Source

cpython-withatomic / Lib / tarfile.py

The 2.7 branch has multiple heads

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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: iso-8859-1 -*-
#-------------------------------------------------------------------
# tarfile.py
#-------------------------------------------------------------------
# Copyright (C) 2002 Lars Gustäbel <lars@gustaebel.de>
# All rights reserved.
#
# Permission  is  hereby granted,  free  of charge,  to  any person
# obtaining a  copy of  this software  and associated documentation
# files  (the  "Software"),  to   deal  in  the  Software   without
# restriction,  including  without limitation  the  rights to  use,
# copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
# copies  of  the  Software,  and to  permit  persons  to  whom the
# Software  is  furnished  to  do  so,  subject  to  the  following
# conditions:
#
# The above copyright  notice and this  permission notice shall  be
# included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
#
# THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS  IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY  KIND,
# EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING  BUT NOT LIMITED TO  THE WARRANTIES
# OF  MERCHANTABILITY,  FITNESS   FOR  A  PARTICULAR   PURPOSE  AND
# NONINFRINGEMENT.  IN  NO  EVENT SHALL  THE  AUTHORS  OR COPYRIGHT
# HOLDERS  BE LIABLE  FOR ANY  CLAIM, DAMAGES  OR OTHER  LIABILITY,
# WHETHER  IN AN  ACTION OF  CONTRACT, TORT  OR OTHERWISE,  ARISING
# FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR
# OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
#
"""Read from and write to tar format archives.
"""

__version__ = "$Revision: 85213 $"
# $Source$

version     = "0.9.0"
__author__  = "Lars Gustäbel (lars@gustaebel.de)"
__date__    = "$Date$"
__cvsid__   = "$Id$"
__credits__ = "Gustavo Niemeyer, Niels Gustäbel, Richard Townsend."

#---------
# Imports
#---------
import sys
import os
import shutil
import stat
import errno
import time
import struct
import copy
import re
import operator

try:
    import grp, pwd
except ImportError:
    grp = pwd = None

# from tarfile import *
__all__ = ["TarFile", "TarInfo", "is_tarfile", "TarError"]

#---------------------------------------------------------
# tar constants
#---------------------------------------------------------
NUL = "\0"                      # the null character
BLOCKSIZE = 512                 # length of processing blocks
RECORDSIZE = BLOCKSIZE * 20     # length of records
GNU_MAGIC = "ustar  \0"         # magic gnu tar string
POSIX_MAGIC = "ustar\x0000"     # magic posix tar string

LENGTH_NAME = 100               # maximum length of a filename
LENGTH_LINK = 100               # maximum length of a linkname
LENGTH_PREFIX = 155             # maximum length of the prefix field

REGTYPE = "0"                   # regular file
AREGTYPE = "\0"                 # regular file
LNKTYPE = "1"                   # link (inside tarfile)
SYMTYPE = "2"                   # symbolic link
CHRTYPE = "3"                   # character special device
BLKTYPE = "4"                   # block special device
DIRTYPE = "5"                   # directory
FIFOTYPE = "6"                  # fifo special device
CONTTYPE = "7"                  # contiguous file

GNUTYPE_LONGNAME = "L"          # GNU tar longname
GNUTYPE_LONGLINK = "K"          # GNU tar longlink
GNUTYPE_SPARSE = "S"            # GNU tar sparse file

XHDTYPE = "x"                   # POSIX.1-2001 extended header
XGLTYPE = "g"                   # POSIX.1-2001 global header
SOLARIS_XHDTYPE = "X"           # Solaris extended header

USTAR_FORMAT = 0                # POSIX.1-1988 (ustar) format
GNU_FORMAT = 1                  # GNU tar format
PAX_FORMAT = 2                  # POSIX.1-2001 (pax) format
DEFAULT_FORMAT = GNU_FORMAT

#---------------------------------------------------------
# tarfile constants
#---------------------------------------------------------
# File types that tarfile supports:
SUPPORTED_TYPES = (REGTYPE, AREGTYPE, LNKTYPE,
                   SYMTYPE, DIRTYPE, FIFOTYPE,
                   CONTTYPE, CHRTYPE, BLKTYPE,
                   GNUTYPE_LONGNAME, GNUTYPE_LONGLINK,
                   GNUTYPE_SPARSE)

# File types that will be treated as a regular file.
REGULAR_TYPES = (REGTYPE, AREGTYPE,
                 CONTTYPE, GNUTYPE_SPARSE)

# File types that are part of the GNU tar format.
GNU_TYPES = (GNUTYPE_LONGNAME, GNUTYPE_LONGLINK,
             GNUTYPE_SPARSE)

# Fields from a pax header that override a TarInfo attribute.
PAX_FIELDS = ("path", "linkpath", "size", "mtime",
              "uid", "gid", "uname", "gname")

# Fields in a pax header that are numbers, all other fields
# are treated as strings.
PAX_NUMBER_FIELDS = {
    "atime": float,
    "ctime": float,
    "mtime": float,
    "uid": int,
    "gid": int,
    "size": int
}

#---------------------------------------------------------
# Bits used in the mode field, values in octal.
#---------------------------------------------------------
S_IFLNK = 0120000        # symbolic link
S_IFREG = 0100000        # regular file
S_IFBLK = 0060000        # block device
S_IFDIR = 0040000        # directory
S_IFCHR = 0020000        # character device
S_IFIFO = 0010000        # fifo

