cpython-withatomic / Lib / inspect.py

   1
   2
   3
   4
   5
   6
   7
   8
   9
  10
  11
  12
  13
  14
  15
  16
  17
  18
  19
  20
  21
  22
  23
  24
  25
  26
  27
  28
  29
  30
  31
  32
  33
  34
  35
  36
  37
  38
  39
  40
  41
  42
  43
  44
  45
  46
  47
  48
  49
  50
  51
  52
  53
  54
  55
  56
  57
  58
  59
  60
  61
  62
  63
  64
  65
  66
  67
  68
  69
  70
  71
  72
  73
  74
  75
  76
  77
  78
  79
  80
  81
  82
  83
  84
  85
  86
  87
  88
  89
  90
  91
  92
  93
  94
  95
  96
  97
  98
  99
 100
 101
 102
 103
 104
 105
 106
 107
 108
 109
 110
 111
 112
 113
 114
 115
 116
 117
 118
 119
 120
 121
 122
 123
 124
 125
 126
 127
 128
 129
 130
 131
 132
 133
 134
 135
 136
 137
 138
 139
 140
 141
 142
 143
 144
 145
 146
 147
 148
 149
 150
 151
 152
 153
 154
 155
 156
 157
 158
 159
 160
 161
 162
 163
 164
 165
 166
 167
 168
 169
 170
 171
 172
 173
 174
 175
 176
 177
 178
 179
 180
 181
 182
 183
 184
 185
 186
 187
 188
 189
 190
 191
 192
 193
 194
 195
 196
 197
 198
 199
 200
 201
 202
 203
 204
 205
 206
 207
 208
 209
 210
 211
 212
 213
 214
 215
 216
 217
 218
 219
 220
 221
 222
 223
 224
 225
 226
 227
 228
 229
 230
 231
 232
 233
 234
 235
 236
 237
 238
 239
 240
 241
 242
 243
 244
 245
 246
 247
 248
 249
 250
 251
 252
 253
 254
 255
 256
 257
 258
 259
 260
 261
 262
 263
 264
 265
 266
 267
 268
 269
 270
 271
 272
 273
 274
 275
 276
 277
 278
 279
 280
 281
 282
 283
 284
 285
 286
 287
 288
 289
 290
 291
 292
 293
 294
 295
 296
 297
 298
 299
 300
 301
 302
 303
 304
 305
 306
 307
 308
 309
 310
 311
 312
 313
 314
 315
 316
 317
 318
 319
 320
 321
 322
 323
 324
 325
 326
 327
 328
 329
 330
 331
 332
 333
 334
 335
 336
 337
 338
 339
 340
 341
 342
 343
 344
 345
 346
 347
 348
 349
 350
 351
 352
 353
 354
 355
 356
 357
 358
 359
 360
 361
 362
 363
 364
 365
 366
 367
 368
 369
 370
 371
 372
 373
 374
 375
 376
 377
 378
 379
 380
 381
 382
 383
 384
 385
 386
 387
 388
 389
 390
 391
 392
 393
 394
 395
 396
 397
 398
 399
 400
 401
 402
 403
 404
 405
 406
 407
 408
 409
 410
 411
 412
 413
 414
 415
 416
 417
 418
 419
 420
 421
 422
 423
 424
 425
 426
 427
 428
 429
 430
 431
 432
 433
 434
 435
 436
 437
 438
 439
 440
 441
 442
 443
 444
 445
 446
 447
 448
 449
 450
 451
 452
 453
 454
 455
 456
 457
 458
 459
 460
 461
 462
 463
 464
 465
 466
 467
 468
 469
 470
 471
 472
 473
 474
 475
 476
 477
 478
 479
 480
 481
 482
 483
 484
 485
 486
 487
 488
 489
 490
 491
 492
 493
 494
 495
 496
 497
 498
 499
 500
 501
 502
 503
 504
 505
 506
 507
 508
 509
 510
 511
 512
 513
 514
 515
 516
 517
 518
 519
 520
 521
 522
 523
 524
 525
 526
 527
 528
 529
 530
 531
 532
 533
 534
 535
 536
 537
 538
 539
 540
 541
 542
 543
 544
 545
 546
 547
 548
 549
 550
 551
 552
 553
 554
 555
 556
 557
 558
 559
 560
 561
 562
 563
 564
 565
 566
 567
 568
 569
 570
 571
 572
 573
 574
 575
 576
 577
 578
 579
 580
 581
 582
 583
 584
 585
 586
 587
 588
 589
 590
 591
 592
 593
 594
 595
 596
 597
 598
 599
 600
 601
 602
 603
 604
 605
 606
 607
 608
 609
 610
 611
 612
 613
 614
 615
 616
 617
 618
 619
 620
 621
 622
 623
 624
 625
 626
 627
 628
 629
 630
 631
 632
 633
 634
 635
 636
 637
 638
 639
 640
 641
 642
 643
 644
 645
 646
 647
 648
 649
 650
 651
 652
 653
 654
 655
 656
 657
 658
 659
 660
 661
 662
 663
 664
 665
 666
 667
 668
 669
 670
 671
 672
 673
 674
 675
 676
 677
 678
 679
 680
 681
 682
 683
 684
 685
 686
 687
 688
 689
 690
 691
 692
 693
 694
 695
 696
 697
 698
 699
 700
 701
 702
 703
 704
 705
 706
 707
 708
 709
 710
 711
 712
 713
 714
 715
 716
 717
 718
 719
 720
 721
 722
 723
 724
 725
 726
 727
 728
 729
 730
 731
 732
 733
 734
 735
 736
 737
 738
 739
 740
 741
 742
 743
 744
 745
 746
 747
 748
 749
 750
 751
 752
 753
 754
 755
 756
 757
 758
 759
 760
 761
 762
 763
 764
 765
 766
 767
 768
 769
 770
 771
 772
 773
 774
 775
 776
 777
 778
 779
 780
 781
 782
 783
 784
 785
 786
 787
 788
 789
 790
 791
 792
 793
 794
 795
 796
 797
 798
 799
 800
 801
 802
 803
 804
 805
 806
 807
 808
 809
 810
 811
 812
 813
 814
 815
 816
 817
 818
 819
 820
 821
 822
 823
 824
 825
 826
 827
 828
 829
 830
 831
 832
 833
 834
 835
 836
 837
 838
 839
 840
 841
 842
 843
 844
 845
 846
 847
 848
 849
 850
 851
 852
 853
 854
 855
 856
 857
 858
 859
 860
 861
 862
 863
 864
 865
 866
 867
 868
 869
 870
 871
 872
 873
 874
 875
 876
 877
 878
 879
 880
 881
 882
 883
 884
 885
 886
 887
 888
 889
 890
 891
 892
 893
 894
 895
 896
 897
 898
 899
 900
 901
 902
 903
 904
 905
 906
 907
 908
 909
 910
 911
 912
 913
 914
 915
 916
 917
 918
 919
 920
 921
 922
 923
 924
 925
 926
 927
 928
 929
 930
 931
 932
 933
 934
 935
 936
 937
 938
 939
 940
 941
 942
 943
 944
 945
 946
 947
 948
 949
 950
 951
 952
 953
 954
 955
 956
 957
 958
 959
 960
 961
 962
 963
 964
 965
 966
 967
 968
 969
 970
 971
 972
 973
 974
 975
 976
 977
 978
 979
 980
 981
 982
 983
 984
 985
 986
 987
 988
 989
 990
 991
 992
 993
 994
 995
 996
 997
 998
 999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
# -*- coding: iso-8859-1 -*-
"""Get useful information from live Python objects.

