Source

cpython-withatomic / Modules / _testcapimodule.c

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/*
 * C Extension module to test Python interpreter C APIs.
 *
 * The 'test_*' functions exported by this module are run as part of the
 * standard Python regression test, via Lib/test/test_capi.py.
 */

#include "Python.h"
#include <float.h>
#include "structmember.h"

#ifdef WITH_THREAD
#include "pythread.h"
#endif /* WITH_THREAD */
static PyObject *TestError;     /* set to exception object in init */

/* Raise TestError with test_name + ": " + msg, and return NULL. */

static PyObject *
raiseTestError(const char* test_name, const char* msg)
{
    char buf[2048];

    if (strlen(test_name) + strlen(msg) > sizeof(buf) - 50)
        PyErr_SetString(TestError, "internal error msg too large");
    else {
        PyOS_snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "%s: %s", test_name, msg);
        PyErr_SetString(TestError, buf);
    }
    return NULL;
}

/* Test #defines from pyconfig.h (particularly the SIZEOF_* defines).

   The ones derived from autoconf on the UNIX-like OSes can be relied
   upon (in the absence of sloppy cross-compiling), but the Windows
   platforms have these hardcoded.  Better safe than sorry.
*/
static PyObject*
sizeof_error(const char* fatname, const char* typname,
    int expected, int got)
{
    char buf[1024];
    PyOS_snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf),
        "%.200s #define == %d but sizeof(%.200s) == %d",
        fatname, expected, typname, got);
    PyErr_SetString(TestError, buf);
    return (PyObject*)NULL;
}

static PyObject*
test_config(PyObject *self)
{
#define CHECK_SIZEOF(FATNAME, TYPE) \
            if (FATNAME != sizeof(TYPE)) \
                return sizeof_error(#FATNAME, #TYPE, FATNAME, sizeof(TYPE))

    CHECK_SIZEOF(SIZEOF_SHORT, short);
    CHECK_SIZEOF(SIZEOF_INT, int);
    CHECK_SIZEOF(SIZEOF_LONG, long);
    CHECK_SIZEOF(SIZEOF_VOID_P, void*);
    CHECK_SIZEOF(SIZEOF_TIME_T, time_t);
#ifdef HAVE_LONG_LONG
    CHECK_SIZEOF(SIZEOF_LONG_LONG, PY_LONG_LONG);
#endif

#undef CHECK_SIZEOF

    Py_INCREF(Py_None);
    return Py_None;
}

static PyObject*
test_list_api(PyObject *self)
{
    PyObject* list;
    int i;

    /* SF bug 132008:  PyList_Reverse segfaults */
#define NLIST 30
    list = PyList_New(NLIST);
    if (list == (PyObject*)NULL)
        return (PyObject*)NULL;
    /* list = range(NLIST) */
    for (i = 0; i < NLIST; ++i) {
        PyObject* anint = PyInt_FromLong(i);
        if (anint == (PyObject*)NULL) {
            Py_DECREF(list);
            return (PyObject*)NULL;
        }
        PyList_SET_ITEM(list, i, anint);
    }
    /* list.reverse(), via PyList_Reverse() */
    i = PyList_Reverse(list);   /* should not blow up! */
    if (i != 0) {
        Py_DECREF(list);
        return (PyObject*)NULL;
    }
    /* Check that list == range(29, -1, -1) now */
    for (i = 0; i < NLIST; ++i) {
        PyObject* anint = PyList_GET_ITEM(list, i);
        if (PyInt_AS_LONG(anint) != NLIST-1-i) {
            PyErr_SetString(TestError,
                            "test_list_api: reverse screwed up");
            Py_DECREF(list);
            return (PyObject*)NULL;
        }
    }
    Py_DECREF(list);
#undef NLIST

    Py_INCREF(Py_None);
    return Py_None;
}

static int
test_dict_inner(int count)
{
    Py_ssize_t pos = 0, iterations = 0;
    int i;
    PyObject *dict = PyDict_New();
    PyObject *v, *k;

    if (dict == NULL)
        return -1;

    for (i = 0; i < count; i++) {
        v = PyInt_FromLong(i);
        PyDict_SetItem(dict, v, v);
        Py_DECREF(v);
    }

    while (PyDict_Next(dict, &pos, &k, &v)) {
        PyObject *o;
        iterations++;

        i = PyInt_AS_LONG(v) + 1;
        o = PyInt_FromLong(i);
        if (o == NULL)
            return -1;
        if (PyDict_SetItem(dict, k, o) < 0) {
            Py_DECREF(o);
            return -1;
        }
        Py_DECREF(o);
    }

    Py_DECREF(dict);

    if (iterations != count) {
        PyErr_SetString(
            TestError,
            "test_dict_iteration: dict iteration went wrong ");
        return -1;
    } else {
        return 0;
    }
}

static PyObject*
test_dict_iteration(PyObject* self)
{
    int i;

    for (i = 0; i < 200; i++) {
        if (test_dict_inner(i) < 0) {
            return NULL;
        }
    }