TSUID   = 04000          # set UID on execution
TSGID   = 02000          # set GID on execution
TSVTX   = 01000          # reserved

TUREAD  = 0400           # read by owner
TUWRITE = 0200           # write by owner
TUEXEC  = 0100           # execute/search by owner
TGREAD  = 0040           # read by group
TGWRITE = 0020           # write by group
TGEXEC  = 0010           # execute/search by group
TOREAD  = 0004           # read by other
TOWRITE = 0002           # write by other
TOEXEC  = 0001           # execute/search by other

#---------------------------------------------------------
# initialization
#---------------------------------------------------------
ENCODING = sys.getfilesystemencoding()
if ENCODING is None:
    ENCODING = sys.getdefaultencoding()

#---------------------------------------------------------
# Some useful functions
#---------------------------------------------------------

def stn(s, length):
    """Convert a python string to a null-terminated string buffer.
    """
    return s[:length] + (length - len(s)) * NUL

def nts(s):
    """Convert a null-terminated string field to a python string.
    """
    # Use the string up to the first null char.
    p = s.find("\0")
    if p == -1:
        return s
    return s[:p]

def nti(s):
    """Convert a number field to a python number.
    """
    # There are two possible encodings for a number field, see
    # itn() below.
    if s[0] != chr(0200):
        try:
            n = int(nts(s) or "0", 8)
        except ValueError:
            raise InvalidHeaderError("invalid header")
    else:
        n = 0L
        for i in xrange(len(s) - 1):
            n <<= 8
            n += ord(s[i + 1])
    return n

def itn(n, digits=8, format=DEFAULT_FORMAT):
    """Convert a python number to a number field.
    """
    # POSIX 1003.1-1988 requires numbers to be encoded as a string of
    # octal digits followed by a null-byte, this allows values up to
    # (8**(digits-1))-1. GNU tar allows storing numbers greater than
    # that if necessary. A leading 0200 byte indicates this particular
    # encoding, the following digits-1 bytes are a big-endian
    # representation. This allows values up to (256**(digits-1))-1.
    if 0 <= n < 8 ** (digits - 1):
        s = "%0*o" % (digits - 1, n) + NUL
    else:
        if format != GNU_FORMAT or n >= 256 ** (digits - 1):
            raise ValueError("overflow in number field")

        if n < 0:
            # XXX We mimic GNU tar's behaviour with negative numbers,
            # this could raise OverflowError.
            n = struct.unpack("L", struct.pack("l", n))[0]

        s = ""
        for i in xrange(digits - 1):
            s = chr(n & 0377) + s
            n >>= 8
        s = chr(0200) + s
    return s

def uts(s, encoding, errors):
    """Convert a unicode object to a string.
    """
    if errors == "utf-8":
        # An extra error handler similar to the -o invalid=UTF-8 option
        # in POSIX.1-2001. Replace untranslatable characters with their
        # UTF-8 representation.
        try:
            return s.encode(encoding, "strict")
        except UnicodeEncodeError:
            x = []
            for c in s:
                try:
                    x.append(c.encode(encoding, "strict"))
                except UnicodeEncodeError:
                    x.append(c.encode("utf8"))
            return "".join(x)
    else:
        return s.encode(encoding, errors)

def calc_chksums(buf):
    """Calculate the checksum for a member's header by summing up all
       characters except for the chksum field which is treated as if
       it was filled with spaces. According to the GNU tar sources,
       some tars (Sun and NeXT) calculate chksum with signed char,
       which will be different if there are chars in the buffer with
       the high bit set. So we calculate two checksums, unsigned and
       signed.
    """
    unsigned_chksum = 256 + sum(struct.unpack("148B", buf[:148]) + struct.unpack("356B", buf[156:512]))
    signed_chksum = 256 + sum(struct.unpack("148b", buf[:148]) + struct.unpack("356b", buf[156:512]))
    return unsigned_chksum, signed_chksum

def copyfileobj(src, dst, length=None):
    """Copy length bytes from fileobj src to fileobj dst.
       If length is None, copy the entire content.
    """
    if length == 0:
        return
    if length is None:
        shutil.copyfileobj(src, dst)
        return

    BUFSIZE = 16 * 1024
    blocks, remainder = divmod(length, BUFSIZE)
    for b in xrange(blocks):
        buf = src.read(BUFSIZE)
        if len(buf) < BUFSIZE:
            raise IOError("end of file reached")
        dst.write(buf)

    if remainder != 0:
        buf = src.read(remainder)
        if len(buf) < remainder:
            raise IOError("end of file reached")
        dst.write(buf)
    return

filemode_table = (
    ((S_IFLNK,      "l"),
     (S_IFREG,      "-"),
     (S_IFBLK,      "b"),
     (S_IFDIR,      "d"),
     (S_IFCHR,      "c"),
     (S_IFIFO,      "p")),

    ((TUREAD,       "r"),),
    ((TUWRITE,      "w"),),
    ((TUEXEC|TSUID, "s"),
     (TSUID,        "S"),
     (TUEXEC,       "x")),

