Guido van Rossum  committed a2bc941

Added all changes in beta1 and beta3.
Still very rough (needs reordering etc.).

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+XXX check that regsub.split / splitx are correctly documented.
-==> Release 1.4 (sometime 3Q 1996) <==
+==> Release 1.4beta3 (August 26 1996) <==
-What's new since 1.4 beta 1?
+XXX This needs to be reordered.
+What's new in 1.4beta3 (since beta2)?
+- New module whichdb recognizes dbm, gdbm and bsddb/dbhash files.
+- The Doc/Makefile targets have been reorganized somewhat to remove the 
+insistence on always generating PostScript.
+- The texinfo to html filter (Doc/ has been improved somewhat.
+- "errors.h" has been renamed to "pyerrors.h" to resolve a long-standing 
+name conflict on the Mac.
+- Linking a module compiled with a different setting for Py_TRACE_REFS now 
+generates a linker error rather than a core dump.
+- The cgi module has a new convenience function print_exception(), which 
+formats a python exception using HTML.  It also fixes a bug in the 
+compatibility code and adds a dubious feature which makes it possible to 
+have two query strings, one in the URL and one in the POST data.
+- A subtle change in the unpickling of class instances makes it possible 
+to unpickle in restricted execution mode, where the __dict__ attribute is 
+not available (but setattr() is).
+- Documentation for os.path.splitext() (== posixpath.splitext()) has been 
+cleared up.  It splits at the *last* dot.
+- posixfile locking is now also correctly supported on AIX.
+- The tempfile module once again honors an initial setting of tmpdir.  It 
+now works on Windows, too.
+- The traceback module has some new functions to extract, format and print 
+the active stack.
+- Some translation functions in the urllib module have been made a little 
+less sluggish.
+- The addtag_* methods for Canvas widgets in Tkinter as well as in the 
+separate Canvas class have been fixed so they actually do something 
+- A tiny _test() function has been added to
+- A generic Makefile for dynamically loaded modules is provided in the Misc 
+subdirectory (Misc/gMakefile).
+- A new version of python-mode.el for Emacs is provided.  Ask Barry Warsaw 
+for a list of changes.  The separate file pyimenu.el is no longer needed, 
+imenu support is folded into python-mode.el.
+- The configure script can finally correctly find the readline library in a 
+non-standard location.  The LDFLAGS variable is passed on the the Makefiles 
+from the configure script.
+- Shared libraries are now installed as programs (i.e. with executable 
+permission).  This is required on HP-UX and won't hurt on other systems.
+- The objc.c module is no longer part of the distribution.  Objective-C 
+support may become available as contributed software on the ftp site.
+- The sybase module is no longer part of the distribution.  May John 
+Redford rot in hell.  A much improved sybase module is available as 
+contributed software from the ftp site.
+- _tkinter is now compatible with Tcl 7.5 / Tk 4.1 patch1 on Windows and 
+Mac (don't use unpatched Tcl/Tk!).  The default line in the file 
+now links with Tcl 7.5 / Tk 4.1 rather than 7.4/4.0.
+- In Setup, you can now write "*shared*" instead of "*noconfig*", and you 
+can use *.so and *.sl as shared libraries.
+- Some more fidgeting for AIX shared libraries.
+- The mpz module is now compatible with GMP 2.x.  (Not tested by me.)
+- A warning is written to sys.stderr when a __del__ method raises an 
+exception (formerly, such exceptions were completely ignored).
+- The configure script now defines HAVE_OLD_CPP if the C preprocessor is 
+incapable of ANSI style token concatenation and stringification.
+- All source files (except a few platform specific modules) are once again 
+compatible with K&R C compilers as well as ANSI compilers.  In particular,
+ANSI-isms have been removed or made conditional in complexobject.c, 
+getargs.c and operator.c.
+- The abstract object API has three new functions, PyObject_DelItem, 
+PySequence_DelItem, and PySequence_DelSlice.
+- The operator module has new functions delitem and delslice, and the 
+functions "or" and "and" are renamed to "or_" and "and_" (since "or" and 
+"and" are reserved words).  ("__or__" and "__and__" are unchanged.)
+- The environment module is no longer supported; putenv() is now a function 
+in posixmodule (also under NT).
+- Error in filter(<function>, "") has been fixed.
+- Unrecognized keyword arguments raise TypeError, not KeyError.
+- Better portability, fewer bugs and memory leaks, fewer compiler warnings, 
+some more documentation.
+- Bug in float power boundary case (0.0 to the negative integer power) 
+- The test of negative number to the float power has been moved from the 
+built-in pow() functin to floatobject.c (so complex numbers can yield the 
+correct result).
