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Georg Brandl committed d67b94f

Update the first two parts of the reference manual for Py3k,
mainly concerning PEPs 3131 and 3120.

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  • Parent commits 43077c2

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Doc/documenting/index.rst

    style.rst
    rest.rst
    markup.rst
+   fromlatex.rst
    sphinx.rst
 
 .. XXX add credits, thanks etc.

Doc/reference/introduction.rst

 
 It is dangerous to add too many implementation details to a language reference
 document --- the implementation may change, and other implementations of the
-same language may work differently.  On the other hand, there is currently only
-one Python implementation in widespread use (although alternate implementations
-exist), and its particular quirks are sometimes worth being mentioned,
-especially where the implementation imposes additional limitations.  Therefore,
-you'll find short "implementation notes" sprinkled throughout the text.
+same language may work differently.  On the other hand, CPython is the one
+Python implementation in widespread use (although alternate implementations
+continue to gain support), and its particular quirks are sometimes worth being
+mentioned, especially where the implementation imposes additional limitations.
+Therefore, you'll find short "implementation notes" sprinkled throughout the
+text.
 
 Every Python implementation comes with a number of built-in and standard
 modules.  These are documented in :ref:`library-index`.  A few built-in modules
 Notation
 ========
 
-.. index::
-   single: BNF
-   single: grammar
-   single: syntax
-   single: notation
+.. index:: BNF, grammar, syntax, notation
 
 The descriptions of lexical analysis and syntax use a modified BNF grammar
 notation.  This uses the following style of definition:
 rules with many alternatives may be formatted alternatively with each line after
 the first beginning with a vertical bar.
 
-.. index::
-   single: lexical definitions
-   single: ASCII@ASCII
+.. index:: lexical definitions, ASCII
 
 In lexical definitions (as the example above), two more conventions are used:
 Two literal characters separated by three dots mean a choice of any single

Doc/reference/lexical_analysis.rst

 Lexical analysis
 ****************
 
-.. index::
-   single: lexical analysis
-   single: parser
-   single: token
+.. index:: lexical analysis, parser, token
 
 A Python program is read by a *parser*.  Input to the parser is a stream of
 *tokens*, generated by the *lexical analyzer*.  This chapter describes how the
 lexical analyzer breaks a file into tokens.
 
-Python uses the 7-bit ASCII character set for program text.
-
-.. versionadded:: 2.3
-   An encoding declaration can be used to indicate that  string literals and
-   comments use an encoding different from ASCII.
-
-For compatibility with older versions, Python only warns if it finds 8-bit
-characters; those warnings should be corrected by either declaring an explicit
-encoding, or using escape sequences if those bytes are binary data, instead of
-characters.
-
-The run-time character set depends on the I/O devices connected to the program
-but is generally a superset of ASCII.
-
-**Future compatibility note:** It may be tempting to assume that the character
-set for 8-bit characters is ISO Latin-1 (an ASCII superset that covers most
-western languages that use the Latin alphabet), but it is possible that in the
-future Unicode text editors will become common.  These generally use the UTF-8
-encoding, which is also an ASCII superset, but with very different use for the
-characters with ordinals 128-255.  While there is no consensus on this subject
-yet, it is unwise to assume either Latin-1 or UTF-8, even though the current
-implementation appears to favor Latin-1.  This applies both to the source
-character set and the run-time character set.
+Python reads program text as Unicode code points; the encoding of a source file
+can be given by an encoding declaration and defaults to UTF-8, see :pep:`3120`
+for details.  If the source file cannot be decoded, a :exc:`SyntaxError` is
+raised.
 
 
 .. _line-structure:
 Line structure
 ==============
 
-.. index:: single: line structure
+.. index:: line structure
 
 A Python program is divided into a number of *logical lines*.
 
 
-.. _logical:
+.. _logical-lines:
 
 Logical lines
 -------------
 
-.. index::
-   single: logical line
-   single: physical line
-   single: line joining
-   single: NEWLINE token
+.. index:: logical line, physical line, line joining, NEWLINE token
 
 The end of a logical line is represented by the token NEWLINE.  Statements
 cannot cross logical line boundaries except where NEWLINE is allowed by the
 implicit *line joining* rules.
 