This module encapsulates the interface provided by the internal special
attributes (co_*, im_*, tb_*, etc.) in a friendlier fashion.
It also provides some help for examining source code and class layout.

Here are some of the useful functions provided by this module:

    ismodule(), isclass(), ismethod(), isfunction(), isgeneratorfunction(),
        isgenerator(), istraceback(), isframe(), iscode(), isbuiltin(),
        isroutine() - check object types
    getmembers() - get members of an object that satisfy a given condition

    getfile(), getsourcefile(), getsource() - find an object's source code
    getdoc(), getcomments() - get documentation on an object
    getmodule() - determine the module that an object came from
    getclasstree() - arrange classes so as to represent their hierarchy

    getargspec(), getargvalues() - get info about function arguments
    getfullargspec() - same, with support for Python-3000 features
    formatargspec(), formatargvalues() - format an argument spec
    getouterframes(), getinnerframes() - get info about frames
    currentframe() - get the current stack frame
    stack(), trace() - get info about frames on the stack or in a traceback
"""

# This module is in the public domain.  No warranties.

__author__ = 'Ka-Ping Yee <ping@lfw.org>'
__date__ = '1 Jan 2001'

import sys
import os
import types
import string
import re
import dis
import imp
import tokenize
import linecache
from operator import attrgetter
from collections import namedtuple
# These constants are from Include/code.h.
CO_OPTIMIZED, CO_NEWLOCALS, CO_VARARGS, CO_VARKEYWORDS = 0x1, 0x2, 0x4, 0x8
CO_NESTED, CO_GENERATOR, CO_NOFREE = 0x10, 0x20, 0x40

# See Include/object.h
TPFLAGS_IS_ABSTRACT = 1 << 20

# ----------------------------------------------------------- type-checking
def ismodule(object):
    """Return true if the object is a module.

    Module objects provide these attributes:
        __doc__         documentation string
        __file__        filename (missing for built-in modules)"""
    return isinstance(object, types.ModuleType)

def isclass(object):
    """Return true if the object is a class.

    Class objects provide these attributes:
        __doc__         documentation string
        __module__      name of module in which this class was defined"""
    return isinstance(object, type)

def ismethod(object):
    """Return true if the object is an instance method.

    Instance method objects provide these attributes:
        __doc__         documentation string
        __name__        name with which this method was defined
        __func__        function object containing implementation of method
        __self__        instance to which this method is bound"""
    return isinstance(object, types.MethodType)

def ismethoddescriptor(object):
    """Return true if the object is a method descriptor.

    But not if ismethod() or isclass() or isfunction() are true.

    This is new in Python 2.2, and, for example, is true of int.__add__.
    An object passing this test has a __get__ attribute but not a __set__
    attribute, but beyond that the set of attributes varies.  __name__ is
    usually sensible, and __doc__ often is.