    ((TGREAD,       "r"),),
    ((TGWRITE,      "w"),),
    ((TGEXEC|TSGID, "s"),
     (TSGID,        "S"),
     (TGEXEC,       "x")),

    ((TOREAD,       "r"),),
    ((TOWRITE,      "w"),),
    ((TOEXEC|TSVTX, "t"),
     (TSVTX,        "T"),
     (TOEXEC,       "x"))
)

def filemode(mode):
    """Convert a file's mode to a string of the form
       -rwxrwxrwx.
       Used by TarFile.list()
    """
    perm = []
    for table in filemode_table:
        for bit, char in table:
            if mode & bit == bit:
                perm.append(char)
                break
        else:
            perm.append("-")
    return "".join(perm)

class TarError(Exception):
    """Base exception."""
    pass
class ExtractError(TarError):
    """General exception for extract errors."""
    pass
class ReadError(TarError):
    """Exception for unreadble tar archives."""
    pass
class CompressionError(TarError):
    """Exception for unavailable compression methods."""
    pass
class StreamError(TarError):
    """Exception for unsupported operations on stream-like TarFiles."""
    pass
class HeaderError(TarError):
    """Base exception for header errors."""
    pass
class EmptyHeaderError(HeaderError):
    """Exception for empty headers."""
    pass
class TruncatedHeaderError(HeaderError):
    """Exception for truncated headers."""
    pass
class EOFHeaderError(HeaderError):
    """Exception for end of file headers."""
    pass
class InvalidHeaderError(HeaderError):
    """Exception for invalid headers."""
    pass
class SubsequentHeaderError(HeaderError):
    """Exception for missing and invalid extended headers."""
    pass

#---------------------------
# internal stream interface
#---------------------------
class _LowLevelFile:
    """Low-level file object. Supports reading and writing.
       It is used instead of a regular file object for streaming
       access.
    """

    def __init__(self, name, mode):
        mode = {
            "r": os.O_RDONLY,
            "w": os.O_WRONLY | os.O_CREAT | os.O_TRUNC,
        }[mode]
        if hasattr(os, "O_BINARY"):
            mode |= os.O_BINARY
        self.fd = os.open(name, mode, 0666)

    def close(self):
        os.close(self.fd)

    def read(self, size):
        return os.read(self.fd, size)

    def write(self, s):
        os.write(self.fd, s)

class _Stream:
    """Class that serves as an adapter between TarFile and
       a stream-like object.  The stream-like object only
       needs to have a read() or write() method and is accessed
       blockwise.  Use of gzip or bzip2 compression is possible.
       A stream-like object could be for example: sys.stdin,
       sys.stdout, a socket, a tape device etc.

       _Stream is intended to be used only internally.
    """

    def __init__(self, name, mode, comptype, fileobj, bufsize):
        """Construct a _Stream object.
        """
        self._extfileobj = True
        if fileobj is None:
            fileobj = _LowLevelFile(name, mode)
            self._extfileobj = False

        if comptype == '*':
            # Enable transparent compression detection for the
            # stream interface
            fileobj = _StreamProxy(fileobj)
            comptype = fileobj.getcomptype()

        self.name     = name or ""
        self.mode     = mode
        self.comptype = comptype
        self.fileobj  = fileobj
        self.bufsize  = bufsize
        self.buf      = ""
        self.pos      = 0L
        self.closed   = False

        if comptype == "gz":
            try:
                import zlib
            except ImportError:
                raise CompressionError("zlib module is not available")
            self.zlib = zlib
            self.crc = zlib.crc32("") & 0xffffffffL
            if mode == "r":
                self._init_read_gz()
            else:
                self._init_write_gz()

        if comptype == "bz2":
            try:
                import bz2
            except ImportError:
                raise CompressionError("bz2 module is not available")
            if mode == "r":
                self.dbuf = ""
                self.cmp = bz2.BZ2Decompressor()
            else:
                self.cmp = bz2.BZ2Compressor()

    def __del__(self):
        if hasattr(self, "closed") and not self.closed:
            self.close()

    def _init_write_gz(self):
        """Initialize for writing with gzip compression.
        """
        self.cmp = self.zlib.compressobj(9, self.zlib.DEFLATED,
                                            -self.zlib.MAX_WBITS,
                                            self.zlib.DEF_MEM_LEVEL,
                                            0)
        timestamp = struct.pack("<L", long(time.time()))
        self.__write("\037\213\010\010%s\002\377" % timestamp)
        if type(self.name) is unicode:
            self.name = self.name.encode("iso-8859-1", "replace")
        if self.name.endswith(".gz"):
            self.name = self.name[:-3]
        self.__write(self.name + NUL)

    def write(self, s):
        """Write string s to the stream.
        """
        if self.comptype == "gz":
            self.crc = self.zlib.crc32(s, self.crc) & 0xffffffffL
        self.pos += len(s)
        if self.comptype != "tar":
            s = self.cmp.compress(s)
        self.__write(s)

    def __write(self, s):
        """Write string s to the stream if a whole new block
           is ready to be written.
        """
        self.buf += s
        while len(self.buf) > self.bufsize:
            self.fileobj.write(self.buf[:self.bufsize])
            self.buf = self.buf[self.bufsize:]