    Py_INCREF(Py_None);
    return Py_None;
}


/* Issue #4701: Check that PyObject_Hash implicitly calls
 *   PyType_Ready if it hasn't already been called
 */
static PyTypeObject _HashInheritanceTester_Type = {
    PyObject_HEAD_INIT(NULL)
    0,                          /* Number of items for varobject */
    "hashinheritancetester",            /* Name of this type */
    sizeof(PyObject),           /* Basic object size */
    0,                          /* Item size for varobject */
    (destructor)PyObject_Del, /* tp_dealloc */
    0,                          /* tp_print */
    0,                          /* tp_getattr */
    0,                          /* tp_setattr */
    0,                          /* tp_compare */
    0,                          /* tp_repr */
    0,                          /* tp_as_number */
    0,                          /* tp_as_sequence */
    0,                          /* tp_as_mapping */
    0,                          /* tp_hash */
    0,                          /* tp_call */
    0,                          /* tp_str */
    PyObject_GenericGetAttr,  /* tp_getattro */
    0,                          /* tp_setattro */
    0,                          /* tp_as_buffer */
    Py_TPFLAGS_DEFAULT,         /* tp_flags */
    0,                          /* tp_doc */
    0,                          /* tp_traverse */
    0,                          /* tp_clear */
    0,                          /* tp_richcompare */
    0,                          /* tp_weaklistoffset */
    0,                          /* tp_iter */
    0,                          /* tp_iternext */
    0,                          /* tp_methods */
    0,                          /* tp_members */
    0,                          /* tp_getset */
    0,                          /* tp_base */
    0,                          /* tp_dict */
    0,                          /* tp_descr_get */
    0,                          /* tp_descr_set */
    0,                          /* tp_dictoffset */
    0,                          /* tp_init */
    0,                          /* tp_alloc */
    PyType_GenericNew,                  /* tp_new */
};

static PyObject*
test_lazy_hash_inheritance(PyObject* self)
{
    PyTypeObject *type;
    PyObject *obj;
    long hash;

    type = &_HashInheritanceTester_Type;

    if (type->tp_dict != NULL)
        /* The type has already been initialized. This probably means
           -R is being used. */
        Py_RETURN_NONE;


    obj = PyObject_New(PyObject, type);
    if (obj == NULL) {
        PyErr_Clear();
        PyErr_SetString(
            TestError,
            "test_lazy_hash_inheritance: failed to create object");
        return NULL;
    }

    if (type->tp_dict != NULL) {
        PyErr_SetString(
            TestError,
            "test_lazy_hash_inheritance: type initialised too soon");
        Py_DECREF(obj);
        return NULL;
    }

    hash = PyObject_Hash(obj);
    if ((hash == -1) && PyErr_Occurred()) {
        PyErr_Clear();
        PyErr_SetString(
            TestError,
            "test_lazy_hash_inheritance: could not hash object");
        Py_DECREF(obj);
        return NULL;
    }

    if (type->tp_dict == NULL) {
        PyErr_SetString(
            TestError,
            "test_lazy_hash_inheritance: type not initialised by hash()");
        Py_DECREF(obj);
        return NULL;
    }

    if (type->tp_hash != PyType_Type.tp_hash) {
        PyErr_SetString(
            TestError,
            "test_lazy_hash_inheritance: unexpected hash function");
        Py_DECREF(obj);
        return NULL;
    }

    Py_DECREF(obj);

    Py_RETURN_NONE;
}


/* Tests of PyLong_{As, From}{Unsigned,}Long(), and (#ifdef HAVE_LONG_LONG)
   PyLong_{As, From}{Unsigned,}LongLong().

   Note that the meat of the test is contained in testcapi_long.h.
   This is revolting, but delicate code duplication is worse:  "almost
   exactly the same" code is needed to test PY_LONG_LONG, but the ubiquitous
   dependence on type names makes it impossible to use a parameterized
   function.  A giant macro would be even worse than this.  A C++ template
   would be perfect.

   The "report an error" functions are deliberately not part of the #include
   file:  if the test fails, you can set a breakpoint in the appropriate
   error function directly, and crawl back from there in the debugger.
*/

#define UNBIND(X)  Py_DECREF(X); (X) = NULL

static PyObject *
raise_test_long_error(const char* msg)
{
    return raiseTestError("test_long_api", msg);
}

#define TESTNAME        test_long_api_inner
#define TYPENAME        long
#define F_S_TO_PY       PyLong_FromLong
#define F_PY_TO_S       PyLong_AsLong
#define F_U_TO_PY       PyLong_FromUnsignedLong
#define F_PY_TO_U       PyLong_AsUnsignedLong

#include "testcapi_long.h"

static PyObject *
test_long_api(PyObject* self)
{
    return TESTNAME(raise_test_long_error);
}