 
-.. _physical:
+.. _physical-lines:
 
 Physical lines
 --------------
 Comments
 --------
 
-.. index::
-   single: comment
-   single: hash character
+.. index:: comment, hash character
 
 A comment starts with a hash character (``#``) that is not part of a string
 literal, and ends at the end of the physical line.  A comment signifies the end
 Encoding declarations
 ---------------------
 
-.. index::
-   single: source character set
-   single: encodings
+.. index:: source character set, encodings
 
 If a comment in the first or second line of the Python script matches the
 regular expression ``coding[=:]\s*([-\w.]+)``, this comment is processed as an
 
    # vim:fileencoding=<encoding-name>
 
-which is recognized by Bram Moolenaar's VIM. In addition, if the first bytes of
-the file are the UTF-8 byte-order mark (``'\xef\xbb\xbf'``), the declared file
-encoding is UTF-8 (this is supported, among others, by Microsoft's
-:program:`notepad`).
+which is recognized by Bram Moolenaar's VIM.
+
+If no encoding declaration is found, the default encoding is UTF-8.  In
+addition, if the first bytes of the file are the UTF-8 byte-order mark
+(``b'\xef\xbb\xbf'``), the declared file encoding is UTF-8 (this is supported,
+among others, by Microsoft's :program:`notepad`).
 
 If an encoding is declared, the encoding name must be recognized by Python. The
-encoding is used for all lexical analysis, in particular to find the end of a
-string, and to interpret the contents of Unicode literals. String literals are
-converted to Unicode for syntactical analysis, then converted back to their
-original encoding before interpretation starts. The encoding declaration must
-appear on a line of its own.
+encoding is used for all lexical analysis, including string literals, comments
+and identifiers. The encoding declaration must appear on a line of its own.
 
-.. % XXX there should be a list of supported encodings.
+A list of standard encodings can be found in the section
+:ref:`standard-encodings`.
 
 
 .. _explicit-joining:
 Explicit line joining
 ---------------------
 
-.. index::
-   single: physical line
-   single: line joining
-   single: line continuation
-   single: backslash character
+.. index:: physical line, line joining, line continuation, backslash character
 
 Two or more physical lines may be joined into logical lines using backslash
 characters (``\``), as follows: when a physical line ends in a backslash that is
 not part of a string literal or comment, it is joined with the following forming
 a single logical line, deleting the backslash and the following end-of-line
-character.  For example:
-
-.. % 
-
-::
+character.  For example::
 
    if 1900 < year < 2100 and 1 <= month <= 12 \
       and 1 <= day <= 31 and 0 <= hour < 24 \
 A logical line that contains only spaces, tabs, formfeeds and possibly a
 comment, is ignored (i.e., no NEWLINE token is generated).  During interactive
 input of statements, handling of a blank line may differ depending on the
-implementation of the read-eval-print loop.  In the standard implementation, an
-entirely blank logical line (i.e. one containing not even whitespace or a
-comment) terminates a multi-line statement.
+implementation of the read-eval-print loop.  In the standard interactive
+interpreter, an entirely blank logical line (i.e. one containing not even
+whitespace or a comment) terminates a multi-line statement.
 
 
 .. _indentation:
 Indentation
 -----------
 
-.. index::
-   single: indentation
-   single: whitespace
-   single: leading whitespace
-   single: space
-   single: tab
-   single: grouping
-   single: statement grouping
+.. index:: indentation, leading whitespace, space, tab, grouping, statement grouping
 
 Leading whitespace (spaces and tabs) at the beginning of a logical line is used
 to compute the indentation level of the line, which in turn is used to determine
 in the leading whitespace have an undefined effect (for instance, they may reset
 the space count to zero).
 
-.. index::
-   single: INDENT token
-   single: DEDENT token
+.. index:: INDENT token, DEDENT token
 
 The indentation levels of consecutive lines are used to generate INDENT and
 DEDENT tokens, using a stack, as follows.
 Identifiers and keywords
 ========================
 
-.. index::
-   single: identifier
-   single: name
+.. index:: identifier, name
 
 Identifiers (also referred to as *names*) are described by the following lexical
 definitions:
 
-.. productionlist::
-   identifier: (`letter`|"_") (`letter` | `digit` | "_")*
-   letter: `lowercase` | `uppercase`
-   lowercase: "a"..."z"
-   uppercase: "A"..."Z"
-   digit: "0"..."9"
+The syntax of identifiers in Python is based on the Unicode standard annex
+UAX-31, with elaboration and changes as defined below.
+
+Within the ASCII range (U+0001..U+007F), the valid characters for identifiers
+are the same as in Python 2.5; Python 3.0 introduces additional
+characters from outside the ASCII range (see :pep:`3131`).  For other
+characters, the classification uses the version of the Unicode Character
+Database as included in the :mod:`unicodedata` module.
 