    def close(self):
        """Close the _Stream object. No operation should be
           done on it afterwards.
        """
        if self.closed:
            return

        if self.mode == "w" and self.comptype != "tar":
            self.buf += self.cmp.flush()

        if self.mode == "w" and self.buf:
            self.fileobj.write(self.buf)
            self.buf = ""
            if self.comptype == "gz":
                # The native zlib crc is an unsigned 32-bit integer, but
                # the Python wrapper implicitly casts that to a signed C
                # long.  So, on a 32-bit box self.crc may "look negative",
                # while the same crc on a 64-bit box may "look positive".
                # To avoid irksome warnings from the `struct` module, force
                # it to look positive on all boxes.
                self.fileobj.write(struct.pack("<L", self.crc & 0xffffffffL))
                self.fileobj.write(struct.pack("<L", self.pos & 0xffffFFFFL))

        if not self._extfileobj:
            self.fileobj.close()

        self.closed = True

    def _init_read_gz(self):
        """Initialize for reading a gzip compressed fileobj.
        """
        self.cmp = self.zlib.decompressobj(-self.zlib.MAX_WBITS)
        self.dbuf = ""

        # taken from gzip.GzipFile with some alterations
        if self.__read(2) != "\037\213":
            raise ReadError("not a gzip file")
        if self.__read(1) != "\010":
            raise CompressionError("unsupported compression method")

        flag = ord(self.__read(1))
        self.__read(6)

        if flag & 4:
            xlen = ord(self.__read(1)) + 256 * ord(self.__read(1))
            self.read(xlen)
        if flag & 8:
            while True:
                s = self.__read(1)
                if not s or s == NUL:
                    break
        if flag & 16:
            while True:
                s = self.__read(1)
                if not s or s == NUL:
                    break
        if flag & 2:
            self.__read(2)

    def tell(self):
        """Return the stream's file pointer position.
        """
        return self.pos

    def seek(self, pos=0):
        """Set the stream's file pointer to pos. Negative seeking
           is forbidden.
        """
        if pos - self.pos >= 0:
            blocks, remainder = divmod(pos - self.pos, self.bufsize)
            for i in xrange(blocks):
                self.read(self.bufsize)
            self.read(remainder)
        else:
            raise StreamError("seeking backwards is not allowed")
        return self.pos

    def read(self, size=None):
        """Return the next size number of bytes from the stream.
           If size is not defined, return all bytes of the stream
           up to EOF.
        """
        if size is None:
            t = []
            while True:
                buf = self._read(self.bufsize)
                if not buf:
                    break
                t.append(buf)
            buf = "".join(t)
        else:
            buf = self._read(size)
        self.pos += len(buf)
        return buf

    def _read(self, size):
        """Return size bytes from the stream.
        """
        if self.comptype == "tar":
            return self.__read(size)

        c = len(self.dbuf)
        t = [self.dbuf]
        while c < size:
            buf = self.__read(self.bufsize)
            if not buf:
                break
            try:
                buf = self.cmp.decompress(buf)
            except IOError:
                raise ReadError("invalid compressed data")
            t.append(buf)
            c += len(buf)
        t = "".join(t)
        self.dbuf = t[size:]
        return t[:size]

    def __read(self, size):
        """Return size bytes from stream. If internal buffer is empty,
           read another block from the stream.
        """
        c = len(self.buf)
        t = [self.buf]
        while c < size:
            buf = self.fileobj.read(self.bufsize)
            if not buf:
                break
            t.append(buf)
            c += len(buf)
        t = "".join(t)
        self.buf = t[size:]
        return t[:size]
# class _Stream

class _StreamProxy(object):
    """Small proxy class that enables transparent compression
       detection for the Stream interface (mode 'r|*').
    """

    def __init__(self, fileobj):
        self.fileobj = fileobj
        self.buf = self.fileobj.read(BLOCKSIZE)

    def read(self, size):
        self.read = self.fileobj.read
        return self.buf

    def getcomptype(self):
        if self.buf.startswith("\037\213\010"):
            return "gz"
        if self.buf[0:3] == "BZh" and self.buf[4:10] == "1AY&SY":
            return "bz2"
        return "tar"

    def close(self):
        self.fileobj.close()
# class StreamProxy

class _BZ2Proxy(object):
    """Small proxy class that enables external file object
       support for "r:bz2" and "w:bz2" modes. This is actually
       a workaround for a limitation in bz2 module's BZ2File
       class which (unlike gzip.GzipFile) has no support for
       a file object argument.
    """

    blocksize = 16 * 1024

    def __init__(self, fileobj, mode):
        self.fileobj = fileobj
        self.mode = mode
        self.name = getattr(self.fileobj, "name", None)
        self.init()

    def init(self):
        import bz2
        self.pos = 0
        if self.mode == "r":
            self.bz2obj = bz2.BZ2Decompressor()
            self.fileobj.seek(0)
            self.buf = ""
        else:
            self.bz2obj = bz2.BZ2Compressor()

    def read(self, size):
        b = [self.buf]
        x = len(self.buf)
        while x < size:
            raw = self.fileobj.read(self.blocksize)
            if not raw:
                break
            data = self.bz2obj.decompress(raw)
            b.append(data)
            x += len(data)
        self.buf = "".join(b)

        buf = self.buf[:size]
        self.buf = self.buf[size:]
        self.pos += len(buf)
        return buf

    def seek(self, pos):
        if pos < self.pos:
            self.init()
        self.read(pos - self.pos)

    def tell(self):
        return self.pos

    def write(self, data):
        self.pos += len(data)
        raw = self.bz2obj.compress(data)
        self.fileobj.write(raw)

    def close(self):
        if self.mode == "w":
            raw = self.bz2obj.flush()
            self.fileobj.write(raw)
# class _BZ2Proxy

