cpython-withatomic / Misc / HISTORY

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Python History
--------------

This file contains the release messages for previous Python releases.
As you read on you go back to the dark ages of Python's history.
(Note: news about 2.5c2 and later 2.5 releases is in the Misc/NEWS
file of the release25-maint branch.)


======================================================================


What's New in Python 3.0 final
==============================

*Release date: 03-Dec-2008*

Core and Builtins
-----------------

- Issue #3996: On Windows, the PyOS_CheckStack function would cause the
  interpreter to abort ("Fatal Python error: Could not reset the stack!")
  instead of throwing a MemoryError.

- Issue #3689: The list reversed iterator now supports __length_hint__
  instead of __len__.  Behavior now matches other reversed iterators.

- Issue #4367: Python would segfault during compiling when the unicodedata
  module couldn't be imported and \N escapes were present.

- Fix build failure of _cursesmodule.c building with -D_FORTIFY_SOURCE=2.

Library
-------

- Issue #4387: binascii now refuses to accept str as binary input.

- Issue #4073: Add 2to3 support to build_scripts, refactor that support
  in build_py.

- IDLE would print a "Unhandled server exception!" message when internal
  debugging is enabled.

- Issue #4455: IDLE failed to display the windows list when two windows have
  the same title.

- Issue #3741: DISTUTILS_USE_SDK set causes msvc9compiler.py to raise an
  exception.

- Issue #4433: Fixed an access violation when garbage collecting
  _ctypes.COMError instances.

- Issue #4429: Fixed UnicodeDecodeError in ctypes.

- Issue #4373: Corrected a potential reference leak in the pickle module and
  silenced a false positive ref leak in distutils.tests.test_build_ext.

- Issue #4382: dbm.dumb did not specify the expected file encoding for opened
  files.

- Issue #4383: When IDLE cannot make the connection to its subprocess, it would
  fail to properly display the error message.

Build
-----

- Issue #4407: Fix source file that caused the compileall step in Windows installer
  to fail.

Docs
----

- Issue #4449: Fixed multiprocessing examples

- Issue #3799: Document that dbm.gnu and dbm.ndbm will accept string arguments
  for keys and values which will be converted to bytes before committal.


What's New in Python 3.0 release candidate 3?
=============================================

*Release date: 20-Nov-2008*


Core and Builtins
-----------------

- Issue #4349: sys.path included a non-existent platform directory because of a
  faulty Makefile.

- Issue #3327: Don't overallocate in the modules_by_index list.

- Issue #1721812:  Binary set operations and copy() returned the input type
  instead of the appropriate base type.  This was incorrect because set
  subclasses would be created without their __init__() method being called.
  The corrected behavior brings sets into line with lists and dicts.

- Issue #4296: Fix PyObject_RichCompareBool so that "x in [x]" evaluates to
  True, even when x doesn't compare equal to itself.  This was a regression
  from 2.6.

- Issue #3705: Command-line arguments were not correctly decoded when the
  terminal does not use UTF8.

Library
-------

- Issue #4363: The uuid.uuid1() and uuid.uuid4() functions now work even if
  the ctypes module is not present.

- FileIO's mode attribute now always includes ``"b"``.

- Issue #3799: Fix dbm.dumb to accept strings as well as bytes for keys. String
  keys are now written out in UTF-8.

- Issue #4338: Fix distutils upload command.

- Issue #4354: Fix distutils register command.

- Issue #4116: Resolve member name conflict in ScrolledCanvas.__init__.

- Issue #4307: The named tuple that ``inspect.getfullargspec()`` returns now
  uses ``kwonlydefaults`` instead of ``kwdefaults``.

- Issue #4298: Fix a segfault when pickle.loads is passed a ill-formed input.

- Issue #4283: Fix a left-over "iteritems" call in distutils.

Build
-----

- Issue #4389: Add icon to the uninstall entry in "add-and-remove-programs".

- Issue #4289: Remove Cancel button from AdvancedDlg.

- Issue #1656675: Register a drop handler for .py* files on Windows.

Tools/Demos
-----------

- Demos of the socketserver module now work with Python 3.


What's New in Python 3.0 release candidate 2
============================================

*Release date: 05-Nov-2008*

Core and Builtins
-----------------

- Issue #4211: The __path__ attribute of frozen packages is now a list instead
  of a string as required by PEP 302.

- Issue #3727: Fixed poplib.

- Issue #3714: Fixed nntplib by using bytes where appropriate.

- Issue #1210: Fixed imaplib and its documentation.

- Issue #4233: Changed semantic of ``_fileio.FileIO``'s ``close()`` 
  method on file objects with closefd=False. The file descriptor is still
  kept open but the file object behaves like a closed file. The ``FileIO``
  object also got a new readonly attribute ``closefd``.

- Issue #3626: On cygwin, starting python with a non-existent script name
  would not display anything if the file name is only 1 character long.

- Issue #4176: Fixed a crash when pickling an object which ``__reduce__``
  method does not return iterators for the 4th and 5th items.

- Issue #3723: Fixed initialization of subinterpreters.

- Issue #4213: The file system encoding is now normalized by the
  codec subsystem, for example UTF-8 is turned into utf-8.

- Issue #4200: Changed the atexit module to store its state in its
  PyModuleDef atexitmodule. This fixes a bug with multiple subinterpeters.

- Issue #4237: io.FileIO() was raising invalid warnings caused by
  insufficient initialization of PyFileIOObject struct members.

- Issue #4170: Pickling a collections.defaultdict object would crash the
  interpreter.

- Issue #4146: Compilation on OpenBSD has been restored.

- Issue #3574: compile() incorrectly handled source code encoded as Latin-1.

- Issues #2384 and #3975: Tracebacks were not correctly printed when the
  source file contains a ``coding:`` header: the wrong line was displayed, and
  the encoding was not respected.

- Issue #3740: Null-initialize module state.

- Issue #3946: PyObject_CheckReadBuffer crashed on a memoryview object.

- Issue #1688: On Windows, the input() prompt was not correctly displayed if it
  contains non-ascii characters.

- Bug #3951: Py_USING_MEMORY_DEBUGGER should not be enabled by default.

Library
-------

- Issue #3664: The pickle module could segfault if a subclass of Pickler fails
  to call the base __init__ method.

- Issue #3725: telnetlib now works completely in bytes.

- Issue #4072: Restore build_py_2to3.

- Issue #4014: Don't claim that Python has an Alpha release status, in addition
  to claiming it is Mature.

- Issue #3187: Add sys.setfilesystemencoding.

- Issue #3187: Better support for "undecodable" filenames.  Code by Victor
  Stinner, with small tweaks by GvR.

- Issue #3965: Allow repeated calls to turtle.Screen, by making it a
  true singleton object.

- Issue #3911: ftplib.FTP.makeport() could give invalid port numbers.

- Issue #3929: When the database cannot be opened, dbm.open() would incorrectly
  raise a TypeError: "'tuple' object is not callable" instead of the expected
  dbm.error.

- Bug #3884: Make the turtle module toplevel again.

- Issue #3547: Fixed ctypes structures bitfields of varying integer
  sizes.

Extension Modules
-----------------

- Issue #3659: Subclasses of str didn't work as SQL parameters.

Build
-----

- Issue #4120: Exclude manifest from extension modules in VS2008.

- Issue #4091: Install pythonxy.dll in system32 again.

- Issue #4018: Disable "for me" installations on Vista.

- Issue #4204: Fixed module build errors on FreeBSD 4.

Tools/Demos
-----------

- Issue #3717: Fix Demo/embed/demo.c.

- Issue #4072: Add a distutils demo for build_py_2to3.


What's New in Python 3.0 release candidate 1
============================================

*Release date: 17-Sep-2008*

Core and Builtins
-----------------

- Issue #3827: memoryview lost its size attribute in favor of using len(view).

- Issue #3813: could not lanch python.exe via symbolic link on cygwin.

- Issue #3705: fix crash when given a non-ascii value on the command line for
  the "-c" and "-m" parameters. Now the behaviour is as expected under Linux,
  although under Windows it fails at a later point.

- Issue #3279: Importing site at interpreter was failing silently because the
  site module uses the open builtin which was not initialized at the time.

- Issue #3660: Corrected a reference leak in str.encode() when the encoder
  does not return a bytes object.

- Issue #3774: Added a few more checks in PyTokenizer_FindEncoding to handle
  error conditions.

- Issue #3594: Fix Parser/tokenizer.c:fp_setreadl() to open the file being
  tokenized by either a file path or file pointer for the benefit of
  PyTokenizer_FindEncoding().

- Issue #3696: Error parsing arguments on OpenBSD <= 4.4 and Cygwin. On
  these systems, the mbstowcs() function is slightly buggy and must be
  replaced with strlen() for the purpose of counting of number of wide
  characters needed to represent the multi-byte character string.

- Issue #3697: "Fatal Python error: Cannot recover from stack overflow"
  could be easily encountered under Windows in debug mode when exercising
  the recursion limit checking code, due to bogus handling of recursion
  limit when USE_STACKCHEK was enabled.

- Issue 3639: The _warnings module could segfault the interpreter when
  unexpected types were passed in as arguments.

- Issue #3712: The memoryview object had a reference leak and didn't support
  cyclic garbage collection.

- Issue #3668: Fix a memory leak with the "s*" argument parser in
  PyArg_ParseTuple and friends, which occurred when the argument for "s*" 
  was correctly parsed but parsing of subsequent arguments failed.

- Issue #3611: An exception __context__ could be cleared in a complex pattern
  involving a __del__ method re-raising an exception.

- Issue #2534: speed up isinstance() and issubclass() by 50-70%, so as to 
  match Python 2.5 speed despite the __instancecheck__ / __subclasscheck__
  mechanism. In the process, fix a bug where isinstance() and issubclass(),
  when given a tuple of classes as second argument, were looking up
  __instancecheck__ / __subclasscheck__ on the tuple rather than on each
  type object.

- Issue #3663: Py_None was decref'd when printing SyntaxErrors.

- Issue #3651: Fix various memory leaks when using the buffer
  interface, or when the "s#" code of PyArg_ParseTuple is given a
  bytes object.

- Issue #3657: Fix uninitialized memory read when pickling longs.
  Found by valgrind.

- Apply security patches from Apple.

- Fix crashes on memory allocation failure found with failmalloc.

- Fix memory leaks found with valgrind and update suppressions file.

- Fix compiler warnings in opt mode which would lead to invalid memory reads.

- Fix problem using wrong name in decimal module reported by pychecker.

- Issue #3650: Fixed a reference leak in bytes.split('x').

- bytes(o) now tries to use o.__bytes__() before using fallbacks.

- Issue #1204: The configure script now tests for additional libraries
  that may be required when linking against readline.  This fixes issues
  with x86_64 builds on some platforms (a few Linux flavors and OpenBSD).

C API
-----

- PyObject_Bytes and PyBytes_FromObject were added.

Library
-------

- Issue #3756: make re.escape() handle bytes as well as str.

- Issue #3800: fix filter() related bug in formatter.py.

- Issue #874900: fix behaviour of threading module after a fork.

- Issue #3535: zipfile couldn't read some zip files larger than 2GB.

- Issue #3776: Deprecate the bsddb package for removal in 3.0.

- Issue #3762: platform.architecture() fails if python is lanched via
  its symbolic link.

- Issue #3660: fix a memory leak in the C accelerator of the pickle module.

- Issue #3160: the "bdist_wininst" distutils command didn't work.

- Issue #1658: tkinter changes dict size during iteration in both
    tkinter.BaseWidget and tkinter.scrolledtext.ScrolledText.

- The bsddb module (and therefore the dbm.bsd module) has been removed.
  It is now maintained outside of the standard library at
  http://www.jcea.es/programacion/pybsddb.htm.

- Issue 600362:  Relocated parse_qs() and parse_qsl(), from the cgi module
  to the urlparse one.  Added a DeprecationWarning in the old module, it
  will be deprecated in the future.

- Issue #3719: platform.architecture() fails if there are spaces in the
  path to the Python binary.

- Issue 3602: As part of the merge of r66135, make the parameters on
  warnings.catch_warnings() keyword-only. Also remove a DeprecationWarning.

- The deprecation warnings for the camelCase threading API names were removed.

- Issue #3110: multiprocessing fails to compiel on solaris 10 due to missing 
  SEM_VALUE_MAX.

Extension Modules
-----------------

- Issue #3782: os.write() must not accept unicode strings.

- Issue #2975: When compiling several extension modules with Visual Studio 2008
  from the same python interpreter, some environment variables would grow
  without limit.

- Issue #3643: Added a few more checks to _testcapi to prevent segfaults by
  exploitation of poor argument checking.

- bsddb code updated to version 4.7.3pre2. This code is the same than
  Python 2.6 one, since the intention is to keep an unified 2.x/3.x codebase.
  The Python code is automatically translated using "2to3". Please, do not
  update this code in Python 3.0 by hand. Update the 2.6 one and then
  do "2to3".

- The _bytesio and _stringio modules are now compiled into the python binary.

- Issue #3492 and #3790: Fixed the zlib module and zipimport module uses of
  mutable bytearray objects where they should have been using immutable bytes.

- Issue #3797: Fixed the dbm, marshal, mmap, ossaudiodev, & winreg modules to
  return bytes objects instead of bytearray objects.


Tools/Demos
-----------

- Fix Misc/gdbinit so it works.


Build
-----

- Issue #3812: Failed to build python if configure --without-threads.

- Issue #3791: Remove the bsddb module from the Windows installer, and the
  core bsddb library from the Windows build files.


What's new in Python 3.0b3?
===========================

*Release date: 20-Aug-2008*

Core and Builtins
-----------------

- Issue #3653: Fix a segfault when sys.excepthook was called with invalid
  arguments.

- Issue #2394: implement more of the memoryview API, with the caveat that
  only one-dimensional contiguous buffers are supported and exercised right
  now. Slicing, slice assignment and comparison (equality and inequality)
  have been added. Also, the tolist() method has been implemented, but only
  for byte buffers. Finally, the API has been updated to return bytes objects
  wherever it used to return bytearrays.

- Issue #3560: clean up the new C PyMemoryView API so that naming is
  internally consistent; add macros PyMemoryView_GET_BASE() and
  PyMemoryView_GET_BUFFER() to access useful properties of a memory views
  without relying on a particular implementation; remove the ill-named
  PyMemoryView() function (PyMemoryView_GET_BUFFER() can be used instead).

- ctypes function pointers that are COM methods have a boolean True
  value again.

- Issue #1819: function calls with several named parameters are now on
  average 35% faster (as measured by pybench).

- The undocumented C APIs PyUnicode_AsString() and
  PyUnicode_AsStringAndSize() were made private to the interpreter, in
  order to be able to refine their interfaces for Python 3.1.

  If you need to access the UTF-8 representation of a Unicode object
  as bytes string, please use PyUnicode_AsUTF8String() instead.

- Issue #3460: PyUnicode_Join() implementation is 10% to 80% faster thanks
  to Python 3.0's stricter semantics which allow to avoid successive
  reallocations of the result string (this also affects str.join()).


Library
-------

- Issue #1276: Added temporary aliases for CJK Mac encodings to resolve
  a build problem on MacOS with CJK locales.  It adds four temporary
  mappings to existing legacy codecs that are virtually compatible
  with Mac encodings.  They will be replaced by codecs correctly
  implemented in 3.1.

- Issue #3614: Corrected a typo in xmlrpc.client, leading to a NameError
  "global name 'header' is not defined".

- Issue #2834: update the regular expression library to match the unicode
  standards of py3k. In other words, mixing bytes and unicode strings
  (be it as pattern, search string or replacement string) raises a TypeError.
  Moreover, the re.UNICODE flag is enabled automatically for unicode patterns,
  and can be disabled by specifying a new re.ASCII flag; as for bytes
  patterns, ASCII matching is the only option and trying to specify re.UNICODE
  for such patterns raises a ValueError.

- Issue #3300: make urllib.parse.[un]quote() default to UTF-8.
  Code contributed by Matt Giuca.  quote() now encodes the input
  before quoting, unquote() decodes after unquoting.  There are
  new arguments to change the encoding and errors settings.
  There are also new APIs to skip the encode/decode steps.
  [un]quote_plus() are also affected.

- Issue #2235: numbers.Number now blocks inheritance of the default id()
  based hash because that hash mechanism is not correct for numeric types.
  All concrete numeric types that inherit from Number (rather than just
  registering with it) must explicitly provide a hash implementation in
  order for their instances to be hashable.

- Issue #2676: in the email package, content-type parsing was hanging on
  pathological input because of quadratic or exponential behaviour of a
  regular expression.

- Issue #3476: binary buffered reading through the new "io" library is now
  thread-safe.

- Issue #1342811: Fix leak in Tkinter.Menu.delete. Commands associated to
  menu entries were not deleted.

- Remove the TarFileCompat class from tarfile.py.

- Issue #2491: os.fdopen is now almost an alias for the built-in open(), and
  accepts the same parameters.  It just checks that its first argument is an
  integer.

- Issue #3394: zipfile.writestr sets external attributes when passed a
  file name rather than a ZipInfo instance, so files are extracted with
  mode 0600 rather than 000 under Unix.

- Issue #2523: Fix quadratic behaviour when read()ing a binary file without
  asking for a specific length.

Extension Modules
-----------------

- Bug #3542: Support Unicode strings in _msi module.

What's new in Python 3.0b2?
===========================

*Release date: 17-Jul-2008*

Core and Builtins
-----------------

- Issue #3008: the float type has a new instance method 'float.hex'
  and a new class method 'float.fromhex' to convert floating-point
  numbers to and from hexadecimal strings, respectively.

- Issue #3083: Add alternate (#) formatting for bin, oct, hex output
  for str.format().  This adds the prefix 0b, 0o, or 0x, respectively.

- Issue #3280: like chr(), the "%c" format now accepts unicode code points
  beyond the Basic Multilingual Plane (above 0xffff) on all configurations. On
  "narrow Unicode" builds, the result is a string of 2 code units, forming a
  UTF-16 surrogate pair.

- Issue #3282: str.isprintable() should return False for undefined
  Unicode characters.

- Issue #3236: Return small longs from PyLong_FromString.

- Exception tracebacks now support exception chaining.

Library
-------

- Removed the sunaudio module. Use sunau instead.

- Issue #3554: ctypes.string_at and ctypes.wstring_at did call Python
  api functions without holding the GIL, which could lead to a fatal
  error when they failed.

- Issue #799428: Fix Tkinter.Misc._nametowidget to unwrap Tcl command objects.

- Removed "ast" function aliases from the parser module.

- Issue #3313: Fixed a crash when a failed dlopen() call does not set
  a valid dlerror() message.

- Issue #3258: Fixed a crash when a ctypes POINTER type to an
  incomplete structure was created.

- Issue #2683: Fix inconsistency in subprocess.Popen.communicate(): the
  argument now must be a bytes object in any case.

- Issue #3145: help("modules whatever") failed when trying to load the source
  code of every single module of the standard library, including invalid files
  used in the test suite.

- The gettext library now consistently uses Unicode strings for message ids
  and message strings, and ``ugettext()`` and the like don't exist anymore.

- The traceback module has been expanded to handle chained exceptions.

C API
-----

- Issue #3247: the function Py_FindMethod was removed. Modern types should
  use the tp_methods slot instead.

Tools/Demos
-----------

- The Mac/Demos directory has been removed.

- All of the Mac scripts have been removed (including BuildApplet.py).


What's new in Python 3.0b1?
===========================

*Release date: 18-Jun-2008*

Core and Builtins
-----------------

- Issue #3211: warnings.warn_explicit() did not guard against its 'registry'
  argument being anything other than a dict or None. Also fixed a bug in error
  handling when 'message' and 'category' were both set to None, triggering a
  bus error.

- Issue #3100: Corrected a crash on deallocation of a subclassed weakref which
  holds the last (strong) reference to its referent.

- Issue #2630: implement PEP 3138. repr() now returns printable
  Unicode characters unescaped, to get an ASCII-only representation
  of an object use ascii().

- Issue #1342: On windows, Python could not start when installed in a
  directory with non-ascii characters.

- Implement PEP 3121: new module initialization and finalization API.

- Removed the already-defunct ``-t`` option.

- Issue #2957: Corrected a ValueError "recursion limit exceeded", when
  unmarshalling many code objects, which happens when importing a
  large .pyc file (~1000 functions).

- Issue #2963: fix merging oversight that disabled method cache for
  all types.

- Issue #2964: fix a missing INCREF in instancemethod_descr_get.

- Issue #2895: Don't crash when given bytes objects as keyword names.

- Issue #2798: When parsing arguments with PyArg_ParseTuple, the "s"
  code now allows any unicode string and returns a utf-8 encoded
  buffer, just like the "s#" code already does.  The "z" code was
  corrected as well.

- Issue #2863: generators now have a ``gen.__name__`` attribute that
  equals ``gen.gi_code.co_name``, like ``func.__name___`` that equals
  ``func.func_code.co_name``.  The repr() of a generator now also
  contains this name.

- Issue #2831: enumerate() now has a ``start`` argument.

- Issue #2801: fix bug in the float.is_integer method where a
  ValueError was sometimes incorrectly raised.

- The ``--with-toolbox-glue`` option (and the associated
  pymactoolbox.h) have been removed.

- Issue #2196: hasattr() now lets exceptions which do not inherit
  Exception (KeyboardInterrupt, and SystemExit) propagate instead of
  ignoring them.

- #3021 Exception reraising sematics have been significantly improved.  However,
  f_exc_type, f_exc_value, and f_exc_traceback cannot be accessed from Python
  code anymore.

- Three of PyNumberMethods' members, nb_coerce, nb_hex, and nb_oct, have been
  removed.

Extension Modules
-----------------

- Renamed ``_winreg`` module to ``winreg``.

- Support os.O_ASYNC and fcntl.FASYNC if the constants exist on the
  platform.

- Support for Windows 9x has been removed from the winsound module.

- Issue #2870: cmathmodule.c compile error.

Library
-------

- The methods ``is_in_tuple()``, ``is_vararg()``, and ``is_keywordarg()`` of
  symtable.Symbol have been removed.

- Patch #3133: http.server.CGIHTTPRequestHandler did not work on windows.

- a new ``urllib`` package was created.  It consists of code from
  ``urllib``, ``urllib2``, ``urlparse``, and ``robotparser``.  The old
  modules have all been removed.  The new package has five submodules:
  ``urllib.parse``, ``urllib.request``, ``urllib.response``,
  ``urllib.error``, and ``urllib.robotparser``.  The
  ``urllib.request.urlopen()`` function uses the url opener from
  ``urllib2``.  (Note that the unittests have not been renamed for the
  beta, but they will be renamed in the future.)

- rfc822 has been removed in favor of the email package.

- mimetools has been removed in favor of the email package.

- Patch #2849: Remove use of rfc822 module from standard library.

- Added C optimized implementation of io.StringIO.

- The ``pickle`` module is now automatically use an optimized C
  implementation of Pickler and Unpickler when available. The
  ``cPickle`` module is no longer needed.

- Removed the ``htmllib`` and ``sgmllib`` modules.

- The deprecated ``SmartCookie`` and ``SimpleCookie`` classes have
  been removed from ``http.cookies``.

- The ``commands`` module has been removed. Its getoutput() and
  getstatusoutput() functions have been moved to the ``subprocess`` module.

- The ``http`` package was created; it contains the old ``httplib``
  as ``http.client``, ``Cookie`` as ``http.cookies``, ``cookielib``
  as ``http.cookiejar``, and the content of the three ``HTTPServer``
  modules as ``http.server``.

- The ``xmlrpc`` package was created; it contains the old
  ``xmlrpclib`` module as ``xmlrpc.client`` and the content of
  the old ``SimpleXMLRPCServer`` and ``DocXMLRPCServer`` modules
  as ``xmlrpc.server``.

- The ``dbm`` package was created, containing the old modules
  ``anydbm`` and ``whichdb`` in its ``__init__.py``, and having
  ``dbm.gnu`` (was ``gdbm``), ``dbm.bsd`` (was ``dbhash``),
  ``dbm.ndbm`` (was ``dbm``) and ``dbm.dumb`` (was ``dumbdbm``)
  as submodules.

- The ``repr`` module has been renamed to ``reprlib``.

- The ``statvfs`` module has been removed.

- Issue #1713041: fix pprint's handling of maximum depth.

- Issue #2250: Exceptions raised during evaluation of names in
  rlcompleter's ``Completer.complete()`` method are now caught and
  ignored.

- Patch #2659: Added ``break_on_hyphens`` option to textwrap's
  ``TextWrapper`` class.

- Issue #2487: change the semantics of math.ldexp(x, n) when n is too
  large to fit in a C long.  ldexp(x, n) now returns a zero (with
  suitable sign) if n is large and negative; previously, it raised
  OverflowError.

- The ``ConfigParser`` module has been renamed to ``configparser``.

- Issue #2865: webbrowser.open() works again in a KDE environment.

- The ``multifile`` module has been removed.

- The ``SocketServer`` module has been renamed to ``socketserver``.

- Fixed the ``__all__`` setting on ``collections`` to include
  ``UserList`` and ``UserString``.

- The sre module has been removed.

- The Queue module has been renamed to queue.

- The copy_reg module has been renamed to copyreg.

- The mhlib module has been removed.

- The ihooks module has been removed.

- The fpformat module has been removed.

- The dircache module has been removed.

- The Canvas module has been removed.

- The Decimal module gained the magic methods __round__, __ceil__,
  __floor__ and __trunc__, to give support for round, math.ceil,
  math.floor and math.trunc.

- The user module has been removed.

- The mutex module has been removed.

- The imputil module has been removed.

- os.path.walk has been removed in favor of os.walk.

- pdb gained the "until" command.

- The test.test_support module has been renamed to test.support.

- The threading module API was renamed to be PEP 8 compliant.  The
  old names are still present, but will be removed in the near future.

Tools/Demos
-----------

- The bgen tool has been removed.

Build
-----


What's New in Python 3.0a5?
===========================

*Release date: 08-May-2008*

Core and Builtins
-----------------

- Fixed misbehaviour of PyLong_FromSsize_t on systems where
  sizeof(size_t) > sizeof(long).

- Issue #2221: Corrected a SystemError "error return without exception
  set", when the code executed by exec() raises an exception, and
  sys.stdout.flush() also raises an error.

- Bug #2565: The repr() of type objects now calls them 'class', not
  'type' - whether they are builtin types or not.

- The command line processing was converted to pass Unicode strings
  through as unmodified as possible; as a consequence, the C API
  related to command line arguments was changed to use wchar_t.

- All backslashes in raw strings are interpreted literally.  This
  means that '\u' and '\U' escapes are not treated specially.

Extension Modules
-----------------

Library
-------

- ctypes objects now support the PEP3118 buffer interface.

- Issue #2682: ctypes callback functions now longer contain a cyclic
  reference to themselves.

- Issue #2058: Remove the buf attribute and add __slots__ to the
  TarInfo class in order to reduce tarfile's memory usage.

- Bug #2606: Avoid calling .sort() on a dict_keys object.

- The bundled libffi copy is now in sync with the recently released
  libffi3.0.5 version, apart from some small changes to
  Modules/_ctypes/libffi/configure.ac.

Build
-----

- Issue #1496032: On alpha, use -mieee when gcc is the compiler.

- "make install" is now an alias for "make altinstall", to prevent
  accidentally overwriting a Python 2.x installation.  Use "make
  fullinstall" to force Python 3.0 to be installed as "python".

- Issue #2544: On HP-UX systems, use 'gcc -shared' for linking when
  gcc is used as compiler.


What's New in Python 3.0a4?
===========================

*Release date: 02-Apr-2008*

Core and Builtins
-----------------

- Bug #2301: Don't try decoding the source code into the original
  encoding for syntax errors.

Extension Modules
-----------------

- The dl module was removed, use the ctypes module instead.

- Use wchar_t functions in _locale module.

Library
-------

- The class distutils.commands.build_py.build_py_2to3 can be used as a
  build_py replacement to automatically run 2to3 on modules that are
  going to be installed.

- A new pickle protocol (protocol 3) is added with explicit support
  for bytes.  This is the default protocol.  It intentionally cannot
  be unpickled by Python 2.x.

- When a pickle written by Python 2.x contains an (8-bit) str
  instance, this is now decoded to a (Unicode) str instance.  The
  encoding used to do this defaults to ASCII, but can be overridden
  via two new keyword arguments to the Unpickler class.  Previously
  this would create bytes instances, which is usually wrong: str
  instances are often used to pickle attribute names etc., and text is
  more common than binary data anyway.

- Default to ASCII as the locale.getpreferredencoding, if the POSIX
  system doesn't support CODESET and LANG isn't set or doesn't allow
  deduction of an encoding.

- Issue #1202: zlib.crc32 and zlib.adler32 now return an unsigned
  value.

- Issue #719888: Updated tokenize to use a bytes API.  generate_tokens
  has been renamed tokenize and now works with bytes rather than
  strings.  A new detect_encoding function has been added for
  determining source file encoding according to PEP-0263.  Token
  sequences returned by tokenize always start with an ENCODING token
  which specifies the encoding used to decode the file.  This token is
  used to encode the output of untokenize back to bytes.


What's New in Python 3.0a3?
===========================

*Release date: 29-Feb-2008*

Core and Builtins
-----------------

- Issue #2282: io.TextIOWrapper was not overriding seekable() from
  io.IOBase.

- Issue #2115: Important speedup in setting __slot__ attributes.  Also
  prevent a possible crash: an Abstract Base Class would try to access
  a slot on a registered virtual subclass.

- Fixed repr() and str() of complex numbers with infinity or nan as
  real or imaginary part.

- Clear all free list during a gc.collect() of the highest generation
  in order to allow pymalloc to free more arenas. Python may give back
  memory to the OS earlier.

- Issue #2045: Fix an infinite recursion triggered when printing a
  subclass of collections.defaultdict, if its default_factory is set
  to a bound method.

- Fixed a minor memory leak in dictobject.c. The content of the free
  list was not freed on interpreter shutdown.

- Limit free list of method and builtin function objects to 256
  entries each.

- Patch #1953: Added ``sys._compact_freelists()`` and the C API
  functions ``PyInt_CompactFreeList`` and ``PyFloat_CompactFreeList``
  to compact the internal free lists of pre-allocted ints and floats.

- Bug #1983: Fixed return type of fork(), fork1() and forkpty() calls.
  Python expected the return type int but the fork familie returns
  pi_t.

- Issue #1678380: Fix a bug that identifies 0j and -0j when they
  appear in the same code unit.

- Issue #2025: Added tuple.count() and tuple.index() methods to comply
  with the collections.Sequence API.

- Fixed multiple reinitialization of the Python interpreter. The small
  int list in longobject.c has caused a seg fault during the third
  finalization.

- Issue #1973: bytes.fromhex('') raised SystemError.

- Issue #1771: remove cmp parameter from sorted() and list.sort().

- Issue #1969: split and rsplit in bytearray are inconsistent.

- map() no longer accepts None for the first argument.  Use zip()
  instead.

- Issue #1769: Now int("- 1") is not allowed any more.

- Object/longobject.c: long(float('nan')) raises an OverflowError
  instead of returning 0.

- Issue #1762972: __file__ points to the source file instead of the
  pyc/pyo file if the py file exists.

- Issue #1393: object_richcompare() returns NotImplemented instead of
  False if the objects aren't equal, to give the other side a chance.

- Issue #1692: Interpreter was not displaying location of SyntaxError.

- Improve some exception messages when Windows fails to load an
  extension module.  Now we get for example '%1 is not a valid Win32
  application' instead of 'error code 193'.  Also use Unicode strings
  to deal with non-English locales.

- Issue #1587: Added instancemethod wrapper for PyCFunctions. The
  Python C API has gained a new type *PyInstanceMethod_Type* and the
  functions *PyInstanceMethod_Check(o)*, *PyInstanceMethod_New(func)*
  and *PyInstanceMethod_Function(im)*.

- Constants gc.DEBUG_OBJECT and gc.DEBUG_INSTANCE have been removed
  from the gc module; gc.DEBUG_COLLECTABLE or gc.DEBUG_UNCOLLECTABLE
  are now enough to print the corresponding list of objects considered
  by the garbage collector.

- Issue #1573: Improper use of the keyword-only syntax makes the
  parser crash.

- Issue #1564: The set implementation should special-case PyUnicode
  instead of PyString.

- Patch #1031213: Decode source line in SyntaxErrors back to its
  original source encoding.

- inspect.getsource() includes the decorators again.

- Bug #1713: posixpath.ismount() claims symlink to a mountpoint is a
  mountpoint.

- Fix utf-8-sig incremental decoder, which didn't recognise a BOM when
  the first chunk fed to the decoder started with a BOM, but was
  longer than 3 bytes.

Extension Modules
-----------------

- Code for itertools ifilter(), imap(), and izip() moved to bultins
  and renamed to filter(), map(), and zip().  Also, renamed
  izip_longest() to zip_longest() and ifilterfalse() to filterfalse().

- Issue #1762972: Readded the reload() function as imp.reload().

- Bug #2111: mmap segfaults when trying to write a block opened with
  PROT_READ.

- Issue #2063: correct order of utime and stime in os.times() result
  on Windows.

Library
-------

- Weakref dictionaries now inherit from MutableMapping.

- Created new UserDict class in collections module.  This one inherits
  from and complies with the MutableMapping ABC.  Also, moved
  UserString and UserList to the collections module.  The
  MutableUserString class was removed.

- Removed UserDict.DictMixin.  Replaced all its uses with
  collections.MutableMapping.

- Issue #1703: getpass() should flush after writing prompt.

- Issue #1585: IDLE uses non-existent xrange() function.

- Issue #1578: Problems in win_getpass.

Build
-----

- Renamed --enable-unicode configure flag to --with-wide-unicode,
  since Unicode strings can't be disabled anymore.

C API
-----

- Issue #1629: Renamed Py_Size, Py_Type and Py_Refcnt to Py_SIZE,
  Py_TYPE and Py_REFCNT.

- New API PyImport_ImportModuleNoBlock(), works like
  PyImport_ImportModule() but won't block on the import lock
  (returning an error instead).