+- The bug introduced in beta2 where shared libraries loaded (using 
+dlopen()) from the current directory would fail, has been fixed.
+- Modules imported as shared libraries now also have a __file__ attribute, 
+giving the filename from which they were loaded.  The only modules without 
+a __file__ attribute now are built-in modules.
+- On the Mac, dynamically loaded modules can end in either ".slb" or 
+".<platform>.slb" where <platform> is either "CFM68K" or "ppc".  The ".slb" 
+extension should only be used for "fat" binaries.
+- C API addition: marshal.c now supports 
+- C API addition: getargs.c now supports
+PyArg_ParseTupleAndKeywords(args, kwdict, format, kwnames, ...)
+to parse keyword arguments.
+- The PC versioning scheme (sys.winver) has changed once again.  the 
+version number is now "<digit>.<digit>.<digit>.<apiversion>", where the 
+first three <digit>s are the Python version (e.g. "1.4.0" for Python 1.4, 
+"1.4.1" for Python 1.4.1 -- the beta level is not included) and 
+<apiversion> is the four-digit PYTHON_API_VERSION (currently 1005).
+- accepts whitespace before the # in CPP directives
+- On Solaris 2.5, it should now be possible to use either Posix threads or 
+Solaris threads (XXX: how do you select which is used???).  (Note: the 
+Python pthreads interface doesn't fully support semaphores yet -- anyone 
+care to fix this?)
+- Thread support should now work on AIX, using either DCE threads or 
+- New file Demo/sockets/
+- Working Mac port, with CFM68K support, with Tk 4.1 support (though not 
+both) (XXX)
+- New project setup for PC port, now compatible with PythonWin, with 
+_tkinter and NumPy support (XXX)
+- New module (XXX)
+- New module and optional support module _xdrmodule.c (XXX)
+- parser module adapted to new grammar, complete w/ Doc & Demo (XXX)
+- Name mangling to support class-private variables: __spam is translated to 
+_ClassName__spam (XXX)
+- regen script fixed (XXX)
+- new machdep subdirectories Lib/{aix3,aix4,next3_3,freebsd2,linux2} (XXX)
+- testall now also tests math module (XXX)
+- string.atoi c.s. now raise an exception for an empty input string.
+- At last, it is no longer necessary to define HAVE_CONFIG_H in order to 
+have config.h included at various places.
+- Unrecognized keyword arguments now raise TypeError rather than KeyError.
+- The makesetup script recognizes files with extension .so or .sl as
+(shared) libraries.
+- 'access' is no longer a reserved word, and all code related to its 
+implementation is gone (or at least #ifdef'ed out).  This should make 
+Python a little speedier too!
+- Performance enhancements suggested by Sjoerd Mullender.  This includes 
+the introduction of two new optional function pointers in type object, 
+getattro and setattro, which are like getattr and setattr but take a 
+string object instead of a C string pointer.
+- New operations in string module: lstrip(s) and rstrip(s) strip whitespace 
+only on the left or only on the right, A new optional third argument to 
+split() specifies the maximum number of separators honored (so 
+splitfields(s, sep, n) returns a list of at most n+1 elements).  (Since 
+1.3, splitfields(s, None) is totally equivalent to split(s).)
+string.capwords() has an optional second argument specifying the 
+separator (which is passed to split()).
+- regsub.split() has the same addition as string.split().  regsub.splitx(s, 
+sep, maxsep) implements the functionality that was regsub.split(s, 1) in 
+1.4beta2 (return a list containing the delimiters as well as the words).
+- Final touch for AIX loading, rewritten Misc/AIX-NOTES.
+- In Modules/_tkinter.c, when using Tk 4.1 or higher, use className
+argument to _tkinter.create() to set Tcl's argv0 variable, so X
+resources use the right resource class again.
+- Add #undef fabs to Modules/mathmodule.c for macintosh.
+- Added some macro renames for AIX in Modules/operator.c.
+- Removed spurious 'E' from Doc/liberrno.tex.
+- Got rid of some cruft in Misc/ (dlMakefile, pyimenu.el); added new
+Misc/gMakefile and new version of Misc/python-mode.el.
+- Fixed typo in Lib/ (islink has "return false" which gives a
+- Added missing "from types import *" to Lib/tkinter/
+- Added hint about using default args for __init__ to pickle docs.
+- Corrected typo in Inclide/abstract.h: PySequence_Lenth ->
+- Some improvements to Doc/
+- In Python/import.c, Cast unsigned char * in struct _frozen to char *
+in calls to rds_object().