    Methods implemented via descriptors that also pass one of the other
    tests return false from the ismethoddescriptor() test, simply because
    the other tests promise more -- you can, e.g., count on having the
    __func__ attribute (etc) when an object passes ismethod()."""
    return (hasattr(object, "__get__")
            and not hasattr(object, "__set__") # else it's a data descriptor
            and not ismethod(object)           # mutual exclusion
            and not isfunction(object)
            and not isclass(object))

def isdatadescriptor(object):
    """Return true if the object is a data descriptor.

    Data descriptors have both a __get__ and a __set__ attribute.  Examples are
    properties (defined in Python) and getsets and members (defined in C).
    Typically, data descriptors will also have __name__ and __doc__ attributes
    (properties, getsets, and members have both of these attributes), but this
    is not guaranteed."""
    return (hasattr(object, "__set__") and hasattr(object, "__get__"))

if hasattr(types, 'MemberDescriptorType'):
    # CPython and equivalent
    def ismemberdescriptor(object):
        """Return true if the object is a member descriptor.

        Member descriptors are specialized descriptors defined in extension
        modules."""
        return isinstance(object, types.MemberDescriptorType)
else:
    # Other implementations
    def ismemberdescriptor(object):
        """Return true if the object is a member descriptor.

        Member descriptors are specialized descriptors defined in extension
        modules."""
        return False

if hasattr(types, 'GetSetDescriptorType'):
    # CPython and equivalent
    def isgetsetdescriptor(object):
        """Return true if the object is a getset descriptor.

        getset descriptors are specialized descriptors defined in extension
        modules."""
        return isinstance(object, types.GetSetDescriptorType)
else:
    # Other implementations
    def isgetsetdescriptor(object):
        """Return true if the object is a getset descriptor.

        getset descriptors are specialized descriptors defined in extension
        modules."""
        return False

def isfunction(object):
    """Return true if the object is a user-defined function.

    Function objects provide these attributes:
        __doc__         documentation string
        __name__        name with which this function was defined
        __code__        code object containing compiled function bytecode
        __defaults__    tuple of any default values for arguments
        __globals__     global namespace in which this function was defined
        __annotations__ dict of parameter annotations
        __kwdefaults__  dict of keyword only parameters with defaults"""
    return isinstance(object, types.FunctionType)

def isgeneratorfunction(object):
    """Return true if the object is a user-defined generator function.

    Generator function objects provides same attributes as functions.

    See isfunction.__doc__ for attributes listing."""
    return bool((isfunction(object) or ismethod(object)) and
                object.__code__.co_flags & CO_GENERATOR)

def isgenerator(object):
    """Return true if the object is a generator.

    Generator objects provide these attributes:
        __iter__        defined to support interation over container
        close           raises a new GeneratorExit exception inside the
                        generator to terminate the iteration
        gi_code         code object
        gi_frame        frame object or possibly None once the generator has
                        been exhausted
        gi_running      set to 1 when generator is executing, 0 otherwise
        next            return the next item from the container
        send            resumes the generator and "sends" a value that becomes
                        the result of the current yield-expression
        throw           used to raise an exception inside the generator"""
    return isinstance(object, types.GeneratorType)

def istraceback(object):
    """Return true if the object is a traceback.

    Traceback objects provide these attributes:
        tb_frame        frame object at this level
        tb_lasti        index of last attempted instruction in bytecode
        tb_lineno       current line number in Python source code
        tb_next         next inner traceback object (called by this level)"""
    return isinstance(object, types.TracebackType)

def isframe(object):
    """Return true if the object is a frame object.

    Frame objects provide these attributes:
        f_back          next outer frame object (this frame's caller)
        f_builtins      built-in namespace seen by this frame
        f_code          code object being executed in this frame
        f_globals       global namespace seen by this frame
        f_lasti         index of last attempted instruction in bytecode
        f_lineno        current line number in Python source code
        f_locals        local namespace seen by this frame
        f_trace         tracing function for this frame, or None"""
    return isinstance(object, types.FrameType)

def iscode(object):
    """Return true if the object is a code object.

    Code objects provide these attributes:
        co_argcount     number of arguments (not including * or ** args)
        co_code         string of raw compiled bytecode
        co_consts       tuple of constants used in the bytecode
        co_filename     name of file in which this code object was created
        co_firstlineno  number of first line in Python source code
        co_flags        bitmap: 1=optimized | 2=newlocals | 4=*arg | 8=**arg
        co_lnotab       encoded mapping of line numbers to bytecode indices
        co_name         name with which this code object was defined
        co_names        tuple of names of local variables
        co_nlocals      number of local variables
        co_stacksize    virtual machine stack space required
        co_varnames     tuple of names of arguments and local variables"""
    return isinstance(object, types.CodeType)

def isbuiltin(object):
    """Return true if the object is a built-in function or method.

    Built-in functions and methods provide these attributes:
        __doc__         documentation string
        __name__        original name of this function or method
        __self__        instance to which a method is bound, or None"""
    return isinstance(object, types.BuiltinFunctionType)

def isroutine(object):
    """Return true if the object is any kind of function or method."""
    return (isbuiltin(object)
            or isfunction(object)
            or ismethod(object)
            or ismethoddescriptor(object))

def isabstract(object):
    """Return true if the object is an abstract base class (ABC)."""
    return isinstance(object, type) and object.__flags__ & TPFLAGS_IS_ABSTRACT

def getmembers(object, predicate=None):
    """Return all members of an object as (name, value) pairs sorted by name.
    Optionally, only return members that satisfy a given predicate."""
    results = []
    for key in dir(object):
        try:
            value = getattr(object, key)
        except AttributeError:
            continue
        if not predicate or predicate(value):
            results.append((key, value))
    results.sort()
    return results

Attribute = namedtuple('Attribute', 'name kind defining_class object')

def classify_class_attrs(cls):
    """Return list of attribute-descriptor tuples.