#------------------------
# Extraction file object
#------------------------
class _FileInFile(object):
    """A thin wrapper around an existing file object that
       provides a part of its data as an individual file
       object.
    """

    def __init__(self, fileobj, offset, size, sparse=None):
        self.fileobj = fileobj
        self.offset = offset
        self.size = size
        self.sparse = sparse
        self.position = 0

    def tell(self):
        """Return the current file position.
        """
        return self.position

    def seek(self, position):
        """Seek to a position in the file.
        """
        self.position = position

    def read(self, size=None):
        """Read data from the file.
        """
        if size is None:
            size = self.size - self.position
        else:
            size = min(size, self.size - self.position)

        if self.sparse is None:
            return self.readnormal(size)
        else:
            return self.readsparse(size)

    def readnormal(self, size):
        """Read operation for regular files.
        """
        self.fileobj.seek(self.offset + self.position)
        self.position += size
        return self.fileobj.read(size)

    def readsparse(self, size):
        """Read operation for sparse files.
        """
        data = []
        while size > 0:
            buf = self.readsparsesection(size)
            if not buf:
                break
            size -= len(buf)
            data.append(buf)
        return "".join(data)

    def readsparsesection(self, size):
        """Read a single section of a sparse file.
        """
        section = self.sparse.find(self.position)

        if section is None:
            return ""

        size = min(size, section.offset + section.size - self.position)

        if isinstance(section, _data):
            realpos = section.realpos + self.position - section.offset
            self.fileobj.seek(self.offset + realpos)
            self.position += size
            return self.fileobj.read(size)
        else:
            self.position += size
            return NUL * size
#class _FileInFile


class ExFileObject(object):
    """File-like object for reading an archive member.
       Is returned by TarFile.extractfile().
    """
    blocksize = 1024

    def __init__(self, tarfile, tarinfo):
        self.fileobj = _FileInFile(tarfile.fileobj,
                                   tarinfo.offset_data,
                                   tarinfo.size,
                                   getattr(tarinfo, "sparse", None))
        self.name = tarinfo.name
        self.mode = "r"
        self.closed = False
        self.size = tarinfo.size

        self.position = 0
        self.buffer = ""

    def read(self, size=None):
        """Read at most size bytes from the file. If size is not
           present or None, read all data until EOF is reached.
        """
        if self.closed:
            raise ValueError("I/O operation on closed file")

        buf = ""
        if self.buffer:
            if size is None:
                buf = self.buffer
                self.buffer = ""
            else:
                buf = self.buffer[:size]
                self.buffer = self.buffer[size:]

        if size is None:
            buf += self.fileobj.read()
        else:
            buf += self.fileobj.read(size - len(buf))

        self.position += len(buf)
        return buf

    def readline(self, size=-1):
        """Read one entire line from the file. If size is present
           and non-negative, return a string with at most that
           size, which may be an incomplete line.
        """
        if self.closed:
            raise ValueError("I/O operation on closed file")

        if "\n" in self.buffer:
            pos = self.buffer.find("\n") + 1
        else:
            buffers = [self.buffer]
            while True:
                buf = self.fileobj.read(self.blocksize)
                buffers.append(buf)
                if not buf or "\n" in buf:
                    self.buffer = "".join(buffers)
                    pos = self.buffer.find("\n") + 1
                    if pos == 0:
                        # no newline found.
                        pos = len(self.buffer)
                    break

        if size != -1:
            pos = min(size, pos)

        buf = self.buffer[:pos]
        self.buffer = self.buffer[pos:]
        self.position += len(buf)
        return buf

    def readlines(self):
        """Return a list with all remaining lines.
        """
        result = []
        while True:
            line = self.readline()
            if not line: break
            result.append(line)
        return result

    def tell(self):
        """Return the current file position.
        """
        if self.closed:
            raise ValueError("I/O operation on closed file")

        return self.position

    def seek(self, pos, whence=os.SEEK_SET):
        """Seek to a position in the file.
        """
        if self.closed:
            raise ValueError("I/O operation on closed file")

        if whence == os.SEEK_SET:
            self.position = min(max(pos, 0), self.size)
        elif whence == os.SEEK_CUR:
            if pos < 0:
                self.position = max(self.position + pos, 0)
            else:
                self.position = min(self.position + pos, self.size)
        elif whence == os.SEEK_END:
            self.position = max(min(self.size + pos, self.size), 0)
        else:
            raise ValueError("Invalid argument")

        self.buffer = ""
        self.fileobj.seek(self.position)

    def close(self):
        """Close the file object.
        """
        self.closed = True

    def __iter__(self):
        """Get an iterator over the file's lines.
        """
        while True:
            line = self.readline()
            if not line:
                break
            yield line
#class ExFileObject

