_stmt)
+			|| (TYPE(CHILD(tree, 0)) == continue_stmt)
+			|| (TYPE(CHILD(tree, 0)) == return_stmt)
+			|| validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 0), raise_stmt))
+		    && (next = CHILD(tree, 0)));
+	    break;
+	    /*
+	     *  Compound statements.
+	     */
+	  case simple_stmt:
+	    res = validate_simple_stmt(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case compound_stmt:
+	    res = ((NCH(tree) == 1)
+		   && ((TYPE(CHILD(tree, 0)) == if_stmt)
+		       || (TYPE(CHILD(tree, 0)) == while_stmt)
+		       || (TYPE(CHILD(tree, 0)) == for_stmt)
+		       || (TYPE(CHILD(tree, 0)) == try_stmt)
+		       || (TYPE(CHILD(tree, 0)) == funcdef)
+		       || validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, 0), classdef))
+		   && (next = CHILD(tree, 0)));
+	    break;
+	    /*
+	     *  Fundemental statements.
+	     */
+	  case expr_stmt:
+	    res = validate_expr_stmt(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case print_stmt:
+	    res = validate_print_stmt(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case del_stmt:
+	    res = validate_del_stmt(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case pass_stmt:
+	    res = ((nch == 1)
+		   && validate_name(CHILD(tree, 0), "pass"));
+	    break;
+	  case break_stmt:
+	    res = ((nch == 1)
+		   && validate_name(CHILD(tree, 0), "break"));
+	    break;
+	  case continue_stmt:
+	    res = ((nch == 1)
+		   && validate_name(CHILD(tree, 0), "continue"));
+	    break;
+	  case return_stmt:
+	    res = validate_return_stmt(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case raise_stmt:
+	    res = validate_raise_stmt(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case import_stmt:
+	    res = validate_import_stmt(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case global_stmt:
+	    res = validate_global_stmt(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case access_stmt:
+	    res = validate_access_stmt(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case exec_stmt:
+	    res = validate_exec_stmt(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case if_stmt:
+	    res = validate_if(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case while_stmt:
+	    res = validate_while(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case for_stmt:
+	    res = validate_for(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case try_stmt:
+	    res = validate_try(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case suite:
+	    res = validate_suite(tree);
+	    break;
+	    /*
+	     *  Expression nodes.
+	     */
+	  case testlist:
+	    res = validate_testlist(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case test:
+	    res = validate_test(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case and_test:
+	    res = validate_and_test(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case not_test:
+	    res = validate_not_test(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case comparison:
+	    res = validate_comparison(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case exprlist:
+	    res = validate_exprlist(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case expr:
+	    res = validate_expr(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case xor_expr:
+	    res = validate_xor_expr(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case and_expr:
+	    res = validate_and_expr(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case shift_expr:
+	    res = validate_shift_expr(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case arith_expr:
+	    res = validate_arith_expr(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case term:
+	    res = validate_term(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case factor:
+	    res = validate_factor(tree);
+	    break;
+	  case atom:
+	    res = validate_atom(tree);
+	    break;
+	    
+	  default:
+	    /* Hopefully never reached! */
+	    res = 0;
+	    break;
+	}
+	tree = next;
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_node() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(expr_tree) {
+    return (validate_ntype(tree, eval_input)
+	    && validate_eval_input(tree));
+
+}   /* validate_expr_tree() */
+
+
+VALIDATE(suite_tree) {
+    int j;
+    int nch = NCH(tree);
+    int res = ((nch >= 1)
+	       && validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, nch - 1), ENDMARKER)
+	       && nch--);
+
+    for (j = 0; res && (j < nch); ++j) {
+	res = ((TYPE(CHILD(tree, j)) == NEWLINE)
+	       || (validate_ntype(CHILD(tree, j), stmt)
+		   && validate_stmt(CHILD(tree, j))));
+    }
+    return (res);
+
+}   /* validate_suite_tree() */
+
+
+
+/*  Functions exported by this module.  Most of this should probably
+ *  be converted into an AST object with methods, but that is better
+ *  done directly in Python, allowing subclasses to be created directly.
+ *  We'd really have to write a wrapper around it all anyway.
+ *
+ */
+static PyMethodDef parser_functions[] =  {
+    {"ast2tuple",	parser_ast2tuple,	1},
+    {"compileast",	parser_compileast,	1},
+    {"expr",		parser_expr,		1},
+    {"isexpr",		parser_isexpr,		1},
+    {"issuite",		parser_issuite,		1},
+    {"suite",		parser_suite,		1},
+    {"tuple2ast",	parser_tuple2ast,	1},
+
+    {0, 0, 0}
+    };
+
+
 
 void
-initparser()
-{
-	initmodule("parser", parser_methods);
-}
+initparser() {
+    PyObject* module = Py_InitModule("parser", parser_functions);
+    PyObject* dict   = PyModule_GetDict(module);
+
+    parser_error = PyString_FromString("parser.ParserError");
+
+    if ((parser_error == 0)
+	|| (PyDict_SetItemString(dict, "ParserError", parser_error) != 0)) {
+	/*
+	 *  This is serious.
+	 */
+	Py_FatalError("can't define parser.error");
+    }
+    /*
+     *  Nice to have, but don't cry if we fail.
+     */
+    PyDict_SetItemString(dict, "__copyright__",
+			 PyString_FromString(parser_copyright_string));
+    PyDict_SetItemString(dict, "__doc__",
+			 PyString_FromString(parser_doc_string));
+    PyDict_SetItemString(dict, "__version__",
+			 PyString_FromString(parser_version_string));
+
+}   /* initparser() */
+
+
+/*
+ *  end of Parser.c
+ */
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