What's New in Python 3.0a2?
===========================

*Release date: 07-Dec-2007*

(Note: this list is incomplete.)

Core and Builtins
-----------------

- str8 now has the same construction signature as bytes.

- Comparisons between str and str8 now return False/True for ==/!=.
  sqlite3 returns str8 when recreating on object from it's __conform__
  value.  The struct module returns str8 for all string-related
  formats.  This was true before this change, but becomes more
  apparent thanks to string comparisons always being False.

- Replaced `PyFile_FromFile()` with `PyFile_FromFd(fd, name. mode,
  buffer, encoding, newline)`.

- Fixed `imp.find_module()` to obey the -*- coding: -*- header.

- Changed `__file__` and `co_filename` to unicode. The path names are decoded
  with `Py_FileSystemDefaultEncoding` and a new API method
  `PyUnicode_DecodeFSDefault(char*)` was added.

- io.open() and _fileio.FileIO have grown a new argument closefd. A
  false value disables the closing of the file descriptor.

- Added a new option -b to issues warnings (-bb for errors) about
  certain operations between bytes/buffer and str like str(b'') and
  comparison.

- The standards streams sys.stdin, stdout and stderr may be None when
  the when the C runtime library returns an invalid file descriptor
  for the streams (fileno(stdin) < 0). For now this happens only for
  Windows GUI apps and scripts started with `pythonw.exe`.

- Added PCbuild9 directory for VS 2008.

- Renamed structmember.h WRITE_RESTRICTED to PY_WRITE_RESTRICTED to
  work around a name clash with VS 2008 on Windows.

- Unbound methods are gone for good. ClassObject.method returns an
  ordinary function object, instance.method still returns a bound
  method object.  The API of bound methods is cleaned up, too. The
  im_class attribute is removed and im_func + im_self are renamed to
  __func__ and __self__. The factory PyMethod_New takes only func and
  instance as argument.

- intobject.h is no longer included by Python.h. The remains were
  moved to longobject.h. It still exists to define several aliases
  from PyInt to PyLong functions.

- Removed sys.maxint, use sys.maxsize instead.

Extension Modules
-----------------

- The `hotshot` profiler has been removed; use `cProfile` instead.

Library
-------

- When loading an external file using testfile(), the passed-in
  encoding argument was being ignored if __loader__ is defined and
  forcing the source to be UTF-8.

- The methods `os.tmpnam()`, `os.tempnam()` and `os.tmpfile()` have
  been removed in favor of the tempfile module.

- Removed the 'new' module.

- Removed all types from the 'types' module that are easily accessable
  through builtins.


What's New in Python 3.0a1?
===========================

*Release date: 31-Aug-2007*

Core and Builtins
-----------------

- PEP 3131: Support non-ASCII identifiers.

- PEP 3120: Change default encoding to UTF-8.

- PEP 3123: Use proper C inheritance for PyObject.

- Removed the __oct__ and __hex__ special methods and added a bin()
  builtin function.

- PEP 3127: octal literals now start with "0o". Old-style octal
  literals are invalid. There are binary literals with a prefix of
  "0b".  This also affects int(x, 0).

- None, True, False are now keywords.

- PEP 3119: isinstance() and issubclass() can be overridden.

- Remove BaseException.message.

- Remove tuple parameter unpacking (PEP 3113).

- Remove the f_restricted attribute from frames.  This naturally leads
  to the removal of PyEval_GetRestricted() and PyFrame_IsRestricted().

- PEP 3132 was accepted. That means that you can do ``a, *b =
  range(5)`` to assign 0 to a and [1, 2, 3, 4] to b.

- range() now returns an iterator rather than a list.  Floats are not
  allowed.  xrange() is no longer defined.

- Patch #1660500: hide iteration variable in list comps, add set comps
  and use common code to handle compilation of iterative expressions.

- By default, != returns the opposite of ==, unless the latter returns
  NotImplemented.

- Patch #1680961: sys.exitfunc has been removed and replaced with a
  private C-level API.

- PEP 3115: new metaclasses: the metaclass is now specified as a
  keyword arg in the class statement, which can now use the full
  syntax of a parameter list. Also, the metaclass can implement a
  __prepare__ function which will be called to create the dictionary
  for the new class namespace.

- The long-deprecated argument "pend" of PyFloat_FromString() has been
  removed.

- The dir() function has been extended to call the __dir__() method on
  its argument, if it exists. If not, it will work like before. This
  allows customizing the output of dir() in the presence of a
  __getattr__().

- Removed support for __members__ and __methods__.

- Removed indexing/slicing on BaseException.

- input() became raw_input(): the name input() now implements the
  functionality formerly known as raw_input(); the name raw_input() is
  no longer defined.

- Classes listed in an 'except' clause must inherit from
  BaseException.

- PEP 3106: dict.iterkeys(), .iteritems(), .itervalues() are now gone;
  and .keys(), .items(), .values() return dict views, which behave
  like sets.

- PEP 3105: print is now a function.  Also (not in the PEP) the
  'softspace' attribute of files is now gone (since print() doesn't
  use it).  A side effect of this change is that you can get
  incomplete output lines in interactive sessions:

  >>> print(42, end="")
  42>>>

  We may be able to fix this after the I/O library rewrite.

- PEP 3102: keyword-only arguments.

- Int/Long unification is complete.  The 'long' built-in type and
  literals with trailing 'L' or 'l' have been removed.  Performance
  may be sub-optimal (haven't really benchmarked).

- 'except E, V' must now be spelled as 'except E as V' and deletes V
  at the end of the except clause; V must be a simple name.

- Added function annotations per PEP 3107.

- Added nonlocal declaration from PEP 3104:

  >>> def f(x):
  ...     def inc():
  ...         nonlocal x
  ...         x += 1
  ...         return x
  ...     return inc
  ...
  >>> inc = f(0)
  >>> inc()
  1
  >>> inc()
  2

- Moved intern() to sys.intern().

- exec is now a function.

- Renamed nb_nonzero to nb_bool and __nonzero__ to __bool__.

- Classic classes are a thing of the past.  All classes are new style.

- Exceptions *must* derive from BaseException.

- Integer division always returns a float.  The -Q option is no more.
  All the following are gone:

  * PyNumber_Divide and PyNumber_InPlaceDivide
  * __div__, __rdiv__, and __idiv__
  * nb_divide, nb_inplace_divide
  * operator.div, operator.idiv, operator.__div__, operator.__idiv__
    (Only __truediv__ and __floordiv__ remain, not sure how to handle
    them if we want to re-use __div__ and friends.  If we do, it will
    make it harder to write code for both 2.x and 3.x.)

- 'as' and 'with' are keywords.

- Absolute import is the default behavior for 'import foo' etc.

- Removed support for syntax: backticks (ie, `x`), <>.

- Removed these Python builtins: apply(), callable(), coerce(),
  execfile(), file(), reduce(), reload().

- Removed these Python methods: {}.has_key.

- Removed these opcodes: BINARY_DIVIDE, INPLACE_DIVIDE, UNARY_CONVERT.

- Remove C API support for restricted execution.

- zip(), map() and filter() now return iterators, behaving like their
  itertools counterparts.  This also affect map()'s behavior on
  sequences of unequal length -- it now stops after the shortest one
  is exhausted.

- Additions: set literals, set comprehensions, ellipsis literal.

- Added class decorators per PEP 3129.


Extension Modules
-----------------

- Removed the imageop module.  Obsolete long with its unit tests
  becoming useless from the removal of rgbimg and imgfile.

- Removed these attributes from the operator module: div, idiv,
  __div__, __idiv__, isCallable, sequenceIncludes.

- Removed these attributes from the sys module: exc_clear(), exc_type,
  exc_value, exc_traceback.


Library
-------

- Removed the compiler package.  Use of the _ast module and (an
  eventual) AST -> bytecode mechanism.

- Removed these modules: audiodev, Bastion, bsddb185, exceptions,
  linuxaudiodev, md5, MimeWriter, mimify, popen2, rexec, sets, sha,
  stringold, strop, sunaudiodev, timing, xmllib.

- Moved the toaiff module to Tools/Demos.

- Removed obsolete IRIX modules: al/AL, cd/CD, cddb, cdplayer, cl/CL,
  DEVICE, ERRNO, FILE, fl/FL, flp, fm, GET, gl/GL, GLWS, IN, imgfile,
  IOCTL, jpeg, panel, panelparser, readcd, sgi, sv/SV, torgb, WAIT.

- Removed obsolete functions: commands.getstatus(), os.popen*().

- Removed functions in the string module that are also string methods;
  Remove string.{letters, lowercase, uppercase}.

- Removed support for long obsolete platforms: plat-aix3, plat-irix5.

- Removed xmlrpclib.SlowParser.  It was based on xmllib.

- Patch #1680961: atexit has been reimplemented in C.

- Add new codecs for UTF-32, UTF-32-LE and UTF-32-BE.

Build
-----

C API
-----

- Removed these Python slots: __coerce__, __div__, __idiv__, __rdiv__.

- Removed these C APIs: PyNumber_Coerce(), PyNumber_CoerceEx(),
  PyMember_Get, PyMember_Set.

- Removed these C slots/fields: nb_divide, nb_inplace_divide.

- Removed these macros: staticforward, statichere, PyArg_GetInt,
  PyArg_NoArgs, _PyObject_Del.

- Removed these typedefs: intargfunc, intintargfunc, intobjargproc,
  intintobjargproc, getreadbufferproc, getwritebufferproc,
  getsegcountproc, getcharbufferproc, memberlist.

Tests
-----

- Removed test.testall as test.regrtest replaces it.

Documentation
-------------

Mac
---

- The cfmfile module was removed.

Platforms
---------

- Support for BeOS and AtheOS was removed (according to PEP 11).

- Support for RiscOS, Irix, Tru64 was removed (alledgedly).

Tools/Demos
-----------


What's New in Python 2.5 release candidate 1?
=============================================

*Release date: 17-AUG-2006*

Core and builtins
-----------------

- Unicode objects will no longer raise an exception when being
  compared equal or unequal to a string and a UnicodeDecodeError
  exception occurs, e.g. as result of a decoding failure.

  Instead, the equal (==) and unequal (!=) comparison operators will
  now issue a UnicodeWarning and interpret the two objects as
  unequal. The UnicodeWarning can be filtered as desired using
  the warning framework, e.g. silenced completely, turned into an
  exception, logged, etc.

  Note that compare operators other than equal and unequal will still
  raise UnicodeDecodeError exceptions as they've always done.

- Fix segfault when doing string formatting on subclasses of long.

- Fix bug related to __len__ functions using values > 2**32 on 64-bit machines
  with new-style classes.

- Fix bug related to __len__ functions returning negative values with
  classic classes.

- Patch #1538606, Fix __index__() clipping.  There were some problems
  discovered with the API and how integers that didn't fit into Py_ssize_t
  were handled.  This patch attempts to provide enough alternatives
  to effectively use __index__.

- Bug #1536021: __hash__ may now return long int; the final hash
  value is obtained by invoking hash on the long int.

- Bug #1536786: buffer comparison could emit a RuntimeWarning.

- Bug #1535165: fixed a segfault in input() and raw_input() when
  sys.stdin is closed.

- On Windows, the PyErr_Warn function is now exported from
  the Python dll again.

- Bug #1191458: tracing over for loops now produces a line event
  on each iteration.  Fixing this problem required changing the .pyc
  magic number.  This means that .pyc files generated before 2.5c1
  will be regenerated.

- Bug #1333982: string/number constants were inappropriately stored
  in the byte code and co_consts even if they were not used, ie
  immediately popped off the stack.

- Fixed a reference-counting problem in property().


Library
-------

- Fix a bug in the ``compiler`` package that caused invalid code to be
  generated for generator expressions.

- The distutils version has been changed to 2.5.0. The change to
  keep it programmatically in sync with the Python version running
  the code (introduced in 2.5b3) has been reverted. It will continue
  to be maintained manually as static string literal.

- If the Python part of a ctypes callback function returns None,
  and this cannot be converted to the required C type, an exception is
  printed with PyErr_WriteUnraisable.  Before this change, the C
  callback returned arbitrary values to the calling code.

- The __repr__ method of a NULL ctypes.py_object() no longer raises
  an exception.

- uuid.UUID now has a bytes_le attribute. This returns the UUID in
  little-endian byte order for Windows. In addition, uuid.py gained some
  workarounds for clocks with low resolution, to stop the code yielding
  duplicate UUIDs.

- Patch #1540892: site.py Quitter() class attempts to close sys.stdin
  before raising SystemExit, allowing IDLE to honor quit() and exit().

- Bug #1224621: make tabnanny recognize IndentationErrors raised by tokenize.

- Patch #1536071: trace.py should now find the full module name of a
  file correctly even on Windows.

- logging's atexit hook now runs even if the rest of the module has
  already been cleaned up.

- Bug #1112549, fix DoS attack on cgi.FieldStorage.

- Bug #1531405, format_exception no longer raises an exception if
  str(exception) raised an exception.

- Fix a bug in the ``compiler`` package that caused invalid code to be
  generated for nested functions.


Extension Modules
-----------------

- Patch #1511317: don't crash on invalid hostname (alias) info.

- Patch #1535500: fix segfault in BZ2File.writelines and make sure it
  raises the correct exceptions.

- Patch # 1536908: enable building ctypes on OpenBSD/AMD64.  The
  '-no-stack-protector' compiler flag for OpenBSD has been removed.

- Patch #1532975 was applied, which fixes Bug #1533481: ctypes now
  uses the _as_parameter_ attribute when objects are passed to foreign
  function calls.  The ctypes version number was changed to 1.0.1.

- Bug #1530559, struct.pack raises TypeError where it used to convert.
  Passing float arguments to struct.pack when integers are expected
  now triggers a DeprecationWarning.


Tests
-----

- test_socketserver should now work on cygwin and not fail sporadically
  on other platforms.

- test_mailbox should now work on cygwin versions 2006-08-10 and later.

- Bug #1535182: really test the xreadlines() method of bz2 objects.

- test_threading now skips testing alternate thread stack sizes on
  platforms that don't support changing thread stack size.


Documentation
-------------

- Patch #1534922: unittest docs were corrected and enhanced.


Build
-----

- Bug #1535502, build _hashlib on Windows, and use masm assembler
  code in OpenSSL.

- Bug #1534738, win32 debug version of _msi should be _msi_d.pyd.

- Bug #1530448, ctypes build failure on Solaris 10 was fixed.


C API
-----

- New API for Unicode rich comparisons: PyUnicode_RichCompare()

- Bug #1069160.  Internal correctness changes were made to
  ``PyThreadState_SetAsyncExc()``.  A test case was added, and
  the documentation was changed to state that the return value
  is always 1 (normal) or 0 (if the specified thread wasn't found).


What's New in Python 2.5 beta 3?
================================

*Release date: 03-AUG-2006*

Core and builtins
-----------------

- _PyWeakref_GetWeakrefCount() now returns a Py_ssize_t; it previously
  returned a long (see PEP 353).

- Bug #1515471: string.replace() accepts character buffers again.

- Add PyErr_WarnEx() so C code can pass the stacklevel to warnings.warn().
  This provides the proper warning for struct.pack().
  PyErr_Warn() is now deprecated in favor of PyErr_WarnEx().

- Patch #1531113: Fix augmented assignment with yield expressions.
  Also fix a SystemError when trying to assign to yield expressions.

- Bug #1529871: The speed enhancement patch #921466 broke Python's compliance
  with PEP 302.  This was fixed by adding an ``imp.NullImporter`` type that is
  used in ``sys.path_importer_cache`` to cache non-directory paths and avoid
  excessive filesystem operations during imports.

- Bug #1521947: When checking for overflow, ``PyOS_strtol()`` used some
  operations on signed longs that are formally undefined by C.
  Unfortunately, at least one compiler now cares about that, so complicated
  the code to make that compiler happy again.

- Bug #1524310: Properly report errors from FindNextFile in os.listdir.

- Patch #1232023: Stop including current directory in search
  path on Windows.

- Fix some potential crashes found with failmalloc.

- Fix warnings reported by Klocwork's static analysis tool.

- Bug #1512814, Fix incorrect lineno's when code within a function
  had more than 255 blank lines.

- Patch #1521179: Python now accepts the standard options ``--help`` and
  ``--version`` as well as ``/?`` on Windows.

- Bug #1520864: unpacking singleton tuples in a 'for' loop (for x, in) works
  again.  Fixing this problem required changing the .pyc magic number.
  This means that .pyc files generated before 2.5b3 will be regenerated.

- Bug #1524317:  Compiling Python ``--without-threads`` failed.
  The Python core compiles again, and, in a build without threads, the
  new ``sys._current_frames()`` returns a dictionary with one entry,
  mapping the faux "thread id" 0 to the current frame.

- Bug #1525447: build on MacOS X on a case-sensitive filesystem.


Library
-------

- Fix #1693149.  Now you can pass several modules separated by
  comma to trace.py in the same --ignore-module option.

- Correction of patch #1455898: In the mbcs decoder, set final=False
  for stream decoder, but final=True for the decode function.

- os.urandom no longer masks unrelated exceptions like SystemExit or
  KeyboardInterrupt.

- Bug #1525866: Don't copy directory stat times in
  shutil.copytree on Windows

- Bug #1002398: The documentation for os.path.sameopenfile now correctly
  refers to file descriptors, not file objects.

- The renaming of the xml package to xmlcore, and the import hackery done
  to make it appear at both names, has been removed.  Bug #1511497,
  #1513611, and probably others.

- Bug #1441397: The compiler module now recognizes module and function
  docstrings correctly as it did in Python 2.4.

- Bug #1529297:  The rewrite of doctest for Python 2.4 unintentionally
  lost that tests are sorted by name before being run.  This rarely
  matters for well-written tests, but can create baffling symptoms if
  side effects from one test to the next affect outcomes.  ``DocTestFinder``
  has been changed to sort the list of tests it returns.

- The distutils version has been changed to 2.5.0, and is now kept
  in sync with sys.version_info[:3].

- Bug #978833: Really close underlying socket in _socketobject.close.

- Bug #1459963: urllib and urllib2 now normalize HTTP header names with
  title().

- Patch #1525766: In pkgutil.walk_packages, correctly pass the onerror callback
  to recursive calls and call it with the failing package name.

- Bug #1525817: Don't truncate short lines in IDLE's tool tips.

- Patch #1515343: Fix printing of deprecated string exceptions with a
  value in the traceback module.

- Resync optparse with Optik 1.5.3: minor tweaks for/to tests.

- Patch #1524429: Use repr() instead of backticks in Tkinter again.

- Bug #1520914: Change time.strftime() to accept a zero for any position in its
  argument tuple.  For arguments where zero is illegal, the value is forced to
  the minimum value that is correct.  This is to support an undocumented but
  common way people used  to fill in inconsequential information in the time
  tuple pre-2.4.

- Patch #1220874: Update the binhex module for Mach-O.

- The email package has improved RFC 2231 support, specifically for
  recognizing the difference between encoded (name*0*=<blah>) and non-encoded
  (name*0=<blah>) parameter continuations.  This may change the types of
  values returned from email.message.Message.get_param() and friends.
  Specifically in some cases where non-encoded continuations were used,
  get_param() used to return a 3-tuple of (None, None, string) whereas now it
  will just return the string (since non-encoded continuations don't have
  charset and language parts).

  Also, whereas % values were decoded in all parameter continuations, they are
  now only decoded in encoded parameter parts.

- Bug #1517990: IDLE keybindings on MacOS X now work correctly

- Bug #1517996: IDLE now longer shows the default Tk menu when a
  path browser, class browser or debugger is the frontmost window on MacOS X

- Patch #1520294: Support for getset and member descriptors in types.py,
  inspect.py, and pydoc.py.  Specifically, this allows for querying the type
  of an object against these built-in types and more importantly, for getting
  their docstrings printed in the interactive interpreter's help() function.


Extension Modules
-----------------

- Patch #1519025 and bug #926423: If a KeyboardInterrupt occurs during
  a socket operation on a socket with a timeout, the exception will be
  caught correctly.  Previously, the exception was not caught.

- Patch #1529514: The _ctypes extension is now compiled on more
  openbsd target platforms.

- The ``__reduce__()`` method of the new ``collections.defaultdict`` had
  a memory leak, affecting pickles and deep copies.

- Bug #1471938: Fix curses module build problem on Solaris 8; patch by
  Paul Eggert.

- Patch #1448199: Release interpreter lock in _winreg.ConnectRegistry.

- Patch #1521817: Index range checking on ctypes arrays containing
  exactly one element enabled again.  This allows iterating over these
  arrays, without the need to check the array size before.

- Bug #1521375: When the code in ctypes.util.find_library was
  run with root privileges, it could overwrite or delete
  /dev/null in certain cases; this is now fixed.

- Bug #1467450: On Mac OS X 10.3, RTLD_GLOBAL is now used as the
  default mode for loading shared libraries in ctypes.

- Because of a misspelled preprocessor symbol, ctypes was always
  compiled without thread support; this is now fixed.

- pybsddb Bug #1527939: bsddb module DBEnv dbremove and dbrename
  methods now allow their database parameter to be None as the
  sleepycat API allows.

- Bug #1526460: Fix socketmodule compile on NetBSD as it has a different
  bluetooth API compared with Linux and FreeBSD.

Tests
-----

- Bug #1501330: Change test_ossaudiodev to be much more tolerant in terms of
  how long the test file should take to play.  Now accepts taking 2.93 secs
  (exact time) +/- 10% instead of the hard-coded 3.1 sec.

- Patch #1529686: The standard tests ``test_defaultdict``, ``test_iterlen``,
  ``test_uuid`` and ``test_email_codecs`` didn't actually run any tests when
  run via ``regrtest.py``. Now they do.

Build
-----

- Bug #1439538: Drop usage of test -e in configure as it is not portable.

Mac
---

- PythonLauncher now works correctly when the path to the script contains
  characters that are treated specially by the shell (such as quotes).

- Bug #1527397: PythonLauncher now launches scripts with the working directory
  set to the directory that contains the script instead of the user home
  directory. That latter was an implementation accident and not what users
  expect.


What's New in Python 2.5 beta 2?
================================

*Release date: 11-JUL-2006*

Core and builtins
-----------------

- Bug #1441486: The literal representation of -(sys.maxint - 1)
  again evaluates to a int object, not a long.

- Bug #1501934: The scope of global variables that are locally assigned
  using augmented assignment is now correctly determined.

- Bug #927248: Recursive method-wrapper objects can now safely
  be released.

- Bug #1417699: Reject locale-specific decimal point in float()
  and atof().

- Bug #1511381: codec_getstreamcodec() in codec.c is corrected to
  omit a default "error" argument for NULL pointer.  This allows
  the parser to take a codec from cjkcodecs again.

- Bug #1519018: 'as' is now validated properly in import statements.

- On 64 bit systems, int literals that use less than 64 bits are
  now ints rather than longs.

- Bug #1512814, Fix incorrect lineno's when code at module scope
  started after line 256.

- New function ``sys._current_frames()`` returns a dict mapping thread
  id to topmost thread stack frame.  This is for expert use, and is
  especially useful for debugging application deadlocks.  The functionality
  was previously available in Fazal Majid's ``threadframe`` extension
  module, but it wasn't possible to do this in a wholly threadsafe way from
  an extension.

Library
-------

- Bug #1257728: Mention Cygwin in distutils error message about a missing
  VS 2003.

- Patch #1519566: Update turtle demo, make begin_fill idempotent.

- Bug #1508010: msvccompiler now requires the DISTUTILS_USE_SDK
  environment variable to be set in order to the SDK environment
  for finding the compiler, include files, etc.

- Bug #1515998: Properly generate logical ids for files in bdist_msi.

- warnings.py now ignores ImportWarning by default

- string.Template() now correctly handles tuple-values. Previously,
  multi-value tuples would raise an exception and single-value tuples would
  be treated as the value they contain, instead.

- Bug #822974: Honor timeout in telnetlib.{expect,read_until}
  even if some data are received.

- Bug #1267547: Put proper recursive setup.py call into the
  spec file generated by bdist_rpm.

- Bug #1514693: Update turtle's heading when switching between
  degrees and radians.

- Reimplement turtle.circle using a polyline, to allow correct
  filling of arcs.

- Bug #1514703: Only setup canvas window in turtle when the canvas
  is created.

- Bug #1513223: .close() of a _socketobj now releases the underlying
  socket again, which then gets closed as it becomes unreferenced.

- Bug #1504333: Make sgmllib support angle brackets in quoted
  attribute values.

- Bug #853506: Fix IPv6 address parsing in unquoted attributes in
  sgmllib ('[' and ']' were not accepted).

- Fix a bug in the turtle module's end_fill function.

- Bug #1510580: The 'warnings' module improperly required that a Warning
  category be either a types.ClassType and a subclass of Warning.  The proper
  check is just that it is a subclass with Warning as the documentation states.

- The compiler module now correctly compiles the new try-except-finally
  statement (bug #1509132).

- The wsgiref package is now installed properly on Unix.

- A bug was fixed in logging.config.fileConfig() which caused a crash on
  shutdown when fileConfig() was called multiple times.

- The sqlite3 module did cut off data from the SQLite database at the first
  null character before sending it to a custom converter. This has been fixed
  now.

Extension Modules
-----------------

- #1494314: Fix a regression with high-numbered sockets in 2.4.3. This
  means that select() on sockets > FD_SETSIZE (typically 1024) work again.
  The patch makes sockets use poll() internally where available.

- Assigning None to pointer type fields in ctypes structures possible
  overwrote the wrong fields, this is fixed now.

- Fixed a segfault in _ctypes when ctypes.wintypes were imported
  on non-Windows platforms.

- Bug #1518190: The ctypes.c_void_p constructor now accepts any
  integer or long, without range checking.

- Patch #1517790: It is now possible to use custom objects in the ctypes
  foreign function argtypes sequence as long as they provide a from_param
  method, no longer is it required that the object is a ctypes type.

- The '_ctypes' extension module now works when Python is configured
  with the --without-threads option.

- Bug #1513646: os.access on Windows now correctly determines write
  access, again.

- Bug #1512695: cPickle.loads could crash if it was interrupted with
  a KeyboardInterrupt.

- Bug #1296433: parsing XML with a non-default encoding and
  a CharacterDataHandler could crash the interpreter in pyexpat.

- Patch #1516912: improve Modules support for OpenVMS.

Build
-----

- Automate Windows build process for the Win64 SSL module.

- 'configure' now detects the zlib library the same way as distutils.
  Previously, the slight difference could cause compilation errors of the
  'zlib' module on systems with more than one version of zlib.

- The MSI compileall step was fixed to also support a TARGETDIR
  with spaces in it.

- Bug #1517388: sqlite3.dll is now installed on Windows independent
  of Tcl/Tk.

- Bug #1513032: 'make install' failed on FreeBSD 5.3 due to lib-old
  trying to be installed even though it's empty.

Tests
-----

- Call os.waitpid() at the end of tests that spawn child processes in order
  to minimize resources (zombies).

Documentation
-------------

- Cover ImportWarning, PendingDeprecationWarning and simplefilter() in the
  documentation for the warnings module.

- Patch #1509163: MS Toolkit Compiler no longer available.

- Patch #1504046: Add documentation for xml.etree.


What's New in Python 2.5 beta 1?
================================

*Release date: 20-JUN-2006*

Core and builtins
-----------------

- Patch #1507676: Error messages returned by invalid abstract object operations
  (such as iterating over an integer) have been improved and now include the
  type of the offending object to help with debugging.

- Bug #992017: A classic class that defined a __coerce__() method that returned
  its arguments swapped would infinitely recurse and segfault the interpreter.

- Fix the socket tests so they can be run concurrently.

- Removed 5 integers from C frame objects (PyFrameObject).
  f_nlocals, f_ncells, f_nfreevars, f_stack_size, f_restricted.

- Bug #532646: object.__call__() will continue looking for the __call__
  attribute on objects until one without one is found.  This leads to recursion
  when you take a class and set its __call__ attribute to an instance of the
  class.  Originally fixed for classic classes, but this fix is for new-style.
  Removes the infinite_rec_3 crasher.

- The string and unicode methods startswith() and endswith() now accept
  a tuple of prefixes/suffixes to look for. Implements RFE #1491485.

- Buffer objects, at the C level, never used the char buffer
  implementation even when the char buffer for the wrapped object was
  explicitly requested (originally returned the read or write buffer).
  Now a TypeError is raised if the char buffer is not present but is
  requested.

- Patch #1346214: Statements like "if 0: suite" are now again optimized
  away like they were in Python 2.4.

- Builtin exceptions are now full-blown new-style classes instead of
  instances pretending to be classes, which speeds up exception handling
  by about 80% in comparison to 2.5a2.

- Patch #1494554: Update unicodedata.numeric and unicode.isnumeric to
  Unicode 4.1.

- Patch #921466: sys.path_importer_cache is now used to cache valid and
  invalid file paths for the built-in import machinery which leads to
  fewer open calls on startup.

- Patch #1442927: ``long(str, base)`` is now up to 6x faster for non-power-
  of-2 bases.  The largest speedup is for inputs with about 1000 decimal
  digits.  Conversion from non-power-of-2 bases remains quadratic-time in
  the number of input digits (it was and remains linear-time for bases
  2, 4, 8, 16 and 32).

- Bug #1334662: ``int(string, base)`` could deliver a wrong answer
  when ``base`` was not 2, 4, 8, 10, 16 or 32, and ``string`` represented
  an integer close to ``sys.maxint``.  This was repaired by patch
  #1335972, which also gives a nice speedup.

- Patch #1337051: reduced size of frame objects.

- PyErr_NewException now accepts a tuple of base classes as its
  "base" parameter.

- Patch #876206: function call speedup by retaining allocated frame
  objects.

- Bug #1462152: file() now checks more thoroughly for invalid mode
  strings and removes a possible "U" before passing the mode to the
  C library function.

- Patch #1488312, Fix memory alignment problem on SPARC in unicode

- Bug #1487966: Fix SystemError with conditional expression in assignment

- WindowsError now has two error code attributes: errno, which carries
  the error values from errno.h, and winerror, which carries the error
  values from winerror.h. Previous versions put the winerror.h values
  (from GetLastError()) into the errno attribute.

- Patch #1475845: Raise IndentationError for unexpected indent.

- Patch #1479181: split open() and file() from being aliases for each other.

- Patch #1497053 & bug #1275608: Exceptions occurring in ``__eq__()``
  methods were always silently ignored by dictionaries when comparing keys.
  They are now passed through (except when using the C API function
  ``PyDict_GetItem()``, whose semantics did not change).

- Bug #1456209: In some obscure cases it was possible for a class with a
  custom ``__eq__()`` method to confuse dict internals when class instances
  were used as a dict's keys and the ``__eq__()`` method mutated the dict.
  No, you don't have any code that did this ;-)

Extension Modules
-----------------

- Bug #1295808: expat symbols should be namespaced in pyexpat

- Patch #1462338: Upgrade pyexpat to expat 2.0.0

- Change binascii.hexlify to accept a read-only buffer instead of only a char
  buffer and actually follow its documentation.

- Fixed a potentially invalid memory access of CJKCodecs' shift-jis decoder.

- Patch #1478788 (modified version): The functional extension module has
  been renamed to _functools and a functools Python wrapper module added.
  This provides a home for additional function related utilities that are
  not specifically about functional programming. See PEP 309.

- Patch #1493701: performance enhancements for struct module.

- Patch #1490224: time.altzone is now set correctly on Cygwin.

- Patch #1435422: zlib's compress and decompress objects now have a
  copy() method.

- Patch #1454481: thread stack size is now tunable at runtime for thread
  enabled builds on Windows and systems with Posix threads support.

- On Win32, os.listdir now supports arbitrarily-long Unicode path names
  (up to the system limit of 32K characters).

- Use Win32 API to implement os.{access,chdir,chmod,mkdir,remove,rename,rmdir,utime}.
  As a result, these functions now raise WindowsError instead of OSError.

- ``time.clock()`` on Win64 should use the high-performance Windows
  ``QueryPerformanceCounter()`` now (as was already the case on 32-bit
  Windows platforms).

- Calling Tk_Init twice is refused if the first call failed as that
  may deadlock.

- bsddb: added the DB_ARCH_REMOVE flag and fixed db.DBEnv.log_archive() to
  accept it without potentially using an uninitialized pointer.

- bsddb: added support for the DBEnv.log_stat() and DBEnv.lsn_reset() methods
  assuming BerkeleyDB >= 4.0 and 4.4 respectively.  [pybsddb project SF
  patch numbers 1494885 and 1494902]

- bsddb: added an interface for the BerkeleyDB >= 4.3 DBSequence class.
  [pybsddb project SF patch number 1466734]

- bsddb: fix DBCursor.pget() bug with keyword argument names when no data
  parameter is supplied.  [SF pybsddb bug #1477863]

- bsddb: the __len__ method of a DB object has been fixed to return correct
  results.  It could previously incorrectly return 0 in some cases.
  Fixes SF bug 1493322 (pybsddb bug 1184012).

- bsddb: the bsddb.dbtables Modify method now raises the proper error and
  aborts the db transaction safely when a modifier callback fails.
  Fixes SF python patch/bug #1408584.

- bsddb: multithreaded DB access using the simple bsddb module interface
  now works reliably.  It has been updated to use automatic BerkeleyDB
  deadlock detection and the bsddb.dbutils.DeadlockWrap wrapper to retry
  database calls that would previously deadlock. [SF python bug #775414]

- Patch #1446489: add support for the ZIP64 extensions to zipfile.

- Patch #1506645: add Python wrappers for the curses functions
  is_term_resized, resize_term and resizeterm.

Library
-------

- Patch #815924: Restore ability to pass type= and icon= in tkMessageBox
  functions.

- Patch #812986: Update turtle output even if not tracing.

- Patch #1494750: Destroy master after deleting children in
  Tkinter.BaseWidget.

- Patch #1096231: Add ``default`` argument to Tkinter.Wm.wm_iconbitmap.

- Patch #763580: Add name and value arguments to Tkinter variable
  classes.

- Bug #1117556: SimpleHTTPServer now tries to find and use the system's
  mime.types file for determining MIME types.