#------------------
# Exported Classes
#------------------
class TarInfo(object):
    """Informational class which holds the details about an
       archive member given by a tar header block.
       TarInfo objects are returned by TarFile.getmember(),
       TarFile.getmembers() and TarFile.gettarinfo() and are
       usually created internally.
    """

    def __init__(self, name=""):
        """Construct a TarInfo object. name is the optional name
           of the member.
        """
        self.name = name        # member name
        self.mode = 0644        # file permissions
        self.uid = 0            # user id
        self.gid = 0            # group id
        self.size = 0           # file size
        self.mtime = 0          # modification time
        self.chksum = 0         # header checksum
        self.type = REGTYPE     # member type
        self.linkname = ""      # link name
        self.uname = ""         # user name
        self.gname = ""         # group name
        self.devmajor = 0       # device major number
        self.devminor = 0       # device minor number

        self.offset = 0         # the tar header starts here
        self.offset_data = 0    # the file's data starts here

        self.pax_headers = {}   # pax header information

    # In pax headers the "name" and "linkname" field are called
    # "path" and "linkpath".
    def _getpath(self):
        return self.name
    def _setpath(self, name):
        self.name = name
    path = property(_getpath, _setpath)

    def _getlinkpath(self):
        return self.linkname
    def _setlinkpath(self, linkname):
        self.linkname = linkname
    linkpath = property(_getlinkpath, _setlinkpath)

    def __repr__(self):
        return "<%s %r at %#x>" % (self.__class__.__name__,self.name,id(self))

    def get_info(self, encoding, errors):
        """Return the TarInfo's attributes as a dictionary.
        """
        info = {
            "name":     self.name,
            "mode":     self.mode & 07777,
            "uid":      self.uid,
            "gid":      self.gid,
            "size":     self.size,
            "mtime":    self.mtime,
            "chksum":   self.chksum,
            "type":     self.type,
            "linkname": self.linkname,
            "uname":    self.uname,
            "gname":    self.gname,
            "devmajor": self.devmajor,
            "devminor": self.devminor
        }

        if info["type"] == DIRTYPE and not info["name"].endswith("/"):
            info["name"] += "/"

        for key in ("name", "linkname", "uname", "gname"):
            if type(info[key]) is unicode:
                info[key] = info[key].encode(encoding, errors)

        return info

    def tobuf(self, format=DEFAULT_FORMAT, encoding=ENCODING, errors="strict"):
        """Return a tar header as a string of 512 byte blocks.
        """
        info = self.get_info(encoding, errors)

        if format == USTAR_FORMAT:
            return self.create_ustar_header(info)
        elif format == GNU_FORMAT:
            return self.create_gnu_header(info)
        elif format == PAX_FORMAT:
            return self.create_pax_header(info, encoding, errors)
        else:
            raise ValueError("invalid format")

    def create_ustar_header(self, info):
        """Return the object as a ustar header block.
        """
        info["magic"] = POSIX_MAGIC

        if len(info["linkname"]) > LENGTH_LINK:
            raise ValueError("linkname is too long")

        if len(info["name"]) > LENGTH_NAME:
            info["prefix"], info["name"] = self._posix_split_name(info["name"])

        return self._create_header(info, USTAR_FORMAT)

    def create_gnu_header(self, info):
        """Return the object as a GNU header block sequence.
        """
        info["magic"] = GNU_MAGIC

        buf = ""
        if len(info["linkname"]) > LENGTH_LINK:
            buf += self._create_gnu_long_header(info["linkname"], GNUTYPE_LONGLINK)

        if len(info["name"]) > LENGTH_NAME:
            buf += self._create_gnu_long_header(info["name"], GNUTYPE_LONGNAME)

        return buf + self._create_header(info, GNU_FORMAT)

    def create_pax_header(self, info, encoding, errors):
        """Return the object as a ustar header block. If it cannot be
           represented this way, prepend a pax extended header sequence
           with supplement information.
        """
        info["magic"] = POSIX_MAGIC
        pax_headers = self.pax_headers.copy()

        # Test string fields for values that exceed the field length or cannot
        # be represented in ASCII encoding.
        for name, hname, length in (
                ("name", "path", LENGTH_NAME), ("linkname", "linkpath", LENGTH_LINK),
                ("uname", "uname", 32), ("gname", "gname", 32)):

            if hname in pax_headers:
                # The pax header has priority.
                continue

            val = info[name].decode(encoding, errors)

            # Try to encode the string as ASCII.
            try:
                val.encode("ascii")
            except UnicodeEncodeError:
                pax_headers[hname] = val
                continue

            if len(info[name]) > length:
                pax_headers[hname] = val

        # Test number fields for values that exceed the field limit or values
        # that like to be stored as float.
        for name, digits in (("uid", 8), ("gid", 8), ("size", 12), ("mtime", 12)):
            if name in pax_headers:
                # The pax header has priority. Avoid overflow.
                info[name] = 0
                continue

            val = info[name]
            if not 0 <= val < 8 ** (digits - 1) or isinstance(val, float):
                pax_headers[name] = unicode(val)
                info[name] = 0

        # Create a pax extended header if necessary.
        if pax_headers:
            buf = self._create_pax_generic_header(pax_headers)
        else:
            buf = ""

        return buf + self._create_header(info, USTAR_FORMAT)