 Identifiers are unlimited in length.  Case is significant.
 
+.. productionlist::
+   identifier: `id_start` `id_continue`*
+   id_start: <all characters in general categories Lu, Ll, Lt, Lm, Lo, Nl,
+              the underscore, and characters with the Other_ID_Start property>
+   id_continue: <all characters in `id_start`, plus characters in the categories
+                 Mn, Mc, Nd, Pc and others with the Other_ID_Continue property>
+
+The Unicode category codes mentioned above stand for:
+
+* *Lu* - uppercase letters
+* *Ll* - lowercase letters
+* *Lt* - titlecase letters
+* *Lm* - modifier letters
+* *Lo* - other letters
+* *Nl* - letter numbers
+* *Mn* - nonspacing marks
+* *Mc* - spacing combining marks
+* *Nd* - decimal numbers
+* *Pc* - connector punctuations
+
+All identifiers are converted into the normal form NFC while parsing; comparison
+of identifiers is based on NFC.
+
+A non-normative HTML file listing all valid identifier characters for Unicode
+4.1 can be found at
+http://www.dcl.hpi.uni-potsdam.de/home/loewis/table-3131.html.
 
 .. _keywords:
 
 language, and cannot be used as ordinary identifiers.  They must be spelled
 exactly as written here::
 
-   and       def       for       is        raise
-   as        del       from      lambda    return
-   assert    elif      global    not       try
-   break     else      if        or        while
-   class     except    import    pass      with
-   continue  finally   in        print     yield
-
-.. versionchanged:: 2.4
-   :const:`None` became a constant and is now recognized by the compiler as a name
-   for the built-in object :const:`None`.  Although it is not a keyword, you cannot
-   assign a different object to it.
-
-.. versionchanged:: 2.5
-   Both :keyword:`as` and :keyword:`with` are only recognized when the
-   ``with_statement`` future feature has been enabled. It will always be enabled in
-   Python 2.6.  See section :ref:`with` for details.  Note that using :keyword:`as`
-   and :keyword:`with` as identifiers will always issue a warning, even when the
-   ``with_statement`` future directive is not in effect.
-
+   False      class      finally    is         return
+   None       continue   for        lambda     try
+   True       def        from       nonlocal   while
+   and        del        global     not        with
+   as         elif       if         or         yield
+   assert     else       import     pass
+   break      except     in         raise
 
 .. _id-classes:
 
 Literals
 ========
 
-.. index::
-   single: literal
-   single: constant
+.. index:: literal, constant
 
 Literals are notations for constant values of some built-in types.
 
 
 .. _strings:
 
-String literals
----------------
+String and Bytes literals
+-------------------------
 
-.. index:: single: string literal
+.. index:: string literal, bytes literal, ASCII
 
 String literals are described by the following lexical definitions:
 
-.. index:: single: ASCII@ASCII
+.. productionlist::
+   stringliteral: [`stringprefix`](`shortstring` | `longstring`)
+   stringprefix: "r" | "R"
+   shortstring: "'" `shortstringitem`* "'" | '"' `shortstringitem`* '"'
+   longstring: "'''" `longstringitem`* "'''" | '"""' `longstringitem`* '"""'
+   shortstringitem: `shortstringchar` | `stringescapeseq`
+   longstringitem: `longstringchar` | `stringescapeseq`
+   shortstringchar: <any source character except "\" or newline or the quote>
+   longstringchar: <any source character except "\">
+   stringescapeseq: "\" <any source character>
 