- Bug #1339007: Shelf objects now don't raise an exception in their
  __del__ method when initialization failed.

- Patch #1455898: The MBCS codec now supports the incremental mode for
  double-byte encodings.

- ``difflib``'s ``SequenceMatcher.get_matching_blocks()`` was changed to
  guarantee that adjacent triples in the return list always describe
  non-adjacent blocks.  Previously, a pair of matching blocks could end
  up being described by multiple adjacent triples that formed a partition
  of the matching pair.

- Bug #1498146: fix optparse to handle Unicode strings in option help,
  description, and epilog.

- Bug #1366250: minor optparse documentation error.

- Bug #1361643: fix textwrap.dedent() so it handles tabs appropriately;
  clarify docs.

- The wsgiref package has been added to the standard library.

- The functions update_wrapper() and wraps() have been added to the functools
  module. These make it easier to copy relevant metadata from the original
  function when writing wrapper functions.

- The optional ``isprivate`` argument to ``doctest.testmod()``, and the
  ``doctest.is_private()`` function, both deprecated in 2.4, were removed.

- Patch #1359618: Speed up charmap encoder by using a trie structure
  for lookup.

- The functions in the ``pprint`` module now sort dictionaries by key
  before computing the display.  Before 2.5, ``pprint`` sorted a dictionary
  if and only if its display required more than one line, although that
  wasn't documented.  The new behavior increases predictability; e.g.,
  using ``pprint.pprint(a_dict)`` in a doctest is now reliable.

- Patch #1497027: try HTTP digest auth before basic auth in urllib2
  (thanks for J. J. Lee).

- Patch #1496206: improve urllib2 handling of passwords with respect to
  default HTTP and HTTPS ports.

- Patch #1080727: add "encoding" parameter to doctest.DocFileSuite.

- Patch #1281707: speed up gzip.readline.

- Patch #1180296: Two new functions were added to the locale module:
  format_string() to get the effect of  "format % items" but locale-aware,
  and currency() to format a monetary number with currency sign.

- Patch #1486962: Several bugs in the turtle Tk demo module were fixed
  and several features added, such as speed and geometry control.

- Patch #1488881: add support for external file objects in bz2 compressed
  tarfiles.

- Patch #721464: pdb.Pdb instances can now be given explicit stdin and
  stdout arguments, making it possible to redirect input and output
  for remote debugging.

- Patch #1484695: Update the tarfile module to version 0.8. This fixes
  a couple of issues, notably handling of long file names using the
  GNU LONGNAME extension.

- Patch #1478292. ``doctest.register_optionflag(name)`` shouldn't create a
  new flag when ``name`` is already the name of an option flag.

- Bug #1385040: don't allow "def foo(a=1, b): pass" in the compiler
  package.

- Patch #1472854: make the rlcompleter.Completer class usable on non-
  UNIX platforms.

- Patch #1470846: fix urllib2 ProxyBasicAuthHandler.

- Bug #1472827: correctly escape newlines and tabs in attribute values in
  the saxutils.XMLGenerator class.


Build
-----

- Bug #1502728: Correctly link against librt library on HP-UX.

- OpenBSD 3.9 is supported now.

- Patch #1492356: Port to Windows CE.

- Bug/Patch #1481770: Use .so extension for shared libraries on HP-UX for ia64.

- Patch #1471883: Add --enable-universalsdk.

C API
-----

Tests
-----

Tools
-----

Documentation
-------------



What's New in Python 2.5 alpha 2?
=================================

*Release date: 27-APR-2006*

Core and builtins
-----------------

- Bug #1465834: 'bdist_wininst preinstall script support' was fixed
  by converting these apis from macros into exported functions again:

    PyParser_SimpleParseFile PyParser_SimpleParseString PyRun_AnyFile
    PyRun_AnyFileEx PyRun_AnyFileFlags PyRun_File PyRun_FileEx
    PyRun_FileFlags PyRun_InteractiveLoop PyRun_InteractiveOne
    PyRun_SimpleFile PyRun_SimpleFileEx PyRun_SimpleString
    PyRun_String Py_CompileString

- Under COUNT_ALLOCS, types are not necessarily immortal anymore.

- All uses of PyStructSequence_InitType have been changed to initialize
  the type objects only once, even if the interpreter is initialized
  multiple times.

- Bug #1454485, array.array('u') could crash the interpreter.  This was
  due to PyArgs_ParseTuple(args, 'u#', ...) trying to convert buffers (strings)
  to unicode when it didn't make sense.  'u#' now requires a unicode string.

- Py_UNICODE is unsigned.  It was always documented as unsigned, but
  due to a bug had a signed value in previous versions.

- Patch #837242: ``id()`` of any Python object always gives a positive
  number now, which might be a long integer. ``PyLong_FromVoidPtr`` and
  ``PyLong_AsVoidPtr`` have been changed accordingly.  Note that it has
  never been correct to implement a ``__hash()__`` method that returns the
  ``id()`` of an object:

      def __hash__(self):
          return id(self)  # WRONG

  because a hash result must be a (short) Python int but it was always
  possible for ``id()`` to return a Python long.  However, because ``id()``
  could return negative values before, on a 32-bit box an ``id()`` result
  was always usable as a hash value before this patch.  That's no longer
  necessarily so.

- Python on OS X 10.3 and above now uses dlopen() (via dynload_shlib.c)
  to load extension modules and now provides the dl module. As a result,
  sys.setdlopenflags() now works correctly on these systems. (SF patch
  #1454844)

- Patch #1463867: enhanced garbage collection to allow cleanup of cycles
  involving generators that have paused outside of any ``try`` or ``with``
  blocks.  (In 2.5a1, a paused generator that was part of a reference
  cycle could not be garbage collected, regardless of whether it was
  paused in a ``try`` or ``with`` block.)

Extension Modules
-----------------

- Patch #1191065: Fix preprocessor problems on systems where recvfrom
  is a macro.

- Bug #1467952: os.listdir() now correctly raises an error if readdir()
  fails with an error condition.

- Fixed bsddb.db.DBError derived exceptions so they can be unpickled.

- Bug #1117761: bsddb.*open() no longer raises an exception when using
  the cachesize parameter.

- Bug #1149413: bsddb.*open() no longer raises an exception when using
  a temporary db (file=None) with the 'n' flag to truncate on open.

- Bug #1332852: bsddb module minimum BerkeleyDB version raised to 3.3
  as older versions cause excessive test failures.

- Patch #1062014: AF_UNIX sockets under Linux have a special
  abstract namespace that is now fully supported.

Library
-------

- Bug #1223937: subprocess.CalledProcessError reports the exit status
  of the process using the returncode attribute, instead of
  abusing errno.

- Patch #1475231: ``doctest`` has a new ``SKIP`` option, which causes
  a doctest to be skipped (the code is not run, and the expected output
  or exception is ignored).

- Fixed contextlib.nested to cope with exceptions being raised and
  caught inside exit handlers.

- Updated optparse module to Optik 1.5.1 (allow numeric constants in
  hex, octal, or binary; add ``append_const`` action; keep going if
  gettext cannot be imported; added ``OptionParser.destroy()`` method;
  added ``epilog`` for better help generation).

- Bug #1473760: ``tempfile.TemporaryFile()`` could hang on Windows, when
  called from a thread spawned as a side effect of importing a module.

- The pydoc module now supports documenting packages contained in
  .zip or .egg files.

- The pkgutil module now has several new utility functions, such
  as ``walk_packages()`` to support working with packages that are either
  in the filesystem or zip files.

- The mailbox module can now modify and delete messages from
  mailboxes, in addition to simply reading them.  Thanks to Gregory
  K. Johnson for writing the code, and to the 2005 Google Summer of
  Code for funding his work.

- The ``__del__`` method of class ``local`` in module ``_threading_local``
  returned before accomplishing any of its intended cleanup.

- Patch #790710: Add breakpoint command lists in pdb.

- Patch #1063914: Add Tkinter.Misc.clipboard_get().

- Patch #1191700: Adjust column alignment in bdb breakpoint lists.

- SimpleXMLRPCServer relied on the fcntl module, which is unavailable on
  Windows. Bug #1469163.

- The warnings, linecache, inspect, traceback, site, and doctest modules
  were updated to work correctly with modules imported from zipfiles or
  via other PEP 302 __loader__ objects.

- Patch #1467770: Reduce usage of subprocess._active to processes which
  the application hasn't waited on.

- Patch #1462222: Fix Tix.Grid.

- Fix exception when doing glob.glob('anything*/')

- The pstats.Stats class accepts an optional stream keyword argument to
  direct output to an alternate file-like object.

Build
-----

- The Makefile now has a reindent target, which runs reindent.py on
  the library.

- Patch #1470875: Building Python with MS Free Compiler

- Patch #1161914: Add a python-config script.

- Patch #1324762:Remove ccpython.cc; replace --with-cxx with
  --with-cxx-main. Link with C++ compiler only if --with-cxx-main was
  specified. (Can be overridden by explicitly setting LINKCC.) Decouple
  CXX from --with-cxx-main, see description in README.

- Patch #1429775: Link extension modules with the shared libpython.

- Fixed a libffi build problem on MIPS systems.

- ``PyString_FromFormat``, ``PyErr_Format``, and ``PyString_FromFormatV``
  now accept formats "%u" for unsigned ints, "%lu" for unsigned longs,
  and "%zu" for unsigned integers of type ``size_t``.

Tests
-----

- test_contextlib now checks contextlib.nested can cope with exceptions
  being raised and caught inside exit handlers.

- test_cmd_line now checks operation of the -m and -c command switches

- The test_contextlib test in 2.5a1 wasn't actually run unless you ran
  it separately and by hand.  It also wasn't cleaning up its changes to
  the current Decimal context.

- regrtest.py now has a -M option to run tests that test the new limits of
  containers, on 64-bit architectures. Running these tests is only sensible
  on 64-bit machines with more than two gigabytes of memory. The argument
  passed is the maximum amount of memory for the tests to use.

Tools
-----

- Added the Python benchmark suite pybench to the Tools/ directory;
  contributed by Marc-Andre Lemburg.

Documentation
-------------

- Patch #1473132: Improve docs for ``tp_clear`` and ``tp_traverse``.

- PEP 343: Added Context Types section to the library reference
  and attempted to bring other PEP 343 related documentation into
  line with the implementation and/or python-dev discussions.

- Bug #1337990: clarified that ``doctest`` does not support examples
  requiring both expected output and an exception.


What's New in Python 2.5 alpha 1?
=================================

*Release date: 05-APR-2006*

Core and builtins
-----------------

- PEP 338: -m command line switch now delegates to runpy.run_module
  allowing it to support modules in packages and zipfiles

- On Windows, .DLL is not an accepted file name extension for
  extension modules anymore; extensions are only found if they
  end in .PYD.

- Bug #1421664: sys.stderr.encoding is now set to the same value as
  sys.stdout.encoding.

- __import__ accepts keyword arguments.

- Patch #1460496: round() now accepts keyword arguments.

- Fixed bug #1459029 - unicode reprs were double-escaped.

- Patch #1396919: The system scope threads are reenabled on FreeBSD
  5.4 and later versions.

- Bug #1115379: Compiling a Unicode string with an encoding declaration
  now gives a SyntaxError.

- Previously, Python code had no easy way to access the contents of a
  cell object. Now, a ``cell_contents`` attribute has been added
  (closes patch #1170323).

- Patch #1123430: Python's small-object allocator now returns an arena to
  the system ``free()`` when all memory within an arena becomes unused
  again.  Prior to Python 2.5, arenas (256KB chunks of memory) were never
  freed.  Some applications will see a drop in virtual memory size now,
  especially long-running applications that, from time to time, temporarily
  use a large number of small objects.  Note that when Python returns an
  arena to the platform C's ``free()``, there's no guarantee that the
  platform C library will in turn return that memory to the operating system.
  The effect of the patch is to stop making that impossible, and in tests it
  appears to be effective at least on Microsoft C and gcc-based systems.
  Thanks to Evan Jones for hard work and patience.

- Patch #1434038: property() now uses the getter's docstring if there is
  no "doc" argument given. This makes it possible to legitimately use
  property() as a decorator to produce a read-only property.

- PEP 357, patch 1436368: add an __index__ method to int/long and a matching
  nb_index slot to the PyNumberMethods struct.  The slot is consulted instead
  of requiring an int or long in slicing and a few other contexts, enabling
  other objects (e.g. Numeric Python's integers) to be used as slice indices.

- Fixed various bugs reported by Coverity's Prevent tool.

- PEP 352, patch #1104669: Make exceptions new-style objects.  Introduced the
  new exception base class, BaseException, which has a new message attribute.
  KeyboardInterrupt and SystemExit to directly inherit from BaseException now.
  Raising a string exception now raises a DeprecationWarning.

- Patch #1438387, PEP 328: relative and absolute imports. Imports can now be
  explicitly relative, using 'from .module import name' to mean 'from the same
  package as this module is in. Imports without dots still default to the
  old relative-then-absolute, unless 'from __future__ import
  absolute_import' is used.

- Properly check if 'warnings' raises an exception (usually when a filter set
  to "error" is triggered) when raising a warning for raising string
  exceptions.

- CO_GENERATOR_ALLOWED is no longer defined. This behavior is the default.
  The name was removed from Include/code.h.

- PEP 308: conditional expressions were added: (x if cond else y).

- Patch 1433928:
  - The copy module now "copies" function objects (as atomic objects).
  - dict.__getitem__ now looks for a __missing__ hook before raising
    KeyError.

- PEP 343: with statement implemented. Needs ``from __future__ import
  with_statement``. Use of 'with' as a variable will generate a warning.
  Use of 'as' as a variable will also generate a warning (unless it's
  part of an import statement).
  The following objects have __context__ methods:
  - The built-in file type.
  - The thread.LockType type.
  - The following types defined by the threading module:
    Lock, RLock, Condition, Semaphore, BoundedSemaphore.
  - The decimal.Context class.

- Fix the encodings package codec search function to only search
  inside its own package. Fixes problem reported in patch #1433198.

  Note: Codec packages should implement and register their own
  codec search function. PEP 100 has the details.

- PEP 353: Using ``Py_ssize_t`` as the index type.

- ``PYMALLOC_DEBUG`` builds now add ``4*sizeof(size_t)`` bytes of debugging
  info to each allocated block, since the ``Py_ssize_t`` changes (PEP 353)
  now allow Python to make use of memory blocks exceeding 2**32 bytes for
  some purposes on 64-bit boxes.  A ``PYMALLOC_DEBUG`` build was limited
  to 4-byte allocations before.

- Patch #1400181, fix unicode string formatting to not use the locale.
  This is how string objects work.  u'%f' could use , instead of .
  for the decimal point.  Now both strings and unicode always use periods.

- Bug #1244610, #1392915, fix build problem on OpenBSD 3.7 and 3.8.
  configure would break checking curses.h.

- Bug #959576: The pwd module is now built in. This allows Python to be
  built on UNIX platforms without $HOME set.

- Bug #1072182, fix some potential problems if characters are signed.

- Bug #889500, fix line number on SyntaxWarning for global declarations.

- Bug #1378022, UTF-8 files with a leading BOM crashed the interpreter.

- Support for converting hex strings to floats no longer works.
  This was not portable.  float('0x3') now raises a ValueError.

- Patch #1382163: Expose Subversion revision number to Python.  New C API
  function Py_GetBuildNumber().  New attribute sys.subversion.  Build number
  is now displayed in interactive prompt banner.

- Implementation of PEP 341 - Unification of try/except and try/finally.
  "except" clauses can now be written together with a "finally" clause in
  one try statement instead of two nested ones.  Patch #1355913.

- Bug #1379994: Builtin unicode_escape and raw_unicode_escape codec
  now encodes backslash correctly.

- Patch #1350409: Work around signal handling bug in Visual Studio 2005.

- Bug #1281408: Py_BuildValue now works correctly even with unsigned longs
  and long longs.

- SF Bug #1350188, "setdlopenflags" leads to crash upon "import"
  It was possible for dlerror() to return a NULL pointer, so
  it will now use a default error message in this case.

- Replaced most Unicode charmap codecs with new ones using the
  new Unicode translate string feature in the built-in charmap
  codec; the codecs were created from the mapping tables available
  at ftp.unicode.org and contain a few updates (e.g. the Mac OS
  encodings now include a mapping for the Apple logo)

- Added a few more codecs for Mac OS encodings

- Sped up some Unicode operations.

- A new AST parser implementation was completed. The abstract
  syntax tree is available for read-only (non-compile) access
  to Python code; an _ast module was added.

- SF bug #1167751: fix incorrect code being produced for generator expressions.
  The following code now raises a SyntaxError:  foo(a = i for i in range(10))

- SF Bug #976608: fix SystemError when mtime of an imported file is -1.

- SF Bug #887946: fix segfault when redirecting stdin from a directory.
  Provide a warning when a directory is passed on the command line.

- Fix segfault with invalid coding.

- SF bug #772896: unknown encoding results in MemoryError.

- All iterators now have a Boolean value of True.  Formerly, some iterators
  supported a __len__() method which evaluated to False when the iterator
  was empty.

- On 64-bit platforms, when __len__() returns a value that cannot be
  represented as a C int, raise OverflowError.

- test__locale is skipped on OS X < 10.4 (only partial locale support is
  present).

- SF bug #893549: parsing keyword arguments was broken with a few format
  codes.

- Changes donated by Elemental Security to make it work on AIX 5.3
  with IBM's 64-bit compiler (SF patch #1284289).  This also closes SF
  bug #105470: test_pwd fails on 64bit system (Opteron).

- Changes donated by Elemental Security to make it work on HP-UX 11 on
  Itanium2 with HP's 64-bit compiler (SF patch #1225212).

- Disallow keyword arguments for type constructors that don't use them
  (fixes bug #1119418).

- Forward UnicodeDecodeError into SyntaxError for source encoding errors.

- SF bug #900092: When tracing (e.g. for hotshot), restore 'return' events for
  exceptions that cause a function to exit.

- The implementation of set() and frozenset() was revised to use its
  own internal data structure.  Memory consumption is reduced by 1/3
  and there are modest speed-ups as well.  The API is unchanged.

- SF bug #1238681:  freed pointer is used in longobject.c:long_pow().

- SF bug #1229429: PyObject_CallMethod failed to decrement some
  reference counts in some error exit cases.

- SF bug #1185883:  Python's small-object memory allocator took over
  a block managed by the platform C library whenever a realloc specified
  a small new size.  However, there's no portable way to know then how
  much of the address space following the pointer is valid, so there's no
  portable way to copy data from the C-managed block into Python's
  small-object space without risking a memory fault.  Python's small-object
  realloc now leaves such blocks under the control of the platform C
  realloc.

- SF bug #1232517: An overflow error was not detected properly when
  attempting to convert a large float to an int in os.utime().

- SF bug #1224347: hex longs now print with lowercase letters just
  like their int counterparts.

- SF bug #1163563: the original fix for bug #1010677 ("thread Module
  Breaks PyGILState_Ensure()") broke badly in the case of multiple
  interpreter states; back out that fix and do a better job (see
  http://mail.python.org/pipermail/python-dev/2005-June/054258.html
  for a longer write-up of the problem).

- SF patch #1180995: marshal now uses a binary format by default when
  serializing floats.

- SF patch #1181301: on platforms that appear to use IEEE 754 floats,
  the routines that promise to produce IEEE 754 binary representations
  of floats now simply copy bytes around.

- bug #967182: disallow opening files with 'wU' or 'aU' as specified by PEP
  278.

- patch #1109424: int, long, float, complex, and unicode now check for the
  proper magic slot for type conversions when subclassed.  Previously the
  magic slot was ignored during conversion.  Semantics now match the way
  subclasses of str always behaved.  int/long/float, conversion of an instance
  to the base class has been moved to the proper nb_* magic slot and out of
  PyNumber_*().
  Thanks Walter D�rwald.

- Descriptors defined in C with a PyGetSetDef structure, where the setter is
  NULL, now raise an AttributeError when attempting to set or delete the
  attribute.  Previously a TypeError was raised, but this was inconsistent
  with the equivalent pure-Python implementation.

- It is now safe to call PyGILState_Release() before
  PyEval_InitThreads() (note that if there is reason to believe there
  are multiple threads around you still must call PyEval_InitThreads()
  before using the Python API; this fix is for extension modules that
  have no way of knowing if Python is multi-threaded yet).

- Typing Ctrl-C whilst raw_input() was waiting in a build with threads
  disabled caused a crash.

- Bug #1165306: instancemethod_new allowed the creation of a method
  with im_class == im_self == NULL, which caused a crash when called.

- Move exception finalisation later in the shutdown process - this
  fixes the crash seen in bug #1165761

- Added two new builtins, any() and all().

- Defining a class with empty parentheses is now allowed
  (e.g., ``class C(): pass`` is no longer a syntax error).
  Patch #1176012 added support to the 'parser' module and 'compiler' package
  (thanks to logistix for that added support).

- Patch #1115086: Support PY_LONGLONG in structmember.

- Bug #1155938: new style classes did not check that __init__() was
  returning None.

- Patch #802188: Report characters after line continuation character
  ('\') with a specific error message.

- Bug #723201: Raise a TypeError for passing bad objects to 'L' format.

- Bug #1124295: the __name__ attribute of file objects was
  inadvertently made inaccessible in restricted mode.

- Bug #1074011: closing sys.std{out,err} now causes a flush() and
  an ferror() call.

- min() and max() now support key= arguments with the same meaning as in
  list.sort().

- The peephole optimizer now performs simple constant folding in expressions:
      (2+3) --> (5).

- set and frozenset objects can now be marshalled.  SF #1098985.

- Bug #1077106: Poor argument checking could cause memory corruption
  in calls to os.read().

- The parser did not complain about future statements in illegal
  positions.  It once again reports a syntax error if a future
  statement occurs after anything other than a doc string.

- Change the %s format specifier for str objects so that it returns a
  unicode instance if the argument is not an instance of basestring and
  calling __str__ on the argument returns a unicode instance.

- Patch #1413181:  changed ``PyThreadState_Delete()`` to forget about the
  current thread state when the auto-GIL-state machinery knows about
  it (since the thread state is being deleted, continuing to remember it
  can't help, but can hurt if another thread happens to get created with
  the same thread id).

Extension Modules
-----------------

- Patch #1380952: fix SSL objects timing out on consecutive read()s

- Patch #1309579: wait3 and wait4 were added to the posix module.

- Patch #1231053: The audioop module now supports encoding/decoding of alaw.
  In addition, the existing ulaw code was updated.

- RFE #567972: Socket objects' family, type and proto properties are
  now exposed via new attributes.

- Everything under lib-old was removed.  This includes the following modules:
    Para, addpack, cmp, cmpcache, codehack, dircmp, dump, find, fmt, grep,
    lockfile, newdir, ni, packmail, poly, rand, statcache, tb, tzparse,
    util, whatsound, whrandom, zmod

- The following modules were removed:  regsub, reconvert, regex, regex_syntax.

- re and sre were swapped, so help(re) provides full help.  importing sre
  is deprecated.  The undocumented re.engine variable no longer exists.

- Bug #1448490: Fixed a bug that ISO-2022 codecs could not handle
  SS2 (single-shift 2) escape sequences correctly.

- The unicodedata module was updated to the 4.1 version of the Unicode
  database. The 3.2 version is still available as unicodedata.db_3_2_0
  for applications that require this specific version (such as IDNA).

- The timing module is no longer built by default.  It was deprecated
  in PEP 4 in Python 2.0 or earlier.

- Patch 1433928: Added a new type, defaultdict, to the collections module.
  This uses the new __missing__ hook behavior added to dict (see above).

- Bug #854823: socketmodule now builds on Sun platforms even when
  INET_ADDRSTRLEN is not defined.

- Patch #1393157: os.startfile() now has an optional argument to specify
  a "command verb" to invoke on the file.

- Bug #876637, prevent stack corruption when socket descriptor
  is larger than FD_SETSIZE.

- Patch #1407135, bug #1424041: harmonize mmap behavior of anonymous memory.
  mmap.mmap(-1, size) now returns anonymous memory in both Unix and Windows.
  mmap.mmap(0, size) should not be used on Windows for anonymous memory.

- Patch #1422385: The nis module now supports access to domains other
  than the system default domain.

- Use Win32 API to implement os.stat/fstat. As a result, subsecond timestamps
  are reported, the limit on path name lengths is removed, and stat reports
  WindowsError now (instead of OSError).

- Add bsddb.db.DBEnv.set_tx_timestamp allowing time based database recovery.

- Bug #1413192, fix seg fault in bsddb if a transaction was deleted
  before the env.

- Patch #1103116: Basic AF_NETLINK support.

- Bug #1402308, (possible) segfault when using mmap.mmap(-1, ...)

- Bug #1400822, _curses over{lay,write} doesn't work when passing 6 ints.
  Also fix ungetmouse() which did not accept arguments properly.
  The code now conforms to the documented signature.

- Bug #1400115, Fix segfault when calling curses.panel.userptr()
  without prior setting of the userptr.

- Fix 64-bit problems in bsddb.

- Patch #1365916: fix some unsafe 64-bit mmap methods.

- Bug #1290333: Added a workaround for cjkcodecs' _codecs_cn build
  problem on AIX.

- Bug #869197: os.setgroups rejects long integer arguments

- Bug #1346533, select.poll() doesn't raise an error if timeout > sys.maxint

- Bug #1344508, Fix UNIX mmap leaking file descriptors

- Patch #1338314, Bug #1336623: fix tarfile so it can extract
  REGTYPE directories from tarfiles written by old programs.

- Patch #1407992, fixes broken bsddb module db associate when using
  BerkeleyDB 3.3, 4.0 or 4.1.

- Get bsddb module to build with BerkeleyDB version 4.4

- Get bsddb module to build with BerkeleyDB version 3.2

- Patch #1309009, Fix segfault in pyexpat when the XML document is in latin_1,
  but Python incorrectly assumes it is in UTF-8 format

- Fix parse errors in the readline module when compiling without threads.

- Patch #1288833: Removed thread lock from socket.getaddrinfo on
  FreeBSD 5.3 and later versions which got thread-safe getaddrinfo(3).

- Patches #1298449 and #1298499: Add some missing checks for error
  returns in cStringIO.c.

- Patch #1297028: fix segfault if call type on MultibyteCodec,
  MultibyteStreamReader, or MultibyteStreamWriter

- Fix memory leak in posix.access().

- Patch #1213831: Fix typo in unicodedata._getcode.

- Bug #1007046: os.startfile() did not accept unicode strings encoded in
  the file system encoding.

- Patch #756021: Special-case socket.inet_aton('255.255.255.255') for
  platforms that don't have inet_aton().

- Bug #1215928: Fix bz2.BZ2File.seek() for 64-bit file offsets.

- Bug #1191043: Fix bz2.BZ2File.(x)readlines for files containing one
  line without newlines.

- Bug #728515: mmap.resize() now resizes the file on Unix as it did
  on Windows.

- Patch #1180695: Add nanosecond stat resolution, and st_gen,
  st_birthtime for FreeBSD.

- Patch #1231069: The fcntl.ioctl function now uses the 'I' code for
  the request code argument, which results in more C-like behaviour
  for large or negative values.

- Bug #1234979: For the argument of thread.Lock.acquire, the Windows
  implementation treated all integer values except 1 as false.

- Bug #1194181: bz2.BZ2File didn't handle mode 'U' correctly.

- Patch #1212117: os.stat().st_flags is now accessible as a attribute
  if available on the platform.

- Patch #1103951: Expose O_SHLOCK and O_EXLOCK in the posix module if
  available on the platform.

- Bug #1166660: The readline module could segfault if hook functions
  were set in a different thread than that which called readline.

- collections.deque objects now support a remove() method.

- operator.itemgetter() and operator.attrgetter() now support retrieving
  multiple fields.  This provides direct support for sorting on multiple
  keys (primary, secondary, etc).

- os.access now supports Unicode path names on non-Win32 systems.

- Patches #925152, #1118602: Avoid reading after the end of the buffer
  in pyexpat.GetInputContext.

- Patches #749830, #1144555: allow UNIX mmap size to default to current
  file size.

- Added functional.partial().  See PEP309.

- Patch #1093585: raise a ValueError for negative history items in readline.
  {remove_history,replace_history}

- The spwd module has been added, allowing access to the shadow password
  database.

- stat_float_times is now True.

- array.array objects are now picklable.

- the cPickle module no longer accepts the deprecated None option in the
  args tuple returned by __reduce__().

- itertools.islice() now accepts None for the start and step arguments.
  This allows islice() to work more readily with slices:
      islice(s.start, s.stop, s.step)

- datetime.datetime() now has a strptime class method which can be used to
  create datetime object using a string and format.

- Patch #1117961: Replace the MD5 implementation from RSA Data Security Inc
  with the implementation from http://sourceforge.net/projects/libmd5-rfc/.

Library
-------

- Patch #1388073: Numerous __-prefixed attributes of unittest.TestCase have
  been renamed to have only a single underscore prefix.  This was done to
  make subclassing easier.

- PEP 338: new module runpy defines a run_module function to support
  executing modules which provide access to source code or a code object
  via the PEP 302 import mechanisms.

- The email module's parsedate_tz function now sets the daylight savings
  flag to -1 (unknown) since it can't tell from the date whether it should
  be set.

- Patch #624325: urlparse.urlparse() and urlparse.urlsplit() results
  now sport attributes that provide access to the parts of the result.

- Patch #1462498: sgmllib now handles entity and character references
  in attribute values.

- Added the sqlite3 package. This is based on pysqlite2.1.3, and provides
  a DB-API interface in the standard library. You'll need sqlite 3.0.8 or
  later to build this - if you have an earlier version, the C extension
  module will not be built.

- Bug #1460340: ``random.sample(dict)`` failed in various ways.  Dicts
  aren't officially supported here, and trying to use them will probably
  raise an exception some day.  But dicts have been allowed, and "mostly
  worked", so support for them won't go away without warning.

- Bug #1445068: getpass.getpass() can now be given an explicit stream
  argument to specify where to write the prompt.

- Patch #1462313, bug #1443328: the pickle modules now can handle classes
  that have __private names in their __slots__.

- Bug #1250170: mimetools now handles socket.gethostname() failures gracefully.

- patch #1457316: "setup.py upload" now supports --identity to select the
  key to be used for signing the uploaded code.

- Queue.Queue objects now support .task_done() and .join() methods
  to make it easier to monitor when daemon threads have completed
  processing all enqueued tasks.  Patch #1455676.

- popen2.Popen objects now preserve the command in a .cmd attribute.

- Added the ctypes ffi package.

- email 4.0 package now integrated.  This is largely the same as the email 3.0
  package that was included in Python 2.3, except that PEP 8 module names are
  now used (e.g. mail.message instead of email.Message).  The MIME classes
  have been moved to a subpackage (e.g. email.mime.text instead of
  email.MIMEText).  The old names are still supported for now.  Several
  deprecated Message methods have been removed and lots of bugs have been
  fixed.  More details can be found in the email package documentation.

- Patches #1436130/#1443155: codecs.lookup() now returns a CodecInfo object
  (a subclass of tuple) that provides incremental decoders and encoders
  (a way to use stateful codecs without the stream API). Python functions
  codecs.getincrementaldecoder() and codecs.getincrementalencoder() as well
  as C functions PyCodec_IncrementalEncoder() and PyCodec_IncrementalDecoder()
  have been added.

- Patch #1359365: Calling next() on a closed StringIO.String object raises
  a ValueError instead of a StopIteration now (like file and cString.String do).
  cStringIO.StringIO.isatty() will raise a ValueError now if close() has been
  called before (like file and StringIO.StringIO do).

- A regrtest option -w was added to re-run failed tests in verbose mode.

- Patch #1446372: quit and exit can now be called from the interactive
  interpreter to exit.

- The function get_count() has been added to the gc module, and gc.collect()
  grew an optional 'generation' argument.

- A library msilib to generate Windows Installer files, and a distutils
  command bdist_msi have been added.

- PEP 343: new module contextlib.py defines decorator @contextmanager
  and helpful context managers nested() and closing().

- The compiler package now supports future imports after the module docstring.

- Bug #1413790: zipfile now sanitizes absolute archive names that are
  not allowed by the specs.

- Patch #1215184: FileInput now can be given an opening hook which can
  be used to control how files are opened.

- Patch #1212287: fileinput.input() now has a mode parameter for
  specifying the file mode input files should be opened with.

- Patch #1215184: fileinput now has a fileno() function for getting the
  current file number.

- Patch #1349274: gettext.install() now optionally installs additional
  translation functions other than _() in the builtins namespace.

- Patch #1337756: fileinput now accepts Unicode filenames.

- Patch #1373643: The chunk module can now read chunks larger than
  two gigabytes.

- Patch #1417555: SimpleHTTPServer now returns Last-Modified headers.

- Bug #1430298: It is now possible to send a mail with an empty
  return address using smtplib.

- Bug #1432260: The names of lambda functions are now properly displayed
  in pydoc.

- Patch #1412872: zipfile now sets the creator system to 3 (Unix)
  unless the system is Win32.

- Patch #1349118: urllib now supports user:pass@ style proxy
  specifications, raises IOErrors when proxies for unsupported protocols
  are defined, and uses the https proxy on https redirections.

- Bug #902075: urllib2 now supports 'host:port' style proxy specifications.

- Bug #1407902: Add support for sftp:// URIs to urlparse.

- Bug #1371247: Update Windows locale identifiers in locale.py.

- Bug #1394565: SimpleHTTPServer now doesn't choke on query parameters
  any more.

- Bug #1403410: The warnings module now doesn't get confused
  when it can't find out the module name it generates a warning for.

- Patch #1177307: Added a new codec utf_8_sig for UTF-8 with a BOM signature.

- Patch #1157027: cookielib mishandles RFC 2109 cookies in Netscape mode

- Patch #1117398: cookielib.LWPCookieJar and .MozillaCookieJar now raise
  LoadError as documented, instead of IOError.  For compatibility,
  LoadError subclasses IOError.