#undef TESTNAME
#undef TYPENAME
#undef F_S_TO_PY
#undef F_PY_TO_S
#undef F_U_TO_PY
#undef F_PY_TO_U

#ifdef HAVE_LONG_LONG

static PyObject *
raise_test_longlong_error(const char* msg)
{
    return raiseTestError("test_longlong_api", msg);
}

#define TESTNAME        test_longlong_api_inner
#define TYPENAME        PY_LONG_LONG
#define F_S_TO_PY       PyLong_FromLongLong
#define F_PY_TO_S       PyLong_AsLongLong
#define F_U_TO_PY       PyLong_FromUnsignedLongLong
#define F_PY_TO_U       PyLong_AsUnsignedLongLong

#include "testcapi_long.h"

static PyObject *
test_longlong_api(PyObject* self, PyObject *args)
{
    return TESTNAME(raise_test_longlong_error);
}

#undef TESTNAME
#undef TYPENAME
#undef F_S_TO_PY
#undef F_PY_TO_S
#undef F_U_TO_PY
#undef F_PY_TO_U

/* Test the L code for PyArg_ParseTuple.  This should deliver a PY_LONG_LONG
   for both long and int arguments.  The test may leak a little memory if
   it fails.
*/
static PyObject *
test_L_code(PyObject *self)
{
    PyObject *tuple, *num;
    PY_LONG_LONG value;

    tuple = PyTuple_New(1);
    if (tuple == NULL)
        return NULL;

    num = PyLong_FromLong(42);
    if (num == NULL)
        return NULL;

    PyTuple_SET_ITEM(tuple, 0, num);

    value = -1;
    if (PyArg_ParseTuple(tuple, "L:test_L_code", &value) < 0)
        return NULL;
    if (value != 42)
        return raiseTestError("test_L_code",
            "L code returned wrong value for long 42");

    Py_DECREF(num);
    num = PyInt_FromLong(42);
    if (num == NULL)
        return NULL;

    PyTuple_SET_ITEM(tuple, 0, num);

    value = -1;
    if (PyArg_ParseTuple(tuple, "L:test_L_code", &value) < 0)
        return NULL;
    if (value != 42)
        return raiseTestError("test_L_code",
            "L code returned wrong value for int 42");

    Py_DECREF(tuple);
    Py_INCREF(Py_None);
    return Py_None;
}

#endif  /* ifdef HAVE_LONG_LONG */

/* Test tuple argument processing */
static PyObject *
getargs_tuple(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    int a, b, c;
    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "i(ii)", &a, &b, &c))
        return NULL;
    return Py_BuildValue("iii", a, b, c);
}

/* test PyArg_ParseTupleAndKeywords */
static PyObject *getargs_keywords(PyObject *self, PyObject *args, PyObject *kwargs)
{
    static char *keywords[] = {"arg1","arg2","arg3","arg4","arg5", NULL};
    static char *fmt="(ii)i|(i(ii))(iii)i";
    int int_args[10]={-1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1, -1};

    if (!PyArg_ParseTupleAndKeywords(args, kwargs, fmt, keywords,
        &int_args[0], &int_args[1], &int_args[2], &int_args[3], &int_args[4],
        &int_args[5], &int_args[6], &int_args[7], &int_args[8], &int_args[9]))
        return NULL;
    return Py_BuildValue("iiiiiiiiii",
        int_args[0], int_args[1], int_args[2], int_args[3], int_args[4],
        int_args[5], int_args[6], int_args[7], int_args[8], int_args[9]);
}

/* Functions to call PyArg_ParseTuple with integer format codes,
   and return the result.
*/
static PyObject *
getargs_b(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    unsigned char value;
    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "b", &value))
        return NULL;
    return PyLong_FromUnsignedLong((unsigned long)value);
}

static PyObject *
getargs_B(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    unsigned char value;
    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "B", &value))
        return NULL;
    return PyLong_FromUnsignedLong((unsigned long)value);
}

static PyObject *
getargs_H(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    unsigned short value;
    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "H", &value))
        return NULL;
    return PyLong_FromUnsignedLong((unsigned long)value);
}

static PyObject *
getargs_I(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    unsigned int value;
    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "I", &value))
        return NULL;
    return PyLong_FromUnsignedLong((unsigned long)value);
}

static PyObject *
getargs_k(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    unsigned long value;
    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "k", &value))
        return NULL;
    return PyLong_FromUnsignedLong(value);
}

static PyObject *
getargs_i(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    int value;
    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "i", &value))
        return NULL;
    return PyLong_FromLong((long)value);
}

static PyObject *
getargs_l(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    long value;
    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "l", &value))
        return NULL;
    return PyLong_FromLong(value);
}

static PyObject *
getargs_n(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    Py_ssize_t value;
    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "n", &value))
    return NULL;
    return PyInt_FromSsize_t(value);
}

