# cpython-withatomic / Doc / libfuncs.tex

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They are listed here in alphabetical order. \renewcommand{\indexsubitem}{(built-in function)} \begin{funcdesc}{abs}{x} Return the absolute value of a number. The argument may be a plain or long integer or a floating point number. \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{apply}{function\, args} The \var{function} argument must be a callable object (a user-defined or built-in function or method, or a class object) and the \var{args} argument must be a tuple. The \var{function} is called with \var{args} as argument list; the number of arguments is the the length of the tuple. (This is different from just calling \code{\var{func}(\var{args})}, since in that case there is always exactly one argument.) \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{chr}{i} Return a string of one character whose \ASCII{} code is the integer \var{i}, e.g., \code{chr(97)} returns the string \code{'a'}. This is the inverse of \code{ord()}. The argument must be in the range [0..255], inclusive. \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{cmp}{x\, y} Compare the two objects \var{x} and \var{y} and return an integer according to the outcome. The return value is negative if \code{\var{x} < \var{y}}, zero if \code{\var{x} == \var{y}} and strictly positive if \code{\var{x} > \var{y}}. \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{coerce}{x\, y} Return a tuple consisting of the two numeric arguments converted to a common type, using the same rules as used by arithmetic operations. \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{compile}{string\, filename\, kind} Compile the \var{string} into a code object. Code objects can be executed by a \code{exec()} statement or evaluated by a call to \code{eval()}. The \var{filename} argument should give the file from which the code was read; pass e.g. \code{''} if it wasn't read from a file. The \var{kind} argument specifies what kind of code must be compiled; it can be \code{'exec'} if \var{string} consists of a sequence of statements, or \code{'eval'} if it consists of a single expression. \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{delattr}{object\, name} This is a relative of \code{setattr}. The arguments are an object and a string. The string must be the name of one of the object's attributes. The function deletes the named attribute, provided the object allows it. For example, \code{setattr(\var{x}, '\var{foobar}')} is equivalent to \code{del \var{x}.\var{foobar}}. \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{dir}{} Without arguments, return the list of names in the current local symbol table. With a module, class or class instance object as argument (or anything else that has a \code{__dict__} attribute), returns the list of names in that object's attribute dictionary. The resulting list is sorted. For example: \bcode\begin{verbatim} >>> import sys >>> dir() ['sys'] >>> dir(sys) ['argv', 'exit', 'modules', 'path', 'stderr', 'stdin', 'stdout'] >>> \end{verbatim}\ecode \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{divmod}{a\, b} Take two numbers as arguments and return a pair of integers consisting of their integer quotient and remainder. With mixed operand types, the rules for binary arithmetic operators apply. For plain and long integers, the result is the same as \code{(\var{a} / \var{b}, \var{a} \%{} \var{b})}. For floating point numbers the result is the same as \code{(math.floor(\var{a} / \var{b}), \var{a} \%{} \var{b})}. \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{eval}{s\optional{\, globals\optional{\, locals}}} The arguments are a string and two optional dictionaries. The string argument is parsed and evaluated as a Python expression (technically speaking, a condition list) using the dictionaries as global and local name space. The string must not contain null bytes or newline characters. The return value is the result of the expression. If the third argument is omitted it defaults to the second. If both dictionaries are omitted, the expression is executed in the environment where \code{eval} is called. Syntax errors are reported as exceptions. Example: \bcode\begin{verbatim} >>> x = 1 >>> print eval('x+1') 2 >>> \end{verbatim}\ecode This function can also be used to execute arbitrary code objects (e.g. created by \code{compile()}). In this case pass a code object instead of a string. The code object must have been compiled passing \code{'eval'} to the \var{kind} argument. Note: dynamic execution of statements is supported by the \code{exec} statement. \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{filter}{function\, list} Construct a list from those elements of \var{list} for which \var{function} returns true. If \var{list} is a string or a tuple, the result also has that type; otherwise it is always a list. If \var{function} is \code{None}, the identity function is assumed, i.e. all elements of \var{list} that are false (zero or empty) are removed. \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{float}{x} Convert a number to floating point. The argument may be a plain or long integer or a floating point number. \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{getattr}{object\, name} The arguments are an object and a string. The string must be the name of one of the object's attributes. The result is the value of that attribute. For example, \code{getattr(\var{x}, '\var{foobar}')} is equivalent to \code{\var{x}.