- Added the hashlib module.  It provides secure hash functions for MD5 and
  SHA1, 224, 256, 384, and 512.  Note that recent developments make the
  historic MD5 and SHA1 unsuitable for cryptographic-strength applications.
  In <http://mail.python.org/pipermail/python-dev/2005-December/058850.html>
  Ronald L. Rivest offered this advice for Python:

      "The consensus of researchers in this area (at least as
      expressed at the NIST Hash Function Workshop 10/31/05),
      is that SHA-256 is a good choice for the time being, but
      that research should continue, and other alternatives may
      arise from this research.  The larger SHA's also seem OK."

- Added a subset of Fredrik Lundh's ElementTree package.  Available
  modules are xml.etree.ElementTree, xml.etree.ElementPath, and
  xml.etree.ElementInclude, from ElementTree 1.2.6.

- Patch #1162825: Support non-ASCII characters in IDLE window titles.

- Bug #1365984: urllib now opens "data:" URLs again.

- Patch #1314396: prevent deadlock for threading.Thread.join() when an exception
  is raised within the method itself on a previous call (e.g., passing in an
  illegal argument)

- Bug #1340337: change time.strptime() to always return ValueError when there
  is an error in the format string.

- Patch #754022: Greatly enhanced webbrowser.py (by Oleg Broytmann).

- Bug #729103: pydoc.py: Fix docother() method to accept additional
  "parent" argument.

- Patch #1300515: xdrlib.py: Fix pack_fstring() to really use null bytes
  for padding.

- Bug #1296004: httplib.py: Limit maximal amount of data read from the
  socket to avoid a MemoryError on Windows.

- Patch #1166948: locale.py: Prefer LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE and LANG over LANGUAGE
  to get the correct encoding.

- Patch #1166938: locale.py: Parse LANGUAGE as a colon separated list of
  languages.

- Patch #1268314: Cache lines in StreamReader.readlines for performance.

- Bug #1290505: Fix clearing the regex cache for time.strptime().

- Bug #1167128: Fix size of a symlink in a tarfile to be 0.

- Patch #810023: Fix off-by-one bug in urllib.urlretrieve reporthook
  functionality.

- Bug #1163178: Make IDNA return an empty string when the input is empty.

- Patch #848017: Make Cookie more RFC-compliant. Use CRLF as default output
  separator and do not output trailing semicolon.

- Patch #1062060: urllib.urlretrieve() now raises a new exception, named
  ContentTooShortException, when the actually downloaded size does not
  match the Content-Length header.

- Bug #1121494: distutils.dir_utils.mkpath now accepts Unicode strings.

- Bug #1178484: Return complete lines from codec stream readers
  even if there is an exception in later lines, resulting in
  correct line numbers for decoding errors in source code.

- Bug #1192315: Disallow negative arguments to clear() in pdb.

- Patch #827386: Support absolute source paths in msvccompiler.py.

- Patch #1105730: Apply the new implementation of commonprefix in posixpath
  to ntpath, macpath, os2emxpath and riscospath.

- Fix a problem in Tkinter introduced by SF patch #869468: delete bogus
  __hasattr__ and __delattr__ methods on class Tk that were breaking
  Tkdnd.

- Bug #1015140: disambiguated the term "article id" in nntplib docs and
  docstrings to either "article number" or "message id".

- Bug #1238170: threading.Thread.__init__ no longer has "kwargs={}" as a
  parameter, but uses the usual "kwargs=None".

- textwrap now processes text chunks at O(n) speed instead of O(n**2).
  Patch #1209527 (Contributed by Connelly).

- urllib2 has now an attribute 'httpresponses' mapping from HTTP status code
  to W3C name (404 -> 'Not Found'). RFE #1216944.

- Bug #1177468: Don't cache the /dev/urandom file descriptor for os.urandom,
  as this can cause problems with apps closing all file descriptors.

- Bug #839151: Fix an attempt to access sys.argv in the warnings module;
  it can be missing in embedded interpreters

- Bug #1155638: Fix a bug which affected HTTP 0.9 responses in httplib.

- Bug #1100201: Cross-site scripting was possible on BaseHTTPServer via
  error messages.

- Bug #1108948: Cookie.py produced invalid JavaScript code.

- The tokenize module now detects and reports indentation errors.
  Bug #1224621.

- The tokenize module has a new untokenize() function to support a full
  roundtrip from lexed tokens back to Python source code.  In addition,
  the generate_tokens() function now accepts a callable argument that
  terminates by raising StopIteration.

- Bug #1196315: fix weakref.WeakValueDictionary constructor.

- Bug #1213894: os.path.realpath didn't resolve symlinks that were the first
  component of the path.

- Patch #1120353: The xmlrpclib module provides better, more transparent,
  support for datetime.{datetime,date,time} objects.  With use_datetime set
  to True, applications shouldn't have to fiddle with the DateTime wrapper
  class at all.

- distutils.commands.upload was added to support uploading distribution
  files to PyPI.

- distutils.commands.register now encodes the data as UTF-8 before posting
  them to PyPI.

- decimal operator and comparison methods now return NotImplemented
  instead of raising a TypeError when interacting with other types.  This
  allows other classes to implement __radd__ style methods and have them
  work as expected.

- Bug #1163325:  Decimal infinities failed to hash.  Attempting to
  hash a NaN raised an InvalidOperation instead of a TypeError.

- Patch #918101: Add tarfile open mode r|* for auto-detection of the
  stream compression; add, for symmetry reasons, r:* as a synonym of r.

- Patch #1043890: Add extractall method to tarfile.

- Patch #1075887: Don't require MSVC in distutils if there is nothing
  to build.

- Patch #1103407: Properly deal with tarfile iterators when untarring
  symbolic links on Windows.

- Patch #645894: Use getrusage for computing the time consumption in
  profile.py if available.

- Patch #1046831: Use get_python_version where appropriate in sysconfig.py.

- Patch #1117454: Remove code to special-case cookies without values
  in LWPCookieJar.

- Patch #1117339: Add cookielib special name tests.

- Patch #1112812: Make bsddb/__init__.py more friendly for modulefinder.

- Patch #1110248: SYNC_FLUSH the zlib buffer for GZipFile.flush.

- Patch #1107973: Allow to iterate over the lines of a tarfile.ExFileObject.

- Patch #1104111: Alter setup.py --help and --help-commands.

- Patch #1121234: Properly cleanup _exit and tkerror commands.

- Patch #1049151: xdrlib now unpacks booleans as True or False.

- Fixed bug in a NameError bug in cookielib.  Patch #1116583.

- Applied a security fix to SimpleXMLRPCserver (PSF-2005-001).  This
  disables recursive traversal through instance attributes, which can
  be exploited in various ways.

- Bug #1222790: in SimpleXMLRPCServer, set the reuse-address and close-on-exec
  flags on the HTTP listening socket.

- Bug #792570: SimpleXMLRPCServer had problems if the request grew too large.
  Fixed by reading the HTTP body in chunks instead of one big socket.read().

- Patches #893642, #1039083: add allow_none, encoding arguments to
  constructors of SimpleXMLRPCServer and CGIXMLRPCRequestHandler.

- Bug #1110478: Revert os.environ.update to do putenv again.

- Bug #1103844: fix distutils.install.dump_dirs() with negated options.

- os.{SEEK_SET, SEEK_CUR, SEEK_END} have been added for convenience.

- Enhancements to the csv module:

  + Dialects are now validated by the underlying C code, better
    reflecting its capabilities, and improving its compliance with
    PEP 305.
  + Dialect parameter parsing has been re-implemented to improve error
    reporting.
  + quotechar=None and quoting=QUOTE_NONE now work the way PEP 305
    dictates.
  + the parser now removes the escapechar prefix from escaped characters.
  + when quoting=QUOTE_NONNUMERIC, the writer now tests for numeric
    types, rather than any object that can be represented as a numeric.
  + when quoting=QUOTE_NONNUMERIC, the reader now casts unquoted fields
    to floats.
  + reader now allows \r characters to be quoted (previously it only allowed
    \n to be quoted).
  + writer doublequote handling improved.
  + Dialect classes passed to the module are no longer instantiated by
    the module before being parsed (the former validation scheme required
    this, but the mechanism was unreliable).
  + The dialect registry now contains instances of the internal
    C-coded dialect type, rather than references to python objects.
  + the internal c-coded dialect type is now immutable.
  + register_dialect now accepts the same keyword dialect specifications
    as the reader and writer, allowing the user to register dialects
    without first creating a dialect class.
  + a configurable limit to the size of parsed fields has been added -
    previously, an unmatched quote character could result in the entire
    file being read into the field buffer before an error was reported.
  + A new module method csv.field_size_limit() has been added that sets
    the parser field size limit (returning the former limit). The initial
    limit is 128kB.
  + A line_num attribute has been added to the reader object, which tracks
    the number of lines read from the source iterator. This is not
    the same as the number of records returned, as records can span
    multiple lines.
  + reader and writer objects were not being registered with the cyclic-GC.
    This has been fixed.

- _DummyThread objects in the threading module now delete self.__block that is
  inherited from _Thread since it uses up a lock allocated by 'thread'.  The
  lock primitives tend to be limited in number and thus should not be wasted on
  a _DummyThread object.  Fixes bug #1089632.

- The imghdr module now detects Exif files.

- StringIO.truncate() now correctly adjusts the size attribute.
  (Bug #951915).

- locale.py now uses an updated locale alias table (built using
  Tools/i18n/makelocalealias.py, a tool to parse the X11 locale
  alias file); the encoding lookup was enhanced to use Python's
  encoding alias table.

- moved deprecated modules to Lib/lib-old:  whrandom, tzparse, statcache.

- the pickle module no longer accepts the deprecated None option in the
  args tuple returned by __reduce__().

- optparse now optionally imports gettext.  This allows its use in setup.py.

- the pickle module no longer uses the deprecated bin parameter.

- the shelve module no longer uses the deprecated binary parameter.

- the pstats module no longer uses the deprecated ignore() method.

- the filecmp module no longer uses the deprecated use_statcache argument.

- unittest.TestCase.run() and unittest.TestSuite.run() can now be successfully
  extended or overridden by subclasses.  Formerly, the subclassed method would
  be ignored by the rest of the module.  (Bug #1078905).

- heapq.nsmallest() and heapq.nlargest() now support key= arguments with
  the same meaning as in list.sort().

- Bug #1076985: ``codecs.StreamReader.readline()`` now calls ``read()`` only
  once when a size argument is given. This prevents a buffer overflow in the
  tokenizer with very long source lines.

- Bug #1083110: ``zlib.decompress.flush()`` would segfault if called
  immediately after creating the object, without any intervening
  ``.decompress()`` calls.

- The reconvert.quote function can now emit triple-quoted strings.  The
  reconvert module now has some simple documentation.

- ``UserString.MutableString`` now supports negative indices in
  ``__setitem__`` and ``__delitem__``

- Bug #1149508: ``textwrap`` now handles hyphenated numbers (eg. "2004-03-05")
  correctly.

- Partial fixes for SF bugs #1163244 and #1175396: If a chunk read by
  ``codecs.StreamReader.readline()`` has a trailing "\r", read one more
  character even if the user has passed a size parameter to get a proper
  line ending. Remove the special handling of a "\r\n" that has been split
  between two lines.

- Bug #1251300: On UCS-4 builds the "unicode-internal" codec will now complain
  about illegal code points. The codec now supports PEP 293 style error
  handlers.

- Bug #1235646: ``codecs.StreamRecoder.next()`` now reencodes the data it reads
  from the input stream, so that the output is a byte string in the correct
  encoding instead of a unicode string.

- Bug #1202493: Fixing SRE parser to handle '{}' as perl does, rather than
  considering it exactly like a '*'.

- Bug #1245379: Add "unicode-1-1-utf-7" as an alias for "utf-7" to
  ``encodings.aliases``.

- ` uu.encode()`` and ``uu.decode()`` now support unicode filenames.

- Patch #1413711: Certain patterns of differences were making difflib
  touch the recursion limit.

- Bug #947906: An object oriented interface has been added to the calendar
  module. It's possible to generate HTML calendar now and the module can be
  called as a script (e.g. via ``python -mcalendar``). Localized month and
  weekday names can be ouput (even if an exotic encoding is used) using
  special classes that use unicode.

Build
-----

- Fix test_float, test_long, and test_struct failures on Tru64 with gcc
  by using -mieee gcc option.

- Patch #1432345: Make python compile on DragonFly.

- Build support for Win64-AMD64 was added.

- Patch #1428494: Prefer linking against ncursesw over ncurses library.

- Patch #881820: look for openpty and forkpty also in libbsd.

- The sources of zlib are now part of the Python distribution (zlib 1.2.3).
  The zlib module is now built in on Windows.

- Use -xcode=pic32 for CCSHARED on Solaris with SunPro.

- Bug #1189330: configure did not correctly determine the necessary
  value of LINKCC if python was built with GCC 4.0.

- Upgrade Windows build to zlib 1.2.3 which eliminates a potential security
  vulnerability in zlib 1.2.1 and 1.2.2.

- EXTRA_CFLAGS has been introduced as an environment variable to hold compiler
  flags that change binary compatibility.  Changes were also made to
  distutils.sysconfig to also use the environment variable when used during
  compilation of the interpreter and of C extensions through distutils.

- SF patch 1171735: Darwin 8's headers are anal about POSIX compliance,
  and linking has changed (prebinding is now deprecated, and libcc_dynamic
  no longer exists). This configure patch makes things right.

- Bug #1158607: Build with --disable-unicode again.

- spwdmodule.c is built only if either HAVE_GETSPNAM or HAVE_HAVE_GETSPENT is
  defined.  Discovered as a result of not being able to build on OS X.

- setup.py now uses the directories specified in LDFLAGS using the -L option
  and in CPPFLAGS using the -I option for adding library and include
  directories, respectively, for compiling extension modules against.  This has
  led to the core being compiled using the values in CPPFLAGS.  It also removes
  the need for the special-casing of both DarwinPorts and Fink for darwin since
  the proper directories can be specified in LDFLAGS (``-L/sw/lib`` for Fink,
  ``-L/opt/local/lib`` for DarwinPorts) and CPPFLAGS (``-I/sw/include`` for
  Fink, ``-I/opt/local/include`` for DarwinPorts).

- Test in configure.in that checks for tzset no longer dependent on tm->tm_zone
  to exist in the struct (not required by either ISO C nor the UNIX 2 spec).
  Tests for sanity in tzname when HAVE_TZNAME defined were also defined.
  Closes bug #1096244.  Thanks Gregory Bond.

C API
-----

- ``PyMem_{Del, DEL}`` and ``PyMem_{Free, FREE}`` no longer map to
  ``PyObject_{Free, FREE}``.  They map to the system ``free()`` now.  If memory
  is obtained via the ``PyObject_`` family, it must be released via the
  ``PyObject_`` family, and likewise for the ``PyMem_`` family.  This has
  always been officially true, but when Python's small-object allocator was
  introduced, an attempt was made to cater to a few extension modules
  discovered at the time that obtained memory via ``PyObject_New`` but
  released it via ``PyMem_DEL``.  It's years later, and if such code still
  exists it will fail now (probably with segfaults, but calling wrong
  low-level memory management functions can yield many symptoms).

- Added a C API for set and frozenset objects.

- Removed PyRange_New().

- Patch #1313939: PyUnicode_DecodeCharmap() accepts a unicode string as the
  mapping argument now. This string is used as a mapping table. Byte values
  greater than the length of the string and 0xFFFE are treated as undefined
  mappings.


Tests
-----

- In test_os, st_?time is now truncated before comparing it with ST_?TIME.

- Patch #1276356: New resource "urlfetch" is implemented.  This enables
  even impatient people to run tests that require remote files.


Documentation
-------------

- Bug #1402224: Add warning to dl docs about crashes.

- Bug #1396471: Document that Windows' ftell() can return invalid
  values for text files with UNIX-style line endings.

- Bug #1274828: Document os.path.splitunc().

- Bug #1190204: Clarify which directories are searched by site.py.

- Bug #1193849: Clarify os.path.expanduser() documentation.

- Bug #1243192: re.UNICODE and re.LOCALE affect \d, \D, \s and \S.

- Bug #755617: Document the effects of os.chown() on Windows.

- Patch #1180012: The documentation for modulefinder is now in the library reference.

- Patch #1213031: Document that os.chown() accepts argument values of -1.

- Bug #1190563: Document os.waitpid() return value with WNOHANG flag.

- Bug #1175022: Correct the example code for property().

- Document the IterableUserDict class in the UserDict module.
  Closes bug #1166582.

- Remove all latent references for "Macintosh" that referred to semantics for
  Mac OS 9 and change to reflect the state for OS X.
  Closes patch #1095802.  Thanks Jack Jansen.

Mac
---


New platforms
-------------

- FreeBSD 7 support is added.


Tools/Demos
-----------

- Created Misc/Vim/vim_syntax.py to auto-generate a python.vim file in that
  directory for syntax highlighting in Vim.  Vim directory was added and placed
  vimrc to it (was previous up a level).

- Added two new files to Tools/scripts: pysource.py, which recursively
  finds Python source files, and findnocoding.py, which finds Python
  source files that need an encoding declaration.
  Patch #784089, credits to Oleg Broytmann.

- Bug #1072853: pindent.py used an uninitialized variable.

- Patch #1177597: Correct Complex.__init__.

- Fixed a display glitch in Pynche, which could cause the right arrow to
  wiggle over by a pixel.


What's New in Python 2.4 final?
===============================

*Release date: 30-NOV-2004*

Core and builtins
-----------------

- Bug 875692: Improve signal handling, especially when using threads, by
  forcing an early re-execution of PyEval_EvalFrame() "periodic" code when
  things_to_do is not cleared by Py_MakePendingCalls().


What's New in Python 2.4 (release candidate 1)
==============================================

*Release date: 18-NOV-2004*

Core and builtins
-----------------

- Bug 1061968:  Fixes in 2.4a3 to address thread bug 1010677 reintroduced
  the years-old thread shutdown race bug 225673.  Numeric history lesson
  aside, all bugs in all three reports are fixed now.


Library
-------

- Bug 1052242: If exceptions are raised by an atexit handler function an
  attempt is made to execute the remaining handlers.  The last exception
  raised is re-raised.

- ``doctest``'s new support for adding ``pdb.set_trace()`` calls to
  doctests was broken in a dramatic but shallow way.  Fixed.

- Bug 1065388:  ``calendar``'s ``day_name``, ``day_abbr``, ``month_name``,
  and ``month_abbr`` attributes emulate sequences of locale-correct
  spellings of month and day names.  Because the locale can change at
  any time, the correct spelling is recomputed whenever one of these is
  indexed.  In the worst case, the index may be a slice object, so these
  recomputed every day or month name each time they were indexed.  This is
  much slower than necessary in the usual case, when the index is just an
  integer.  In that case, only the single spelling needed is recomputed
  now; and, when the index is a slice object, only the spellings needed
  by the slice are recomputed now.

- Patch 1061679: Added ``__all__`` to pickletools.py.

Build
-----

- Bug 1034277 / Patch 1035255: Remove compilation of core against CoreServices
  and CoreFoundation on OS X.  Involved removing PyMac_GetAppletScriptFile()
  which has no known users.  Thanks Bob Ippolito.

C API
-----

- The PyRange_New() function is deprecated.


What's New in Python 2.4 beta 2?
================================

*Release date: 03-NOV-2004*

License
-------

The Python Software Foundation changed the license under which Python
is released, to remove Python version numbers.  There were no other
changes to the license.  So, for example, wherever the license for
Python 2.3 said "Python 2.3", the new license says "Python".  The
intent is to make it possible to refer to the PSF license in a more
durable way.  For example, some people say they're confused by that
the Open Source Initiative's entry for the Python Software Foundation
License::

      http://www.opensource.org/licenses/PythonSoftFoundation.php

says "Python 2.1.1" all over it, wondering whether it applies only
to Python 2.1.1.

The official name of the new license is the Python Software Foundation
License Version 2.

Core and builtins
-----------------

- Bug #1055820 Cyclic garbage collection was not protecting against that
  calling a live weakref to a piece of cyclic trash could resurrect an
  insane mutation of the trash if any Python code ran during gc (via
  running a dead object's __del__ method, running another callback on a
  weakref to a dead object, or via any Python code run in any other thread
  that managed to obtain the GIL while a __del__ or callback was running
  in the thread doing gc).  The most likely symptom was "impossible"
  ``AttributeError`` exceptions, appearing seemingly at random, on weakly
  referenced objects.  The cure was to clear all weakrefs to unreachable
  objects before allowing any callbacks to run.

- Bug #1054139 _PyString_Resize() now invalidates its cached hash value.

Extension Modules
-----------------

- Bug #1048870:  the compiler now generates distinct code objects for
  functions with identical bodies.  This was producing confusing
  traceback messages which pointed to the function where the code
  object was first defined rather than the function being executed.

Library
-------

- Patch #1056967 changes the semantics of Template.safe_substitute() so that
  no ValueError is raised on an 'invalid' match group.  Now the delimiter is
  returned.

- Bug #1052503 pdb.runcall() was not passing along keyword arguments.

- Bug #902037: XML.sax.saxutils.prepare_input_source() now combines relative
  paths with a base path before checking os.path.isfile().

- The whichdb module can now be run from the command line.

- Bug #1045381: time.strptime() can now infer the date using %U or %W (week of
  the year) when the day of the week and year are also specified.

- Bug #1048816: fix bug in Ctrl-K at start of line in curses.textpad.Textbox

- Bug #1017553: fix bug in tarfile.filemode()

- Patch #737473: fix bug that old source code is shown in tracebacks even if
  the source code is updated and reloaded.

Build
-----

- Patch #1044395: --enable-shared is allowed in FreeBSD also.

What's New in Python 2.4 beta 1?
================================

*Release date: 15-OCT-2004*

Core and builtins
-----------------

- Patch #975056: Restartable signals were not correctly disabled on
  BSD systems. Consistently use PyOS_setsig() instead of signal().

- The internal portable implementation of thread-local storage (TLS), used
  by the ``PyGILState_Ensure()``/``PyGILState_Release()`` API, was not
  thread-correct.  This could lead to a variety of problems, up to and
  including segfaults.  See bug 1041645 for an example.

- Added a command line option, -m module, which searches sys.path for the
  module and then runs it.  (Contributed by Nick Coghlan.)

- The bytecode optimizer now folds tuples of constants into a single
  constant.

- SF bug #513866:  Float/long comparison anomaly.  Prior to 2.4b1, when
  an integer was compared to a float, the integer was coerced to a float.
  That could yield spurious overflow errors (if the integer was very
  large), and to anomalies such as
  ``long(1e200)+1 == 1e200 == long(1e200)-1``.  Coercion to float is no
  longer performed, and cases like ``long(1e200)-1 < 1e200``,
  ``long(1e200)+1 > 1e200`` and ``(1 << 20000) > 1e200`` are computed
  correctly now.

Extension modules
-----------------

- ``collections.deque`` objects didn't play quite right with garbage
  collection, which could lead to a segfault in a release build, or
  an assert failure in a debug build.  Also, added overflow checks,
  better detection of mutation during iteration, and shielded deque
  comparisons from unusual subclass overrides of the __iter__() method.

Library
-------

- Patch 1046644: distutils build_ext grew two new options - --swig for
  specifying the swig executable to use, and --swig-opts to specify
  options to pass to swig. --swig-opts="-c++" is the new way to spell
  --swig-cpp.

- Patch 983206: distutils now obeys environment variable LDSHARED, if
  it is set.

- Added Peter Astrand's subprocess.py module.  See PEP 324 for details.

- time.strptime() now properly escapes timezones and all other locale-specific
  strings for regex-specific symbols.  Was breaking under Japanese Windows when
  the timezone was specified as "Tokyo (standard time)".
  Closes bug #1039270.

- Updates for the email package:

  + email.Utils.formatdate() grew a 'usegmt' argument for HTTP support.
  + All deprecated APIs that in email 2.x issued warnings have been removed:
    _encoder argument to the MIMEText constructor, Message.add_payload(),
    Utils.dump_address_pair(), Utils.decode(), Utils.encode()
  + New deprecations: Generator.__call__(), Message.get_type(),
    Message.get_main_type(), Message.get_subtype(), the 'strict' argument to
    the Parser constructor.  These will be removed in email 3.1.
  + Support for Python earlier than 2.3 has been removed (see PEP 291).
  + All defect classes have been renamed to end in 'Defect'.
  + Some FeedParser fixes; also a MultipartInvariantViolationDefect will be
    added to messages that claim to be multipart but really aren't.
  + Updates to documentation.

- re's findall() and finditer() functions now take an optional flags argument
  just like the compile(), search(), and match() functions.  Also, documented
  the previously existing start and stop parameters for the findall() and
  finditer() methods of regular expression objects.

- rfc822 Messages now support iterating over the headers.

- The (undocumented) tarfile.Tarfile.membernames has been removed;
  applications should use the getmember function.

- httplib now offers symbolic constants for the HTTP status codes.

- SF bug #1028306:  Trying to compare a ``datetime.date`` to a
  ``datetime.datetime`` mistakenly compared only the year, month and day.
  Now it acts like a mixed-type comparison:  ``False`` for ``==``,
  ``True`` for ``!=``, and raises ``TypeError`` for other comparison
  operators.  Because datetime is a subclass of date, comparing only the
  base class (date) members can still be done, if that's desired, by
  forcing using of the approprate date method; e.g.,
  ``a_date.__eq__(a_datetime)`` is true if and only if the year, month
  and day members of ``a_date`` and ``a_datetime`` are equal.

- bdist_rpm now supports command line options --force-arch,
  {pre,post}-install,  {pre,post}-uninstall, and
  {prep,build,install,clean,verify}-script.

- SF patch #998993: The UTF-8 and the UTF-16 stateful decoders now support
  decoding incomplete input (when the input stream is temporarily exhausted).
  ``codecs.StreamReader`` now implements buffering, which enables proper
  readline support for the UTF-16 decoders. ``codecs.StreamReader.read()``
  has a new argument ``chars`` which specifies the number of characters to
  return. ``codecs.StreamReader.readline()`` and
  ``codecs.StreamReader.readlines()`` have a new argument ``keepends``.
  Trailing "\n"s will be stripped from the lines if ``keepends`` is false.

- The documentation for doctest is greatly expanded, and now covers all
  the new public features (of which there are many).

- ``doctest.master`` was put back in, and ``doctest.testmod()`` once again
  updates it.  This isn't good, because every ``testmod()`` call
  contributes to bloating the "hidden" state of ``doctest.master``, but
  some old code apparently relies on it.  For now, all we can do is
  encourage people to stitch doctests together via doctest's unittest
  integration features instead.

- httplib now handles ipv6 address/port pairs.

- SF bug #1017864: ConfigParser now correctly handles default keys,
  processing them with ``ConfigParser.optionxform`` when supplied,
  consistent with the handling of config file entries and runtime-set
  options.

- SF bug #997050: Document, test, & check for non-string values in
  ConfigParser.  Moved the new string-only restriction added in
  rev. 1.65 to the SafeConfigParser class, leaving existing
  ConfigParser & RawConfigParser behavior alone, and documented the
  conditions under which non-string values work.

Build
-----

- Building on darwin now includes /opt/local/include and /opt/local/lib for
  building extension modules.  This is so as to include software installed as
  a DarwinPorts port <http://darwinports.opendarwin.org/>

- pyport.h now defines a Py_IS_NAN macro.  It works as-is when the
  platform C computes true for ``x != x`` if and only if X is a NaN.
  Other platforms can override the default definition with a platform-
  specific spelling in that platform's pyconfig.h.  You can also override
  pyport.h's default Py_IS_INFINITY definition now.

C API
-----

- SF patch 1044089:  New function ``PyEval_ThreadsInitialized()`` returns
  non-zero if PyEval_InitThreads() has been called.

- The undocumented and unused extern int ``_PyThread_Started`` was removed.

- The C API calls ``PyInterpreterState_New()`` and ``PyThreadState_New()``
  are two of the very few advertised as being safe to call without holding
  the GIL.  However, this wasn't true in a debug build, as bug 1041645
  demonstrated.  In a debug build, Python redirects the ``PyMem`` family
  of calls to Python's small-object allocator, to get the benefit of
  its extra debugging capabilities.  But Python's small-object allocator
  isn't threadsafe, relying on the GIL to avoid the expense of doing its
  own locking.  ``PyInterpreterState_New()`` and ``PyThreadState_New()``
  call the platform ``malloc()`` directly now, regardless of build type.

- PyLong_AsUnsignedLong[Mask] now support int objects as well.

- SF patch #998993: ``PyUnicode_DecodeUTF8Stateful`` and
  ``PyUnicode_DecodeUTF16Stateful`` have been added, which implement stateful
  decoding.

Tests
-----

- test__locale ported to unittest

Mac
---

- ``plistlib`` now supports non-dict root objects.  There is also a new
  interface for reading and writing plist files: ``readPlist(pathOrFile)``
  and ``writePlist(rootObject, pathOrFile)``

Tools/Demos
-----------

- The text file comparison scripts ``ndiff.py`` and ``diff.py`` now
  read the input files in universal-newline mode.  This spares them
  from consuming a great deal of time to deduce the useless result that,
  e.g., a file with Windows line ends and a file with Linux line ends
  have no lines in common.


What's New in Python 2.4 alpha 3?
=================================

*Release date: 02-SEP-2004*

Core and builtins
-----------------

- SF patch #1007189: ``from ... import ...`` statements now allow the name
  list to be surrounded by parentheses.

- Some speedups for long arithmetic, thanks to Trevor Perrin.  Gradeschool
  multiplication was sped a little by optimizing the C code.  Gradeschool
  squaring was sped by about a factor of 2, by exploiting that about half
  the digit products are duplicates in a square.  Because exponentiation
  uses squaring often, this also speeds long power.  For example, the time
  to compute 17**1000000 dropped from about 14 seconds to 9 on my box due
  to this much.  The cutoff for Karatsuba multiplication was raised,
  since gradeschool multiplication got quicker, and the cutoff was
  aggressively small regardless.  The exponentiation algorithm was switched
  from right-to-left to left-to-right, which is more efficient for small
  bases.  In addition, if the exponent is large, the algorithm now does
  5 bits (instead of 1 bit) at a time.  That cut the time to compute
  17**1000000 on my box in half again, down to about 4.5 seconds.

- OverflowWarning is no longer generated.  PEP 237 scheduled this to
  occur in Python 2.3, but since OverflowWarning was disabled by default,
  nobody realized it was still being generated.  On the chance that user
  code is still using them, the Python builtin OverflowWarning, and
  corresponding C API PyExc_OverflowWarning, will exist until Python 2.5.

- Py_InitializeEx has been added.

- Fix the order of application of decorators.  The proper order is bottom-up;
  the first decorator listed is the last one called.

- SF patch #1005778.  Fix a seg fault if the list size changed while
  calling list.index().  This could happen if a rich comparison function
  modified the list.

- The ``func_name`` (a.k.a. ``__name__``) attribute of user-defined
  functions is now writable.

- code_new (a.k.a new.code()) now checks its arguments sufficiently
  carefully that passing them on to PyCode_New() won't trigger calls
  to Py_FatalError() or PyErr_BadInternalCall().  It is still the case
  that the returned code object might be entirely insane.

- Subclasses of string can no longer be interned.  The semantics of
  interning were not clear here -- a subclass could be mutable, for
  example -- and had bugs.  Explicitly interning a subclass of string
  via intern() will raise a TypeError.  Internal operations that attempt
  to intern a string subclass will have no effect.

- Bug 1003935:  xrange() could report bogus OverflowErrors.  Documented
  what xrange() intends, and repaired tests accordingly.

Extension modules
-----------------

- difflib now supports HTML side-by-side diff.

- os.urandom has been added for systems that support sources of random
  data.

- Patch 1012740:  truncate() on a writable cStringIO now resets the
  position to the end of the stream.  This is consistent with the original
  StringIO module and avoids inadvertently resurrecting data that was
  supposed to have been truncated away.

- Added socket.socketpair().

- Added CurrentByteIndex, CurrentColumnNumber, CurrentLineNumber
  members to xml.parsers.expat.XMLParser object.

- The mpz, rotor, and xreadlines modules, all deprecated in earlier
  versions of Python, have now been removed.

Library
-------

- Patch #934356: if a module defines __all__, believe that rather than using
  heuristics for filtering out imported names.

- Patch #941486: added os.path.lexists(), which returns True for broken
  symlinks, unlike os.path.exists().

- the random module now uses os.urandom() for seeding if it is available.
  Added a new generator based on os.urandom().

- difflib and diff.py can now generate HTML.

- bdist_rpm now includes version and release in the BuildRoot, and
  replaces - by ``_`` in version and release.

- distutils build/build_scripts now has an -e option to specify the
  path to the Python interpreter for installed scripts.

- PEP 292 classes Template and SafeTemplate are added to the string module.

- tarfile now generates GNU tar files by default.

- HTTPResponse has now a getheaders method.

- Patch #1006219: let inspect.getsource handle '@' decorators. Thanks Simon
  Percivall.

- logging.handlers.SMTPHandler.date_time has been removed;
  the class now uses email.Utils.formatdate to generate the time stamp.

- A new function tkFont.nametofont was added to return an existing
  font. The Font class constructor now has an additional exists argument
  which, if True, requests to return/configure an existing font, rather
  than creating a new one.

- Updated the decimal package's min() and max() methods to match the
  latest revision of the General Decimal Arithmetic Specification.
  Quiet NaNs are ignored and equal values are sorted based on sign
  and exponent.

- The decimal package's Context.copy() method now returns deep copies.

- Deprecated sys.exitfunc in favor of the atexit module.  The sys.exitfunc
  attribute will be kept around for backwards compatibility and atexit
  will just become the one preferred way to do it.

- patch #675551: Add get_history_item and replace_history_item functions
  to the readline module.

- bug #989672: pdb.doc and the help messages for the help_d and help_u methods
  of the pdb.Pdb class gives have been corrected. d(own) goes to a newer
  frame, u(p) to an older frame, not the other way around.

- bug #990669: os.path.realpath() will resolve symlinks before normalizing the
  path, as normalizing the path may alter the meaning of the path if it
  contains symlinks.