#ifdef HAVE_LONG_LONG
static PyObject *
getargs_L(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    PY_LONG_LONG value;
    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "L", &value))
        return NULL;
    return PyLong_FromLongLong(value);
}

static PyObject *
getargs_K(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    unsigned PY_LONG_LONG value;
    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "K", &value))
        return NULL;
    return PyLong_FromUnsignedLongLong(value);
}
#endif

/* This function not only tests the 'k' getargs code, but also the
   PyInt_AsUnsignedLongMask() and PyInt_AsUnsignedLongMask() functions. */
static PyObject *
test_k_code(PyObject *self)
{
    PyObject *tuple, *num;
    unsigned long value;

    tuple = PyTuple_New(1);
    if (tuple == NULL)
        return NULL;

    /* a number larger than ULONG_MAX even on 64-bit platforms */
    num = PyLong_FromString("FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF", NULL, 16);
    if (num == NULL)
        return NULL;

    value = PyInt_AsUnsignedLongMask(num);
    if (value != ULONG_MAX)
        return raiseTestError("test_k_code",
        "PyInt_AsUnsignedLongMask() returned wrong value for long 0xFFF...FFF");

    PyTuple_SET_ITEM(tuple, 0, num);

    value = 0;
    if (PyArg_ParseTuple(tuple, "k:test_k_code", &value) < 0)
        return NULL;
    if (value != ULONG_MAX)
        return raiseTestError("test_k_code",
            "k code returned wrong value for long 0xFFF...FFF");

    Py_DECREF(num);
    num = PyLong_FromString("-FFFFFFFF000000000000000042", NULL, 16);
    if (num == NULL)
        return NULL;

    value = PyInt_AsUnsignedLongMask(num);
    if (value != (unsigned long)-0x42)
        return raiseTestError("test_k_code",
        "PyInt_AsUnsignedLongMask() returned wrong value for long 0xFFF...FFF");

    PyTuple_SET_ITEM(tuple, 0, num);

    value = 0;
    if (PyArg_ParseTuple(tuple, "k:test_k_code", &value) < 0)
        return NULL;
    if (value != (unsigned long)-0x42)
        return raiseTestError("test_k_code",
            "k code returned wrong value for long -0xFFF..000042");

    Py_DECREF(tuple);
    Py_INCREF(Py_None);
    return Py_None;
}

#ifdef Py_USING_UNICODE

static volatile int x;

/* Test the u and u# codes for PyArg_ParseTuple. May leak memory in case
   of an error.
*/
static PyObject *
test_u_code(PyObject *self)
{
    PyObject *tuple, *obj;
    Py_UNICODE *value;
    int len;

    /* issue4122: Undefined reference to _Py_ascii_whitespace on Windows */
    /* Just use the macro and check that it compiles */
    x = Py_UNICODE_ISSPACE(25);

    tuple = PyTuple_New(1);
    if (tuple == NULL)
        return NULL;

    obj = PyUnicode_Decode("test", strlen("test"),
                           "ascii", NULL);
    if (obj == NULL)
        return NULL;

    PyTuple_SET_ITEM(tuple, 0, obj);

    value = 0;
    if (PyArg_ParseTuple(tuple, "u:test_u_code", &value) < 0)
        return NULL;
    if (value != PyUnicode_AS_UNICODE(obj))
        return raiseTestError("test_u_code",
            "u code returned wrong value for u'test'");
    value = 0;
    if (PyArg_ParseTuple(tuple, "u#:test_u_code", &value, &len) < 0)
        return NULL;
    if (value != PyUnicode_AS_UNICODE(obj) ||
        len != PyUnicode_GET_SIZE(obj))
        return raiseTestError("test_u_code",
            "u# code returned wrong values for u'test'");

    Py_DECREF(tuple);
    Py_INCREF(Py_None);
    return Py_None;
}

static PyObject *
test_empty_argparse(PyObject *self)
{
    /* Test that formats can begin with '|'. See issue #4720. */
    PyObject *tuple, *dict = NULL;
    static char *kwlist[] = {NULL};
    int result;
    tuple = PyTuple_New(0);
    if (!tuple)
        return NULL;
    if ((result = PyArg_ParseTuple(tuple, "|:test_empty_argparse")) < 0)
        goto done;
    dict = PyDict_New();
    if (!dict)
        goto done;
    result = PyArg_ParseTupleAndKeywords(tuple, dict, "|:test_empty_argparse", kwlist);
  done:
    Py_DECREF(tuple);
    Py_XDECREF(dict);
    if (result < 0)
        return NULL;
    else {
        Py_RETURN_NONE;
    }
}

static PyObject *
codec_incrementalencoder(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    const char *encoding, *errors = NULL;
    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "s|s:test_incrementalencoder",
                          &encoding, &errors))
        return NULL;
    return PyCodec_IncrementalEncoder(encoding, errors);
}

static PyObject *
codec_incrementaldecoder(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    const char *encoding, *errors = NULL;
    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "s|s:test_incrementaldecoder",
                          &encoding, &errors))
        return NULL;
    return PyCodec_IncrementalDecoder(encoding, errors);
}