+- In doc/ref4.tex, added note about scope of lambda bodies.
+What's new in 1.4beta2 (since beta1)?
 - Portability bug in the md5.h header solved.
 meaningful value (a few things were botched in beta 1).  Lib/dos_8x3
 is now a standard part of the distribution (alas).
-- Installation has been completely overhauled.  Typing "make install"
-now installs everything (not just the binary), inserts the version
-number in the pathnames of almost everything installed, uses the
-install-sh script to install each file, and creates the machine
-dependent modules ( etc.) if not supplied by the
-distribution.  (XXX There's still a problem with the latter because
-the "regen" script requires that Python is installed.  Some manual
-intervention may still be required.)
+- More improvements to the installation procedure.  Typing "make install" 
+now inserts the version number in the pathnames of almost everything 
+installed, and creates the machine dependent modules ( etc.) if not 
+supplied by the distribution.  (XXX There's still a problem with the latter 
+because the "regen" script requires that Python is installed.  Some manual 
+intervention may still be required.) (This has been fixed in 1.4beta3.)
-- New modules: errno, operator.
+- New modules: errno, operator (XXX).
 - Changes for use with Numerical Python: builtin function slice() and
 Ellipses object, and corresponding syntax:
 - New version of Fred Drake's parser module and associates (token,
 symbol, AST).
-- New PYTHON_API_VERSION value, as well as .pyc file magic number.
+- New PYTHON_API_VERSION value and .pyc file magic number (again!).
 - The "complex" internal structure type is now called "Py_complex" to
 avoid name conflicts.
 converted to new naming style.
-What's new since Python release 1.3?
+What's new in 1.4beta1 (since 1.3)?
 - Added sys.platform and sys.exec_platform for Bill Janssen.
-XXX more...
+- Installation has been completely overhauled.  "make install" now installs 
+everything, not just the python binary.  Installation uses the install-sh 
+script (borrowed from X11) to install each file.
+- New functions in the posix module: mkfifo, plock, remove (== unlink),
+and ftruncate.  More functions are also available under NT.
+- New function in the fcntl module: flock.
+- Shared library support for FreeBSD.
+- The --with-readline option can now be used without a DIRECTORY argument, 
+for systems where libreadline.* is in one of the standard places.  It is 
+also possible for it to be a shared library.
+- The extension tkinter has been renamed to _tkinter, to avoid confusion 
+with oncase insensitive file systems.  It now supports Tk 4.1 as 
+well as 4.0.
+- Author's change of address from CWI in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, to 
+CNRI in Reston, VA, USA.
+- The math.hypot() function is now always available (if it isn't found in 
+the C math library, Python provides its own implementation).
+- The latex documentation is now compatible with latex2e, thanks to David 
+- The expression x**y is now equivalent to pow(x, y).
+- The indexing expression x[a, b, c] is now equivalent to x[(a, b, c)].
+- Complex numbers are now supported.  Imaginary constants are written with 
+a 'j' or 'J' prefix, general complex numbers can be formed by adding a real 
+part to an imaginary part, like 3+4j.  Complex numbers are always stored in 
+floating point form, so this is equivalent to 3.0+4.0j.  It is also 
+possible to create complex numbers with the new built-in function 
+complex(re, [im]).  For the footprint-conscious, complex number support can 
+be disabled by defining the symbol WITHOUT_COMPLEX.
+- New built-in function list() is the long-awaited counterpart of tuple().
+- There's a new "cmath" module which provides the same functions as the 
+"math" library but with complex arguments and results.  (There are very 
+good reasons why math.sqrt(-1) still raises an exception -- you have to use 
+cmath.sqrt(-1) to get 1j for an answer.)
+- The Python.h header file (which is really the same as allobjects.h except 
+it disables support for old style names) now includes several more files, 
+so you have to have fewer #include statements in the average extension.
+- The NDEBUG symbol is no longer used.  Code that used to be dependent on 
+the presence of NDEBUG is now present on the absence of DEBUG.  TRACE_REFS 
+and REF_DEBUG have been renamed to Py_TRACE_REFS and Py_REF_DEBUG, 
+respectively.  At long last, the source actually compiles and links without 
+errors when this symbol is defined.
+- Several symbols that didn't follow the new naming scheme have been 
+renamed (usually by adding to rename2.h) to use a Py or _Py prefix.  There 
+are no external symbols left without a Py or _Py prefix, not even those 
+defined by sources that were incorporated from elsewhere (regexpr.c, 
+md5c.c).  (Macros are a different story...)
+- There are now typedefs for the structures defined in config.c and 
+- New PYTHON_API_VERSION value and .pyc file magic number.