 .. productionlist::
-   stringliteral: [`stringprefix`](`shortstring` | `longstring`)
-   stringprefix: "r" | "u" | "ur" | "R" | "U" | "UR" | "Ur" | "uR"
-   shortstring: "'" `shortstringitem`* "'" | '"' `shortstringitem`* '"'
-   longstring: ""'" `longstringitem`* ""'"
-             : | '"""' `longstringitem`* '"""'
-   shortstringitem: `shortstringchar` | `escapeseq`
-   longstringitem: `longstringchar` | `escapeseq`
-   shortstringchar: <any source character except "\" or newline or the quote>
-   longstringchar: <any source character except "\">
-   escapeseq: "\" <any ASCII character>
+   bytesliteral: `bytesprefix`(`shortbytes` | `longbytes`)
+   bytesprefix: "b" | "B"
+   shortbytes: "'" `shortbytesitem`* "'" | '"' `shortbytesitem`* '"'
+   longbytes: "'''" `longbytesitem`* "'''" | '"""' `longbytesitem`* '"""'
+   shortbytesitem: `shortbyteschar` | `bytesescapeseq`
+   longbytesitem: `longbyteschar` | `bytesescapeseq`
+   shortbyteschar: <any ASCII character except "\" or newline or the quote>
+   longbyteschar: <any ASCII character except "\">
+   bytesescapeseq: "\" <any ASCII character>
 
 One syntactic restriction not indicated by these productions is that whitespace
-is not allowed between the :token:`stringprefix` and the rest of the string
-literal. The source character set is defined by the encoding declaration; it is
-ASCII if no encoding declaration is given in the source file; see section
-:ref:`encodings`.
+is not allowed between the :token:`stringprefix` or :token:`bytesprefix` and the
+rest of the literal. The source character set is defined by the encoding
+declaration; it is UTF-8 if no encoding declaration is given in the source file;
+see section :ref:`encodings`.
 
-.. index::
-   single: triple-quoted string
-   single: Unicode Consortium
-   single: string; Unicode
-   single: raw string
+.. index:: triple-quoted string, Unicode Consortium, raw string
 
-In plain English: String literals can be enclosed in matching single quotes
+In plain English: Both types of literals can be enclosed in matching single quotes
 (``'``) or double quotes (``"``).  They can also be enclosed in matching groups
 of three single or double quotes (these are generally referred to as
 *triple-quoted strings*).  The backslash (``\``) character is used to escape
 characters that otherwise have a special meaning, such as newline, backslash
-itself, or the quote character.  String literals may optionally be prefixed with
-a letter ``'r'`` or ``'R'``; such strings are called :dfn:`raw strings` and use
-different rules for interpreting backslash escape sequences.  A prefix of
-``'u'`` or ``'U'`` makes the string a Unicode string.  Unicode strings use the
-Unicode character set as defined by the Unicode Consortium and ISO 10646.  Some
-additional escape sequences, described below, are available in Unicode strings.
-The two prefix characters may be combined; in this case, ``'u'`` must appear
-before ``'r'``.
+itself, or the quote character.
+
+String literals may optionally be prefixed with a letter ``'r'`` or ``'R'``;
+such strings are called :dfn:`raw strings` and use different rules for
+interpreting backslash escape sequences.
+
+Bytes literals are always prefixed with ``'b'`` or ``'B'``; they produce an
+instance of the :class:`bytes` type instead of the :class:`str` type.  They
+may only contain ASCII characters; bytes with a numeric value of 128 or greater
+must be expressed with escapes.
 
 In triple-quoted strings, unescaped newlines and quotes are allowed (and are
 retained), except that three unescaped quotes in a row terminate the string.  (A
 "quote" is the character used to open the string, i.e. either ``'`` or ``"``.)
 
-.. index::
-   single: physical line
-   single: escape sequence
-   single: Standard C
-   single: C
+.. index:: physical line, escape sequence, Standard C, C
 
 Unless an ``'r'`` or ``'R'`` prefix is present, escape sequences in strings are
 interpreted according to rules similar to those used by Standard C.  The
 +-----------------+---------------------------------+-------+
 | Escape Sequence | Meaning                         | Notes |
 +=================+=================================+=======+
-| ``\newline``    | Ignored                         |       |
+| ``\newline``    | Backslash and newline ignored   |       |
 +-----------------+---------------------------------+-------+
 | ``\\``          | Backslash (``\``)               |       |
 +-----------------+---------------------------------+-------+
 +-----------------+---------------------------------+-------+
 | ``\n``          | ASCII Linefeed (LF)             |       |
 +-----------------+---------------------------------+-------+
-| ``\N{name}``    | Character named *name* in the   |       |
-|                 | Unicode database (Unicode only) |       |
-+-----------------+---------------------------------+-------+
 | ``\r``          | ASCII Carriage Return (CR)      |       |
 +-----------------+---------------------------------+-------+
 | ``\t``          | ASCII Horizontal Tab (TAB)      |       |
 +-----------------+---------------------------------+-------+
-| ``\uxxxx``      | Character with 16-bit hex value | \(1)  |
-|                 | *xxxx* (Unicode only)           |       |
-+-----------------+---------------------------------+-------+
-| ``\Uxxxxxxxx``  | Character with 32-bit hex value | \(2)  |
-|                 | *xxxxxxxx* (Unicode only)       |       |
-+-----------------+---------------------------------+-------+
 | ``\v``          | ASCII Vertical Tab (VT)         |       |
 +-----------------+---------------------------------+-------+
-| ``\ooo``        | Character with octal value      | (3,5) |
+| ``\ooo``        | Character with octal value      | (1,3) |
 |                 | *ooo*                           |       |
 +-----------------+---------------------------------+-------+
-| ``\xhh``        | Character with hex value *hh*   | (4,5) |
+| ``\xhh``        | Character with hex value *hh*   | (2,3) |
 +-----------------+---------------------------------+-------+
 