- bug #851123: shutil.copyfile will raise an exception when trying to copy a
  file onto a link to itself. Thanks Gregory Ball.

- bug #570300: Fix inspect to resolve file locations using os.path.realpath()
  so as to properly list all functions in a module when the module itself is
  reached through a symlink.  Thanks Johannes Gijsbers.

- doctest refactoring continued.  See the docs for details.  As part of
  this effort, some old and little- (never?) used features are now
  deprecated:  the Tester class, the module is_private() function, and the
  isprivate argument to testmod().  The Tester class supplied a feeble
  "by hand" way to combine multiple doctests, if you knew exactly what
  you were doing.  The newer doctest features for unittest integration
  already did a better job of that, are stronger now than ever, and the
  new DocTestRunner class is a saner foundation if you want to do it by
  hand.  The "private name" filtering gimmick was a mistake from the
  start, and testmod() changed long ago to ignore it by default.  If
  you want to filter out tests, the new DocTestFinder class can be used
  to return a list of all doctests, and you can filter that list by
  any computable criteria before passing it to a DocTestRunner instance.

- Bug #891637, patch #1005466: fix inspect.getargs() crash on def foo((bar)).

Tools/Demos
-----------

- IDLE's shortcut keys for windows are now case insensitive so that
  Control-V works the same as Control-v.

- pygettext.py: Generate POT-Creation-Date header in ISO format.

Build
-----

- Backward incompatibility:  longintrepr.h now triggers a compile-time
  error if SHIFT (the number of bits in a Python long "digit") isn't
  divisible by 5.  This new requirement allows simple code for the new
  5-bits-at-a-time long_pow() implementation.  If necessary, the
  restriction could be removed (by complicating long_pow(), or by
  falling back to the 1-bit-at-a-time algorithm), but there are no
  plans to do so.

- bug #991962: When building with --disable-toolbox-glue on Darwin no
  attempt to build Mac-specific modules occurs.

- The --with-tsc flag to configure to enable VM profiling with the
  processor's timestamp counter now works on PPC platforms.

- patch #1006629: Define _XOPEN_SOURCE to 500 on Solaris 8/9 to match
  GCC's definition and avoid redefinition warnings.

- Detect pthreads support (provided by gnu pth pthread emulation) on
  GNU/k*BSD systems.

- bug #1005737, #1007249: Fixed several build problems and warnings
  found on old/legacy C compilers of HP-UX, IRIX and Tru64.

C API
-----

..

Documentation
-------------

- patch #1005936, bug #1009373: fix index entries which contain
  an underscore when viewed with Acrobat.

- bug #990669: os.path.normpath may alter the meaning of a path if
  it contains symbolic links. This has been documented in a comment
  since 1992, but is now in the library reference as well.

New platforms
-------------

- FreeBSD 6 is now supported.

Tests
-----

..

Windows
-------

- Boosted the stack reservation for python.exe and pythonw.exe from
  the default 1MB to 2MB.  Stack frames under VC 7.1 for 2.4 are enough
  bigger than under VC 6.0 for 2.3.4 that deeply recursive progams
  within the default sys.getrecursionlimit() default value of 1000 were
  able to suffer undetected C stack overflows.  The standard test program
  test_compiler was one such program.  If a Python process on Windows
  "just vanishes" without a trace, and without an error message of any
  kind, but with an exit code of 128, undetected stack overflow may be
  the problem.

Mac
---

..


What's New in Python 2.4 alpha 2?
=================================

*Release date: 05-AUG-2004*

Core and builtins
-----------------

- Patch #980695:  Implements efficient string concatenation for statements
  of the form s=s+t and s+=t.  This will vary across implementations.
  Accordingly, the str.join() method is strongly preferred for performance
  sensitive code.

- PEP-0318, Function Decorators have been added to the language. These are
  implemented using the Java-style @decorator syntax, like so::

     @staticmethod
     def foo(bar):

  (The PEP needs to be updated to reflect the current state)

- When importing a module M raises an exception, Python no longer leaves M
  in sys.modules.  Before 2.4a2 it did, and a subsequent import of M would
  succeed, picking up a module object from sys.modules reflecting as much
  of the initialization of M as completed before the exception was raised.
  Subsequent imports got no indication that M was in a partially-
  initialized state, and the importers could get into arbitrarily bad
  trouble as a result (the M they got was in an unintended state,
  arbitrarily far removed from M's author's intent).  Now subsequent
  imports of M will continue raising exceptions (but if, for example, the
  source code for M is edited between import attempts, then perhaps later
  attempts will succeed, or raise a different exception).

  This can break existing code, but in such cases the code was probably
  working before by accident.  In the Python source, the only case of
  breakage discovered was in a test accidentally relying on a damaged
  module remaining in sys.modules.  Cases are also known where tests
  deliberately provoking import errors remove damaged modules from
  sys.modules themselves, and such tests will break now if they do an
  unconditional del sys.modules[M].

- u'%s' % obj will now try obj.__unicode__() first and fallback to
  obj.__str__() if no __unicode__ method can be found.

- Patch #550732: Add PyArg_VaParseTupleAndKeywords().  Analogous to
  PyArg_VaParse().  Both are now documented.  Thanks Greg Chapman.

- Allow string and unicode return types from .encode()/.decode()
  methods on string and unicode objects.  Added unicode.decode()
  which was missing for no apparent reason.

- An attempt to fix the mess that is Python's behaviour with
  signal handlers and threads, complicated by readline's behaviour.
  It's quite possible that there are still bugs here.

- Added C macros Py_CLEAR and Py_VISIT to ease the implementation of
  types that support garbage collection.

- Compiler now treats None as a constant.

- The type of values returned by __int__, __float__, __long__,
  __oct__, and __hex__ are now checked.  Returning an invalid type
  will cause a TypeError to be raised.  This matches the behavior of
  Jython.

- Implemented bind_textdomain_codeset() in locale module.

- Added a workaround for proper string operations in BSDs.  str.split
  and str.is* methods can now work correctly with UTF-8 locales.

- Bug #989185: unicode.iswide() and unicode.width() is dropped and
  the East Asian Width support is moved to unicodedata extension
  module.

- Patch #941229: The source code encoding in interactive mode
  now refers sys.stdin.encoding not just ISO-8859-1 anymore.  This
  allows for non-latin-1 users to write unicode strings directly.

Extension modules
-----------------

- cpickle now supports the same keyword arguments as pickle.

Library
-------

- Added new codecs and aliases for ISO_8859-11, ISO_8859-16 and
  TIS-620

- Thanks to Edward Loper, doctest has been massively refactored, and
  many new features were added.  Full docs will appear later.  For now
  the doctest module comments and new test cases give good coverage.
  The refactoring provides many hook points for customizing behavior
  (such as how to report errors, and how to compare expected to actual
  output).  New features include a <BLANKLINE> marker for expected
  output containing blank lines, options to produce unified or context
  diffs when actual output doesn't match expectations, an option to
  normalize whitespace before comparing, and an option to use an
  ellipsis to signify "don't care" regions of output.

- Tkinter now supports the wish -sync and -use options.

- The following methods in time support passing of None: ctime(), gmtime(),
  and localtime().  If None is provided, the current time is used (the
  same as when the argument is omitted).
  [SF bug 658254, patch 663482]

- nntplib does now allow to ignore a .netrc file.

- urllib2 now recognizes Basic authentication even if other authentication
  schemes are offered.

- Bug #1001053.  wave.open() now accepts unicode filenames.

- gzip.GzipFile has a new fileno() method, to retrieve the handle of the
  underlying file object (provided it has a fileno() method).  This is
  needed if you want to use os.fsync() on a GzipFile.

- imaplib has two new methods: deleteacl and myrights.

- nntplib has two new methods: description and descriptions. They
  use a more RFC-compliant way of getting a newsgroup description.

- Bug #993394.  Fix a possible red herring of KeyError in 'threading' being
  raised during interpreter shutdown from a registered function with atexit
  when dummy_threading is being used.

- Bug #857297/Patch #916874.  Fix an error when extracting a hard link
  from a tarfile.

- Patch #846659.  Fix an error in tarfile.py when using
  GNU longname/longlink creation.

- The obsolete FCNTL.py has been deleted.  The built-in fcntl module
  has been available (on platforms that support fcntl) since Python
  1.5a3, and all FCNTL.py did is export fcntl's names, after generating
  a deprecation warning telling you to use fcntl directly.

- Several new unicode codecs are added: big5hkscs, euc_jis_2004,
  iso2022_jp_2004, shift_jis_2004.

- Bug #788520.  Queue.{get, get_nowait, put, put_nowait} have new
  implementations, exploiting Conditions (which didn't exist at the time
  Queue was introduced).  A minor semantic change is that the Full and
  Empty exceptions raised by non-blocking calls now occur only if the
  queue truly was full or empty at the instant the queue was checked (of
  course the Queue may no longer be full or empty by the time a calling
  thread sees those exceptions, though).  Before, the exceptions could
  also be raised if it was "merely inconvenient" for the implementation
  to determine the true state of the Queue (because the Queue was locked
  by some other method in progress).

- Bugs #979794 and #980117: difflib.get_grouped_opcodes() now handles the
  case of comparing two empty lists.  This affected both context_diff() and
  unified_diff(),

- Bug #980938: smtplib now prints debug output to sys.stderr.

- Bug #930024: posixpath.realpath() now handles infinite loops in symlinks by
  returning the last point in the path that was not part of any loop.  Thanks
  AM Kuchling.

- Bug #980327: ntpath not handles compressing erroneous slashes between the
  drive letter and the rest of the path.  Also clearly handles UNC addresses now
  as well.  Thanks Paul Moore.

- bug #679953: zipfile.py should now work for files over 2 GB.  The packed data
  for file sizes (compressed and uncompressed) was being stored as signed
  instead of unsigned.

- decimal.py now only uses signals in the IBM spec.  The other conditions are
  no longer part of the public API.

- codecs module now has two new generic APIs: encode() and decode()
  which don't restrict the return types (unlike the unicode and
  string methods of the same name).

- Non-blocking SSL sockets work again; they were broken in Python 2.3.
  SF patch 945642.

- doctest unittest integration improvements:

  o Improved the unitest test output for doctest-based unit tests

  o Can now pass setUp and tearDown functions when creating
    DocTestSuites.

- The threading module has a new class, local, for creating objects
  that provide thread-local data.

- Bug #990307: when keep_empty_values is True, cgi.parse_qsl()
  no longer returns spurious empty fields.

- Implemented bind_textdomain_codeset() in gettext module.

- Introduced in gettext module the l*gettext() family of functions,
  which return translation strings encoded in the preferred encoding,
  as informed by locale module's getpreferredencoding().

- optparse module (and tests) upgraded to Optik 1.5a1.  Changes:

  - Add expansion of default values in help text: the string
    "%default" in an option's help string is expanded to str() of
    that option's default value, or "none" if no default value.

  - Bug #955889: option default values that happen to be strings are
    now processed in the same way as values from the command line; this
    allows generation of nicer help when using custom types.  Can
    be disabled with parser.set_process_default_values(False).

  - Bug #960515: don't crash when generating help for callback
    options that specify 'type', but not 'dest' or 'metavar'.

  - Feature #815264: change the default help format for short options
    that take an argument from e.g. "-oARG" to "-o ARG"; add
    set_short_opt_delimiter() and set_long_opt_delimiter() methods to
    HelpFormatter to allow (slight) customization of the formatting.

  - Patch #736940: internationalize Optik: all built-in user-
    targeted literal strings are passed through gettext.gettext().  (If
    you want translations (.po files), they're not included with Python
    -- you'll find them in the Optik source distribution from
    http://optik.sourceforge.net/ .)

  - Bug #878453: respect $COLUMNS environment variable for
    wrapping help output.

  - Feature #988122: expand "%prog" in the 'description' passed
    to OptionParser, just like in the 'usage' and 'version' strings.
    (This is *not* done in the 'description' passed to OptionGroup.)

C API
-----

- PyImport_ExecCodeModule() and PyImport_ExecCodeModuleEx():  if an
  error occurs while loading the module, these now delete the module's
  entry from sys.modules.  All ways of loading modules eventually call
  one of these, so this is an error-case change in semantics for all
  ways of loading modules.  In rare cases, a module loader may wish
  to keep a module object in sys.modules despite that the module's
  code cannot be executed.  In such cases, the module loader must
  arrange to reinsert the name and module object in sys.modules.
  PyImport_ReloadModule() has been changed to reinsert the original
  module object into sys.modules if the module reload fails, so that
  its visible semantics have not changed.

- A large pile of datetime field-extraction macros is now documented,
  thanks to Anthony Tuininga (patch #986010).

Documentation
-------------

- Improved the tutorial on creating types in C.

  - point out the importance of reassigning data members before
    assigning their values

  - correct my misconception about return values from visitprocs. Sigh.

  - mention the labor saving Py_VISIT and Py_CLEAR macros.

- Major rewrite of the math module docs, to address common confusions.

Tests
-----

- The test data files for the decimal test suite are now installed on
  platforms that use the Makefile.

- SF patch 995225:  The test file testtar.tar accidentally contained
  CVS keywords (like $Id$), which could cause spurious failures in
  test_tarfile.py depending on how the test file was checked out.


What's New in Python 2.4 alpha 1?
=================================

*Release date: 08-JUL-2004*

Core and builtins
-----------------

- weakref.ref is now the type object also known as
  weakref.ReferenceType; it can be subclassed like any other new-style
  class.  There's less per-entry overhead in WeakValueDictionary
  objects now (one object instead of three).

- Bug #951851: Python crashed when reading import table of certain
  Windows DLLs.

- Bug #215126.  The locals argument to eval(), execfile(), and exec now
  accept any mapping type.

- marshal now shares interned strings. This change introduces
  a new .pyc magic.

- Bug #966623. classes created with type() in an exec(, {}) don't
  have a __module__, but code in typeobject assumed it would always
  be there.

- Python no longer relies on the LC_NUMERIC locale setting to be
  the "C" locale; as a result, it no longer tries to prevent changing
  the LC_NUMERIC category.

- Bug #952807:  Unpickling pickled instances of subclasses of
  datetime.date, datetime.datetime and datetime.time could yield insane
  objects.  Thanks to Jiwon Seo for a fix.

- Bug #845802: Python crashes when __init__.py is a directory.

- Unicode objects received two new methods: iswide() and width().
  These query East Asian width information, as specified in Unicode
  TR11.

- Improved the tuple hashing algorithm to give fewer collisions in
  common cases.  Fixes bug  #942952.

- Implemented generator expressions (PEP 289).  Coded by Jiwon Seo.

- Enabled the profiling of C extension functions (and builtins) - check
  new documentation and modified profile and bdb modules for more details

- Set file.name to the object passed to open (instead of a new string)

- Moved tracebackobject into traceback.h and renamed to PyTracebackObject

- Optimized the byte coding for multiple assignments like "a,b=b,a" and
  "a,b,c=1,2,3".  Improves their speed by 25% to 30%.

- Limit the nested depth of a tuple for the second argument to isinstance()
  and issubclass() to the recursion limit of the interpreter.
  Fixes bug  #858016 .

- Optimized dict iterators, creating separate types for each
  and having them reveal their length.  Also optimized the
  methods:  keys(), values(), and items().

- Implemented a newcode opcode, LIST_APPEND, that simplifies
  the generated bytecode for list comprehensions and further
  improves their performance (about 35%).

- Implemented rich comparisons for floats, which seems to make
  comparisons involving NaNs somewhat less surprising when the
  underlying C compiler actually implements C99 semantics.

- Optimized list.extend() to save memory and no longer create
  intermediate sequences.  Also, extend() now pre-allocates the
  needed memory whenever the length of the iterable is known in
  advance -- this halves the time to extend the list.

- Optimized list resize operations to make fewer calls to the system
  realloc().  Significantly speeds up list appends, list pops,
  list comprehensions, and the list constructor (when the input iterable
  length is not known).

- Changed the internal list over-allocation scheme.  For larger lists,
  overallocation ranged between 3% and 25%.  Now, it is a constant 12%.
  For smaller lists (n<8), overallocation was upto eight elements.  Now,
  the overallocation is no more than three elements -- this improves space
  utilization for applications that have large numbers of small lists.

- Most list bodies now get re-used rather than freed.  Speeds up list
  instantiation and deletion by saving calls to malloc() and free().

- The dict.update() method now accepts all the same argument forms
  as the dict() constructor.  This now includes item lists and/or
  keyword arguments.

- Support for arbitrary objects supporting the read-only buffer
  interface as the co_code field of code objects (something that was
  only possible to create from C code) has been removed.

- Made omitted callback and None equivalent for weakref.ref() and
  weakref.proxy(); the None case wasn't handled correctly in all
  cases.

- Fixed problem where PyWeakref_NewRef() and PyWeakref_NewProxy()
  assumed that initial existing entries in an object's weakref list
  would not be removed while allocating a new weakref object.  Since
  GC could be invoked at that time, however, that assumption was
  invalid.  In a truly obscure case of GC being triggered during
  creation for a new weakref object for an referent which already
  has a weakref without a callback which is only referenced from
  cyclic trash, a memory error can occur.  This consistently created a
  segfault in a debug build, but provided less predictable behavior in
  a release build.

- input() built-in function now respects compiler flags such as
  __future__ statements.  SF patch 876178.

- Removed PendingDeprecationWarning from apply().  apply() remains
  deprecated, but the nuisance warning will not be issued.

- At Python shutdown time (Py_Finalize()), 2.3 called cyclic garbage
  collection twice, both before and after tearing down modules.  The
  call after tearing down modules has been disabled, because too much
  of Python has been torn down then for __del__ methods and weakref
  callbacks to execute sanely.  The most common symptom was a sequence
  of uninformative messages on stderr when Python shut down, produced
  by threads trying to raise exceptions, but unable to report the nature
  of their problems because too much of the sys module had already been
  destroyed.

- Removed FutureWarnings related to hex/oct literals and conversions
  and left shifts.  (Thanks to Kalle Svensson for SF patch 849227.)
  This addresses most of the remaining semantic changes promised by
  PEP 237, except for repr() of a long, which still shows the trailing
  'L'.  The PEP appears to promise warnings for operations that
  changed semantics compared to Python 2.3, but this is not
  implemented; we've suffered through enough warnings related to
  hex/oct literals and I think it's best to be silent now.

- For str and unicode objects, the ljust(), center(), and rjust()
  methods now accept an optional argument specifying a fill
  character other than a space.

- When method objects have an attribute that can be satisfied either
  by the function object or by the method object, the function
  object's attribute usually wins.  Christian Tismer pointed out that
  that this is really a mistake, because this only happens for special
  methods (like __reduce__) where the method object's version is
  really more appropriate than the function's attribute.  So from now
  on, all method attributes will have precedence over function
  attributes with the same name.

- Critical bugfix, for SF bug 839548:  if a weakref with a callback,
  its callback, and its weakly referenced object, all became part of
  cyclic garbage during a single run of garbage collection, the order
  in which they were torn down was unpredictable.  It was possible for
  the callback to see partially-torn-down objects, leading to immediate
  segfaults, or, if the callback resurrected garbage objects, to
  resurrect insane objects that caused segfaults (or other surprises)
  later.  In one sense this wasn't surprising, because Python's cyclic gc
  had no knowledge of Python's weakref objects.  It does now.  When
  weakrefs with callbacks become part of cyclic garbage now, those
  weakrefs are cleared first.  The callbacks don't trigger then,
  preventing the problems.  If you need callbacks to trigger, then just
  as when cyclic gc is not involved, you need to write your code so
  that weakref objects outlive the objects they weakly reference.

- Critical bugfix, for SF bug 840829:  if cyclic garbage collection
  happened to occur during a weakref callback for a new-style class
  instance, subtle memory corruption was the result (in a release build;
  in a debug build, a segfault occurred reliably very soon after).
  This has been repaired.

- Compiler flags set in PYTHONSTARTUP are now active in __main__.

- Added two built-in types, set() and frozenset().

- Added a reversed() built-in function that returns a reverse iterator
  over a sequence.

- Added a sorted() built-in function that returns a new sorted list
  from any iterable.

- CObjects are now mutable (on the C level) through PyCObject_SetVoidPtr.

- list.sort() now supports three keyword arguments:  cmp, key, and reverse.
  The key argument can be a function of one argument that extracts a
  comparison key from the original record:  mylist.sort(key=str.lower).
  The reverse argument is a boolean value and if True will change the
  sort order as if the comparison arguments were reversed.  In addition,
  the documentation has been amended to provide a guarantee that all sorts
  starting with Py2.3 are guaranteed to be stable (the relative order of
  records with equal keys is unchanged).

- Added test whether wchar_t is signed or not. A signed wchar_t is not
  usable as internal unicode type base for Py_UNICODE since the
  unicode implementation assumes an unsigned type.

- Fixed a bug in the cache of length-one Unicode strings that could
  lead to a seg fault.  The specific problem occurred when an earlier,
  non-fatal error left an uninitialized Unicode object in the
  freelist.

- The % formatting operator now supports '%F' which is equivalent to
  '%f'.  This has always been documented but never implemented.

- complex(obj) could leak a little memory if obj wasn't a string or
  number.

- zip() with no arguments now returns an empty list instead of raising
  a TypeError exception.

- obj.__contains__() now returns True/False instead of 1/0.  SF patch
  820195.

- Python no longer tries to be smart about recursive comparisons.
  When comparing containers with cyclic references to themselves it
  will now just hit the recursion limit.  See SF patch 825639.

- str and unicode built-in types now have an rsplit() method that is
  same as split() except that it scans the string from the end
  working towards the beginning.  See SF feature request 801847.

- Fixed a bug in object.__reduce_ex__ when using protocol 2.  Failure
  to clear the error when attempts to get the __getstate__ attribute
  fail caused intermittent errors and odd behavior.

- buffer objects based on other objects no longer cache a pointer to
  the data and the data length.  Instead, the appropriate tp_as_buffer
  method is called as necessary.

- fixed: if a file is opened with an explicit buffer size >= 1, repeated
  close() calls would attempt to free() the buffer already free()ed on
  the first call.


Extension modules
-----------------

- Added socket.getservbyport(), and make the second argument in
  getservbyname() and getservbyport() optional.

- time module code that deals with input POSIX timestamps will now raise
  ValueError if more than a second is lost in precision when the
  timestamp is cast to the platform C time_t type.  There's no chance
  that the platform will do anything sensible with the result in such
  cases.  This includes ctime(), localtime() and gmtime().  Assorted
  fromtimestamp() and utcfromtimestamp() methods in the datetime module
  were also protected.  Closes bugs #919012 and 975996.

- fcntl.ioctl now warns if the mutate flag is not specified.

- nt now properly allows to refer to UNC roots, e.g. in nt.stat().

- the weakref module now supports additional objects:  array.array,
  sre.pattern_objects, file objects, and sockets.

- operator.isMappingType() and operator.isSequenceType() now give
  fewer false positives.

- socket.sslerror is now a subclass of socket.error .  Also added
  socket.error to the socket module's C API.

- Bug #920575: A problem where the _locale module segfaults on
  nl_langinfo(ERA) caused by GNU libc's illegal NULL return is fixed.

- array objects now support the copy module.  Also, their resizing
  scheme has been updated to match that used for list objects.  This improves
  the performance (speed and memory usage) of append() operations.
  Also, array.array() and array.extend() now accept any iterable argument
  for repeated appends without needing to create another temporary array.

- cStringIO.writelines() now accepts any iterable argument and writes
  the lines one at a time rather than joining them and writing once.
  Made a parallel change to StringIO.writelines().  Saves memory and
  makes suitable for use with generator expressions.

- time.strftime() now checks that the values in its time tuple argument
  are within the proper boundaries to prevent possible crashes from the
  platform's C library implementation of strftime().  Can possibly
  break code that uses values outside the range that didn't cause
  problems previously (such as sitting day of year to 0).  Fixes bug
  #897625.

- The socket module now supports Bluetooth sockets, if the
  system has <bluetooth/bluetooth.h>

- Added a collections module containing a new datatype, deque(),
  offering high-performance, thread-safe, memory friendly appends
  and pops on either side of the deque.

- Several modules now take advantage of collections.deque() for
  improved performance:  Queue, mutex, shlex, threading, and pydoc.

- The operator module has two new functions, attrgetter() and
  itemgetter() which are useful for creating fast data extractor
  functions for map(), list.sort(), itertools.groupby(), and
  other functions that expect a function argument.

- socket.SHUT_{RD,WR,RDWR} was added.

- os.getsid was added.

- The pwd module incorrectly advertised its struct type as
  struct_pwent; this has been renamed to struct_passwd.  (The old name
  is still supported for backwards compatibility.)

- The xml.parsers.expat module now provides Expat 1.95.7.

- socket.IPPROTO_IPV6 was added.

- readline.clear_history was added.

- select.select() now accepts sequences for its first three arguments.

- cStringIO now supports the f.closed attribute.

- The signal module now exposes SIGRTMIN and SIGRTMAX (if available).

- curses module now supports use_default_colors().  [patch #739124]

- Bug #811028: ncurses.h breakage on FreeBSD/MacOS X

- Bug #814613: INET_ADDRSTRLEN fix needed for all compilers on SGI

- Implemented non-recursive SRE matching scheme (#757624).

- Implemented (?(id/name)yes|no) support in SRE (#572936).

- random.seed() with no arguments or None uses time.time() as a default
  seed.  Modified to match Py2.2 behavior and use fractional seconds so
  that successive runs are more likely to produce different sequences.

- random.Random has a new method, getrandbits(k), which returns an int
  with k random bits.  This method is now an optional part of the API
  for user defined generators.  Any generator that defines genrandbits()
  can now use randrange() for ranges with a length >= 2**53.  Formerly,
  randrange would return only even numbers for ranges that large (see
  SF bug #812202).  Generators that do not define genrandbits() now
  issue a warning when randrange() is called with a range that large.

- itertools has a new function, groupby() for aggregating iterables
  into groups sharing the same key (as determined by a key function).
  It offers some of functionality of SQL's groupby keyword and of
  the Unix uniq filter.

- itertools now has a new tee() function which produces two independent
  iterators from a single iterable.

- itertools.izip() with no arguments now returns an empty iterator instead
  of raising a TypeError exception.

- Fixed #853061: allow BZ2Compressor.compress() to receive an empty string
  as parameter.

Library
-------

- Added a new module: cProfile, a C profiler with the same interface as the
  profile module.  cProfile avoids some of the drawbacks of the hotshot
  profiler and provides a bit more information than the other two profilers.
  Based on "lsprof" (patch #1212837).

- Bug #1266283: The new function "lexists" is now in os.path.__all__.

- Bug #981530: Fix UnboundLocalError in shutil.rmtree().  This affects
  the documented behavior: the function passed to the onerror()
  handler can now also be os.listdir.

- Bug #754449: threading.Thread objects no longer mask exceptions raised during
  interpreter shutdown with another exception from attempting to handle the
  original exception.

- Added decimal.py per PEP 327.

- Bug #981299: rsync is now a recognized protocol in urlparse that uses a
  "netloc" portion of a URL.

- Bug #919012: shutil.move() will not try to move a directory into itself.
  Thanks Johannes Gijsbers.

- Bug #934282: pydoc.stripid() is now case-insensitive.  Thanks Robin Becker.

- Bug #823209:  cmath.log() now takes an optional base argument so that its
  API matches math.log().

- Bug #957381: distutils bdist_rpm no longer fails on recent RPM versions
  that generate a -debuginfo.rpm

- os.path.devnull has been added for all supported platforms.

- Fixed #877165: distutils now picks the right C++ compiler command
  on cygwin and mingw32.

- urllib.urlopen().readline() now handles HTTP/0.9 correctly.

- refactored site.py into functions.  Also wrote regression tests for the
  module.

- The distutils install command now supports the --home option and
  installation scheme for all platforms.

- asyncore.loop now has a repeat count parameter that defaults to
  looping forever.

- The distutils sdist command now ignores all .svn directories, in
  addition to CVS and RCS directories.  .svn directories hold
  administrative files for the Subversion source control system.

- Added a new module: cookielib.  Automatic cookie handling for HTTP
  clients.  Also, support for cookielib has been added to urllib2, so
  urllib2.urlopen() can transparently handle cookies.

- stringprep.py now uses built-in set() instead of sets.Set().

- Bug #876278: Unbounded recursion in modulefinder

- Bug #780300: Swap public and system ID in LexicalHandler.startDTD.
  Applications relying on the wrong order need to be corrected.

- Bug #926075: Fixed a bug that returns a wrong pattern object
  for a string or unicode object in sre.compile() when a different
  type pattern with the same value exists.

- Added countcallers arg to trace.Trace class (--trackcalls command line arg
  when run from the command prompt).

- Fixed a caching bug in platform.platform() where the argument of 'terse' was
  not taken into consideration when caching value.

- Added two new command-line arguments for profile (output file and
  default sort).

- Added global runctx function to profile module

- Add hlist missing entryconfigure and entrycget methods.

- The ptcp154 codec was added for Kazakh character set support.

- Support non-anonymous ftp URLs in urllib2.

- The encodings package will now apply codec name aliases
  first before starting to try the import of the codec module.
  This simplifies overriding built-in codecs with external
  packages, e.g. the included CJK codecs with the JapaneseCodecs
  package, by adjusting the aliases dictionary in encodings.aliases
  accordingly.

- base64 now supports RFC 3548 Base16, Base32, and Base64 encoding and
  decoding standards.

- urllib2 now supports processors.  A processor is a handler that
  implements an xxx_request or xxx_response method.  These methods are
  called for all requests.

- distutils compilers now compile source files in the same order as
  they are passed to the compiler.

- pprint.pprint() and pprint.pformat() now have additional parameters
  indent, width and depth.

- Patch #750542: pprint now will pretty print subclasses of list, tuple
  and dict too, as long as they don't overwrite __repr__().

- Bug #848614: distutils' msvccompiler fails to find the MSVC6
  compiler because of incomplete registry entries.

- httplib.HTTP.putrequest now offers to omit the implicit Accept-Encoding.

- Patch #841977: modulefinder didn't find extension modules in packages

- imaplib.IMAP4.thread was added.

- Plugged a minor hole in tempfile.mktemp() due to the use of
  os.path.exists(), switched to using os.lstat() directly if possible.

- bisect.py and heapq.py now have underlying C implementations
  for better performance.

- heapq.py has two new functions, nsmallest() and nlargest().

- traceback.format_exc has been added (similar to print_exc but it returns
  a string).

- xmlrpclib.MultiCall has been added.

- poplib.POP3_SSL has been added.

- tmpfile.mkstemp now returns an absolute path even if dir is relative.

- urlparse is RFC 2396 compliant.

- The fieldnames argument to the csv module's DictReader constructor is now
  optional.  If omitted, the first row of the file will be used as the
  list of fieldnames.

- encodings.bz2_codec was added for access to bz2 compression
  using "a long string".encode('bz2')

- Various improvements to unittest.py, realigned with PyUnit CVS.

- dircache now passes exceptions to the caller, instead of returning
  empty lists.

- The bsddb module and dbhash module now support the iterator and
  mapping protocols which make them more substitutable for dictionaries
  and shelves.

- The csv module's DictReader and DictWriter classes now accept keyword
  arguments.  This was an omission in the initial implementation.

- The email package handles some RFC 2231 parameters with missing
  CHARSET fields better.  It also includes a patch to parameter
  parsing when semicolons appear inside quotes.

- sets.py now runs under Py2.2.  In addition, the argument restrictions
  for most set methods (but not the operators) have been relaxed to
  allow any iterable.

- _strptime.py now has a behind-the-scenes caching mechanism for the most
  recent TimeRE instance used along with the last five unique directive
  patterns.  The overall module was also made more thread-safe.

- random.cunifvariate() and random.stdgamma() were deprecated in Py2.3
  and removed in Py2.4.

- Bug #823328: urllib2.py's HTTP Digest Auth support works again.

- Patch #873597: CJK codecs are imported into rank of default codecs.

Tools/Demos
-----------

- A hotshotmain script was added to the Tools/scripts directory that
  makes it easy to run a script under control of the hotshot profiler.

- The db2pickle and pickle2db scripts can now dump/load gdbm files.

- The file order on the command line of the pickle2db script was reversed.
  It is now [ picklefile ] dbfile.  This provides better symmetry with
  db2pickle.  The file arguments to both scripts are now source followed by
  destination in situations where both files are given.

- The pydoc script will display a link to the module documentation for
  modules determined to be part of the core distribution.  The documentation
  base directory defaults to http://www.python.org/doc/current/lib/ but can
  be changed by setting the PYTHONDOCS environment variable.

- texcheck.py now detects double word errors.

- md5sum.py mistakenly opened input files in text mode by default, a
  silent and dangerous change from previous releases.  It once again
  opens input files in binary mode by default.  The -t and -b flags
  remain for compatibility with the 2.3 release, but -b is the default
  now.

- py-electric-colon now works when pending-delete/delete-selection mode is
  in effect

- py-help-at-point is no longer bound to the F1 key - it's still bound to
  C-c C-h

- Pynche was fixed to not crash when there is no ~/.pynche file and no
  -d option was given.

Build
-----

- Bug #978645: Modules/getpath.c now builds properly in --disable-framework
  build under OS X.

- Profiling using gprof is now available if Python is configured with
  --enable-profiling.

- Profiling the VM using the Pentium TSC is now possible if Python
  is configured --with-tsc.

- In order to find libraries, setup.py now also looks in /lib64, for use
  on AMD64.

- Bug #934635: Fixed a bug where the configure script couldn't detect
  getaddrinfo() properly if the KAME stack had SCTP support.

- Support for missing ANSI C header files (limits.h, stddef.h, etc) was
  removed.

- Systems requiring the D4, D6 or D7 variants of pthreads are no longer
  supported (see PEP 11).

- Universal newline support can no longer be disabled (see PEP 11).

- Support for DGUX, SunOS 4, IRIX 4 and Minix was removed (see PEP 11).

- Support for systems requiring --with-dl-dld or --with-sgi-dl was removed
  (see PEP 11).

- Tests for sizeof(char) were removed since ANSI C mandates that
  sizeof(char) must be 1.