    For each name in dir(cls), the return list contains a 4-tuple
    with these elements:

        0. The name (a string).

        1. The kind of attribute this is, one of these strings:
               'class method'    created via classmethod()
               'static method'   created via staticmethod()
               'property'        created via property()
               'method'          any other flavor of method
               'data'            not a method

        2. The class which defined this attribute (a class).

        3. The object as obtained directly from the defining class's
           __dict__, not via getattr.  This is especially important for
           data attributes:  C.data is just a data object, but
           C.__dict__['data'] may be a data descriptor with additional
           info, like a __doc__ string.
    """

    mro = getmro(cls)
    names = dir(cls)
    result = []
    for name in names:
        # Get the object associated with the name.
        # Getting an obj from the __dict__ sometimes reveals more than
        # using getattr.  Static and class methods are dramatic examples.
        if name in cls.__dict__:
            obj = cls.__dict__[name]
        else:
            obj = getattr(cls, name)

        # Figure out where it was defined.
        homecls = getattr(obj, "__objclass__", None)
        if homecls is None:
            # search the dicts.
            for base in mro:
                if name in base.__dict__:
                    homecls = base
                    break

        # Get the object again, in order to get it from the defining
        # __dict__ instead of via getattr (if possible).
        if homecls is not None and name in homecls.__dict__:
            obj = homecls.__dict__[name]

        # Also get the object via getattr.
        obj_via_getattr = getattr(cls, name)

        # Classify the object.
        if isinstance(obj, staticmethod):
            kind = "static method"
        elif isinstance(obj, classmethod):
            kind = "class method"
        elif isinstance(obj, property):
            kind = "property"
        elif (isfunction(obj_via_getattr) or
              ismethoddescriptor(obj_via_getattr)):
            kind = "method"
        else:
            kind = "data"

        result.append(Attribute(name, kind, homecls, obj))

    return result

# ----------------------------------------------------------- class helpers
def _searchbases(cls, accum):
    # Simulate the "classic class" search order.
    if cls in accum:
        return
    accum.append(cls)
    for base in cls.__bases__:
        _searchbases(base, accum)

def getmro(cls):
    "Return tuple of base classes (including cls) in method resolution order."
    if hasattr(cls, "__mro__"):
        return cls.__mro__
    else:
        result = []
        _searchbases(cls, result)
        return tuple(result)

# -------------------------------------------------- source code extraction
def indentsize(line):
    """Return the indent size, in spaces, at the start of a line of text."""
    expline = line.expandtabs()
    return len(expline) - len(expline.lstrip())

def getdoc(object):
    """Get the documentation string for an object.

    All tabs are expanded to spaces.  To clean up docstrings that are
    indented to line up with blocks of code, any whitespace than can be
    uniformly removed from the second line onwards is removed."""
    try:
        doc = object.__doc__
    except AttributeError:
        return None
    if not isinstance(doc, str):
        return None
    return cleandoc(doc)

def cleandoc(doc):
    """Clean up indentation from docstrings.

    Any whitespace that can be uniformly removed from the second line
    onwards is removed."""
    try:
        lines = doc.expandtabs().split('\n')
    except UnicodeError:
        return None
    else:
        # Find minimum indentation of any non-blank lines after first line.
        margin = sys.maxsize
        for line in lines[1:]:
            content = len(line.lstrip())
            if content:
                indent = len(line) - content
                margin = min(margin, indent)
        # Remove indentation.
        if lines:
            lines[0] = lines[0].lstrip()
        if margin < sys.maxsize:
            for i in range(1, len(lines)): lines[i] = lines[i][margin:]
        # Remove any trailing or leading blank lines.
        while lines and not lines[-1]:
            lines.pop()
        while lines and not lines[0]:
            lines.pop(0)
        return '\n'.join(lines)

def getfile(object):
    """Work out which source or compiled file an object was defined in."""
    if ismodule(object):
        if hasattr(object, '__file__'):
            return object.__file__
        raise TypeError('arg is a built-in module')
    if isclass(object):
        object = sys.modules.get(object.__module__)
        if hasattr(object, '__file__'):
            return object.__file__
        raise TypeError('arg is a built-in class')
    if ismethod(object):
        object = object.__func__
    if isfunction(object):
        object = object.__code__
    if istraceback(object):
        object = object.tb_frame
    if isframe(object):
        object = object.f_code
    if iscode(object):
        return object.co_filename
    raise TypeError('arg is not a module, class, method, '
                    'function, traceback, frame, or code object')