#endif

/* Simple test of _PyLong_NumBits and _PyLong_Sign. */
static PyObject *
test_long_numbits(PyObject *self)
{
    struct triple {
        long input;
        size_t nbits;
        int sign;
    } testcases[] = {{0, 0, 0},
                     {1L, 1, 1},
                     {-1L, 1, -1},
                     {2L, 2, 1},
                     {-2L, 2, -1},
                     {3L, 2, 1},
                     {-3L, 2, -1},
                     {4L, 3, 1},
                     {-4L, 3, -1},
                     {0x7fffL, 15, 1},          /* one Python long digit */
             {-0x7fffL, 15, -1},
             {0xffffL, 16, 1},
             {-0xffffL, 16, -1},
             {0xfffffffL, 28, 1},
             {-0xfffffffL, 28, -1}};
    int i;

    for (i = 0; i < sizeof(testcases) / sizeof(struct triple); ++i) {
        PyObject *plong = PyLong_FromLong(testcases[i].input);
        size_t nbits = _PyLong_NumBits(plong);
        int sign = _PyLong_Sign(plong);

        Py_DECREF(plong);
        if (nbits != testcases[i].nbits)
            return raiseTestError("test_long_numbits",
                            "wrong result for _PyLong_NumBits");
        if (sign != testcases[i].sign)
            return raiseTestError("test_long_numbits",
                            "wrong result for _PyLong_Sign");
    }
    Py_INCREF(Py_None);
    return Py_None;
}

/* Example passing NULLs to PyObject_Str(NULL) and PyObject_Unicode(NULL). */

static PyObject *
test_null_strings(PyObject *self)
{
    PyObject *o1 = PyObject_Str(NULL), *o2 = PyObject_Unicode(NULL);
    PyObject *tuple = PyTuple_Pack(2, o1, o2);
    Py_XDECREF(o1);
    Py_XDECREF(o2);
    return tuple;
}

static PyObject *
raise_exception(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    PyObject *exc;
    PyObject *exc_args, *v;
    int num_args, i;

    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "Oi:raise_exception",
                          &exc, &num_args))
        return NULL;
    if (!PyExceptionClass_Check(exc)) {
        PyErr_Format(PyExc_TypeError, "an exception class is required");
        return NULL;
    }

    exc_args = PyTuple_New(num_args);
    if (exc_args == NULL)
        return NULL;
    for (i = 0; i < num_args; ++i) {
        v = PyInt_FromLong(i);
        if (v == NULL) {
            Py_DECREF(exc_args);
            return NULL;
        }
        PyTuple_SET_ITEM(exc_args, i, v);
    }
    PyErr_SetObject(exc, exc_args);
    Py_DECREF(exc_args);
    return NULL;
}

#ifdef WITH_THREAD

/* test_thread_state spawns a thread of its own, and that thread releases
 * `thread_done` when it's finished.  The driver code has to know when the
 * thread finishes, because the thread uses a PyObject (the callable) that
 * may go away when the driver finishes.  The former lack of this explicit
 * synchronization caused rare segfaults, so rare that they were seen only
 * on a Mac buildbot (although they were possible on any box).
 */
static PyThread_type_lock thread_done = NULL;

static int
_make_call(void *callable)
{
    PyObject *rc;
    int success;
    PyGILState_STATE s = PyGILState_Ensure();
    rc = PyObject_CallFunction((PyObject *)callable, "");
    success = (rc != NULL);
    Py_XDECREF(rc);
    PyGILState_Release(s);
    return success;
}

/* Same thing, but releases `thread_done` when it returns.  This variant
 * should be called only from threads spawned by test_thread_state().
 */
static void
_make_call_from_thread(void *callable)
{
    _make_call(callable);
    PyThread_release_lock(thread_done);
}

static PyObject *
test_thread_state(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    PyObject *fn;
    int success = 1;

    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "O:test_thread_state", &fn))
        return NULL;

    if (!PyCallable_Check(fn)) {
        PyErr_Format(PyExc_TypeError, "'%s' object is not callable",
            fn->ob_type->tp_name);
        return NULL;
    }

    /* Ensure Python is set up for threading */
    PyEval_InitThreads();
    thread_done = PyThread_allocate_lock();
    if (thread_done == NULL)
        return PyErr_NoMemory();
    PyThread_acquire_lock(thread_done, 1);

    /* Start a new thread with our callback. */
    PyThread_start_new_thread(_make_call_from_thread, fn);
    /* Make the callback with the thread lock held by this thread */
    success &= _make_call(fn);
    /* Do it all again, but this time with the thread-lock released */
    Py_BEGIN_ALLOW_THREADS
    success &= _make_call(fn);
    PyThread_acquire_lock(thread_done, 1);  /* wait for thread to finish */
    Py_END_ALLOW_THREADS