\var{foobar}}. \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{hasattr}{object\, name} The arguments are an object and a string. The result is 1 if the string is the name of one of the object's attributes, 0 if not. (This is implemented by calling \code{getattr(object, name)} and seeing whether it raises an exception or not.) \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{hash}{object} Return the hash value of the object (if it has one). Hash values are 32-bit integers. They are used to quickly compare dictionary keys during a dictionary lookup. Numeric values that compare equal have the same hash value (even if they are of different types, e.g. 1 and 1.0). \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{hex}{x} Convert a number to a hexadecimal string. The result is a valid Python expression. \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{id}{object} Return the identity' of an object. This is an integer which is guaranteed to be unique and constant for this object during its lifetime. (Two objects whose lifetimes are disjunct may have the same id() value.) (Implementation note: this is the address of the object.) \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{input}{\optional{prompt}} Almost equivalent to \code{eval(raw_input(\var{prompt}))}. Like \code{raw_input()}, the \var{prompt} argument is optional. The difference is that a long input expression may be broken over multiple lines using the backslash convention. \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{int}{x} Convert a number to a plain integer. The argument may be a plain or long integer or a floating point number. \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{len}{s} Return the length (the number of items) of an object. The argument may be a sequence (string, tuple or list) or a mapping (dictionary). \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{long}{x} Convert a number to a long integer. The argument may be a plain or long integer or a floating point number. \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{map}{function\, list\, ...} Apply \var{function} to every item of \var{list} and return a list of the results. If additional \var{list} arguments are passed, \var{function} must take that many arguments and is applied to the items of all lists in parallel; if a list is shorter than another it is assumed to be extended with \code{None} items. If \var{function} is \code{None}, the identity function is assumed; if there are multiple list arguments, \code{map} returns a list consisting of tuples containing the corresponding items from all lists (i.e. a kind of transpose operation). The \var{list} arguments may be any kind of sequence; the result is always a list. \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{max}{s} Return the largest item of a non-empty sequence (string, tuple or list). \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{min}{s} Return the smallest item of a non-empty sequence (string, tuple or list). \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{oct}{x} Convert a number to an octal string. The result is a valid Python expression. \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{open}{filename\, \optional{mode\optional{\, bufsize}}} Return a new file object (described earlier under Built-in Types). The first two arguments are the same as for \code{stdio}'s \code{fopen()}: \var{filename} is the file name to be opened, \var{mode} indicates how the file is to be opened: \code{'r'} for reading, \code{'w'} for writing (truncating an existing file), and \code{'a'} opens it for appending. Modes \code{'r+'}, \code{'w+'} and \code{'a+'} open the file for updating, provided the underlying \code{stdio} library understands this. On systems that differentiate between binary and text files, \code{'b'} appended to the mode opens the file in binary mode. If the file cannot be opened, \code{IOError} is raised. If \var{mode} is omitted, it defaults to \code{'r'}. The optional \var{bufsize} argument specifies the file's desired buffer size: 0 means unbuffered, 1 means line buffered, any other positive value means use a buffer of (approximately) that size. A negative \var{bufsize} means to use the system default, which is usually line buffered for for tty devices and fully buffered for other files.% \footnote{Specifying a buffer size currently has no effect on systems that don't have \code{setvbuf()}. The interface to specify the buffer size is not done using a method that calls \code{setvbuf()}, because that may dump core when called after any I/O has been performed, and there's no reliable way to determine whether this is the case.} \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{ord}{c} Return the \ASCII{} value of a string of one character. E.g., \code{ord('a')} returns the integer \code{97}. This is the inverse of \code{chr()}. \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{pow}{x\, y\optional{\, z}} Return \var{x} to the power \var{y}; if \var{z} is present, return \var{x} to the power \var{y}, modulo \var{z} (computed more efficiently that \code{pow(\var{x}, \var{y}) \% \var{z}}). The arguments must have numeric types. With mixed operand types, the rules for binary arithmetic operators apply. The effective operand type is also the type of the result; if the result is not expressible in this type, the function raises an exception; e.g., \code{pow(2, -1)} or \code{pow(2, 35000)} is not allowed. \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{range}{\optional{start\,} end\optional{\, step}} This is a versatile function to create lists containing arithmetic progressions. It is most often used in \code{for} loops. The arguments must be plain integers. If the \var{step} argument is omitted, it defaults to \code{1}. If the \var{start} argument is omitted, it defaults to \code{0}. The full form returns a list of plain integers \code{[\var{start}, \var{start} + \var{step}, \var{start} + 2 * \var{step}, \ldots]}. If \var{step} is positive, the last element is the largest \code{\var{start} + \var{i} * \var{step}} less than \var{end}; if \var{step} is negative, the last element is the largest \code{\var{start} + \var{i} * \var{step}} greater than \var{end}. \var{step} must not be zero. Example: \bcode\begin{verbatim} >>> range(10) [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9] >>> range(1, 11) [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10] >>> range(0, 30, 5) [0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25] >>> range(0, 10, 3) [0, 3, 6, 9] >>> range(0, -10, -1) [0, -1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8, -9] >>> range(0) [] >>> range(1, 0) [] >>> \end{verbatim}\ecode \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{raw_input}{\optional{prompt}} If the \var{prompt} argument is present, it is written to standard output without a trailing newline. The function then reads a line from input, converts it to a string (stripping a trailing newline), and returns that. When \EOF{} is read, \code{EOFError} is raised. Example: \bcode\begin{verbatim} >>> s = raw_input('--> ') --> Monty Python's Flying Circus >>> s 'Monty Python\'s Flying Circus' >>> \end{verbatim}\ecode \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{reduce}{function\, list\optional{\, initializer}} Apply the binary \var{function} to the items of \var{list} so as to reduce the list to a single value. E.g., \code{reduce(lambda x, y: x*y, \var{list}, 1)} returns the product of the elements of \var{list}. The optional \var{initializer} can be thought of as being prepended to \var{list} so as to allow reduction of an empty \var{list}. The \var{list} arguments may be any kind of sequence. \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{reload}{module} Re-parse and re-initialize an already imported \var{module}. The argument must be a module object, so it must have been successfully imported before. This is useful if you have edited the module source file using an external editor and want to try out the new version without leaving the Python interpreter. Note that if a module is syntactically correct but its initialization fails, the first \code{import} statement for it does not import the name, but does create a (partially initialized) module object; to reload the module you must first \code{import} it again (this will just make the partially initialized module object available) before you can \code{reload()} it. \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{repr}{object} Return a string containing a printable representation of an object. This is the same value yielded by conversions (reverse quotes). It is sometimes useful to be able to access this operation as an ordinary function. For many types, this function makes an attempt to return a string that would yield an object with the same value when passed to \code{eval()}. \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{round}{x\, n} Return the floating point value \var{x} rounded to \var{n} digits after the decimal point. If \var{n} is omitted, it defaults to zero. The result is a floating point number. Values are rounded to the closest multiple of 10 to the power minus \var{n}; if two multiples are equally close, rounding is done away from 0 (so e.g. \code{round(0.5)} is \code{1.0} and \code{round(-0.5)} is \code{-1.0}). \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{setattr}{object\, name\, value} This is the counterpart of \code{getattr}. The arguments are an object, a string and an arbitrary value. The string must be the name of one of the object's attributes. The function assigns the value to the attribute, provided the object allows it. For example, \code{setattr(\var{x}, '\var{foobar}', 123)} is equivalent to \code{\var{x}.\var{foobar} = 123}. \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{str}{object} Return a string containing a nicely printable representation of an object. For strings, this returns the string itself. The difference with \code{repr(\var{object}} is that \code{str(\var{object}} does not always attempt to return a string that is acceptable to \code{eval()}; its goal is to return a printable string. \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{tuple}{object} Return a tuple whose items are the same and in the same order as \var{object}'s items. If \var{object} is alread a tuple, it is returned unchanged. For instance, \code{tuple('abc')} returns returns \code{('a', 'b', 'c')} and \code{tuple([1, 2, 3])} returns \code{(1, 2, 3)}. \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{type}{object} % XXXJH xref to buil-in objects here? Return the type of an \var{object}. The return value is a type object. There is not much you can do with type objects except compare them to other type objects; e.g., the following checks if a variable is a string: \bcode\begin{verbatim} >>> if type(x) == type(''): print 'It is a string' \end{verbatim}\ecode \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{vars}{} Without arguments, return a dictionary corresponding to the current local symbol table. With a module, class or class instance object as argument (or anything else that has a \code{__dict__} attribute), returns a dictionary corresponding to the object's symbol table. The returned dictionary should not be modified: the effects on the corresponding symbol table are undefined.% \footnote{In the current implementation, local variable bindings cannot normally be affected this way, but variables retrieved from other scopes can be. This may change.} \end{funcdesc} \begin{funcdesc}{xrange}{\optional{start\,} end\optional{\, step}} This function is very similar to \code{range()}, but returns an xrange object'' instead of a list. This is an opaque sequence type which yields the same values as the corresponding list, without actually storing them all simultaneously. The advantage of \code{xrange()} over \code{range()} is minimal (since \code{xrange()} still has to create the values when asked for them) except when a very large range is used on a memory-starved machine (e.g. DOS) or when all of the range's elements are never used (e.g. when the loop is usually terminated with \code{break}). \end{funcdesc} `