ModuleInfo = namedtuple('ModuleInfo', 'name suffix mode module_type')

def getmoduleinfo(path):
    """Get the module name, suffix, mode, and module type for a given file."""
    filename = os.path.basename(path)
    suffixes = [(-len(suffix), suffix, mode, mtype)
                    for suffix, mode, mtype in imp.get_suffixes()]
    suffixes.sort() # try longest suffixes first, in case they overlap
    for neglen, suffix, mode, mtype in suffixes:
        if filename[neglen:] == suffix:
            return ModuleInfo(filename[:neglen], suffix, mode, mtype)

def getmodulename(path):
    """Return the module name for a given file, or None."""
    info = getmoduleinfo(path)
    if info: return info[0]

def getsourcefile(object):
    """Return the Python source file an object was defined in, if it exists."""
    filename = getfile(object)
    if filename[-4:].lower() in ('.pyc', '.pyo'):
        filename = filename[:-4] + '.py'
    for suffix, mode, kind in imp.get_suffixes():
        if 'b' in mode and filename[-len(suffix):].lower() == suffix:
            # Looks like a binary file.  We want to only return a text file.
            return None
    if os.path.exists(filename):
        return filename
    # only return a non-existent filename if the module has a PEP 302 loader
    if hasattr(getmodule(object, filename), '__loader__'):
        return filename

def getabsfile(object, _filename=None):
    """Return an absolute path to the source or compiled file for an object.

    The idea is for each object to have a unique origin, so this routine
    normalizes the result as much as possible."""
    if _filename is None:
        _filename = getsourcefile(object) or getfile(object)
    return os.path.normcase(os.path.abspath(_filename))

modulesbyfile = {}
_filesbymodname = {}

def getmodule(object, _filename=None):
    """Return the module an object was defined in, or None if not found."""
    if ismodule(object):
        return object
    if hasattr(object, '__module__'):
        return sys.modules.get(object.__module__)
    # Try the filename to modulename cache
    if _filename is not None and _filename in modulesbyfile:
        return sys.modules.get(modulesbyfile[_filename])
    # Try the cache again with the absolute file name
    try:
        file = getabsfile(object, _filename)
    except TypeError:
        return None
    if file in modulesbyfile:
        return sys.modules.get(modulesbyfile[file])
    # Update the filename to module name cache and check yet again
    # Copy sys.modules in order to cope with changes while iterating
    for modname, module in sys.modules.items():
        if ismodule(module) and hasattr(module, '__file__'):
            f = module.__file__
            if f == _filesbymodname.get(modname, None):
                # Have already mapped this module, so skip it
                continue
            _filesbymodname[modname] = f
            f = getabsfile(module)
            # Always map to the name the module knows itself by
            modulesbyfile[f] = modulesbyfile[
                os.path.realpath(f)] = module.__name__
    if file in modulesbyfile:
        return sys.modules.get(modulesbyfile[file])
    # Check the main module
    main = sys.modules['__main__']
    if not hasattr(object, '__name__'):
        return None
    if hasattr(main, object.__name__):
        mainobject = getattr(main, object.__name__)
        if mainobject is object:
            return main
    # Check builtins
    builtin = sys.modules['builtins']
    if hasattr(builtin, object.__name__):
        builtinobject = getattr(builtin, object.__name__)
        if builtinobject is object:
            return builtin

def findsource(object):
    """Return the entire source file and starting line number for an object.

    The argument may be a module, class, method, function, traceback, frame,
    or code object.  The source code is returned as a list of all the lines
    in the file and the line number indexes a line in that list.  An IOError
    is raised if the source code cannot be retrieved."""
    file = getsourcefile(object)
    if not file:
        raise IOError('source code not available')
    module = getmodule(object, file)
    if module:
        lines = linecache.getlines(file, module.__dict__)
    else:
        lines = linecache.getlines(file)
    if not lines:
        raise IOError('could not get source code')

    if ismodule(object):
        return lines, 0

    if isclass(object):
        name = object.__name__
        pat = re.compile(r'^(\s*)class\s*' + name + r'\b')
        # make some effort to find the best matching class definition:
        # use the one with the least indentation, which is the one
        # that's most probably not inside a function definition.
        candidates = []
        for i in range(len(lines)):
            match = pat.match(lines[i])
            if match:
                # if it's at toplevel, it's already the best one
                if lines[i][0] == 'c':
                    return lines, i
                # else add whitespace to candidate list
                candidates.append((match.group(1), i))
        if candidates:
            # this will sort by whitespace, and by line number,
            # less whitespace first
            candidates.sort()
            return lines, candidates[0][1]
        else:
            raise IOError('could not find class definition')

    if ismethod(object):
        object = object.__func__
    if isfunction(object):
        object = object.__code__
    if istraceback(object):
        object = object.tb_frame
    if isframe(object):
        object = object.f_code
    if iscode(object):
        if not hasattr(object, 'co_firstlineno'):
            raise IOError('could not find function definition')
        lnum = object.co_firstlineno - 1
        pat = re.compile(r'^(\s*def\s)|(.*(?<!\w)lambda(:|\s))|^(\s*@)')
        while lnum > 0:
            if pat.match(lines[lnum]): break
            lnum = lnum - 1
        return lines, lnum
    raise IOError('could not find code object')

def getcomments(object):
    """Get lines of comments immediately preceding an object's source code.