C API
-----

- Thanks to Anthony Tuininga, the datetime module now supplies a C API
  containing type-check macros and constructors.  See new docs in the
  Python/C API Reference Manual for details.

- Private function _PyTime_DoubleToTimet added, to convert a Python
  timestamp (C double) to platform time_t with some out-of-bounds
  checking.  Declared in new header file timefuncs.h.  It would be
  good to expose some other internal timemodule.c functions there.

- New public functions PyEval_EvaluateFrame and PyGen_New to expose
  generator objects.

- New public functions Py_IncRef() and Py_DecRef(), exposing the
  functionality of the Py_XINCREF() and Py_XDECREF macros. Useful for
  runtime dynamic embedding of Python.  See patch #938302, by Bob
  Ippolito.

- Added a new macro, PySequence_Fast_ITEMS, which retrieves a fast sequence's
  underlying array of PyObject pointers.  Useful for high speed looping.

- Created a new method flag, METH_COEXIST, which causes a method to be loaded
  even if already defined by a slot wrapper.  This allows a __contains__
  method, for example, to co-exist with a defined sq_contains slot.  This
  is helpful because the PyCFunction can take advantage of optimized calls
  whenever METH_O or METH_NOARGS flags are defined.

- Added a new function, PyDict_Contains(d, k) which is like
  PySequence_Contains() but is specific to dictionaries and executes
  about 10% faster.

- Added three new macros: Py_RETURN_NONE, Py_RETURN_TRUE, and Py_RETURN_FALSE.
  Each return the singleton they mention after Py_INCREF()ing them.

- Added a new function, PyTuple_Pack(n, ...) for constructing tuples from a
  variable length argument list of Python objects without having to invoke
  the more complex machinery of Py_BuildValue().  PyTuple_Pack(3, a, b, c)
  is equivalent to Py_BuildValue("(OOO)", a, b, c).

Windows
-------

- The _winreg module could segfault when reading very large registry
  values, due to unchecked alloca() calls (SF bug 851056).  The fix is
  uses either PyMem_Malloc(n) or PyString_FromStringAndSize(NULL, n),
  as appropriate, followed by a size check.

- file.truncate() could misbehave if the file was open for update
  (modes r+, rb+, w+, wb+), and the most recent file operation before
  the truncate() call was an input operation.  SF bug 801631.


What's New in Python 2.3 final?
===============================

*Release date: 29-Jul-2003*

IDLE
----

- Bug 778400:  IDLE hangs when selecting "Edit with IDLE" from explorer.
  This was unique to Windows, and was fixed by adding an -n switch to
  the command the Windows installer creates to execute "Edit with IDLE"
  context-menu actions.

- IDLE displays a new message upon startup:  some "personal firewall"
  kinds of programs (for example, ZoneAlarm) open a dialog of their
  own when any program opens a socket.  IDLE does use sockets, talking
  on the computer's internal loopback interface.  This connection is not
  visible on any external interface and no data is sent to or received
  from the Internet.  So, if you get such a dialog when opening IDLE,
  asking whether to let pythonw.exe talk to address 127.0.0.1, say yes,
  and rest assured no communication external to your machine is taking
  place.  If you don't allow it, IDLE won't be able to start.


What's New in Python 2.3 release candidate 2?
=============================================

*Release date: 24-Jul-2003*

Core and builtins
-----------------

- It is now possible to import from zipfiles containing additional
  data bytes before the zip compatible archive.  Zipfiles containing a
  comment at the end are still unsupported.

Extension modules
-----------------

- A longstanding bug in the parser module's initialization could cause
  fatal internal refcount confusion when the module got initialized more
  than once.  This has been fixed.

- Fixed memory leak in pyexpat; using the parser's ParseFile() method
  with open files that aren't instances of the standard file type
  caused an instance of the bound .read() method to be leaked on every
  call.

- Fixed some leaks in the locale module.

Library
-------

- Lib/encodings/rot_13.py when used as a script, now more properly
  uses the first Python interpreter on your path.

- Removed caching of TimeRE (and thus LocaleTime) in _strptime.py to
  fix a locale related bug in the test suite.  Although another patch
  was needed to actually fix the problem, the cache code was not
  restored.

IDLE
----

- Calltips patches.

Build
-----

- For MacOSX, added -mno-fused-madd to BASECFLAGS to fix test_coercion
  on Panther (OSX 10.3).

C API
-----

Windows
-------

- The tempfile module could do insane imports on Windows if PYTHONCASEOK
  was set, making temp file creation impossible.  Repaired.

- Add a patch to workaround pthread_sigmask() bugs in Cygwin.

Mac
---

- Various fixes to pimp.

- Scripts runs with pythonw no longer had full window manager access.

- Don't force boot-disk-only install, for reasons unknown it causes
  more problems than it solves.


What's New in Python 2.3 release candidate 1?
=============================================

*Release date: 18-Jul-2003*

Core and builtins
-----------------

- The new function sys.getcheckinterval() returns the last value set
  by sys.setcheckinterval().

- Several bugs in the symbol table phase of the compiler have been
  fixed.  Errors could be lost and compilation could fail without
  reporting an error.  SF patch 763201.

- The interpreter is now more robust about importing the warnings
  module.  In an executable generated by freeze or similar programs,
  earlier versions of 2.3 would fail if the warnings module could
  not be found on the file system.  Fixes SF bug 771097.

- A warning about assignments to module attributes that shadow
  builtins, present in earlier releases of 2.3, has been removed.

- It is not possible to create subclasses of built-in types like str
  and tuple that define an itemsize.  Earlier releases of Python 2.3
  allowed this by mistake, leading to crashes and other problems.

- The thread_id is now initialized to 0 in a non-thread build.  SF bug
  770247.

- SF bug 762891: "del p[key]" on proxy object no longer raises SystemError.

Extension modules
-----------------

- weakref.proxy() can now handle "del obj[i]" for proxy objects
  defining __delitem__.  Formerly, it generated a SystemError.

- SSL no longer crashes the interpreter when the remote side disconnects.

- On Unix the mmap module can again be used to map device files.

- time.strptime now exclusively uses the Python implementation
  contained within the _strptime module.

- The print slot of weakref proxy objects was removed, because it was
  not consistent with the object's repr slot.

- The mmap module only checks file size for regular files, not
  character or block devices.  SF patch 708374.

- The cPickle Pickler garbage collection support was fixed to traverse
  the find_class attribute, if present.

- There are several fixes for the bsddb3 wrapper module.

  bsddb3 no longer crashes if an environment is closed before a cursor
  (SF bug 763298).

  The DB and DBEnv set_get_returns_none function was extended to take
  a level instead of a boolean flag.  The new level 2 means that in
  addition, cursor.set()/.get() methods return None instead of raising
  an exception.

  A typo was fixed in DBCursor.join_item(), preventing a crash.

Library
-------

- distutils now supports MSVC 7.1

- doctest now examines all docstrings by default.  Previously, it would
  skip over functions with private names (as indicated by the underscore
  naming convention).  The old default created too much of a risk that
  user tests were being skipped inadvertently.  Note, this change could
  break code in the unlikely case that someone had intentionally put
  failing tests in the docstrings of private functions.  The breakage
  is easily fixable by specifying the old behavior when calling testmod()
  or Tester().

- There were several fixes to the way dumbdbms are closed.  It's vital
  that a dumbdbm database be closed properly, else the on-disk data
  and directory files can be left in mutually inconsistent states.
  dumbdbm.py's _Database.__del__() method attempted to close the
  database properly, but a shutdown race in _Database._commit() could
  prevent this from working, so that a program trusting __del__() to
  get the on-disk files in synch could be badly surprised.  The race
  has been repaired.  A sync() method was also added so that shelve
  can guarantee data is written to disk.

  The close() method can now be called more than once without complaint.

- The classes in threading.py are now new-style classes.  That they
  weren't before was an oversight.

- The urllib2 digest authentication handlers now define the correct
  auth_header.  The earlier versions would fail at runtime.

- SF bug 763023: fix uncaught ZeroDivisionError in difflib ratio methods
  when there are no lines.

- SF bug 763637: fix exception in Tkinter with after_cancel
  which could occur with Tk 8.4

- SF bug 770601: CGIHTTPServer.py now passes the entire environment
  to child processes.

- SF bug 765238: add filter to fnmatch's __all__.

- SF bug 748201: make time.strptime() error messages more helpful.

- SF patch 764470: Do not dump the args attribute of a Fault object in
  xmlrpclib.

- SF patch 549151: urllib and urllib2 now redirect POSTs on 301
  responses.

- SF patch 766650: The whichdb module was fixed to recognize dbm files
  generated by gdbm on OS/2 EMX.

- SF bugs 763047 and 763052: fixes bug of timezone value being left as
  -1 when ``time.tzname[0] == time.tzname[1] and not time.daylight``
  is true when it should only when time.daylight is true.

- SF bug 764548: re now allows subclasses of str and unicode to be
  used as patterns.

- SF bug 763637: In Tkinter, change after_cancel() to handle tuples
  of varying sizes.  Tk 8.4 returns a different number of values
  than Tk 8.3.

- SF bug 763023: difflib.ratio() did not catch zero division.

- The Queue module now has an __all__ attribute.

Tools/Demos
-----------

- See Lib/idlelib/NEWS.txt for IDLE news.

- SF bug 753592: webchecker/wsgui now handles user supplied directories.

- The trace.py script has been removed.  It is now in the standard library.

Build
-----

- Python now compiles with -fno-strict-aliasing if possible (SF bug 766696).

- The socket module compiles on IRIX 6.5.10.

- An irix64 system is treated the same way as an irix6 system (SF
  patch 764560).

- Several definitions were missing on FreeBSD 5.x unless the
  __BSD_VISIBLE symbol was defined.  configure now defines it as
  needed.

C API
-----

- Unicode objects now support mbcs as a built-in encoding, so the C
  API can use it without deferring to the encodings package.

Windows
-------

- The Windows implementation of PyThread_start_new_thread() never
  checked error returns from Windows functions correctly.  As a result,
  it could claim to start a new thread even when the Microsoft
  _beginthread() function failed (due to "too many threads" -- this is
  on the order of thousands when it happens).  In these cases, the
  Python exception ::

      thread.error: can't start new thread

  is raised now.

- SF bug 766669: Prevent a GPF on interpreter exit when sockets are in
  use.  The interpreter now calls WSACleanup() from Py_Finalize()
  instead of from DLL teardown.

Mac
---

- Bundlebuilder now inherits default values in the right way.  It was
  previously possible for app bundles to get a type of "BNDL" instead
  of "APPL."  Other improvements include, a --build-id option to
  specify the CFBundleIdentifier and using the --python option to set
  the executable in the bundle.

- Fixed two bugs in MacOSX framework handling.

- pythonw did not allow user interaction in 2.3rc1, this has been fixed.

- Python is now compiled with -mno-fused-madd, making all tests pass
  on Panther.

What's New in Python 2.3 beta 2?
================================

*Release date: 29-Jun-2003*

Core and builtins
-----------------

- A program can now set the environment variable PYTHONINSPECT to some
  string value in Python, and cause the interpreter to enter the
  interactive prompt at program exit, as if Python had been invoked
  with the -i option.

- list.index() now accepts optional start and stop arguments.  Similar
  changes were made to UserList.index(). SF feature request 754014.

- SF patch 751998 fixes an unwanted side effect of the previous fix
  for SF bug 742860 (the next item).

- SF bug 742860: "WeakKeyDictionary __delitem__ uses iterkeys".  This
  wasn't threadsafe, was very inefficient (expected time O(len(dict))
  instead of O(1)), and could raise a spurious RuntimeError if another
  thread mutated the dict during __delitem__, or if a comparison function
  mutated it.  It also neglected to raise KeyError when the key wasn't
  present; didn't raise TypeError when the key wasn't of a weakly
  referencable type; and broke various more-or-less obscure dict
  invariants by using a sequence of equality comparisons over the whole
  set of dict keys instead of computing the key's hash code to narrow
  the search to those keys with the same hash code.  All of these are
  considered to be bugs.  A new implementation of __delitem__ repairs all
  that, but note that fixing these bugs may change visible behavior in
  code relying (whether intentionally or accidentally) on old behavior.

- SF bug 734869: Fixed a compiler bug that caused a fatal error when
  compiling a list comprehension that contained another list comprehension
  embedded in a lambda expression.

- SF bug 705231:  builtin pow() no longer lets the platform C pow()
  raise -1.0 to integer powers, because (at least) glibc gets it wrong
  in some cases.  The result should be -1.0 if the power is odd and 1.0
  if the power is even, and any float with a sufficiently large exponent
  is (mathematically) an exact even integer.

- SF bug 759227: A new-style class that implements __nonzero__() must
  return a bool or int (but not an int subclass) from that method.  This
  matches the restriction on classic classes.

- The encoding attribute has been added for file objects, and set to
  the terminal encoding on Unix and Windows.

- The softspace attribute of file objects became read-only by oversight.
  It's writable again.

- Reverted a 2.3 beta 1 change to iterators for subclasses of list and
  tuple.  By default, the iterators now access data elements directly
  instead of going through __getitem__.  If __getitem__ access is
  preferred, then __iter__ can be overridden.

- SF bug 735247: The staticmethod and super types participate in
  garbage collection. Before this change, it was possible for leaks to
  occur in functions with non-global free variables that used these types.

Extension modules
-----------------

- the socket module has a new exception, socket.timeout, to allow
  timeouts to be handled separately from other socket errors.

- SF bug 751276: cPickle has fixed to propagate exceptions raised in
  user code.  In earlier versions, cPickle caught and ignored any
  exception when it performed operations that it expected to raise
  specific exceptions like AttributeError.

- cPickle Pickler and Unpickler objects now participate in garbage
  collection.

- mimetools.choose_boundary() could return duplicate strings at times,
  especially likely on Windows.  The strings returned are now guaranteed
  unique within a single program run.

- thread.interrupt_main() raises KeyboardInterrupt in the main thread.
  dummy_thread has also been modified to try to simulate the behavior.

- array.array.insert() now treats negative indices as being relative
  to the end of the array, just like list.insert() does. (SF bug #739313)

- The datetime module classes datetime, time, and timedelta are now
  properly subclassable.

- _tkinter.{get|set}busywaitinterval was added.

- itertools.islice() now accepts stop=None as documented.
  Fixes SF bug #730685.

- the bsddb185 module is built in one restricted instance -
  /usr/include/db.h exists and defines HASHVERSION to be 2.  This is true
  for many BSD-derived systems.


Library
-------

- Some happy doctest extensions from Jim Fulton have been added to
  doctest.py.  These are already being used in Zope3.  The two
  primary ones:

  doctest.debug(module, name) extracts the doctests from the named object
  in the given module, puts them in a temp file, and starts pdb running
  on that file.  This is great when a doctest fails.

  doctest.DocTestSuite(module=None) returns a synthesized unittest
  TestSuite instance, to be run by the unittest framework, which
  runs all the doctests in the module.  This allows writing tests in
  doctest style (which can be clearer and shorter than writing tests
  in unittest style), without losing unittest's powerful testing
  framework features (which doctest lacks).

- For compatibility with doctests created before 2.3, if an expected
  output block consists solely of "1" and the actual output block
  consists solely of "True", it's accepted as a match; similarly
  for "0" and "False".  This is quite un-doctest-like, but is practical.
  The behavior can be disabled by passing the new doctest module
  constant DONT_ACCEPT_TRUE_FOR_1 to the new optionflags optional
  argument.

- ZipFile.testzip() now only traps BadZipfile exceptions.  Previously,
  a bare except caught to much and reported all errors as a problem
  in the archive.

- The logging module now has a new function, makeLogRecord() making
  LogHandler easier to interact with DatagramHandler and SocketHandler.

- The cgitb module has been extended to support plain text display (SF patch
  569574).

- A brand new version of IDLE (from the IDLEfork project at
  SourceForge) is now included as Lib/idlelib.  The old Tools/idle is
  no more.

- Added a new module: trace (documentation missing).  This module used
  to be distributed in Tools/scripts.  It uses sys.settrace() to trace
  code execution -- either function calls or individual lines.  It can
  generate tracing output during execution or a post-mortem report of
  code coverage.

- The threading module has new functions settrace() and setprofile()
  that cooperate with the functions of the same name in the sys
  module.  A function registered with the threading module will
  be used for all threads it creates.  The new trace module uses this
  to provide tracing for code running in threads.

- copy.py: applied SF patch 707900, fixing bug 702858, by Steven
  Taschuk.  Copying a new-style class that had a reference to itself
  didn't work.  (The same thing worked fine for old-style classes.)
  Builtin functions are now treated as atomic, fixing bug #746304.

- difflib.py has two new functions:  context_diff() and unified_diff().

- More fixes to urllib (SF 549151): (a) When redirecting, always use
  GET.  This is common practice and more-or-less sanctioned by the
  HTTP standard. (b) Add a handler for 307 redirection, which becomes
  an error for POST, but a regular redirect for GET and HEAD

- Added optional 'onerror' argument to os.walk(), to control error
  handling.

- inspect.is{method|data}descriptor was added, to allow pydoc display
  __doc__ of data descriptors.

- Fixed socket speed loss caused by use of the _socketobject wrapper class
  in socket.py.

- timeit.py now checks the current directory for imports.

- urllib2.py now knows how to order proxy classes, so the user doesn't
  have to insert it in front of other classes, nor do dirty tricks like
  inserting a "dummy" HTTPHandler after a ProxyHandler when building an
  opener with proxy support.

- Iterators have been added for dbm keys.

- random.Random objects can now be pickled.

Tools/Demos
-----------

- pydoc now offers help on keywords and topics.

- Tools/idle is gone; long live Lib/idlelib.

- diff.py prints file diffs in context, unified, or ndiff formats,
  providing a command line interface to difflib.py.

- texcheck.py is a new script for making a rough validation of Python LaTeX
  files.

Build
-----

- Setting DESTDIR during 'make install' now allows specifying a
  different root directory.

C API
-----

- PyType_Ready():  If a type declares that it participates in gc
  (Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC), and its base class does not, and its base class's
  tp_free slot is the default _PyObject_Del, and type does not define
  a tp_free slot itself, _PyObject_GC_Del is assigned to type->tp_free.
  Previously _PyObject_Del was inherited, which could at best lead to a
  segfault.  In addition, if even after this magic the type's tp_free
  slot is _PyObject_Del or NULL, and the type is a base type
  (Py_TPFLAGS_BASETYPE), TypeError is raised:  since the type is a base
  type, its dealloc function must call type->tp_free, and since the type
  is gc'able, tp_free must not be NULL or _PyObject_Del.

- PyThreadState_SetAsyncExc(): A new API (deliberately accessible only
  from C) to interrupt a thread by sending it an exception.  It is
  intentional that you have to write your own C extension to call it
  from Python.


New platforms
-------------

None this time.

Tests
-----

- test_imp rewritten so that it doesn't raise RuntimeError if run as a
  side effect of being imported ("import test.autotest").

Windows
-------

- The Windows installer ships with Tcl/Tk 8.4.3 (upgraded from 8.4.1).

- The installer always suggested that Python be installed on the C:
  drive, due to a hardcoded "C:" generated by the Wise installation
  wizard.  People with machines where C: is not the system drive
  usually want Python installed on whichever drive is their system drive
  instead.  We removed the hardcoded "C:", and two testers on machines
  where C: is not the system drive report that the installer now
  suggests their system drive.  Note that you can always select the
  directory you want in the "Select Destination Directory" dialog --
  that's what it's for.

Mac
---

- There's a new module called "autoGIL", which offers a mechanism to
  automatically release the Global Interpreter Lock when an event loop
  goes to sleep, allowing other threads to run. It's currently only
  supported on OSX, in the Mach-O version.
- The OSA modules now allow direct access to properties of the
  toplevel application class (in AppleScript terminology).
- The Package Manager can now update itself.

SourceForge Bugs and Patches Applied
------------------------------------

430160, 471893, 501716, 542562, 549151, 569574, 595837, 596434,
598163, 604210, 604716, 610332, 612627, 614770, 620190, 621891,
622042, 639139, 640236, 644345, 649742, 649742, 658233, 660022,
661318, 661676, 662807, 662923, 666219, 672855, 678325, 682347,
683486, 684981, 685773, 686254, 692776, 692959, 693094, 696777,
697989, 700827, 703666, 708495, 708604, 708901, 710733, 711902,
713722, 715782, 718286, 719359, 719367, 723136, 723831, 723962,
724588, 724767, 724767, 725942, 726150, 726446, 726869, 727051,
727719, 727719, 727805, 728277, 728563, 728656, 729096, 729103,
729293, 729297, 729300, 729317, 729395, 729622, 729817, 730170,
730296, 730594, 730685, 730826, 730963, 731209, 731403, 731504,
731514, 731626, 731635, 731643, 731644, 731644, 731689, 732124,
732143, 732234, 732284, 732284, 732479, 732761, 732783, 732951,
733667, 733781, 734118, 734231, 734869, 735051, 735293, 735527,
735613, 735694, 736962, 736962, 737970, 738066, 739313, 740055,
740234, 740301, 741806, 742126, 742741, 742860, 742860, 742911,
744041, 744104, 744238, 744687, 744877, 745055, 745478, 745525,
745620, 746012, 746304, 746366, 746801, 746953, 747348, 747667,
747954, 748846, 748849, 748973, 748975, 749191, 749210, 749759,
749831, 749911, 750008, 750092, 750542, 750595, 751038, 751107,
751276, 751451, 751916, 751941, 751956, 751998, 752671, 753451,
753602, 753617, 753845, 753925, 754014, 754340, 754447, 755031,
755087, 755147, 755245, 755683, 755987, 756032, 756996, 757058,
757229, 757818, 757821, 757822, 758112, 758910, 759227, 759889,
760257, 760703, 760792, 761104, 761337, 761519, 761830, 762455


What's New in Python 2.3 beta 1?
================================

*Release date: 25-Apr-2003*

Core and builtins
-----------------

- New format codes B, H, I, k and K have been implemented for
  PyArg_ParseTuple and PyBuild_Value.

- New built-in function sum(seq, start=0) returns the sum of all the
  items in iterable object seq, plus start (items are normally numbers,
  and cannot be strings).

- bool() called without arguments now returns False rather than
  raising an exception.  This is consistent with calling the
  constructors for the other built-in types -- called without argument
  they all return the false value of that type.  (SF patch #724135)

- In support of PEP 269 (making the pgen parser generator accessible
  from Python), some changes to the pgen code structure were made; a
  few files that used to be linked only with pgen are now linked with
  Python itself.

- The repr() of a weakref object now shows the __name__ attribute of
  the referenced object, if it has one.

- super() no longer ignores data descriptors, except __class__.  See
  the thread started at
  http://mail.python.org/pipermail/python-dev/2003-April/034338.html

- list.insert(i, x) now interprets negative i as it would be
  interpreted by slicing, so negative values count from the end of the
  list.  This was the only place where such an interpretation was not
  placed on a list index.

- range() now works even if the arguments are longs with magnitude
  larger than sys.maxint, as long as the total length of the sequence
  fits.  E.g., range(2**100, 2**101, 2**100) is the following list:
  [1267650600228229401496703205376L].  (SF patch #707427.)

- Some horridly obscure problems were fixed involving interaction
  between garbage collection and old-style classes with "ambitious"
  getattr hooks.  If an old-style instance didn't have a __del__ method,
  but did have a __getattr__ hook, and the instance became reachable
  only from an unreachable cycle, and the hook resurrected or deleted
  unreachable objects when asked to resolve "__del__", anything up to
  a segfault could happen.  That's been repaired.

- dict.pop now takes an optional argument specifying a default
  value to return if the key is not in the dict.  If a default is not
  given and the key is not found, a KeyError will still be raised.
  Parallel changes were made to UserDict.UserDict and UserDict.DictMixin.
  [SF patch #693753] (contributed by Michael Stone.)

- sys.getfilesystemencoding() was added to expose
  Py_FileSystemDefaultEncoding.

- New function sys.exc_clear() clears the current exception.  This is
  rarely needed, but can sometimes be useful to release objects
  referenced by the traceback held in sys.exc_info()[2].  (SF patch
  #693195.)

- On 64-bit systems, a dictionary could contain duplicate long/int keys
  if the key value was larger than 2**32.  See SF bug #689659.

- Fixed SF bug #663074. The codec system was using global static
  variables to store internal data. As a result, any attempts to use the
  unicode system with multiple active interpreters, or successive
  interpreter executions, would fail.

- "%c" % u"a" now returns a unicode string instead of raising a
  TypeError. u"%c" % 0xffffffff now raises a OverflowError instead
  of a ValueError to be consistent with "%c" % 256. See SF patch #710127.

Extension modules
-----------------

- The socket module now provides the functions inet_pton and inet_ntop
  for converting between string and packed representation of IP
  addresses.  There is also a new module variable, has_ipv6, which is
  True iff the current Python has IPv6 support.  See SF patch #658327.

- Tkinter wrappers around Tcl variables now pass objects directly
  to Tcl, instead of first converting them to strings.

- The .*? pattern in the re module is now special-cased to avoid the
  recursion limit.  (SF patch #720991 -- many thanks to Gary Herron
  and Greg Chapman.)

- New function sys.call_tracing() allows pdb to debug code
  recursively.

- New function gc.get_referents(obj) returns a list of objects
  directly referenced by obj.  In effect, it exposes what the object's
  tp_traverse slot does, and can be helpful when debugging memory
  leaks.

- The iconv module has been removed from this release.

- The platform-independent routines for packing floats in IEEE formats
  (struct.pack's <f, >f, <d, and >d codes; pickle and cPickle's protocol 1
  pickling of floats) ignored that rounding can cause a carry to
  propagate.  The worst consequence was that, in rare cases, <f and >f
  could produce strings that, when unpacked again, were a factor of 2
  away from the original float.  This has been fixed.  See SF bug
  #705836.

- New function time.tzset() provides access to the C library tzset()
  function, if supported.  (SF patch #675422.)

- Using createfilehandler, deletefilehandler, createtimerhandler functions
  on Tkinter.tkinter (_tkinter module) no longer crashes the interpreter.
  See SF bug #692416.

- Modified the fcntl.ioctl() function to allow modification of a passed
  mutable buffer (for details see the reference documentation).

- Made user requested changes to the itertools module.
  Subsumed the times() function into repeat().
  Added chain() and cycle().

- The rotor module is now deprecated; the encryption algorithm it uses
  is not believed to be secure, and including crypto code with Python
  has implications for exporting and importing it in various countries.

- The socket module now always uses the _socketobject wrapper class, even on
  platforms which have dup(2).  The makefile() method is built directly
  on top of the socket without duplicating the file descriptor, allowing
  timeouts to work properly.

Library
-------

- New generator function os.walk() is an easy-to-use alternative to
  os.path.walk().  See os module docs for details.  os.path.walk()
  isn't deprecated at this time, but may become deprecated in a
  future release.

- Added new module "platform" which provides a wide range of tools
  for querying platform dependent features.

- netrc now allows ASCII punctuation characters in passwords.

- shelve now supports the optional writeback argument, and exposes
  pickle protocol versions.

- Several methods of nntplib.NNTP have grown an optional file argument
  which specifies a file where to divert the command's output
  (already supported by the body() method).  (SF patch #720468)

- The self-documenting XML server library DocXMLRPCServer was added.

- Support for internationalized domain names has been added through
  the 'idna' and 'punycode' encodings, the 'stringprep' module, the
  'mkstringprep' tool, and enhancements to the socket and httplib
  modules.

- htmlentitydefs has two new dictionaries: name2codepoint maps
  HTML entity names to Unicode codepoints (as integers).
  codepoint2name is the reverse mapping. See SF patch #722017.

- pdb has a new command, "debug", which lets you step through
  arbitrary code from the debugger's (pdb) prompt.

- unittest.failUnlessEqual and its equivalent unittest.assertEqual now
  return 'not a == b' rather than 'a != b'.  This gives the desired
  result for classes that define __eq__ without defining __ne__.

- sgmllib now supports SGML marked sections, in particular the
  MS Office extensions.

- The urllib module now offers support for the iterator protocol.
  SF patch 698520 contributed by Brett Cannon.

- New module timeit provides a simple framework for timing the
  execution speed of expressions and statements.

- sets.Set objects now support mixed-type __eq__ and __ne__, instead
  of raising TypeError.  If x is a Set object and y is a non-Set object,
  x == y is False, and x != y is True.  This is akin to the change made
  for mixed-type comparisons of datetime objects in 2.3a2; more info
  about the rationale is in the NEWS entry for that.  See also SF bug
  report <http://www.python.org/sf/693121>.

- On Unix platforms, if os.listdir() is called with a Unicode argument,
  it now returns Unicode strings.  (This behavior was added earlier
  to the Windows NT/2k/XP version of os.listdir().)

- Distutils: both 'py_modules' and 'packages' keywords can now be specified
  in core.setup().  Previously you could supply one or the other, but
  not both of them.  (SF patch #695090 from Bernhard Herzog)

- New csv package makes it easy to read/write CSV files.

- Module shlex has been extended to allow posix-like shell parsings,
  including a split() function for easy spliting of quoted strings and
  commands. An iterator interface was also implemented.

Tools/Demos
-----------

- New script combinerefs.py helps analyze new PYTHONDUMPREFS output.
  See the module docstring for details.

Build
-----

- Fix problem building on OSF1 because the compiler only accepted
  preprocessor directives that start in column 1.  (SF bug #691793.)

C API
-----

- Added PyGC_Collect(), equivalent to calling gc.collect().

- PyThreadState_GetDict() was changed not to raise an exception or
  issue a fatal error when no current thread state is available.  This
  makes it possible to print dictionaries when no thread is active.

- LONG_LONG was renamed to PY_LONG_LONG.  Extensions that use this and
  need compatibility with previous versions can use this:

    #ifndef  PY_LONG_LONG
    #define  PY_LONG_LONG  LONG_LONG
    #endif

- Added PyObject_SelfIter() to fill the tp_iter slot for the
  typical case where the method returns its self argument.

- The extended type structure used for heap types (new-style
  classes defined by Python code using a class statement) is now
  exported from object.h as PyHeapTypeObject.  (SF patch #696193.)

New platforms
-------------

None this time.

Tests
-----

- test_timeout now requires -u network to be passed to regrtest to run.
  See SF bug #692988.

Windows
-------

- os.fsync() now exists on Windows, and calls the Microsoft _commit()
  function.

- New function winsound.MessageBeep() wraps the Win32 API
  MessageBeep().

Mac
---

- os.listdir() now returns Unicode strings on MacOS X when called with
  a Unicode argument. See the general news item under "Library".

- A new method MacOS.WMAvailable() returns true if it is safe to access
  the window manager, false otherwise.

- EasyDialogs dialogs are now movable-modal, and if the application is
  currently in the background they will ask to be moved to the foreground
  before displaying.

- OSA Scripting support has improved a lot, and gensuitemodule.py can now
  be used by mere mortals. The documentation is now also more or less
  complete.

- The IDE (in a framework build) now includes introductory documentation
  in Apple Help Viewer format.


What's New in Python 2.3 alpha 2?
=================================

*Release date: 19-Feb-2003*

Core and builtins
-----------------

- Negative positions returned from PEP 293 error callbacks are now
  treated as being relative to the end of the input string. Positions
  that are out of bounds raise an IndexError.

- sys.path[0] (the directory from which the script is loaded) is now
  turned into an absolute pathname, unless it is the empty string.
  (SF patch #664376.)

- Finally fixed the bug in compile() and exec where a string ending
  with an indented code block but no newline would raise SyntaxError.
  This would have been a four-line change in parsetok.c...  Except
  codeop.py depends on this behavior, so a compilation flag had to be
  invented that causes the tokenizer to revert to the old behavior;
  this required extra changes to 2 .h files, 2 .c files, and 2 .py
  files.  (Fixes SF bug #501622.)

- If a new-style class defines neither __new__ nor __init__, its
  constructor would ignore all arguments.  This is changed now: the
  constructor refuses arguments in this case.  This might break code
  that worked under Python 2.2.  The simplest fix is to add a no-op
  __init__: ``def __init__(self, *args, **kw): pass``.

- Through a bytecode optimizer bug (and I bet you didn't even know
  Python *had* a bytecode optimizer :-), "unsigned" hex/oct constants
  with a leading minus sign would come out with the wrong sign.
  ("Unsigned" hex/oct constants are those with a face value in the
  range sys.maxint+1 through sys.maxint*2+1, inclusive; these have
  always been interpreted as negative numbers through sign folding.)
  E.g. 0xffffffff is -1, and -(0xffffffff) is 1, but -0xffffffff would
  come out as -4294967295.  This was the case in Python 2.2 through
  2.2.2 and 2.3a1, and in Python 2.4 it will once again have that
  value, but according to PEP 237 it really needs to be 1 now.  This
  will be backported to Python 2.2.3 a well.  (SF #660455)

- int(s, base) sometimes sign-folds hex and oct constants; it only
  does this when base is 0 and s.strip() starts with a '0'.  When the
  sign is actually folded, as in int("0xffffffff", 0) on a 32-bit
  machine, which returns -1, a FutureWarning is now issued; in Python
  2.4, this will return 4294967295L, as do int("+0xffffffff", 0) and
  int("0xffffffff", 16) right now.  (PEP 347)

- super(X, x): x may now be a proxy for an X instance, i.e.
  issubclass(x.__class__, X) but not issubclass(type(x), X).

- isinstance(x, X): if X is a new-style class, this is now equivalent
  to issubclass(type(x), X) or issubclass(x.__class__, X).  Previously
  only type(x) was tested.  (For classic classes this was already the
  case.)

- compile(), eval() and the exec statement now fully support source code
  passed as unicode strings.

- int subclasses can be initialized with longs if the value fits in an int.
  See SF bug #683467.

- long(string, base) takes time linear in len(string) when base is a power
  of 2 now.  It used to take time quadratic in len(string).

- filter returns now Unicode results for Unicode arguments.

- raw_input can now return Unicode objects.

- List objects' sort() method now accepts None as the comparison function.
  Passing None is semantically identical to calling sort() with no
  arguments.

- Fixed crash when printing a subclass of str and __str__ returned self.
  See SF bug #667147.

