# cpython-withatomic / Lib / collections.py

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 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 __all__ = ['deque', 'defaultdict', 'namedtuple'] # For bootstrapping reasons, the collection ABCs are defined in _abcoll.py. # They should however be considered an integral part of collections.py. from _abcoll import * import _abcoll __all__ += _abcoll.__all__ from _collections import deque, defaultdict from operator import itemgetter as _itemgetter from keyword import iskeyword as _iskeyword import sys as _sys def namedtuple(typename, field_names, verbose=False): """Returns a new subclass of tuple with named fields. >>> Point = namedtuple('Point', 'x y') >>> Point.__doc__ # docstring for the new class 'Point(x, y)' >>> p = Point(11, y=22) # instantiate with positional args or keywords >>> p[0] + p[1] # indexable like a plain tuple 33 >>> x, y = p # unpack like a regular tuple >>> x, y (11, 22) >>> p.x + p.y # fields also accessable by name 33 >>> d = p._asdict() # convert to a dictionary >>> d['x'] 11 >>> Point(**d) # convert from a dictionary Point(x=11, y=22) >>> p._replace(x=100) # _replace() is like str.replace() but targets named fields Point(x=100, y=22) """ # Parse and validate the field names. Validation serves two purposes, # generating informative error messages and preventing template injection attacks. if isinstance(field_names, basestring): field_names = field_names.replace(',', ' ').split() # names separated by whitespace and/or commas field_names = tuple(field_names) for name in (typename,) + field_names: if not all(c.isalnum() or c=='_' for c in name): raise ValueError('Type names and field names can only contain alphanumeric characters and underscores: %r' % name) if _iskeyword(name): raise ValueError('Type names and field names cannot be a keyword: %r' % name) if name[0].isdigit(): raise ValueError('Type names and field names cannot start with a number: %r' % name) seen_names = set() for name in field_names: if name.startswith('_'): raise ValueError('Field names cannot start with an underscore: %r' % name) if name in seen_names: raise ValueError('Encountered duplicate field name: %r' % name) seen_names.add(name) # Create and fill-in the class template numfields = len(field_names) argtxt = repr(field_names).replace("'", "")[1:-1] # tuple repr without parens or quotes reprtxt = ', '.join('%s=%%r' % name for name in field_names) dicttxt = ', '.join('%r: t[%d]' % (name, pos) for pos, name in enumerate(field_names)) template = '''class %(typename)s(tuple): '%(typename)s(%(argtxt)s)' \n __slots__ = () \n _fields = %(field_names)r \n def __new__(cls, %(argtxt)s): return tuple.__new__(cls, (%(argtxt)s)) \n @classmethod def _make(cls, iterable, new=tuple.__new__, len=len): 'Make a new %(typename)s object from a sequence or iterable' result = new(cls, iterable) if len(result) != %(numfields)d: raise TypeError('Expected %(numfields)d arguments, got %%d' %% len(result)) return result \n def __repr__(self): return '%(typename)s(%(reprtxt)s)' %% self \n def _asdict(t): 'Return a new dict which maps field names to their values' return {%(dicttxt)s} \n def _replace(self, **kwds): 'Return a new %(typename)s object replacing specified fields with new values' result = self._make(map(kwds.pop, %(field_names)r, self)) if kwds: raise ValueError('Got unexpected field names: %%r' %% kwds.keys()) return result \n def __getnewargs__(self): return tuple(self) \n\n''' % locals() for i, name in enumerate(field_names): template += ' %s = property(itemgetter(%d))\n' % (name, i) if verbose: print template # Execute the template string in a temporary namespace and # support tracing utilities by setting a value for frame.f_globals['__name__'] namespace = dict(itemgetter=_itemgetter, __name__='namedtuple_%s' % typename) try: exec template in namespace except SyntaxError, e: raise SyntaxError(e.message + ':\n' + template) result = namespace[typename] # For pickling to work, the __module__ variable needs to be set to the frame # where the named tuple is created. Bypass this step in enviroments where # sys._getframe is not defined (Jython for example). if hasattr(_sys, '_getframe'): result.__module__ = _sys._getframe(1).f_globals['__name__'] return result if __name__ == '__main__': # verify that instances can be pickled from cPickle import loads, dumps Point = namedtuple('Point', 'x, y', True) p = Point(x=10, y=20) assert p == loads(dumps(p)) # test and demonstrate ability to override methods class Point(namedtuple('Point', 'x y')): __slots__ = () @property def hypot(self): return (self.x ** 2 + self.y ** 2) ** 0.5 def __str__(self): return 'Point: x=%6.3f y=%6.3f hypot=%6.3f' % (self.x, self.y, self.hypot) for p in Point(3, 4), Point(14, 5/7.): print p class Point(namedtuple('Point', 'x y')): 'Point class with optimized _make() and _replace() without error-checking' __slots__ = () _make = classmethod(tuple.__new__) def _replace(self, _map=map, **kwds): return self._make(_map(kwds.get, ('x', 'y'), self)) print Point(11, 22)._replace(x=100) Point3D = namedtuple('Point3D', Point._fields + ('z',)) print Point3D.__doc__ import doctest TestResults = namedtuple('TestResults', 'failed attempted') print TestResults(*doctest.testmod())