    /* And once more with and without a thread
       XXX - should use a lock and work out exactly what we are trying
       to test <wink>
    */
    Py_BEGIN_ALLOW_THREADS
    PyThread_start_new_thread(_make_call_from_thread, fn);
    success &= _make_call(fn);
    PyThread_acquire_lock(thread_done, 1);  /* wait for thread to finish */
    Py_END_ALLOW_THREADS

    /* Release lock we acquired above.  This is required on HP-UX. */
    PyThread_release_lock(thread_done);

    PyThread_free_lock(thread_done);
    if (!success)
        return NULL;
    Py_RETURN_NONE;
}
#endif

/* Some tests of PyString_FromFormat().  This needs more tests. */
static PyObject *
test_string_from_format(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    PyObject *result;
    char *msg;

#define CHECK_1_FORMAT(FORMAT, TYPE)                    \
    result = PyString_FromFormat(FORMAT, (TYPE)1);      \
    if (result == NULL)                                 \
        return NULL;                                    \
    if (strcmp(PyString_AsString(result), "1")) {       \
        msg = FORMAT " failed at 1";                    \
        goto Fail;                                      \
    }                                                   \
    Py_DECREF(result)

    CHECK_1_FORMAT("%d", int);
    CHECK_1_FORMAT("%ld", long);
    /* The z width modifier was added in Python 2.5. */
    CHECK_1_FORMAT("%zd", Py_ssize_t);

    /* The u type code was added in Python 2.5. */
    CHECK_1_FORMAT("%u", unsigned int);
    CHECK_1_FORMAT("%lu", unsigned long);
    CHECK_1_FORMAT("%zu", size_t);

    Py_RETURN_NONE;

 Fail:
    Py_XDECREF(result);
    return raiseTestError("test_string_from_format", msg);

#undef CHECK_1_FORMAT
}

/* This is here to provide a docstring for test_descr. */
static PyObject *
test_with_docstring(PyObject *self)
{
    Py_RETURN_NONE;
}

/* To test the format of tracebacks as printed out. */
static PyObject *
traceback_print(PyObject *self, PyObject *args)
{
    PyObject *file;
    PyObject *traceback;
    int result;

    if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "OO:traceback_print",
                            &traceback, &file))
        return NULL;

    result = PyTraceBack_Print(traceback, file);
    if (result < 0)
        return NULL;
    Py_RETURN_NONE;
}

static PyMethodDef TestMethods[] = {
    {"raise_exception",         raise_exception,                 METH_VARARGS},
    {"test_config",             (PyCFunction)test_config,        METH_NOARGS},
    {"test_list_api",           (PyCFunction)test_list_api,      METH_NOARGS},
    {"test_dict_iteration",     (PyCFunction)test_dict_iteration,METH_NOARGS},
    {"test_lazy_hash_inheritance",      (PyCFunction)test_lazy_hash_inheritance,METH_NOARGS},
    {"test_long_api",           (PyCFunction)test_long_api,      METH_NOARGS},
    {"test_long_numbits",       (PyCFunction)test_long_numbits,  METH_NOARGS},
    {"test_k_code",             (PyCFunction)test_k_code,        METH_NOARGS},
    {"test_empty_argparse", (PyCFunction)test_empty_argparse,METH_NOARGS},
    {"test_null_strings",       (PyCFunction)test_null_strings,  METH_NOARGS},
    {"test_string_from_format", (PyCFunction)test_string_from_format, METH_NOARGS},
    {"test_with_docstring", (PyCFunction)test_with_docstring, METH_NOARGS,
     PyDoc_STR("This is a pretty normal docstring.")},

    {"getargs_tuple",           getargs_tuple,                   METH_VARARGS},
    {"getargs_keywords", (PyCFunction)getargs_keywords,
      METH_VARARGS|METH_KEYWORDS},
    {"getargs_b",               getargs_b,                       METH_VARARGS},
    {"getargs_B",               getargs_B,                       METH_VARARGS},
    {"getargs_H",               getargs_H,                       METH_VARARGS},
    {"getargs_I",               getargs_I,                       METH_VARARGS},
    {"getargs_k",               getargs_k,                       METH_VARARGS},
    {"getargs_i",               getargs_i,                       METH_VARARGS},
    {"getargs_l",               getargs_l,                       METH_VARARGS},
    {"getargs_n",               getargs_n,                       METH_VARARGS},
#ifdef HAVE_LONG_LONG
    {"getargs_L",               getargs_L,                       METH_VARARGS},
    {"getargs_K",               getargs_K,                       METH_VARARGS},
    {"test_longlong_api",       test_longlong_api,               METH_NOARGS},
    {"test_L_code",             (PyCFunction)test_L_code,        METH_NOARGS},
    {"codec_incrementalencoder",
     (PyCFunction)codec_incrementalencoder,      METH_VARARGS},
    {"codec_incrementaldecoder",
     (PyCFunction)codec_incrementaldecoder,      METH_VARARGS},
#endif
#ifdef Py_USING_UNICODE
    {"test_u_code",             (PyCFunction)test_u_code,        METH_NOARGS},
#endif
#ifdef WITH_THREAD
    {"_test_thread_state",  test_thread_state,                   METH_VARARGS},
#endif
    {"traceback_print", traceback_print,                 METH_VARARGS},
    {NULL, NULL} /* sentinel */
};