-.. index:: single: ASCII@ASCII
+Escape sequences only recognized in string literals are:
+
++-----------------+---------------------------------+-------+
+| Escape Sequence | Meaning                         | Notes |
++=================+=================================+=======+
+| ``\N{name}``    | Character named *name* in the   |       |
+|                 | Unicode database                |       |
++-----------------+---------------------------------+-------+
+| ``\uxxxx``      | Character with 16-bit hex value | \(4)  |
+|                 | *xxxx*                          |       |
++-----------------+---------------------------------+-------+
+| ``\Uxxxxxxxx``  | Character with 32-bit hex value | \(5)  |
+|                 | *xxxxxxxx*                      |       |
++-----------------+---------------------------------+-------+
 
 Notes:
 
 (1)
+   As in Standard C, up to three octal digits are accepted.
+
+(2)
+   Unlike in Standard C, at most two hex digits are accepted.
+
+(3)
+   In a bytes literal, hexadecimal and octal escapes denote the byte with the
+   given value. In a string literal, these escapes denote a Unicode character
+   with the given value.
+
+(4)
    Individual code units which form parts of a surrogate pair can be encoded using
    this escape sequence.
 
-(2)
+(5)
    Any Unicode character can be encoded this way, but characters outside the Basic
    Multilingual Plane (BMP) will be encoded using a surrogate pair if Python is
    compiled to use 16-bit code units (the default).  Individual code units which
    form parts of a surrogate pair can be encoded using this escape sequence.
 
-(3)
-   As in Standard C, up to three octal digits are accepted.
 
-(4)
-   Unlike in Standard C, at most two hex digits are accepted.
-
-(5)
-   In a string literal, hexadecimal and octal escapes denote the byte with the
-   given value; it is not necessary that the byte encodes a character in the source
-   character set. In a Unicode literal, these escapes denote a Unicode character
-   with the given value.
-
-.. index:: single: unrecognized escape sequence
+.. index:: unrecognized escape sequence
 
 Unlike Standard C, all unrecognized escape sequences are left in the string
 unchanged, i.e., *the backslash is left in the string*.  (This behavior is
 useful when debugging: if an escape sequence is mistyped, the resulting output
 is more easily recognized as broken.)  It is also important to note that the
-escape sequences marked as "(Unicode only)" in the table above fall into the
-category of unrecognized escapes for non-Unicode string literals.
+escape sequences only recognized in string literals fall into the category of
+unrecognized escapes for bytes literals.
 
-When an ``'r'`` or ``'R'`` prefix is present, a character following a backslash
-is included in the string without change, and *all backslashes are left in the
-string*.  For example, the string literal ``r"\n"`` consists of two characters:
-a backslash and a lowercase ``'n'``.  String quotes can be escaped with a
-backslash, but the backslash remains in the string; for example, ``r"\""`` is a
-valid string literal consisting of two characters: a backslash and a double
-quote; ``r"\"`` is not a valid string literal (even a raw string cannot end in
-an odd number of backslashes).  Specifically, *a raw string cannot end in a
-single backslash* (since the backslash would escape the following quote
-character).  Note also that a single backslash followed by a newline is
-interpreted as those two characters as part of the string, *not* as a line
-continuation.
+When an ``'r'`` or ``'R'`` prefix is used in a string literal, then the
+``\uXXXX`` and ``\UXXXXXXXX`` escape sequences are processed while *all other
+backslashes are left in the string*. For example, the string literal
+``r"\u0062\n"`` consists of three Unicode characters: 'LATIN SMALL LETTER B',
+'REVERSE SOLIDUS', and 'LATIN SMALL LETTER N'. Backslashes can be escaped with a
+preceding backslash; however, both remain in the string.  As a result,
+``\uXXXX`` escape sequences are only recognized when there is an odd number of
+backslashes.
 