- Fixed an invalid RuntimeWarning and an undetected error when trying
  to convert a long integer into a float which couldn't fit.
  See SF bug #676155.

- Function objects now have a __module__ attribute that is bound to
  the name of the module in which the function was defined.  This
  applies for C functions and methods as well as functions and methods
  defined in Python.  This attribute is used by pickle.whichmodule(),
  which changes the behavior of whichmodule slightly.  In Python 2.2
  whichmodule() returns "__main__" for functions that are not defined
  at the top-level of a module (examples: methods, nested functions).
  Now whichmodule() will return the proper module name.

Extension modules
-----------------

- operator.isNumberType() now checks that the object has a nb_int or
  nb_float slot, rather than simply checking whether it has a non-NULL
  tp_as_number pointer.

- The imp module now has ways to acquire and release the "import
  lock": imp.acquire_lock() and imp.release_lock().  Note: this is a
  reentrant lock, so releasing the lock only truly releases it when
  this is the last release_lock() call.  You can check with
  imp.lock_held().  (SF bug #580952 and patch #683257.)

- Change to cPickle to match pickle.py (see below and PEP 307).

- Fix some bugs in the parser module.  SF bug #678518.

- Thanks to Scott David Daniels, a subtle bug in how the zlib
  extension implemented flush() was fixed.  Scott also rewrote the
  zlib test suite using the unittest module.  (SF bug #640230 and
  patch #678531.)

- Added an itertools module containing high speed, memory efficient
  looping constructs inspired by tools from Haskell and SML.

- The SSL module now handles sockets with a timeout set correctly (SF
  patch #675750, fixing SF bug #675552).

- os/posixmodule has grown the sysexits.h constants (EX_OK and friends).

- Fixed broken threadstate swap in readline that could cause fatal
  errors when a readline hook was being invoked while a background
  thread was active.  (SF bugs #660476 and #513033.)

- fcntl now exposes the strops.h I_* constants.

- Fix a crash on Solaris that occurred when calling close() on
  an mmap'ed file which was already closed.  (SF patch #665913)

- Fixed several serious bugs in the zipimport implementation.

- datetime changes:

  The date class is now properly subclassable.  (SF bug #720908)

  The datetime and datetimetz classes have been collapsed into a single
  datetime class, and likewise the time and timetz classes into a single
  time class.  Previously, a datetimetz object with tzinfo=None acted
  exactly like a datetime object, and similarly for timetz.  This wasn't
  enough of a difference to justify distinct classes, and life is simpler
  now.

  today() and now() now round system timestamps to the closest
  microsecond <http://www.python.org/sf/661086>.  This repairs an
  irritation most likely seen on Windows systems.

  In dt.astimezone(tz), if tz.utcoffset(dt) returns a duration,
  ValueError is raised if tz.dst(dt) returns None (2.3a1 treated it
  as 0 instead, but a tzinfo subclass wishing to participate in
  time zone conversion has to take a stand on whether it supports
  DST; if you don't care about DST, then code dst() to return 0 minutes,
  meaning that DST is never in effect).

  The tzinfo methods utcoffset() and dst() must return a timedelta object
  (or None) now.  In 2.3a1 they could also return an int or long, but that
  was an unhelpfully redundant leftover from an earlier version wherein
  they couldn't return a timedelta.  TOOWTDI.

  The example tzinfo class for local time had a bug.  It was replaced
  by a later example coded by Guido.

  datetime.astimezone(tz) no longer raises an exception when the
  input datetime has no UTC equivalent in tz.  For typical "hybrid" time
  zones (a single tzinfo subclass modeling both standard and daylight
  time), this case can arise one hour per year, at the hour daylight time
  ends.  See new docs for details.  In short, the new behavior mimics
  the local wall clock's behavior of repeating an hour in local time.

  dt.astimezone() can no longer be used to convert between naive and aware
  datetime objects.  If you merely want to attach, or remove, a tzinfo
  object, without any conversion of date and time members, use
  dt.replace(tzinfo=whatever) instead, where "whatever" is None or a
  tzinfo subclass instance.

  A new method tzinfo.fromutc(dt) can be overridden in tzinfo subclasses
  to give complete control over how a UTC time is to be converted to
  a local time.  The default astimezone() implementation calls fromutc()
  as its last step, so a tzinfo subclass can affect that too by overriding
  fromutc().  It's expected that the default fromutc() implementation will
  be suitable as-is for "almost all" time zone subclasses, but the
  creativity of political time zone fiddling appears unbounded -- fromutc()
  allows the highly motivated to emulate any scheme expressible in Python.

  datetime.now():  The optional tzinfo argument was undocumented (that's
  repaired), and its name was changed to tz ("tzinfo" is overloaded enough
  already).  With a tz argument, now(tz) used to return the local date
  and time, and attach tz to it, without any conversion of date and time
  members.  This was less than useful.  Now now(tz) returns the current
  date and time as local time in tz's time zone, akin to ::

      tz.fromutc(datetime.utcnow().replace(tzinfo=utc))

  where "utc" is an instance of a tzinfo subclass modeling UTC.  Without
  a tz argument, now() continues to return the current local date and time,
  as a naive datetime object.

  datetime.fromtimestamp():  Like datetime.now() above, this had less than
  useful behavior when the optional tinzo argument was specified.  See
  also SF bug report <http://www.python.org/sf/660872>.

  date and datetime comparison:  In order to prevent comparison from
  falling back to the default compare-object-addresses strategy, these
  raised TypeError whenever they didn't understand the other object type.
  They still do, except when the other object has a "timetuple" attribute,
  in which case they return NotImplemented now.  This gives other
  datetime objects (e.g., mxDateTime) a chance to intercept the
  comparison.

  date, time, datetime and timedelta comparison:  When the exception
  for mixed-type comparisons in the last paragraph doesn't apply, if
  the comparison is == then False is returned, and if the comparison is
  != then True is returned.  Because dict lookup and the "in" operator
  only invoke __eq__, this allows, for example, ::

      if some_datetime in some_sequence:

  and ::

      some_dict[some_timedelta] = whatever

  to work as expected, without raising TypeError just because the
  sequence is heterogeneous, or the dict has mixed-type keys.  [This
  seems like a good idea to implement for all mixed-type comparisons
  that don't want to allow falling back to address comparison.]

  The constructors building a datetime from a timestamp could raise
  ValueError if the platform C localtime()/gmtime() inserted "leap
  seconds".  Leap seconds are ignored now.  On such platforms, it's
  possible to have timestamps that differ by a second, yet where
  datetimes constructed from them are equal.

  The pickle format of date, time and datetime objects has changed
  completely.  The undocumented pickler and unpickler functions no
  longer exist.  The undocumented __setstate__() and __getstate__()
  methods no longer exist either.

Library
-------

- The logging module was updated slightly; the WARN level was renamed
  to WARNING, and the matching function/method warn() to warning().

- The pickle and cPickle modules were updated with a new pickling
  protocol (documented by pickletools.py, see below) and several
  extensions to the pickle customization API (__reduce__, __setstate__
  etc.).  The copy module now uses more of the pickle customization
  API to copy objects that don't implement __copy__ or __deepcopy__.
  See PEP 307 for details.

- The distutils "register" command now uses http://www.python.org/pypi
  as the default repository.  (See PEP 301.)

- the platform dependent path related variables sep, altsep,
  pathsep, curdir, pardir and defpath are now defined in the platform
  dependent path modules (e.g. ntpath.py) rather than os.py, so these
  variables are now available via os.path.  They continue to be
  available from the os module.
  (see <http://www.python.org/sf/680789>).

- array.array was added to the types repr.py knows about (see
  <http://www.python.org/sf/680789>).

- The new pickletools.py contains lots of documentation about pickle
  internals, and supplies some helpers for working with pickles, such as
  a symbolic pickle disassembler.

- xmlrpclib.py now supports the built-in boolean type.

- py_compile has a new 'doraise' flag and a new PyCompileError
  exception.

- SimpleXMLRPCServer now supports CGI through the CGIXMLRPCRequestHandler
  class.

- The sets module now raises TypeError in __cmp__, to clarify that
  sets are not intended to be three-way-compared; the comparison
  operators are overloaded as subset/superset tests.

- Bastion.py and rexec.py are disabled.  These modules are not safe in
  Python 2.2. or 2.3.

- realpath is now exported when doing ``from poxixpath import *``.
  It is also exported for ntpath, macpath, and os2emxpath.
  See SF bug #659228.

- New module tarfile from Lars Gustäbel provides a comprehensive interface
  to tar archive files with transparent gzip and bzip2 compression.
  See SF patch #651082.

- urlparse can now parse imap:// URLs.  See SF feature request #618024.

- Tkinter.Canvas.scan_dragto() provides an optional parameter to support
  the gain value which is passed to Tk.  SF bug# 602259.

- Fix logging.handlers.SysLogHandler protocol when using UNIX domain sockets.
  See SF patch #642974.

- The dospath module was deleted.  Use the ntpath module when manipulating
  DOS paths from other platforms.

Tools/Demos
-----------

- Two new scripts (db2pickle.py and pickle2db.py) were added to the
  Tools/scripts directory to facilitate conversion from the old bsddb module
  to the new one.  While the user-visible API of the new module is
  compatible with the old one, it's likely that the version of the
  underlying database library has changed.  To convert from the old library,
  run the db2pickle.py script using the old version of Python to convert it
  to a pickle file.  After upgrading Python, run the pickle2db.py script
  using the new version of Python to reconstitute your database.  For
  example:

    % python2.2 db2pickle.py -h some.db > some.pickle
    % python2.3 pickle2db.py -h some.db.new < some.pickle

  Run the scripts without any args to get a usage message.


Build
-----

- The audio driver tests (test_ossaudiodev.py and
  test_linuxaudiodev.py) are no longer run by default.  This is
  because they don't always work, depending on your hardware and
  software.  To run these tests, you must use an invocation like ::

    ./python Lib/test/regrtest.py -u audio test_ossaudiodev

- On systems which build using the configure script, compiler flags which
  used to be lumped together using the OPT flag have been split into two
  groups, OPT and BASECFLAGS.  OPT is meant to carry just optimization- and
  debug-related flags like "-g" and "-O3".  BASECFLAGS is meant to carry
  compiler flags that are required to get a clean compile.  On some
  platforms (many Linux flavors in particular) BASECFLAGS will be empty by
  default.  On others, such as Mac OS X and SCO, it will contain required
  flags.  This change allows people building Python to override OPT without
  fear of clobbering compiler flags which are required to get a clean build.

- On Darwin/Mac OS X platforms, /sw/lib and /sw/include are added to the
  relevant search lists in setup.py.  This allows users building Python to
  take advantage of the many packages available from the fink project
  <http://fink.sf.net/>.

- A new Makefile target, scriptsinstall, installs a number of useful scripts
  from the Tools/scripts directory.

C API
-----

- PyEval_GetFrame() is now declared to return a ``PyFrameObject *``
  instead of a plain ``PyObject *``.  (SF patch #686601.)

- PyNumber_Check() now checks that the object has a nb_int or nb_float
  slot, rather than simply checking whether it has a non-NULL
  tp_as_number pointer.

- A C type that inherits from a base type that defines tp_as_buffer
  will now inherit the tp_as_buffer pointer if it doesn't define one.
  (SF #681367)

- The PyArg_Parse functions now issue a DeprecationWarning if a float
  argument is provided when an integer is specified (this affects the 'b',
  'B', 'h', 'H', 'i', and 'l' codes).  Future versions of Python will
  raise a TypeError.

Tests
-----

- Several tests weren't being run from regrtest.py (test_timeout.py,
  test_tarfile.py, test_netrc.py, test_multifile.py,
  test_importhooks.py and test_imp.py).  Now they are.  (Note to
  developers: please read Lib/test/README when creating a new test, to
  make sure to do it right!  All tests need to use either unittest or
  pydoc.)

- Added test_posix.py, a test suite for the posix module.

- Added test_hexoct.py, a test suite for hex/oct constant folding.

Windows
-------

- The timeout code for socket connect() didn't work right; this has
  now been fixed.  test_timeout.py should pass (at least most of the
  time).

- distutils' msvccompiler class now passes the preprocessor options to
  the resource compiler.  See SF patch #669198.

- The bsddb module now ships with Sleepycat's 4.1.25.NC, the latest
  release without strong cryptography.

- sys.path[0], if it contains a directory name, is now always an
  absolute pathname. (SF patch #664376.)

- The new logging package is now installed by the Windows installer.  It
  wasn't in 2.3a1 due to oversight.

Mac
---

- There are new dialogs EasyDialogs.AskFileForOpen, AskFileForSave
  and AskFolder. The old macfs.StandardGetFile and friends are deprecated.

- Most of the standard library now uses pathnames or FSRefs in preference
  of FSSpecs, and use the underlying Carbon.File and Carbon.Folder modules
  in stead of macfs. macfs will probably be deprecated in the future.

- Type Carbon.File.FSCatalogInfo and supporting methods have been implemented.
  This also makes macfs.FSSpec.SetDates() work again.

- There is a new module pimp, the package install manager for Python, and
  accompanying applet PackageManager. These allow you to easily download
  and install pretested extension packages either in source or binary
  form. Only in MacPython-OSX.

- Applets are now built with bundlebuilder in MacPython-OSX, which should make
  them more robust and also provides a path towards BuildApplication. The
  downside of this change is that applets can no longer be run from the
  Terminal window, this will hopefully be fixed in the 2.3b1.


What's New in Python 2.3 alpha 1?
=================================

*Release date: 31-Dec-2002*

Type/class unification and new-style classes
--------------------------------------------

- One can now assign to __bases__ and __name__ of new-style classes.

- dict() now accepts keyword arguments so that dict(one=1, two=2)
  is the equivalent of {"one": 1, "two": 2}.  Accordingly,
  the existing (but undocumented) 'items' keyword argument has
  been eliminated.  This means that dict(items=someMapping) now has
  a different meaning than before.

- int() now returns a long object if the argument is outside the
  integer range, so int("4" * 1000), int(1e200) and int(1L<<1000) will
  all return long objects instead of raising an OverflowError.

- Assignment to __class__ is disallowed if either the old or the new
  class is a statically allocated type object (such as defined by an
  extension module).  This prevents anomalies like 2.__class__ = bool.

- New-style object creation and deallocation have been sped up
  significantly; they are now faster than classic instance creation
  and deallocation.

- The __slots__ variable can now mention "private" names, and the
  right thing will happen (e.g. __slots__ = ["__foo"]).

- The built-ins slice() and buffer() are now callable types.  The
  types classobj (formerly class), code, function, instance, and
  instancemethod (formerly instance-method), which have no built-in
  names but are accessible through the types module, are now also
  callable.  The type dict-proxy is renamed to dictproxy.

- Cycles going through the __class__ link of a new-style instance are
  now detected by the garbage collector.

- Classes using __slots__ are now properly garbage collected.
  [SF bug 519621]

- Tightened the __slots__ rules: a slot name must be a valid Python
  identifier.

- The constructor for the module type now requires a name argument and
  takes an optional docstring argument.  Previously, this constructor
  ignored its arguments.  As a consequence, deriving a class from a
  module (not from the module type) is now illegal; previously this
  created an unnamed module, just like invoking the module type did.
  [SF bug 563060]

- A new type object, 'basestring', is added.  This is a common base type
  for 'str' and 'unicode', and can be used instead of
  types.StringTypes, e.g. to test whether something is "a string":
  isinstance(x, basestring) is True for Unicode and 8-bit strings.  This
  is an abstract base class and cannot be instantiated directly.

- Changed new-style class instantiation so that when C's __new__
  method returns something that's not a C instance, its __init__ is
  not called.  [SF bug #537450]

- Fixed super() to work correctly with class methods.  [SF bug #535444]

- If you try to pickle an instance of a class that has __slots__ but
  doesn't define or override __getstate__, a TypeError is now raised.
  This is done by adding a bozo __getstate__ to the class that always
  raises TypeError.  (Before, this would appear to be pickled, but the
  state of the slots would be lost.)

Core and builtins
-----------------

- Import from zipfiles is now supported.  The name of a zipfile placed
  on sys.path causes the import statement to look for importable Python
  modules (with .py, pyc and .pyo extensions) and packages inside the
  zipfile.  The zipfile import follows the specification (though not
  the sample implementation) of PEP 273.  The semantics of __path__ are
  compatible with those that have been implemented in Jython since
  Jython 2.1.

- PEP 302 has been accepted.  Although it was initially developed to
  support zipimport, it offers a new, general import hook mechanism.
  Several new variables have been added to the sys module:
  sys.meta_path, sys.path_hooks, and sys.path_importer_cache; these
  make extending the import statement much more convenient than
  overriding the __import__ built-in function.  For a description of
  these, see PEP 302.

- A frame object's f_lineno attribute can now be written to from a
  trace function to change which line will execute next.  A command to
  exploit this from pdb has been added.  [SF patch #643835]

- The _codecs support module for codecs.py was turned into a built-in
  module to assure that at least the built-in codecs are available
  to the Python parser for source code decoding according to PEP 263.

- issubclass now supports a tuple as the second argument, just like
  isinstance does. ``issubclass(X, (A, B))`` is equivalent to
  ``issubclass(X, A) or issubclass(X, B)``.

- Thanks to Armin Rigo, the last known way to provoke a system crash
  by cleverly arranging for a comparison function to mutate a list
  during a list.sort() operation has been fixed.  The effect of
  attempting to mutate a list, or even to inspect its contents or
  length, while a sort is in progress, is not defined by the language.
  The C implementation of Python 2.3 attempts to detect mutations,
  and raise ValueError if one occurs, but there's no guarantee that
  all mutations will be caught, or that any will be caught across
  releases or implementations.

- Unicode file name processing for Windows (PEP 277) is implemented.
  All platforms now have an os.path.supports_unicode_filenames attribute,
  which is set to True on Windows NT/2000/XP, and False elsewhere.

- Codec error handling callbacks (PEP 293) are implemented.
  Error handling in unicode.encode or str.decode can now be customized.

- A subtle change to the semantics of the built-in function intern():
  interned strings are no longer immortal.  You must keep a reference
  to the return value intern() around to get the benefit.

- Use of 'None' as a variable, argument or attribute name now
  issues a SyntaxWarning.  In the future, None may become a keyword.

- SET_LINENO is gone.  co_lnotab is now consulted to determine when to
  call the trace function.  C code that accessed f_lineno should call
  PyCode_Addr2Line instead (f_lineno is still there, but only kept up
  to date when there is a trace function set).

- There's a new warning category, FutureWarning.  This is used to warn
  about a number of situations where the value or sign of an integer
  result will change in Python 2.4 as a result of PEP 237 (integer
  unification).  The warnings implement stage B0 mentioned in that
  PEP.  The warnings are about the following situations:

    - Octal and hex literals without 'L' prefix in the inclusive range
      [0x80000000..0xffffffff]; these are currently negative ints, but
      in Python 2.4 they will be positive longs with the same bit
      pattern.

    - Left shifts on integer values that cause the outcome to lose
      bits or have a different sign than the left operand.  To be
      precise: x<<n where this currently doesn't yield the same value
      as long(x)<<n; in Python 2.4, the outcome will be long(x)<<n.

    - Conversions from ints to string that show negative values as
      unsigned ints in the inclusive range [0x80000000..0xffffffff];
      this affects the functions hex() and oct(), and the string
      formatting codes %u, %o, %x, and %X.  In Python 2.4, these will
      show signed values (e.g. hex(-1) currently returns "0xffffffff";
      in Python 2.4 it will return "-0x1").

- The bits manipulated under the cover by sys.setcheckinterval() have
  been changed.  Both the check interval and the ticker used to be
  per-thread values.  They are now just a pair of global variables.
  In addition, the default check interval was boosted from 10 to 100
  bytecode instructions.  This may have some effect on systems that
  relied on the old default value.  In particular, in multi-threaded
  applications which try to be highly responsive, response time will
  increase by some (perhaps imperceptible) amount.

- When multiplying very large integers, a version of the so-called
  Karatsuba algorithm is now used.  This is most effective if the
  inputs have roughly the same size.  If they both have about N digits,
  Karatsuba multiplication has O(N**1.58) runtime (the exponent is
  log_base_2(3)) instead of the previous O(N**2).  Measured results may
  be better or worse than that, depending on platform quirks.  Besides
  the O() improvement in raw instruction count, the Karatsuba algorithm
  appears to have much better cache behavior on extremely large integers
  (starting in the ballpark of a million bits).  Note that this is a
  simple implementation, and there's no intent here to compete with,
  e.g., GMP.  It gives a very nice speedup when it applies, but a package
  devoted to fast large-integer arithmetic should run circles around it.

- u'%c' will now raise a ValueError in case the argument is an
  integer outside the valid range of Unicode code point ordinals.

- The tempfile module has been overhauled for enhanced security.  The
  mktemp() function is now deprecated; new, safe replacements are
  mkstemp() (for files) and mkdtemp() (for directories), and the
  higher-level functions NamedTemporaryFile() and TemporaryFile().
  Use of some global variables in this module is also deprecated; the
  new functions have keyword arguments to provide the same
  functionality.  All Lib, Tools and Demo modules that used the unsafe
  interfaces have been updated to use the safe replacements.  Thanks
  to Zack Weinberg!

- When x is an object whose class implements __mul__ and __rmul__,
  1.0*x would correctly invoke __rmul__, but 1*x would erroneously
  invoke __mul__.  This was due to the sequence-repeat code in the int
  type.  This has been fixed now.

- Previously, "str1 in str2" required str1 to be a string of length 1.
  This restriction has been relaxed to allow str1 to be a string of
  any length.  Thus "'el' in 'hello world'" returns True now.

- File objects are now their own iterators.  For a file f, iter(f) now
  returns f (unless f is closed), and f.next() is similar to
  f.readline() when EOF is not reached; however, f.next() uses a
  readahead buffer that messes up the file position, so mixing
  f.next() and f.readline() (or other methods) doesn't work right.
  Calling f.seek() drops the readahead buffer, but other operations
  don't.  It so happens that this gives a nice additional speed boost
  to "for line in file:"; the xreadlines method and corresponding
  module are now obsolete.  Thanks to Oren Tirosh!

- Encoding declarations (PEP 263, phase 1) have been implemented.  A
  comment of the form "# -*- coding: <encodingname> -*-" in the first
  or second line of a Python source file indicates the encoding.

- list.sort() has a new implementation.  While cross-platform results
  may vary, and in data-dependent ways, this is much faster on many
  kinds of partially ordered lists than the previous implementation,
  and reported to be just as fast on randomly ordered lists on
  several major platforms.  This sort is also stable (if A==B and A
  precedes B in the list at the start, A precedes B after the sort too),
  although the language definition does not guarantee stability.  A
  potential drawback is that list.sort() may require temp space of
  len(list)*2 bytes (``*4`` on a 64-bit machine).  It's therefore possible
  for list.sort() to raise MemoryError now, even if a comparison function
  does not.  See <http://www.python.org/sf/587076> for full details.

- All standard iterators now ensure that, once StopIteration has been
  raised, all future calls to next() on the same iterator will also
  raise StopIteration.  There used to be various counterexamples to
  this behavior, which could caused confusion or subtle program
  breakage, without any benefits.  (Note that this is still an
  iterator's responsibility; the iterator framework does not enforce
  this.)

- Ctrl+C handling on Windows has been made more consistent with
  other platforms.  KeyboardInterrupt can now reliably be caught,
  and Ctrl+C at an interactive prompt no longer terminates the
  process under NT/2k/XP (it never did under Win9x).  Ctrl+C will
  interrupt time.sleep() in the main thread, and any child processes
  created via the popen family (on win2k; we can't make win9x work
  reliably) are also interrupted (as generally happens on for Linux/Unix.)
  [SF bugs 231273, 439992 and 581232]

- sys.getwindowsversion() has been added on Windows.  This
  returns a tuple with information about the version of Windows
  currently running.

- Slices and repetitions of buffer objects now consistently return
  a string.  Formerly, strings would be returned most of the time,
  but a buffer object would be returned when the repetition count
  was one or when the slice range was all inclusive.

- Unicode objects in sys.path are no longer ignored but treated
  as directory names.

- Fixed string.startswith and string.endswith built-in methods
  so they accept negative indices.  [SF bug 493951]

- Fixed a bug with a continue inside a try block and a yield in the
  finally clause.  [SF bug 567538]

- Most built-in sequences now support "extended slices", i.e. slices
  with a third "stride" parameter.  For example, "hello world"[::-1]
  gives "dlrow olleh".

- A new warning PendingDeprecationWarning was added to provide
  direction on features which are in the process of being deprecated.
  The warning will not be printed by default.  To see the pending
  deprecations, use -Walways::PendingDeprecationWarning::
  as a command line option or warnings.filterwarnings() in code.

- Deprecated features of xrange objects have been removed as
  promised.  The start, stop, and step attributes and the tolist()
  method no longer exist.  xrange repetition and slicing have been
  removed.

- New built-in function enumerate(x), from PEP 279.  Example:
  enumerate("abc") is an iterator returning (0,"a"), (1,"b"), (2,"c").
  The argument can be an arbitrary iterable object.

- The assert statement no longer tests __debug__ at runtime.  This means
  that assert statements cannot be disabled by assigning a false value
  to __debug__.

- A method zfill() was added to str and unicode, that fills a numeric
  string to the left with zeros.  For example,
  "+123".zfill(6) -> "+00123".

- Complex numbers supported divmod() and the // and % operators, but
  these make no sense.  Since this was documented, they're being
  deprecated now.

- String and unicode methods lstrip(), rstrip() and strip() now take
  an optional argument that specifies the characters to strip.  For
  example, "Foo!!!?!?!?".rstrip("?!") -> "Foo".

- There's a new dictionary constructor (a class method of the dict
  class), dict.fromkeys(iterable, value=None).  It constructs a
  dictionary with keys taken from the iterable and all values set to a
  single value.  It can be used for building sets and for removing
  duplicates from sequences.

- Added a new dict method pop(key).  This removes and returns the
  value corresponding to key.  [SF patch #539949]

- A new built-in type, bool, has been added, as well as built-in
  names for its two values, True and False.  Comparisons and sundry
  other operations that return a truth value have been changed to
  return a bool instead.  Read PEP 285 for an explanation of why this
  is backward compatible.

- Fixed two bugs reported as SF #535905: under certain conditions,
  deallocating a deeply nested structure could cause a segfault in the
  garbage collector, due to interaction with the "trashcan" code;
  access to the current frame during destruction of a local variable
  could access a pointer to freed memory.

- The optional object allocator ("pymalloc") has been enabled by
  default.  The recommended practice for memory allocation and
  deallocation has been streamlined.  A header file is included,
  Misc/pymemcompat.h, which can be bundled with 3rd party extensions
  and lets them use the same API with Python versions from 1.5.2
  onwards.

- PyErr_Display will provide file and line information for all exceptions
  that have an attribute print_file_and_line, not just SyntaxErrors.

- The UTF-8 codec will now encode and decode Unicode surrogates
  correctly and without raising exceptions for unpaired ones.

- Universal newlines (PEP 278) is implemented.  Briefly, using 'U'
  instead of 'r' when opening a text file for reading changes the line
  ending convention so that any of '\r', '\r\n', and '\n' is
  recognized (even mixed in one file); all three are converted to
  '\n', the standard Python line end character.

- file.xreadlines() now raises a ValueError if the file is closed:
  Previously, an xreadlines object was returned which would raise
  a ValueError when the xreadlines.next() method was called.

- sys.exit() inadvertently allowed more than one argument.
  An exception will now be raised if more than one argument is used.

- Changed evaluation order of dictionary literals to conform to the
  general left to right evaluation order rule. Now {f1(): f2()} will
  evaluate f1 first.

- Fixed bug #521782: when a file was in non-blocking mode, file.read()
  could silently lose data or wrongly throw an unknown error.

- The sq_repeat, sq_inplace_repeat, sq_concat and sq_inplace_concat
  slots are now always tried after trying the corresponding nb_* slots.
  This fixes a number of minor bugs (see bug #624807).

- Fix problem with dynamic loading on 64-bit AIX (see bug #639945).

Extension modules
-----------------

- Added three operators to the operator module:
    operator.pow(a,b) which is equivalent to:  a**b.
    operator.is_(a,b) which is equivalent to:  a is b.
    operator.is_not(a,b) which is equivalent to:  a is not b.

- posix.openpty now works on all systems that have /dev/ptmx.

- A module zipimport exists to support importing code from zip
  archives.

- The new datetime module supplies classes for manipulating dates and
  times.  The basic design came from the Zope "fishbowl process", and
  favors practical commercial applications over calendar esoterica.  See

      http://www.zope.org/Members/fdrake/DateTimeWiki/FrontPage

- _tkinter now returns Tcl objects, instead of strings. Objects which
  have Python equivalents are converted to Python objects, other objects
  are wrapped. This can be configured through the wantobjects method,
  or Tkinter.wantobjects.

- The PyBSDDB wrapper around the Sleepycat Berkeley DB library has
  been added as the package bsddb.  The traditional bsddb module is
  still available in source code, but not built automatically anymore,
  and is now named bsddb185.  This supports Berkeley DB versions from
  3.0 to 4.1.  For help converting your databases from the old module (which
  probably used an obsolete version of Berkeley DB) to the new module, see
  the db2pickle.py and pickle2db.py scripts described in the Tools/Demos
  section above.

- unicodedata was updated to Unicode 3.2. It supports normalization
  and names for Hangul syllables and CJK unified ideographs.

- resource.getrlimit() now returns longs instead of ints.

- readline now dynamically adjusts its input/output stream if
  sys.stdin/stdout changes.

- The _tkinter module (and hence Tkinter) has dropped support for
  Tcl/Tk 8.0 and 8.1.  Only Tcl/Tk versions 8.2, 8.3 and 8.4 are
  supported.

- cPickle.BadPickleGet is now a class.

- The time stamps in os.stat_result are floating point numbers
  after stat_float_times has been called.

- If the size passed to mmap.mmap() is larger than the length of the
  file on non-Windows platforms, a ValueError is raised. [SF bug 585792]

- The xreadlines module is slated for obsolescence.

- The strptime function in the time module is now always available (a
  Python implementation is used when the C library doesn't define it).

- The 'new' module is no longer an extension, but a Python module that
  only exists for backwards compatibility.  Its contents are no longer
  functions but callable type objects.

- The bsddb.*open functions can now take 'None' as a filename.
  This will create a temporary in-memory bsddb that won't be
  written to disk.

- posix.getloadavg, posix.lchown, posix.killpg, posix.mknod, and
  posix.getpgid have been added where available.

- The locale module now exposes the C library's gettext interface. It
  also has a new function getpreferredencoding.

- A security hole ("double free") was found in zlib-1.1.3, a popular
  third party compression library used by some Python modules.  The
  hole was quickly plugged in zlib-1.1.4, and the Windows build of
  Python now ships with zlib-1.1.4.

- pwd, grp, and resource return enhanced tuples now, with symbolic
  field names.

- array.array is now a type object. A new format character
  'u' indicates Py_UNICODE arrays. For those, .tounicode and
  .fromunicode methods are available. Arrays now support __iadd__
  and __imul__.

- dl now builds on every system that has dlfcn.h.  Failure in case
  of sizeof(int)!=sizeof(long)!=sizeof(void*) is delayed until dl.open
  is called.

- The sys module acquired a new attribute, api_version, which evaluates
  to the value of the PYTHON_API_VERSION macro with which the
  interpreter was compiled.

- Fixed bug #470582: sre module would return a tuple (None, 'a', 'ab')
  when applying the regular expression '^((a)c)?(ab)$' on 'ab'. It now
  returns (None, None, 'ab'), as expected. Also fixed handling of
  lastindex/lastgroup match attributes in similar cases. For example,
  when running the expression r'(a)(b)?b' over 'ab', lastindex must be
  1, not 2.

- Fixed bug #581080: sre scanner was not checking the buffer limit
  before increasing the current pointer. This was creating an infinite
  loop in the search function, once the pointer exceeded the buffer
  limit.

- The os.fdopen function now enforces a file mode starting with the
  letter 'r', 'w' or 'a', otherwise a ValueError is raised. This fixes
  bug #623464.

- The linuxaudiodev module is now deprecated; it is being replaced by
  ossaudiodev.  The interface has been extended to cover a lot more of
  OSS (see www.opensound.com), including most DSP ioctls and the
  OSS mixer API.  Documentation forthcoming in 2.3a2.

Library
-------

- imaplib.py now supports SSL (Tino Lange and Piers Lauder).

- Freeze's modulefinder.py has been moved to the standard library;
  slightly improved so it will issue less false missing submodule
  reports (see sf path #643711 for details).  Documentation will follow
  with Python 2.3a2.

- os.path exposes getctime.

- unittest.py now has two additional methods called assertAlmostEqual()
  and failIfAlmostEqual().  They implement an approximate comparison
  by rounding the difference between the two arguments and comparing
  the result to zero.  Approximate comparison is essential for
  unit tests of floating point results.

- calendar.py now depends on the new datetime module rather than
  the time module.  As a result, the range of allowable dates
  has been increased.

- pdb has a new 'j(ump)' command to select the next line to be
  executed.

- The distutils created windows installers now can run a
  postinstallation script.

- doctest.testmod can now be called without argument, which means to
  test the current module.

- When canceling a server that implemented threading with a keyboard
  interrupt, the server would shut down but not terminate (waiting on
  client threads). A new member variable, daemon_threads, was added to
  the ThreadingMixIn class in SocketServer.py to make it explicit that
  this behavior needs to be controlled.

- A new module, optparse, provides a fancy alternative to getopt for
  command line parsing.  It is a slightly modified version of Greg
  Ward's Optik package.

- UserDict.py now defines a DictMixin class which defines all dictionary
  methods for classes that already have a minimum mapping interface.
  This greatly simplifies writing classes that need to be substitutable
  for dictionaries (such as the shelve module).

- shelve.py now subclasses from UserDict.DictMixin.  Now shelve supports
  all dictionary methods.  This eases the transition to persistent
  storage for scripts originally written with dictionaries in mind.

- shelve.open and the various classes in shelve.py now accept an optional
  binary flag, which defaults to False.  If True, the values stored in the
  shelf are binary pickles.