    Returns None when source can't be found.
    """
    try:
        lines, lnum = findsource(object)
    except (IOError, TypeError):
        return None

    if ismodule(object):
        # Look for a comment block at the top of the file.
        start = 0
        if lines and lines[0][:2] == '#!': start = 1
        while start < len(lines) and lines[start].strip() in ('', '#'):
            start = start + 1
        if start < len(lines) and lines[start][:1] == '#':
            comments = []
            end = start
            while end < len(lines) and lines[end][:1] == '#':
                comments.append(lines[end].expandtabs())
                end = end + 1
            return ''.join(comments)

    # Look for a preceding block of comments at the same indentation.
    elif lnum > 0:
        indent = indentsize(lines[lnum])
        end = lnum - 1
        if end >= 0 and lines[end].lstrip()[:1] == '#' and \
            indentsize(lines[end]) == indent:
            comments = [lines[end].expandtabs().lstrip()]
            if end > 0:
                end = end - 1
                comment = lines[end].expandtabs().lstrip()
                while comment[:1] == '#' and indentsize(lines[end]) == indent:
                    comments[:0] = [comment]
                    end = end - 1
                    if end < 0: break
                    comment = lines[end].expandtabs().lstrip()
            while comments and comments[0].strip() == '#':
                comments[:1] = []
            while comments and comments[-1].strip() == '#':
                comments[-1:] = []
            return ''.join(comments)

class EndOfBlock(Exception): pass

class BlockFinder:
    """Provide a tokeneater() method to detect the end of a code block."""
    def __init__(self):
        self.indent = 0
        self.islambda = False
        self.started = False
        self.passline = False
        self.last = 1

    def tokeneater(self, type, token, srowcol, erowcol, line):
        if not self.started:
            # look for the first "def", "class" or "lambda"
            if token in ("def", "class", "lambda"):
                if token == "lambda":
                    self.islambda = True
                self.started = True
            self.passline = True    # skip to the end of the line
        elif type == tokenize.NEWLINE:
            self.passline = False   # stop skipping when a NEWLINE is seen
            self.last = srowcol[0]
            if self.islambda:       # lambdas always end at the first NEWLINE
                raise EndOfBlock
        elif self.passline:
            pass
        elif type == tokenize.INDENT:
            self.indent = self.indent + 1
            self.passline = True
        elif type == tokenize.DEDENT:
            self.indent = self.indent - 1
            # the end of matching indent/dedent pairs end a block
            # (note that this only works for "def"/"class" blocks,
            #  not e.g. for "if: else:" or "try: finally:" blocks)
            if self.indent <= 0:
                raise EndOfBlock
        elif self.indent == 0 and type not in (tokenize.COMMENT, tokenize.NL):
            # any other token on the same indentation level end the previous
            # block as well, except the pseudo-tokens COMMENT and NL.
            raise EndOfBlock

def getblock(lines):
    """Extract the block of code at the top of the given list of lines."""
    blockfinder = BlockFinder()
    try:
        tokens = tokenize.generate_tokens(iter(lines).__next__)
        for _token in tokens:
            blockfinder.tokeneater(*_token)
    except (EndOfBlock, IndentationError):
        pass
    return lines[:blockfinder.last]

def getsourcelines(object):
    """Return a list of source lines and starting line number for an object.

    The argument may be a module, class, method, function, traceback, frame,
    or code object.  The source code is returned as a list of the lines
    corresponding to the object and the line number indicates where in the
    original source file the first line of code was found.  An IOError is
    raised if the source code cannot be retrieved."""
    lines, lnum = findsource(object)

    if ismodule(object): return lines, 0
    else: return getblock(lines[lnum:]), lnum + 1

def getsource(object):
    """Return the text of the source code for an object.

    The argument may be a module, class, method, function, traceback, frame,
    or code object.  The source code is returned as a single string.  An
    IOError is raised if the source code cannot be retrieved."""
    lines, lnum = getsourcelines(object)
    return ''.join(lines)

# --------------------------------------------------- class tree extraction
def walktree(classes, children, parent):
    """Recursive helper function for getclasstree()."""
    results = []
    classes.sort(key=attrgetter('__module__', '__name__'))
    for c in classes:
        results.append((c, c.__bases__))
        if c in children:
            results.append(walktree(children[c], children, c))
    return results

def getclasstree(classes, unique=False):
    """Arrange the given list of classes into a hierarchy of nested lists.

    Where a nested list appears, it contains classes derived from the class
    whose entry immediately precedes the list.  Each entry is a 2-tuple
    containing a class and a tuple of its base classes.  If the 'unique'
    argument is true, exactly one entry appears in the returned structure
    for each class in the given list.  Otherwise, classes using multiple
    inheritance and their descendants will appear multiple times."""
    children = {}
    roots = []
    for c in classes:
        if c.__bases__:
            for parent in c.__bases__:
                if not parent in children:
                    children[parent] = []
                children[parent].append(c)
                if unique and parent in classes: break
        elif c not in roots:
            roots.append(c)
    for parent in children:
        if parent not in classes:
            roots.append(parent)
    return walktree(roots, children, None)

# ------------------------------------------------ argument list extraction
Arguments = namedtuple('Arguments', 'args, varargs, varkw')

def getargs(co):
    """Get information about the arguments accepted by a code object.

    Three things are returned: (args, varargs, varkw), where
    'args' is the list of argument names, possibly containing nested
    lists. Keyword-only arguments are appended. 'varargs' and 'varkw'
    are the names of the * and ** arguments or None."""
    args, varargs, kwonlyargs, varkw = _getfullargs(co)
    return Arguments(args + kwonlyargs, varargs, varkw)

def _getfullargs(co):
    """Get information about the arguments accepted by a code object.