#define AddSym(d, n, f, v) {PyObject *o = f(v); PyDict_SetItemString(d, n, o); Py_DECREF(o);}

typedef struct {
    char bool_member;
    char byte_member;
    unsigned char ubyte_member;
    short short_member;
    unsigned short ushort_member;
    int int_member;
    unsigned int uint_member;
    long long_member;
    unsigned long ulong_member;
    float float_member;
    double double_member;
    char inplace_member[6];
#ifdef HAVE_LONG_LONG
    PY_LONG_LONG longlong_member;
    unsigned PY_LONG_LONG ulonglong_member;
#endif
} all_structmembers;

typedef struct {
    PyObject_HEAD
    all_structmembers structmembers;
} test_structmembers;

static struct PyMemberDef test_members[] = {
    {"T_BOOL", T_BOOL, offsetof(test_structmembers, structmembers.bool_member), 0, NULL},
    {"T_BYTE", T_BYTE, offsetof(test_structmembers, structmembers.byte_member), 0, NULL},
    {"T_UBYTE", T_UBYTE, offsetof(test_structmembers, structmembers.ubyte_member), 0, NULL},
    {"T_SHORT", T_SHORT, offsetof(test_structmembers, structmembers.short_member), 0, NULL},
    {"T_USHORT", T_USHORT, offsetof(test_structmembers, structmembers.ushort_member), 0, NULL},
    {"T_INT", T_INT, offsetof(test_structmembers, structmembers.int_member), 0, NULL},
    {"T_UINT", T_UINT, offsetof(test_structmembers, structmembers.uint_member), 0, NULL},
    {"T_LONG", T_LONG, offsetof(test_structmembers, structmembers.long_member), 0, NULL},
    {"T_ULONG", T_ULONG, offsetof(test_structmembers, structmembers.ulong_member), 0, NULL},
    {"T_FLOAT", T_FLOAT, offsetof(test_structmembers, structmembers.float_member), 0, NULL},
    {"T_DOUBLE", T_DOUBLE, offsetof(test_structmembers, structmembers.double_member), 0, NULL},
    {"T_STRING_INPLACE", T_STRING_INPLACE, offsetof(test_structmembers, structmembers.inplace_member), 0, NULL},
#ifdef HAVE_LONG_LONG
    {"T_LONGLONG", T_LONGLONG, offsetof(test_structmembers, structmembers.longlong_member), 0, NULL},
    {"T_ULONGLONG", T_ULONGLONG, offsetof(test_structmembers, structmembers.ulonglong_member), 0, NULL},
#endif
    {NULL}
};


static PyObject *
test_structmembers_new(PyTypeObject *type, PyObject *args, PyObject *kwargs)
{
    static char *keywords[] = {
        "T_BOOL", "T_BYTE", "T_UBYTE", "T_SHORT", "T_USHORT",
        "T_INT", "T_UINT", "T_LONG", "T_ULONG",
        "T_FLOAT", "T_DOUBLE", "T_STRING_INPLACE",
#ifdef HAVE_LONG_LONG
        "T_LONGLONG", "T_ULONGLONG",
#endif
        NULL};
    static char *fmt = "|bbBhHiIlkfds#"
#ifdef HAVE_LONG_LONG
        "LK"
#endif
        ;
    test_structmembers *ob;
    const char *s = NULL;
    Py_ssize_t string_len = 0;
    ob = PyObject_New(test_structmembers, type);
    if (ob == NULL)
        return NULL;
    memset(&ob->structmembers, 0, sizeof(all_structmembers));
    if (!PyArg_ParseTupleAndKeywords(args, kwargs, fmt, keywords,
                                     &ob->structmembers.bool_member,
                                     &ob->structmembers.byte_member,
                                     &ob->structmembers.ubyte_member,
                                     &ob->structmembers.short_member,
                                     &ob->structmembers.ushort_member,
                                     &ob->structmembers.int_member,
                                     &ob->structmembers.uint_member,
                                     &ob->structmembers.long_member,
                                     &ob->structmembers.ulong_member,
                                     &ob->structmembers.float_member,
                                     &ob->structmembers.double_member,
                                     &s, &string_len
#ifdef HAVE_LONG_LONG
                                     , &ob->structmembers.longlong_member,
                                     &ob->structmembers.ulonglong_member
#endif
        )) {
        Py_DECREF(ob);
        return NULL;
    }
    if (s != NULL) {
        if (string_len > 5) {
            Py_DECREF(ob);
            PyErr_SetString(PyExc_ValueError, "string too long");
            return NULL;
        }
        strcpy(ob->structmembers.inplace_member, s);
    }
    else {
        strcpy(ob->structmembers.inplace_member, "");
    }
    return (PyObject *)ob;
}