+- New module Bastion.  (XXX)
+- Improved performance of StringIO module.
+- UserList module now supports + and * operators.
+- The binhex and binascii modules now actually work.
+- The cgi module has been almost totally rewritten and documented.
+It now supports file upload and a new data type to handle forms more 
+- The formatter module (for use with htmllib) has been overhauled (again).
+- The ftplib module now supports passive mode and has doc strings.
+- In (ideally) all places where binary files are read or written, the file 
+is now correctly opened in binary mode ('rb' or 'wb') so the code will work 
+on Mac or PC.
+- Dummy versions of os.path.expandvars() and expanduser() are now provided 
+on non-Unix platforms.
+- Module urllib now has two new functions url2pathname and pathname2url 
+which turn local filenames into "file:..." URLs using the same rules as 
+Netscape (why be different).  it also supports urlretrieve() with a 
+pathname parameter, and honors the proxy environment variables (http_proxy 
+etc.).  The URL parsing has been improved somewhat, too.
+- Micro improvements to urlparse.  Added urlparse.urldefrag() which 
+removes a trailing ``#fragment'' if any.
+- The mailbox module now supports MH style message delimiters as well.
+- The mhlib module contains some new functionality: setcontext() to set the 
+current folder and parsesequence() to parse a sequence as commonly passed 
+to MH commands (e.g. 1-10 or last:5).
+- New module mimify for conversion to and from MIME format of email 
+- Module ni now automatically installs itself when first imported -- this 
+is against the normal rule that modules should define classes and functions 
+but not invoke them, but appears more useful in the case that two 
+different, independent modules want to use ni's features.
+- Some small performance enhancements in module pickle.
+- Small interface change to the*() family of functions -- more 
+sensible handling of return values.
+- The officially registered Mac creator for Python files is 'Pyth'.  This 
+replaces 'PYTH' which was used before but never registered.
+- Added regsub.capwords().  (XXX)
+- Added string.capwords(), string.capitalize() and string.translate().  
+- Fixed an interface bug in the rexec module: it was impossible to pass a 
+hooks instance to the RExec class.  rexec now also supports the dynamic 
+loading of modules from shared libraries.  Some other interfaces have been 
+added too.
+- Module rfc822 now caches the headers in a dictionary for more efficient 
+- The sgmllib module now understands a limited number of SGML "shorthands" 
+like <A/.../ for <A>...</A>.  (It's not clear that this was a good idea...)
+- The tempfile module actually tries a number of different places to find a 
+usable temporary directory.  (This was prompted by certain Linux 
+installations that appear to be missing a /usr/tmp directory.) [A bug in 
+the implementation that would ignore a pre-existing tmpdir global has been 
+fixed in beta3.]
+- Much improved and enhanved FileDialog module for Tkinter.
+- Many small changes to Tkinter, to bring it more in line with Tk 4.0 (as 
+well as Tk 4.1).
+- New socket interfaces include ntohs(), ntohl(), htons(), htonl(), and 
+s.dup().  Sockets now work correctly on Windows.  On Windows, the built-in 
+extension is called _socket and a wrapper module win/ provides 
+"makefile()" and "dup()" functionality.  On Windows, the select module 
+works only with socket objects.
+- Bugs in bsddb module fixed (e.g. missing default argument values).
+- The curses extension now includes <ncurses.h> when available.
+- The gdbm module now supports opening databases in "fast" mode by 
+specifying 'f' as the second character or the mode string.
+- new variables sys.prefix and sys.exec_prefix pass corresponding 
+configuration options / Makefile variables to the Python programmer.
+- The ``new'' module now supports creating new user-defined classes as well 
+as instances thereof.
+- The soundex module now sports get_soundex() to get the soundex value for an 
+arbitrary string (formerly it would only do soundex-based string 
+comparison) as well as doc strings.
+- New object type "cobject" to safely wrap void pointers for passing them 
+between various extension modules.
+- More efficient computation of float**smallint.
+- The mysterious bug whereby "x.x" (two occurrences of the same 
+one-character name) typed from the commandline would sometimes fail 
+- The initialization of the readline function can now be invoked by a C 
+extension through PyOS_ReadlineInit().
+- There's now an externally visible pointer PyImport_FrozenModules which 
+can be changed by an embedding application.
+- The argument parsing functions now support a new format character 'D' to 
+specify complex numbers.
+- Various memory leaks plugged and bugs fixed.
+- Improved support for posix threads (now that real implementations are 
+beginning to apepar).  Still no fully functioning semaphores.
+- Some various and sundry improvements and new entries in the Tools