    @classmethod
    def create_pax_global_header(cls, pax_headers):
        """Return the object as a pax global header block sequence.
        """
        return cls._create_pax_generic_header(pax_headers, type=XGLTYPE)

    def _posix_split_name(self, name):
        """Split a name longer than 100 chars into a prefix
           and a name part.
        """
        prefix = name[:LENGTH_PREFIX + 1]
        while prefix and prefix[-1] != "/":
            prefix = prefix[:-1]

        name = name[len(prefix):]
        prefix = prefix[:-1]

        if not prefix or len(name) > LENGTH_NAME:
            raise ValueError("name is too long")
        return prefix, name

    @staticmethod
    def _create_header(info, format):
        """Return a header block. info is a dictionary with file
           information, format must be one of the *_FORMAT constants.
        """
        parts = [
            stn(info.get("name", ""), 100),
            itn(info.get("mode", 0) & 07777, 8, format),
            itn(info.get("uid", 0), 8, format),
            itn(info.get("gid", 0), 8, format),
            itn(info.get("size", 0), 12, format),
            itn(info.get("mtime", 0), 12, format),
            "        ", # checksum field
            info.get("type", REGTYPE),
            stn(info.get("linkname", ""), 100),
            stn(info.get("magic", POSIX_MAGIC), 8),
            stn(info.get("uname", ""), 32),
            stn(info.get("gname", ""), 32),
            itn(info.get("devmajor", 0), 8, format),
            itn(info.get("devminor", 0), 8, format),
            stn(info.get("prefix", ""), 155)
        ]

        buf = struct.pack("%ds" % BLOCKSIZE, "".join(parts))
        chksum = calc_chksums(buf[-BLOCKSIZE:])[0]
        buf = buf[:-364] + "%06o\0" % chksum + buf[-357:]
        return buf

    @staticmethod
    def _create_payload(payload):
        """Return the string payload filled with zero bytes
           up to the next 512 byte border.
        """
        blocks, remainder = divmod(len(payload), BLOCKSIZE)
        if remainder > 0:
            payload += (BLOCKSIZE - remainder) * NUL
        return payload

    @classmethod
    def _create_gnu_long_header(cls, name, type):
        """Return a GNUTYPE_LONGNAME or GNUTYPE_LONGLINK sequence
           for name.
        """
        name += NUL

        info = {}
        info["name"] = "././@LongLink"
        info["type"] = type
        info["size"] = len(name)
        info["magic"] = GNU_MAGIC

        # create extended header + name blocks.
        return cls._create_header(info, USTAR_FORMAT) + \
                cls._create_payload(name)

    @classmethod
    def _create_pax_generic_header(cls, pax_headers, type=XHDTYPE):
        """Return a POSIX.1-2001 extended or global header sequence
           that contains a list of keyword, value pairs. The values
           must be unicode objects.
        """
        records = []
        for keyword, value in pax_headers.iteritems():
            keyword = keyword.encode("utf8")
            value = value.encode("utf8")
            l = len(keyword) + len(value) + 3   # ' ' + '=' + '\n'
            n = p = 0
            while True:
                n = l + len(str(p))
                if n == p:
                    break
                p = n
            records.append("%d %s=%s\n" % (p, keyword, value))
        records = "".join(records)

        # We use a hardcoded "././@PaxHeader" name like star does
        # instead of the one that POSIX recommends.
        info = {}
        info["name"] = "././@PaxHeader"
        info["type"] = type
        info["size"] = len(records)
        info["magic"] = POSIX_MAGIC

        # Create pax header + record blocks.
        return cls._create_header(info, USTAR_FORMAT) + \
                cls._create_payload(records)

    @classmethod
    def frombuf(cls, buf):
        """Construct a TarInfo object from a 512 byte string buffer.
        """
        if len(buf) == 0:
            raise EmptyHeaderError("empty header")
        if len(buf) != BLOCKSIZE:
            raise TruncatedHeaderError("truncated header")
        if buf.count(NUL) == BLOCKSIZE:
            raise EOFHeaderError("end of file header")

        chksum = nti(buf[148:156])
        if chksum not in calc_chksums(buf):
            raise InvalidHeaderError("bad checksum")

        obj = cls()
        obj.buf = buf
        obj.name = nts(buf[0:100])
        obj.mode = nti(buf[100:108])
        obj.uid = nti(buf[108:116])
        obj.gid = nti(buf[116:124])
        obj.size = nti(buf[124:136])
        obj.mtime = nti(buf[136:148])
        obj.chksum = chksum
        obj.type = buf[156:157]
        obj.linkname = nts(buf[157:257])
        obj.uname = nts(buf[265:297])
        obj.gname = nts(buf[297:329])
        obj.devmajor = nti(buf[329:337])
        obj.devminor = nti(buf[337:345])
        prefix = nts(buf[345:500])

        # Old V7 tar format represents a directory as a regular
        # file with a trailing slash.
        if obj.type == AREGTYPE and obj.name.endswith("/"):
            obj.type = DIRTYPE

        # Remove redundant slashes from directories.
        if obj.isdir():
            obj.name = obj.name.rstrip("/")

        # Reconstruct a ustar longname.
        if prefix and obj.type not in GNU_TYPES:
            obj.name = prefix + "/" + obj.name
        return obj