    Four things are returned: (args, varargs, kwonlyargs, varkw), where
    'args' and 'kwonlyargs' are lists of argument names (with 'args'
    possibly containing nested lists), and 'varargs' and 'varkw' are the
    names of the * and ** arguments or None."""

    if not iscode(co):
        raise TypeError('arg is not a code object')

    nargs = co.co_argcount
    names = co.co_varnames
    nkwargs = co.co_kwonlyargcount
    args = list(names[:nargs])
    kwonlyargs = list(names[nargs:nargs+nkwargs])
    step = 0

    nargs += nkwargs
    varargs = None
    if co.co_flags & CO_VARARGS:
        varargs = co.co_varnames[nargs]
        nargs = nargs + 1
    varkw = None
    if co.co_flags & CO_VARKEYWORDS:
        varkw = co.co_varnames[nargs]
    return args, varargs, kwonlyargs, varkw


ArgSpec = namedtuple('ArgSpec', 'args varargs keywords defaults')

def getargspec(func):
    """Get the names and default values of a function's arguments.

    A tuple of four things is returned: (args, varargs, varkw, defaults).
    'args' is a list of the argument names (it may contain nested lists).
    'args' will include keyword-only argument names.
    'varargs' and 'varkw' are the names of the * and ** arguments or None.
    'defaults' is an n-tuple of the default values of the last n arguments.

    Use the getfullargspec() API for Python-3000 code, as annotations
    and keyword arguments are supported. getargspec() will raise ValueError
    if the func has either annotations or keyword arguments.
    """

    args, varargs, varkw, defaults, kwonlyargs, kwonlydefaults, ann = \
        getfullargspec(func)
    if kwonlyargs or ann:
        raise ValueError("Function has keyword-only arguments or annotations"
                         ", use getfullargspec() API which can support them")
    return ArgSpec(args, varargs, varkw, defaults)

FullArgSpec = namedtuple('FullArgSpec',
    'args, varargs, varkw, defaults, kwonlyargs, kwonlydefaults, annotations')

def getfullargspec(func):
    """Get the names and default values of a function's arguments.

    A tuple of seven things is returned:
    (args, varargs, varkw, defaults, kwonlyargs, kwonlydefaults annotations).
    'args' is a list of the argument names (it may contain nested lists).
    'varargs' and 'varkw' are the names of the * and ** arguments or None.
    'defaults' is an n-tuple of the default values of the last n arguments.
    'kwonlyargs' is a list of keyword-only argument names.
    'kwonlydefaults' is a dictionary mapping names from kwonlyargs to defaults.
    'annotations' is a dictionary mapping argument names to annotations.

    The first four items in the tuple correspond to getargspec().
    """

    if ismethod(func):
        func = func.__func__
    if not isfunction(func):
        raise TypeError('arg is not a Python function')
    args, varargs, kwonlyargs, varkw = _getfullargs(func.__code__)
    return FullArgSpec(args, varargs, varkw, func.__defaults__,
            kwonlyargs, func.__kwdefaults__, func.__annotations__)

ArgInfo = namedtuple('ArgInfo', 'args varargs keywords locals')

def getargvalues(frame):
    """Get information about arguments passed into a particular frame.

    A tuple of four things is returned: (args, varargs, varkw, locals).
    'args' is a list of the argument names (it may contain nested lists).
    'varargs' and 'varkw' are the names of the * and ** arguments or None.
    'locals' is the locals dictionary of the given frame."""
    args, varargs, varkw = getargs(frame.f_code)
    return ArgInfo(args, varargs, varkw, frame.f_locals)

def joinseq(seq):
    if len(seq) == 1:
        return '(' + seq[0] + ',)'
    else:
        return '(' + ', '.join(seq) + ')'

def strseq(object, convert, join=joinseq):
    """Recursively walk a sequence, stringifying each element."""
    if type(object) in (list, tuple):
        return join(map(lambda o, c=convert, j=join: strseq(o, c, j), object))
    else:
        return convert(object)

def formatannotation(annotation, base_module=None):
    if isinstance(annotation, type):
        if annotation.__module__ in ('builtins', base_module):
            return annotation.__name__
        return annotation.__module__+'.'+annotation.__name__
    return repr(annotation)

def formatannotationrelativeto(object):
    module = getattr(object, '__module__', None)
    def _formatannotation(annotation):
        return formatannotation(annotation, module)
    return _formatannotation

def formatargspec(args, varargs=None, varkw=None, defaults=None,
                  kwonlyargs=(), kwonlydefaults={}, annotations={},
                  formatarg=str,
                  formatvarargs=lambda name: '*' + name,
                  formatvarkw=lambda name: '**' + name,
                  formatvalue=lambda value: '=' + repr(value),
                  formatreturns=lambda text: ' -> ' + text,
                  formatannotation=formatannotation,
                  join=joinseq):
    """Format an argument spec from the values returned by getargspec
    or getfullargspec.