-When an ``'r'`` or ``'R'`` prefix is used in conjunction with a ``'u'`` or
-``'U'`` prefix, then the ``\uXXXX`` and ``\UXXXXXXXX`` escape sequences are
-processed while  *all other backslashes are left in the string*. For example,
-the string literal ``ur"\u0062\n"`` consists of three Unicode characters: 'LATIN
-SMALL LETTER B', 'REVERSE SOLIDUS', and 'LATIN SMALL LETTER N'. Backslashes can
-be escaped with a preceding backslash; however, both remain in the string.  As a
-result, ``\uXXXX`` escape sequences are only recognized when there are an odd
-number of backslashes.
+Even in a raw string, string quotes can be escaped with a backslash, but the
+backslash remains in the string; for example, ``r"\""`` is a valid string
+literal consisting of two characters: a backslash and a double quote; ``r"\"``
+is not a valid string literal (even a raw string cannot end in an odd number of
+backslashes).  Specifically, *a raw string cannot end in a single backslash*
+(since the backslash would escape the following quote character).  Note also
+that a single backslash followed by a newline is interpreted as those two
+characters as part of the string, *not* as a line continuation.
 
 
 .. _string-catenation:
 Numeric literals
 ----------------
 
-.. index::
-   single: number
-   single: numeric literal
-   single: integer literal
-   single: plain integer literal
-   single: long integer literal
-   single: floating point literal
-   single: hexadecimal literal
-   single: octal literal
-   single: binary literal
-   single: decimal literal
-   single: imaginary literal
-   single: complex; literal
+.. index:: number, numeric literal, integer literal, plain integer literal
+   long integer literal, floating point literal, hexadecimal literal
+   octal literal, binary literal, decimal literal, imaginary literal, complex literal
 
 There are four types of numeric literals: plain integers, long integers,
 floating point numbers, and imaginary numbers.  There are no complex literals
 .. productionlist::
    integer: `decimalinteger` | `octinteger` | `hexinteger`
    decimalinteger: `nonzerodigit` `digit`* | "0"+
+   nonzerodigit: "1"..."9"
+   digit: "0"..."9"
    octinteger: "0" ("o" | "O") `octdigit`+
    hexinteger: "0" ("x" | "X") `hexdigit`+
    bininteger: "0" ("b" | "B") `bindigit`+
-   nonzerodigit: "1"..."9"
    octdigit: "0"..."7"
    hexdigit: `digit` | "a"..."f" | "A"..."F"
-   bindigit: "0"..."1"
+   bindigit: "0" | "1"
 
-Plain integer literals that are above the largest representable plain integer
-(e.g., 2147483647 when using 32-bit arithmetic) are accepted as if they were
-long integers instead. [#]_  There is no limit for long integer literals apart
-from what can be stored in available memory.
+There is no limit for the length of integer literals apart from what can be
+stored in available memory.
 
 Note that leading zeros in a non-zero decimal number are not allowed. This is
 for disambiguation with C-style octal literals, which Python used before version
    &=      |=      ^=      >>=     <<=     **=
 
 The period can also occur in floating-point and imaginary literals.  A sequence
-of three periods has a special meaning as an ellipsis in slices. The second half
+of three periods has a special meaning as an ellipsis literal. The second half
 of the list, the augmented assignment operators, serve lexically as delimiters,
 but also perform an operation.
 
 
    '       "       #       \
 
-.. index:: single: ASCII@ASCII
-
 The following printing ASCII characters are not used in Python.  Their
 occurrence outside string literals and comments is an unconditional error::
 
    $       ?
-
-.. rubric:: Footnotes
-
-.. [#] In versions of Python prior to 2.4, octal and hexadecimal literals in the range
-   just above the largest representable plain integer but below the largest
-   unsigned 32-bit number (on a machine using 32-bit arithmetic), 4294967296, were
-   taken as the negative plain integer obtained by subtracting 4294967296 from
-   their unsigned value.
-