- A new package, logging, implements the logging API defined by PEP
  282.  The code is written by Vinay Sajip.

- StreamReader, StreamReaderWriter and StreamRecoder in the codecs
  modules are iterators now.

- gzip.py now handles files exceeding 2GB.  Files over 4GB also work
  now (provided the OS supports it, and Python is configured with large
  file support), but in that case the underlying gzip file format can
  record only the least-significant 32 bits of the file size, so that
  some tools working with gzipped files may report an incorrect file
  size.

- xml.sax.saxutils.unescape has been added, to replace entity references
  with their entity value.

- Queue.Queue.{put,get} now support an optional timeout argument.

- Various features of Tk 8.4 are exposed in Tkinter.py. The multiple
  option of tkFileDialog is exposed as function askopenfile{,name}s.

- Various configure methods of Tkinter have been stream-lined, so that
  tag_configure, image_configure, window_configure now return a
  dictionary when invoked with no argument.

- Importing the readline module now no longer has the side effect of
  calling setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "").  The initial "C" locale, or
  whatever locale is explicitly set by the user, is preserved.  If you
  want repr() of 8-bit strings in your preferred encoding to preserve
  all printable characters of that encoding, you have to add the
  following code to your $PYTHONSTARTUP file or to your application's
  main():

    import locale
    locale.setlocale(locale.LC_CTYPE, "")

- shutil.move was added. shutil.copytree now reports errors as an
  exception at the end, instead of printing error messages.

- Encoding name normalization was generalized to not only
  replace hyphens with underscores, but also all other non-alphanumeric
  characters (with the exception of the dot which is used for Python
  package names during lookup). The aliases.py mapping was updated
  to the new standard.

- mimetypes has two new functions: guess_all_extensions() which
  returns a list of all known extensions for a mime type, and
  add_type() which adds one mapping between a mime type and
  an extension to the database.

- New module: sets, defines the class Set that implements a mutable
  set type using the keys of a dict to represent the set.  There's
  also a class ImmutableSet which is useful when you need sets of sets
  or when you need to use sets as dict keys, and a class BaseSet which
  is the base class of the two.

- Added random.sample(population,k) for random sampling without replacement.
  Returns a k length list of unique elements chosen from the population.

- random.randrange(-sys.maxint-1, sys.maxint) no longer raises
  OverflowError.  That is, it now accepts any combination of 'start'
  and 'stop' arguments so long as each is in the range of Python's
  bounded integers.

- Thanks to Raymond Hettinger, random.random() now uses a new core
  generator.  The Mersenne Twister algorithm is implemented in C,
  threadsafe, faster than the previous generator, has an astronomically
  large period (2**19937-1), creates random floats to full 53-bit
  precision, and may be the most widely tested random number generator
  in existence.

  The random.jumpahead(n) method has different semantics for the new
  generator.  Instead of jumping n steps ahead, it uses n and the
  existing state to create a new state.  This means that jumpahead()
  continues to support multi-threaded code needing generators of
  non-overlapping sequences.  However, it will break code which relies
  on jumpahead moving a specific number of steps forward.

  The attributes random.whseed and random.__whseed have no meaning for
  the new generator.  Code using these attributes should switch to a
  new class, random.WichmannHill which is provided for backward
  compatibility and to make an alternate generator available.

- New "algorithms" module: heapq, implements a heap queue.  Thanks to
  Kevin O'Connor for the code and François Pinard for an entertaining
  write-up explaining the theory and practical uses of heaps.

- New encoding for the Palm OS character set: palmos.

- binascii.crc32() and the zipfile module had problems on some 64-bit
  platforms.  These have been fixed.  On a platform with 8-byte C longs,
  crc32() now returns a signed-extended 4-byte result, so that its value
  as a Python int is equal to the value computed a 32-bit platform.

- xml.dom.minidom.toxml and toprettyxml now take an optional encoding
  argument.

- Some fixes in the copy module: when an object is copied through its
  __reduce__ method, there was no check for a __setstate__ method on
  the result [SF patch 565085]; deepcopy should treat instances of
  custom metaclasses the same way it treats instances of type 'type'
  [SF patch 560794].

- Sockets now support timeout mode.  After s.settimeout(T), where T is
  a float expressing seconds, subsequent operations raise an exception
  if they cannot be completed within T seconds.  To disable timeout
  mode, use s.settimeout(None).  There's also a module function,
  socket.setdefaulttimeout(T), which sets the default for all sockets
  created henceforth.

- getopt.gnu_getopt was added.  This supports GNU-style option
  processing, where options can be mixed with non-option arguments.

- Stop using strings for exceptions.  String objects used for
  exceptions are now classes deriving from Exception.  The objects
  changed were: Tkinter.TclError, bdb.BdbQuit, macpath.norm_error,
  tabnanny.NannyNag, and xdrlib.Error.

- Constants BOM_UTF8, BOM_UTF16, BOM_UTF16_LE, BOM_UTF16_BE,
  BOM_UTF32, BOM_UTF32_LE and BOM_UTF32_BE that represent the Byte
  Order Mark in UTF-8, UTF-16 and UTF-32 encodings for little and
  big endian systems were added to the codecs module. The old names
  BOM32_* and BOM64_* were off by a factor of 2.

- Added conversion functions math.degrees() and math.radians().

- math.log() now takes an optional argument:  math.log(x[, base]).

- ftplib.retrlines() now tests for callback is None rather than testing
  for False.  Was causing an error when given a callback object which
  was callable but also returned len() as zero.  The change may
  create new breakage if the caller relied on the undocumented behavior
  and called with callback set to [] or some other False value not
  identical to None.

- random.gauss() uses a piece of hidden state used by nothing else,
  and the .seed() and .whseed() methods failed to reset it.  In other
  words, setting the seed didn't completely determine the sequence of
  results produced by random.gauss().  It does now.  Programs repeatedly
  mixing calls to a seed method with calls to gauss() may see different
  results now.

- The pickle.Pickler class grew a clear_memo() method to mimic that
  provided by cPickle.Pickler.

- difflib's SequenceMatcher class now does a dynamic analysis of
  which elements are so frequent as to constitute noise.  For
  comparing files as sequences of lines, this generally works better
  than the IS_LINE_JUNK function, and function ndiff's linejunk
  argument defaults to None now as a result.  A happy benefit is
  that SequenceMatcher may run much faster now when applied
  to large files with many duplicate lines (for example, C program
  text with lots of repeated "}" and "return NULL;" lines).

- New Text.dump() method in Tkinter module.

- New distutils commands for building packagers were added to
  support pkgtool on Solaris and swinstall on HP-UX.

- distutils now has a new abstract binary packager base class
  command/bdist_packager, which simplifies writing packagers.
  This will hopefully provide the missing bits to encourage
  people to submit more packagers, e.g. for Debian, FreeBSD
  and other systems.

- The UTF-16, -LE and -BE stream readers now raise a
  NotImplementedError for all calls to .readline(). Previously, they
  used to just produce garbage or fail with an encoding error --
  UTF-16 is a 2-byte encoding and the C lib's line reading APIs don't
  work well with these.

- compileall now supports quiet operation.

- The BaseHTTPServer now implements optional HTTP/1.1 persistent
  connections.

- socket module: the SSL support was broken out of the main
  _socket module C helper and placed into a new _ssl helper
  which now gets imported by socket.py if available and working.

- encodings package: added aliases for all supported IANA character
  sets

- ftplib: to safeguard the user's privacy, anonymous login will use
  "anonymous@" as default password, rather than the real user and host
  name.

- webbrowser: tightened up the command passed to os.system() so that
  arbitrary shell code can't be executed because a bogus URL was
  passed in.

- gettext.translation has an optional fallback argument, and
  gettext.find an optional all argument. Translations will now fallback
  on a per-message basis. The module supports plural forms, by means
  of gettext.[d]ngettext and Translation.[u]ngettext.

- distutils bdist commands now offer a --skip-build option.

- warnings.warn now accepts a Warning instance as first argument.

- The xml.sax.expatreader.ExpatParser class will no longer create
  circular references by using itself as the locator that gets passed
  to the content handler implementation.  [SF bug #535474]

- The email.Parser.Parser class now properly parses strings regardless
  of their line endings, which can be any of \r, \n, or \r\n (CR, LF,
  or CRLF).  Also, the Header class's constructor default arguments
  has changed slightly so that an explicit maxlinelen value is always
  honored, and so unicode conversion error handling can be specified.

- distutils' build_ext command now links C++ extensions with the C++
  compiler available in the Makefile or CXX environment variable, if
  running under \*nix.

- New module bz2: provides a comprehensive interface for the bz2 compression
  library.  It implements a complete file interface, one-shot (de)compression
  functions, and types for sequential (de)compression.

- New pdb command 'pp' which is like 'p' except that it pretty-prints
  the value of its expression argument.

- Now bdist_rpm distutils command understands a verify_script option in
  the config file, including the contents of the referred filename in
  the "%verifyscript" section of the rpm spec file.

- Fixed bug #495695: webbrowser module would run graphic browsers in a
  unix environment even if DISPLAY was not set. Also, support for
  skipstone browser was included.

- Fixed bug #636769: rexec would run unallowed code if subclasses of
  strings were used as parameters for certain functions.

Tools/Demos
-----------

- pygettext.py now supports globbing on Windows, and accepts module
  names in addition to accepting file names.

- The SGI demos (Demo/sgi) have been removed.  Nobody thought they
  were interesting any more.  (The SGI library modules and extensions
  are still there; it is believed that at least some of these are
  still used and useful.)

- IDLE supports the new encoding declarations (PEP 263); it can also
  deal with legacy 8-bit files if they use the locale's encoding. It
  allows non-ASCII strings in the interactive shell and executes them
  in the locale's encoding.

- freeze.py now produces binaries which can import shared modules,
  unlike before when this failed due to missing symbol exports in
  the generated binary.

Build
-----

- On Unix, IDLE is now installed automatically.

- The fpectl module is not built by default; it's dangerous or useless
  except in the hands of experts.

- The public Python C API will generally be declared using PyAPI_FUNC
  and PyAPI_DATA macros, while Python extension module init functions
  will be declared with PyMODINIT_FUNC.  DL_EXPORT/DL_IMPORT macros
  are deprecated.

- A bug was fixed that could cause COUNT_ALLOCS builds to segfault, or
  get into infinite loops, when a new-style class got garbage-collected.
  Unfortunately, to avoid this, the way COUNT_ALLOCS works requires
  that new-style classes be immortal in COUNT_ALLOCS builds.  Note that
  COUNT_ALLOCS is not enabled by default, in either release or debug
  builds, and that new-style classes are immortal only in COUNT_ALLOCS
  builds.

- Compiling out the cyclic garbage collector is no longer an option.
  The old symbol WITH_CYCLE_GC is now ignored, and Python.h arranges
  that it's always defined (for the benefit of any extension modules
  that may be conditionalizing on it).  A bonus is that any extension
  type participating in cyclic gc can choose to participate in the
  Py_TRASHCAN mechanism now too; in the absence of cyclic gc, this used
  to require editing the core to teach the trashcan mechanism about the
  new type.

- According to Annex F of the current C standard,

    The Standard C macro HUGE_VAL and its float and long double analogs,
    HUGE_VALF and HUGE_VALL, expand to expressions whose values are
    positive infinities.

  Python only uses the double HUGE_VAL, and only to #define its own symbol
  Py_HUGE_VAL.  Some platforms have incorrect definitions for HUGE_VAL.
  pyport.h used to try to worm around that, but the workarounds triggered
  other bugs on other platforms, so we gave up.  If your platform defines
  HUGE_VAL incorrectly, you'll need to #define Py_HUGE_VAL to something
  that works on your platform.  The only instance of this I'm sure about
  is on an unknown subset of Cray systems, described here:

  http://www.cray.com/swpubs/manuals/SN-2194_2.0/html-SN-2194_2.0/x3138.htm

  Presumably 2.3a1 breaks such systems.  If anyone uses such a system, help!

- The configure option --without-doc-strings can be used to remove the
  doc strings from the built-in functions and modules; this reduces the
  size of the executable.

- The universal newlines option (PEP 278) is on by default.  On Unix
  it can be disabled by passing --without-universal-newlines to the
  configure script.  On other platforms, remove
  WITH_UNIVERSAL_NEWLINES from pyconfig.h.

- On Unix, a shared libpython2.3.so can be created with --enable-shared.

- All uses of the CACHE_HASH, INTERN_STRINGS, and DONT_SHARE_SHORT_STRINGS
  preprocessor symbols were eliminated.  The internal decisions they
  controlled stopped being experimental long ago.

- The tools used to build the documentation now work under Cygwin as
  well as Unix.

- The bsddb and dbm module builds have been changed to try and avoid version
  skew problems and disable linkage with Berkeley DB 1.85 unless the
  installer knows what s/he's doing.  See the section on building these
  modules in the README file for details.

C API
-----

- PyNumber_Check() now returns true for string and unicode objects.
  This is a result of these types having a partially defined
  tp_as_number slot.  (This is not a feature, but an indication that
  PyNumber_Check() is not very useful to determine numeric behavior.
  It may be deprecated.)

- The string object's layout has changed: the pointer member
  ob_sinterned has been replaced by an int member ob_sstate.  On some
  platforms (e.g. most 64-bit systems) this may change the offset of
  the ob_sval member, so as a precaution the API_VERSION has been
  incremented.  The apparently unused feature of "indirect interned
  strings", supported by the ob_sinterned member, is gone.  Interned
  strings are now usually mortal; there is a new API,
  PyString_InternImmortal() that creates immortal interned strings.
  (The ob_sstate member can only take three values; however, while
  making it a char saves a few bytes per string object on average, in
  it also slowed things down a bit because ob_sval was no longer
  aligned.)

- The Py_InitModule*() functions now accept NULL for the 'methods'
  argument.  Modules without global functions are becoming more common
  now that factories can be types rather than functions.

- New C API PyUnicode_FromOrdinal() which exposes unichr() at C
  level.

- New functions PyErr_SetExcFromWindowsErr() and
  PyErr_SetExcFromWindowsErrWithFilename(). Similar to
  PyErr_SetFromWindowsErrWithFilename() and
  PyErr_SetFromWindowsErr(), but they allow to specify
  the exception type to raise. Available on Windows.

- Py_FatalError() is now declared as taking a const char* argument.  It
  was previously declared without const.  This should not affect working
  code.

- Added new macro PySequence_ITEM(o, i) that directly calls
  sq_item without rechecking that o is a sequence and without
  adjusting for negative indices.

- PyRange_New() now raises ValueError if the fourth argument is not 1.
  This is part of the removal of deprecated features of the xrange
  object.

- PyNumber_Coerce() and PyNumber_CoerceEx() now also invoke the type's
  coercion if both arguments have the same type but this type has the
  CHECKTYPES flag set.  This is to better support proxies.

- The type of tp_free has been changed from "``void (*)(PyObject *)``" to
  "``void (*)(void *)``".

- PyObject_Del, PyObject_GC_Del are now functions instead of macros.

- A type can now inherit its metatype from its base type.  Previously,
  when PyType_Ready() was called, if ob_type was found to be NULL, it
  was always set to &PyType_Type; now it is set to base->ob_type,
  where base is tp_base, defaulting to &PyObject_Type.

- PyType_Ready() accidentally did not inherit tp_is_gc; now it does.

- The PyCore_* family of APIs have been removed.

- The "u#" parser marker will now pass through Unicode objects as-is
  without going through the buffer API.

- The enumerators of cmp_op have been renamed to use the prefix ``PyCmp_``.

- An old #define of ANY as void has been removed from pyport.h.  This
  hasn't been used since Python's pre-ANSI days, and the #define has
  been marked as obsolete since then.  SF bug 495548 says it created
  conflicts with other packages, so keeping it around wasn't harmless.

- Because Python's magic number scheme broke on January 1st, we decided
  to stop Python development.  Thanks for all the fish!

- Some of us don't like fish, so we changed Python's magic number
  scheme to a new one. See Python/import.c for details.

New platforms
-------------

- OpenVMS is now supported.

- AtheOS is now supported.

- the EMX runtime environment on OS/2 is now supported.

- GNU/Hurd is now supported.

Tests
-----

- The regrtest.py script's -u option now provides a way to say "allow
  all resources except this one."  For example, to allow everything
  except bsddb, give the option '-uall,-bsddb'.

Windows
-------

- The Windows distribution now ships with version 4.0.14 of the
  Sleepycat Berkeley database library.  This should be a huge
  improvement over the previous Berkeley DB 1.85, which had many
  bugs.
  XXX What are the licensing issues here?
  XXX If a user has a database created with a previous version of
  XXX     Python, what must they do to convert it?
  XXX I'm still not sure how to link this thing (see PCbuild/readme.txt).
  XXX The version # is likely to change before 2.3a1.

- The Windows distribution now ships with a Secure Sockets Library (SLL)
   module (_ssl.pyd)

- The Windows distribution now ships with Tcl/Tk version 8.4.1 (it
  previously shipped with Tcl/Tk 8.3.2).

- When Python is built under a Microsoft compiler, sys.version now
  includes the compiler version number (_MSC_VER).  For example, under
  MSVC 6, sys.version contains the substring "MSC v.1200 ".  1200 is
  the value of _MSC_VER under MSVC 6.

- Sometimes the uninstall executable (UNWISE.EXE) vanishes.  One cause
  of that has been fixed in the installer (disabled Wise's "delete in-
  use files" uninstall option).

- Fixed a bug in urllib's proxy handling in Windows.  [SF bug #503031]

- The installer now installs Start menu shortcuts under (the local
  equivalent of) "All Users" when doing an Admin install.

- file.truncate([newsize]) now works on Windows for all newsize values.
  It used to fail if newsize didn't fit in 32 bits, reflecting a
  limitation of MS _chsize (which is no longer used).

- os.waitpid() is now implemented for Windows, and can be used to block
  until a specified process exits.  This is similar to, but not exactly
  the same as, os.waitpid() on POSIX systems.  If you're waiting for
  a specific process whose pid was obtained from one of the spawn()
  functions, the same Python os.waitpid() code works across platforms.
  See the docs for details.  The docs were changed to clarify that
  spawn functions return, and waitpid requires, a process handle on
  Windows (not the same thing as a Windows process id).

- New tempfile.TemporaryFile implementation for Windows:  this doesn't
  need a TemporaryFileWrapper wrapper anymore, and should be immune
  to a nasty problem:  before 2.3, if you got a temp file on Windows, it
  got wrapped in an object whose close() method first closed the
  underlying file, then deleted the file.  This usually worked fine.
  However, the spawn family of functions on Windows create (at a low C
  level) the same set of open files in the spawned process Q as were
  open in the spawning process P.  If a temp file f was among them, then
  doing f.close() in P first closed P's C-level file handle on f, but Q's
  C-level file handle on f remained open, so the attempt in P to delete f
  blew up with a "Permission denied" error (Windows doesn't allow
  deleting open files).  This was surprising, subtle, and difficult to
  work around.

- The os module now exports all the symbolic constants usable with the
  low-level os.open() on Windows:  the new constants in 2.3 are
  O_NOINHERIT, O_SHORT_LIVED, O_TEMPORARY, O_RANDOM and O_SEQUENTIAL.
  The others were also available in 2.2:  O_APPEND, O_BINARY, O_CREAT,
  O_EXCL, O_RDONLY, O_RDWR, O_TEXT, O_TRUNC and O_WRONLY.  Contrary
  to Microsoft docs, O_SHORT_LIVED does not seem to imply O_TEMPORARY
  (so specify both if you want both; note that neither is useful unless
  specified with O_CREAT too).

Mac
----

- Mac/Relnotes is gone, the release notes are now here.

- Python (the OSX-only, unix-based version, not the OS9-compatible CFM
  version) now fully supports unicode strings as arguments to various file
  system calls, eg. open(), file(), os.stat() and os.listdir().

- The current naming convention for Python on the Macintosh is that MacPython
  refers to the unix-based OSX-only version, and MacPython-OS9 refers to the
  CFM-based version that runs on both OS9 and OSX.

- All MacPython-OS9 functionality is now available in an OSX unix build,
  including the Carbon modules, the IDE, OSA support, etc. A lot of this
  will only work correctly in a framework build, though, because you cannot
  talk to the window manager unless your application is run from a .app
  bundle. There is a command line tool "pythonw" that runs your script
  with an interpreter living in such a .app bundle, this interpreter should
  be used to run any Python script using the window manager (including
  Tkinter or wxPython scripts).

- Most of Mac/Lib has moved to Lib/plat-mac, which is again used both in
  MacPython-OSX and MacPython-OS9. The only modules remaining in Mac/Lib
  are specifically for MacPython-OS9 (CFM support, preference resources, etc).

- A new utility PythonLauncher will start a Python interpreter when a .py or
  .pyw script is double-clicked in the Finder. By default .py scripts are
  run with a normal Python interpreter in a Terminal window and .pyw
  files are run with a window-aware pythonw interpreter without a Terminal
  window, but all this can be customized.

- MacPython-OS9 is now Carbon-only, so it runs on Mac OS 9 or Mac OS X and
  possibly on Mac OS 8.6 with the right CarbonLib installed, but not on earlier
  releases.

- Many tools such as BuildApplet.py and gensuitemodule.py now support a command
  line interface too.

- All the Carbon classes are now PEP253 compliant, meaning that you can
  subclass them from Python. Most of the attributes have gone, you should
  now use the accessor function call API, which is also what Apple's
  documentation uses. Some attributes such as grafport.visRgn are still
  available for convenience.

- New Carbon modules File (implementing the APIs in Files.h and Aliases.h)
  and Folder (APIs from Folders.h). The old macfs built-in module is
  gone, and replaced by a Python wrapper around the new modules.

- Pathname handling should now be fully consistent: MacPython-OSX always uses
  unix pathnames and MacPython-OS9 always uses colon-separated Mac pathnames
  (also when running on Mac OS X).

- New Carbon modules Help and AH give access to the Carbon Help Manager.
  There are hooks in the IDE to allow accessing the Python documentation
  (and Apple's Carbon and Cocoa documentation) through the Help Viewer.
  See Mac/OSX/README for converting the Python documentation to a
  Help Viewer compatible form and installing it.

- OSA support has been redesigned and the generated Python classes now
  mirror the inheritance defined by the underlying OSA classes.

- MacPython no longer maps both \r and \n to \n on input for any text file.
  This feature has been replaced by universal newline support (PEP278).

- The default encoding for Python sourcefiles in MacPython-OS9 is no longer
  mac-roman (or whatever your local Mac encoding was) but "ascii", like on
  other platforms. If you really need sourcefiles with Mac characters in them
  you can change this in site.py.


What's New in Python 2.2 final?
===============================

*Release date: 21-Dec-2001*

Type/class unification and new-style classes
--------------------------------------------

- pickle.py, cPickle: allow pickling instances of new-style classes
  with a custom metaclass.

Core and builtins
-----------------

- weakref proxy object: when comparing, unwrap both arguments if both
  are proxies.

Extension modules
-----------------

- binascii.b2a_base64(): fix a potential buffer overrun when encoding
  very short strings.

- cPickle: the obscure "fast" mode was suspected of causing stack
  overflows on the Mac.  Hopefully fixed this by setting the recursion
  limit much smaller.  If the limit is too low (it only affects
  performance), you can change it by defining PY_CPICKLE_FAST_LIMIT
  when compiling cPickle.c (or in pyconfig.h).

Library
-------

- dumbdbm.py: fixed a dumb old bug (the file didn't get synched at
  close or delete time).

- rfc822.py: fixed a bug where the address '<>' was converted to None
  instead of an empty string (also fixes the email.Utils module).

- xmlrpclib.py: version 1.0.0; uses precision for doubles.

- test suite: the pickle and cPickle tests were not executing any code
  when run from the standard regression test.

Tools/Demos
-----------

Build
-----

C API
-----

New platforms
-------------

Tests
-----

Windows
-------

- distutils package: fixed broken Windows installers (bdist_wininst).

- tempfile.py: prevent mysterious warnings when TemporaryFileWrapper
  instances are deleted at process exit time.

- socket.py: prevent mysterious warnings when socket instances are
  deleted at process exit time.

- posixmodule.c: fix a Windows crash with stat() of a filename ending
  in backslash.

Mac
----

- The Carbon toolbox modules have been upgraded to Universal Headers
  3.4, and experimental CoreGraphics and CarbonEvents modules have
  been added.  All only for framework-enabled MacOSX.


What's New in Python 2.2c1?
===========================

*Release date: 14-Dec-2001*

Type/class unification and new-style classes
--------------------------------------------

- Guido's tutorial introduction to the new type/class features has
  been extensively updated.  See

      http://www.python.org/2.2/descrintro.html

  That remains the primary documentation in this area.

- Fixed a leak: instance variables declared with __slots__ were never
  deleted!

- The "delete attribute" method of descriptor objects is called
  __delete__, not __del__.  In previous releases, it was mistakenly
  called __del__, which created an unfortunate overloading condition
  with finalizers.  (The "get attribute" and "set attribute" methods
  are still called __get__ and __set__, respectively.)

- Some subtle issues with the super built-in were fixed:

  (a) When super itself is subclassed, its __get__ method would still
      return an instance of the base class (i.e., of super).

  (b) super(C, C()).__class__ would return C rather than super.  This
      is confusing.  To fix this, I decided to change the semantics of
      super so that it only applies to code attributes, not to data
      attributes.  After all, overriding data attributes is not
      supported anyway.

  (c) The __get__ method didn't check whether the argument was an
      instance of the type used in creation of the super instance.

- Previously, hash() of an instance of a subclass of a mutable type
  (list or dictionary) would return some value, rather than raising
  TypeError.  This has been fixed.  Also, directly calling
  dict.__hash__ and list.__hash__ now raises the same TypeError
  (previously, these were the same as object.__hash__).

- New-style objects now support deleting their __dict__.  This is for
  all intents and purposes equivalent to assigning a brand new empty
  dictionary, but saves space if the object is not used further.

Core and builtins
-----------------

- -Qnew now works as documented in PEP 238:  when -Qnew is passed on
  the command line, all occurrences of "/" use true division instead
  of classic division.  See the PEP for details.  Note that "all"
  means all instances in library and 3rd-party modules, as well as in
  your own code.  As the PEP says, -Qnew is intended for use only in
  educational environments with control over the libraries in use.
  Note that test_coercion.py in the standard Python test suite fails
  under -Qnew; this is expected, and won't be repaired until true
  division becomes the default (in the meantime, test_coercion is
  testing the current rules).

- complex() now only allows the first argument to be a string
  argument, and raises TypeError if either the second arg is a string
  or if the second arg is specified when the first is a string.

Extension modules
-----------------

- gc.get_referents was renamed to gc.get_referrers.

Library
-------

- Functions in the os.spawn() family now release the global interpreter
  lock around calling the platform spawn.  They should always have done
  this, but did not before 2.2c1.  Multithreaded programs calling
  an os.spawn function with P_WAIT will no longer block all Python threads
  until the spawned program completes.  It's possible that some programs
  relies on blocking, although more likely by accident than by design.

- webbrowser defaults to netscape.exe on OS/2 now.

- Tix.ResizeHandle exposes detach_widget, hide, and show.

- The charset alias windows_1252 has been added.

- types.StringTypes is a tuple containing the defined string types;
  usually this will be (str, unicode), but if Python was compiled
  without Unicode support it will be just (str,).

- The pulldom and minidom modules were synchronized to PyXML.

Tools/Demos
-----------

- A new script called Tools/scripts/google.py was added, which fires
  off a search on Google.

Build
-----

- Note that release builds of Python should arrange to define the
  preprocessor symbol NDEBUG on the command line (or equivalent).
  In the 2.2 pre-release series we tried to define this by magic in
  Python.h instead, but it proved to cause problems for extension
  authors.  The Unix, Windows and Mac builds now all define NDEBUG in
  release builds via cmdline (or equivalent) instead.  Ports to
  other platforms should do likewise.

- It is no longer necessary to use --with-suffix when building on a
  case-insensitive file system (such as Mac OS X HFS+). In the build
  directory an extension is used, but not in the installed python.

C API
-----

- New function PyDict_MergeFromSeq2() exposes the built-in dict
  constructor's logic for updating a dictionary from an iterable object
  producing key-value pairs.

- PyArg_ParseTupleAndKeywords() requires that the number of entries in
  the keyword list equal the number of argument specifiers.  This
  wasn't checked correctly, and PyArg_ParseTupleAndKeywords could even
  dump core in some bad cases.  This has been repaired.  As a result,
  PyArg_ParseTupleAndKeywords may raise RuntimeError in bad cases that
  previously went unchallenged.

New platforms
-------------

Tests
-----

Windows
-------

Mac
----

- In unix-Python on Mac OS X (and darwin) sys.platform is now "darwin",
  without any trailing digits.

- Changed logic for finding python home in Mac OS X framework Pythons.
  Now sys.executable points to the executable again, in stead of to
  the shared library. The latter is used only for locating the python
  home.


What's New in Python 2.2b2?
===========================

*Release date: 16-Nov-2001*

Type/class unification and new-style classes
--------------------------------------------

- Multiple inheritance mixing new-style and classic classes in the
  list of base classes is now allowed, so this works now:

      class Classic: pass
      class Mixed(Classic, object): pass

  The MRO (method resolution order) for each base class is respected
  according to its kind, but the MRO for the derived class is computed
  using new-style MRO rules if any base class is a new-style class.
  This needs to be documented.

- The new built-in dictionary() constructor, and dictionary type, have
  been renamed to dict.  This reflects a decade of common usage.

- dict() now accepts an iterable object producing 2-sequences.  For
  example, dict(d.items()) == d for any dictionary d.  The argument,
  and the elements of the argument, can be any iterable objects.

- New-style classes can now have a __del__ method, which is called
  when the instance is deleted (just like for classic classes).

- Assignment to object.__dict__ is now possible, for objects that are
  instances of new-style classes that have a __dict__ (unless the base
  class forbids it).

- Methods of built-in types now properly check for keyword arguments
  (formerly these were silently ignored).  The only built-in methods
  that take keyword arguments are __call__, __init__ and __new__.

- The socket function has been converted to a type; see below.

Core and builtins
-----------------

- Assignment to __debug__ raises SyntaxError at compile-time.  This
  was promised when 2.1c1 was released as "What's New in Python 2.1c1"
  (see below) says.

- Clarified the error messages for unsupported operands to an operator
  (like 1 + '').

Extension modules
-----------------

- mmap has a new keyword argument, "access", allowing a uniform way for
  both Windows and Unix users to create read-only, write-through and
  copy-on-write memory mappings.  This was previously possible only on
  Unix.  A new keyword argument was required to support this in a
  uniform way because the mmap() signatures had diverged across
  platforms.  Thanks to Jay T Miller for repairing this!

- By default, the gc.garbage list now contains only those instances in
  unreachable cycles that have __del__ methods; in 2.1 it contained all
  instances in unreachable cycles.  "Instances" here has been generalized
  to include instances of both new-style and old-style classes.

- The socket module defines a new method for socket objects,
  sendall().  This is like send() but may make multiple calls to
  send() until all data has been sent.  Also, the socket function has
  been converted to a subclassable type, like list and tuple (etc.)
  before it; socket and SocketType are now the same thing.

- Various bugfixes to the curses module.  There is now a test suite
  for the curses module (you have to run it manually).

- binascii.b2a_base64 no longer places an arbitrary restriction of 57
  bytes on its input.

Library
-------

- tkFileDialog exposes a Directory class and askdirectory
  convenience function.

- Symbolic group names in regular expressions must be unique.  For
  example, the regexp r'(?P<abc>)(?P<abc>)' is not allowed, because a
  single name can't mean both "group 1" and "group 2" simultaneously.
  Python 2.2 detects this error at regexp compilation time;
  previously, the error went undetected, and results were
  unpredictable.  Also in sre, the pattern.split(), pattern.sub(), and
  pattern.subn() methods have been rewritten in C.  Also, an
  experimental function/method finditer() has been added, which works
  like findall() but returns an iterator.

- Tix exposes more commands through the classes DirSelectBox,
  DirSelectDialog, ListNoteBook, Meter, CheckList, and the
  methods tix_addbitmapdir, tix_cget, tix_configure, tix_filedialog,
  tix_getbitmap, tix_getimage, tix_option_get, and tix_resetoptions.

- Traceback objects are now scanned by cyclic garbage collection, so
  cycles created by casual use of sys.exc_info() no longer cause
  permanent memory leaks (provided garbage collection is enabled).

- mimetypes.py has optional support for non-standard, but commonly
  found types.  guess_type() and guess_extension() now accept an
  optional 'strict' flag, defaulting to true, which controls whether
  recognize non-standard types or not.  A few non-standard types we
  know about have been added.  Also, when run as a script, there are
  new -l and -e options.

- statcache is now deprecated.

- email.Utils.formatdate() now produces the preferred RFC 2822 style
  dates with numeric timezones (it used to produce obsolete dates
  hard coded to "GMT" timezone).  An optional 'localtime' flag is
  added to produce dates in the local timezone, with daylight savings
  time properly taken into account.

- In pickle and cPickle, instead of masking errors in load() by
  transforming them into SystemError, we let the original exception
  propagate out.  Also, implement support for __safe_for_unpickling__
  in pickle, as it already was supported in cPickle.

Tools/Demos
-----------

Build
-----

- The dbm module is built using libdb1 if available.  The bsddb module
  is built with libdb3 if available.

- Misc/Makefile.pre.in has been removed by BDFL pronouncement.

C API
-----

- New function PySequence_Fast_GET_SIZE() returns the size of a non-
  NULL result from PySequence_Fast(), more quickly than calling
  PySequence_Size().

- New argument unpacking function PyArg_UnpackTuple() added.

- New functions PyObject_CallFunctionObjArgs() and
  PyObject_CallMethodObjArgs() have been added to make it more
  convenient and efficient to call functions and methods from C.

- PyArg_ParseTupleAndKeywords() no longer masks errors, so it's
  possible that this will propagate errors it didn't before.

- New function PyObject_CheckReadBuffer(), which returns true if its
  argument supports the single-segment readable buffer interface.

New platforms