    The first seven arguments are (args, varargs, varkw, defaults,
    kwonlyargs, kwonlydefaults, annotations).  The other five arguments
    are the corresponding optional formatting functions that are called to
    turn names and values into strings.  The last argument is an optional
    function to format the sequence of arguments."""
    def formatargandannotation(arg):
        result = formatarg(arg)
        if arg in annotations:
            result += ': ' + formatannotation(annotations[arg])
        return result
    specs = []
    if defaults:
        firstdefault = len(args) - len(defaults)
    for i, arg in enumerate(args):
        spec = strseq(arg, formatargandannotation, join)
        if defaults and i >= firstdefault:
            spec = spec + formatvalue(defaults[i - firstdefault])
        specs.append(spec)
    if varargs is not None:
        specs.append(formatvarargs(formatargandannotation(varargs)))
    else:
        if kwonlyargs:
            specs.append('*')
    if kwonlyargs:
        for kwonlyarg in kwonlyargs:
            spec = formatargandannotation(kwonlyarg)
            if kwonlydefaults and kwonlyarg in kwonlydefaults:
                spec += formatvalue(kwonlydefaults[kwonlyarg])
            specs.append(spec)
    if varkw is not None:
        specs.append(formatvarkw(formatargandannotation(varkw)))
    result = '(' + ', '.join(specs) + ')'
    if 'return' in annotations:
        result += formatreturns(formatannotation(annotations['return']))
    return result

def formatargvalues(args, varargs, varkw, locals,
                    formatarg=str,
                    formatvarargs=lambda name: '*' + name,
                    formatvarkw=lambda name: '**' + name,
                    formatvalue=lambda value: '=' + repr(value),
                    join=joinseq):
    """Format an argument spec from the 4 values returned by getargvalues.

    The first four arguments are (args, varargs, varkw, locals).  The
    next four arguments are the corresponding optional formatting functions
    that are called to turn names and values into strings.  The ninth
    argument is an optional function to format the sequence of arguments."""
    def convert(name, locals=locals,
                formatarg=formatarg, formatvalue=formatvalue):
        return formatarg(name) + formatvalue(locals[name])
    specs = []
    for i in range(len(args)):
        specs.append(strseq(args[i], convert, join))
    if varargs:
        specs.append(formatvarargs(varargs) + formatvalue(locals[varargs]))
    if varkw:
        specs.append(formatvarkw(varkw) + formatvalue(locals[varkw]))
    return '(' + ', '.join(specs) + ')'

# -------------------------------------------------- stack frame extraction

Traceback = namedtuple('Traceback', 'filename lineno function code_context index')

def getframeinfo(frame, context=1):
    """Get information about a frame or traceback object.

    A tuple of five things is returned: the filename, the line number of
    the current line, the function name, a list of lines of context from
    the source code, and the index of the current line within that list.
    The optional second argument specifies the number of lines of context
    to return, which are centered around the current line."""
    if istraceback(frame):
        lineno = frame.tb_lineno
        frame = frame.tb_frame
    else:
        lineno = frame.f_lineno
    if not isframe(frame):
        raise TypeError('arg is not a frame or traceback object')

    filename = getsourcefile(frame) or getfile(frame)
    if context > 0:
        start = lineno - 1 - context//2
        try:
            lines, lnum = findsource(frame)
        except IOError:
            lines = index = None
        else:
            start = max(start, 1)
            start = max(0, min(start, len(lines) - context))
            lines = lines[start:start+context]
            index = lineno - 1 - start
    else:
        lines = index = None

    return Traceback(filename, lineno, frame.f_code.co_name, lines, index)

def getlineno(frame):
    """Get the line number from a frame object, allowing for optimization."""
    # FrameType.f_lineno is now a descriptor that grovels co_lnotab
    return frame.f_lineno

def getouterframes(frame, context=1):
    """Get a list of records for a frame and all higher (calling) frames.

    Each record contains a frame object, filename, line number, function
    name, a list of lines of context, and index within the context."""
    framelist = []
    while frame:
        framelist.append((frame,) + getframeinfo(frame, context))
        frame = frame.f_back
    return framelist

def getinnerframes(tb, context=1):
    """Get a list of records for a traceback's frame and all lower frames.

    Each record contains a frame object, filename, line number, function
    name, a list of lines of context, and index within the context."""
    framelist = []
    while tb:
        framelist.append((tb.tb_frame,) + getframeinfo(tb, context))
        tb = tb.tb_next
    return framelist

if hasattr(sys, '_getframe'):
    currentframe = sys._getframe
else:
    currentframe = lambda _=None: None

def stack(context=1):
    """Return a list of records for the stack above the caller's frame."""
    return getouterframes(sys._getframe(1), context)

def trace(context=1):
    """Return a list of records for the stack below the current exception."""
    return getinnerframes(sys.exc_info()[2], context)
Tip: Filter by directory path e.g. /media app.js to search for public/media/app.js.
Tip: Use camelCasing e.g. ProjME to search for ProjectModifiedEvent.java.
Tip: Filter by extension type e.g. /repo .js to search for all .js files in the /repo directory.
Tip: Separate your search with spaces e.g. /ssh pom.xml to search for src/ssh/pom.xml.
Tip: Use ↑ and ↓ arrow keys to navigate and return to view the file.
Tip: You can also navigate files with Ctrl+j (next) and Ctrl+k (previous) and view the file with Ctrl+o.
Tip: You can also navigate files with Alt+j (next) and Alt+k (previous) and view the file with Alt+o.