static void
test_structmembers_free(PyObject *ob)
{
    PyObject_FREE(ob);
}

static PyTypeObject test_structmembersType = {
    PyVarObject_HEAD_INIT(NULL, 0)
    "test_structmembersType",
    sizeof(test_structmembers),         /* tp_basicsize */
    0,                                  /* tp_itemsize */
    test_structmembers_free,            /* destructor tp_dealloc */
    0,                                  /* tp_print */
    0,                                  /* tp_getattr */
    0,                                  /* tp_setattr */
    0,                                  /* tp_compare */
    0,                                  /* tp_repr */
    0,                                  /* tp_as_number */
    0,                                  /* tp_as_sequence */
    0,                                  /* tp_as_mapping */
    0,                                  /* tp_hash */
    0,                                  /* tp_call */
    0,                                  /* tp_str */
    PyObject_GenericGetAttr,            /* tp_getattro */
    PyObject_GenericSetAttr,            /* tp_setattro */
    0,                                  /* tp_as_buffer */
    0,                                  /* tp_flags */
    "Type containing all structmember types",
    0,                                  /* traverseproc tp_traverse */
    0,                                  /* tp_clear */
    0,                                  /* tp_richcompare */
    0,                                  /* tp_weaklistoffset */
    0,                                  /* tp_iter */
    0,                                  /* tp_iternext */
    0,                                  /* tp_methods */
    test_members,                       /* tp_members */
    0,
    0,
    0,
    0,
    0,
    0,
    0,
    0,
    test_structmembers_new,             /* tp_new */
};


PyMODINIT_FUNC
init_testcapi(void)
{
    PyObject *m;

    m = Py_InitModule("_testcapi", TestMethods);
    if (m == NULL)
        return;

    Py_TYPE(&_HashInheritanceTester_Type)=&PyType_Type;

    Py_TYPE(&test_structmembersType)=&PyType_Type;
    Py_INCREF(&test_structmembersType);
    /* don't use a name starting with "test", since we don't want
       test_capi to automatically call this */
    PyModule_AddObject(m, "_test_structmembersType", (PyObject *)&test_structmembersType);

    PyModule_AddObject(m, "CHAR_MAX", PyInt_FromLong(CHAR_MAX));
    PyModule_AddObject(m, "CHAR_MIN", PyInt_FromLong(CHAR_MIN));
    PyModule_AddObject(m, "UCHAR_MAX", PyInt_FromLong(UCHAR_MAX));
    PyModule_AddObject(m, "SHRT_MAX", PyInt_FromLong(SHRT_MAX));
    PyModule_AddObject(m, "SHRT_MIN", PyInt_FromLong(SHRT_MIN));
    PyModule_AddObject(m, "USHRT_MAX", PyInt_FromLong(USHRT_MAX));
    PyModule_AddObject(m, "INT_MAX",  PyLong_FromLong(INT_MAX));
    PyModule_AddObject(m, "INT_MIN",  PyLong_FromLong(INT_MIN));
    PyModule_AddObject(m, "UINT_MAX",  PyLong_FromUnsignedLong(UINT_MAX));
    PyModule_AddObject(m, "LONG_MAX", PyInt_FromLong(LONG_MAX));
    PyModule_AddObject(m, "LONG_MIN", PyInt_FromLong(LONG_MIN));
    PyModule_AddObject(m, "ULONG_MAX", PyLong_FromUnsignedLong(ULONG_MAX));
    PyModule_AddObject(m, "FLT_MAX", PyFloat_FromDouble(FLT_MAX));
    PyModule_AddObject(m, "FLT_MIN", PyFloat_FromDouble(FLT_MIN));
    PyModule_AddObject(m, "DBL_MAX", PyFloat_FromDouble(DBL_MAX));
    PyModule_AddObject(m, "DBL_MIN", PyFloat_FromDouble(DBL_MIN));
    PyModule_AddObject(m, "LLONG_MAX", PyLong_FromLongLong(PY_LLONG_MAX));
    PyModule_AddObject(m, "LLONG_MIN", PyLong_FromLongLong(PY_LLONG_MIN));
    PyModule_AddObject(m, "ULLONG_MAX", PyLong_FromUnsignedLongLong(PY_ULLONG_MAX));
    PyModule_AddObject(m, "PY_SSIZE_T_MAX", PyInt_FromSsize_t(PY_SSIZE_T_MAX));
    PyModule_AddObject(m, "PY_SSIZE_T_MIN", PyInt_FromSsize_t(PY_SSIZE_T_MIN));
    PyModule_AddObject(m, "SIZEOF_PYGC_HEAD", PyInt_FromSsize_t(sizeof(PyGC_Head)));

    TestError = PyErr_NewException("_testcapi.error", NULL, NULL);
    Py_INCREF(TestError);
    PyModule_AddObject(m, "error", TestError);
}
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