    @classmethod
    def fromtarfile(cls, tarfile):
        """Return the next TarInfo object from TarFile object
           tarfile.
        """
        buf = tarfile.fileobj.read(BLOCKSIZE)
        obj = cls.frombuf(buf)
        obj.offset = tarfile.fileobj.tell() - BLOCKSIZE
        return obj._proc_member(tarfile)

    #--------------------------------------------------------------------------
    # The following are methods that are called depending on the type of a
    # member. The entry point is _proc_member() which can be overridden in a
    # subclass to add custom _proc_*() methods. A _proc_*() method MUST
    # implement the following
    # operations:
    # 1. Set self.offset_data to the position where the data blocks begin,
    #    if there is data that follows.
    # 2. Set tarfile.offset to the position where the next member's header will
    #    begin.
    # 3. Return self or another valid TarInfo object.
    def _proc_member(self, tarfile):
        """Choose the right processing method depending on
           the type and call it.
        """
        if self.type in (GNUTYPE_LONGNAME, GNUTYPE_LONGLINK):
            return self._proc_gnulong(tarfile)
        elif self.type == GNUTYPE_SPARSE:
            return self._proc_sparse(tarfile)
        elif self.type in (XHDTYPE, XGLTYPE, SOLARIS_XHDTYPE):
            return self._proc_pax(tarfile)
        else:
            return self._proc_builtin(tarfile)

    def _proc_builtin(self, tarfile):
        """Process a builtin type or an unknown type which
           will be treated as a regular file.
        """
        self.offset_data = tarfile.fileobj.tell()
        offset = self.offset_data
        if self.isreg() or self.type not in SUPPORTED_TYPES:
            # Skip the following data blocks.
            offset += self._block(self.size)
        tarfile.offset = offset

        # Patch the TarInfo object with saved global
        # header information.
        self._apply_pax_info(tarfile.pax_headers, tarfile.encoding, tarfile.errors)

        return self

    def _proc_gnulong(self, tarfile):
        """Process the blocks that hold a GNU longname
           or longlink member.
        """
        buf = tarfile.fileobj.read(self._block(self.size))

        # Fetch the next header and process it.
        try:
            next = self.fromtarfile(tarfile)
        except HeaderError:
            raise SubsequentHeaderError("missing or bad subsequent header")

        # Patch the TarInfo object from the next header with
        # the longname information.
        next.offset = self.offset
        if self.type == GNUTYPE_LONGNAME:
            next.name = nts(buf)
        elif self.type == GNUTYPE_LONGLINK:
            next.linkname = nts(buf)

        return next

    def _proc_sparse(self, tarfile):
        """Process a GNU sparse header plus extra headers.
        """
        buf = self.buf
        sp = _ringbuffer()
        pos = 386
        lastpos = 0L
        realpos = 0L
        # There are 4 possible sparse structs in the
        # first header.
        for i in xrange(4):
            try:
                offset = nti(buf[pos:pos + 12])
                numbytes = nti(buf[pos + 12:pos + 24])
            except ValueError:
                break
            if offset > lastpos:
                sp.append(_hole(lastpos, offset - lastpos))
            sp.append(_data(offset, numbytes, realpos))
            realpos += numbytes
            lastpos = offset + numbytes
            pos += 24

        isextended = ord(buf[482])
        origsize = nti(buf[483:495])

        # If the isextended flag is given,
        # there are extra headers to process.
        while isextended == 1:
            buf = tarfile.fileobj.read(BLOCKSIZE)
            pos = 0
            for i in xrange(21):
                try:
                    offset = nti(buf[pos:pos + 12])
                    numbytes = nti(buf[pos + 12:pos + 24])
                except ValueError:
                    break
                if offset > lastpos:
                    sp.append(_hole(lastpos, offset - lastpos))
                sp.append(_data(offset, numbytes, realpos))
                realpos += numbytes
                lastpos = offset + numbytes
                pos += 24
            isextended = ord(buf[504])

        if lastpos < origsize:
            sp.append(_hole(lastpos, origsize - lastpos))

        self.sparse = sp

        self.offset_data = tarfile.fileobj.tell()
        tarfile.offset = self.offset_data + self._block(self.size)
        self.size = origsize

        return self

    def _proc_pax(self, tarfile):
        """Process an extended or global header as described in
           POSIX.1-2001.
        """
        # Read the header information.
        buf = tarfile.fileobj.read(self._block(self.size))

        # A pax header stores supplemental information for either
        # the following file (extended) or all following files
        # (global).
        if self.type == XGLTYPE:
            pax_headers = tarfile.pax_headers
        else:
            pax_headers = tarfile.pax_headers.copy()

        # Parse pax header information. A record looks like that:
        # "%d %s=%s\n" % (length, keyword, value). length is the size
        # of the complete record including the length field itself and
        # the newline. keyword and value are both UTF-8 encoded strings.
        regex = re.compile(r"(\d+) ([^=]+)=", re.U)
        pos = 0
        while True:
            match = regex.match(buf, pos)
            if not match:
                break

            length, keyword = match.groups()
            length = int(length)
            value = buf[match.end(2) + 1:match.start(1) + length - 1]

            keyword = keyword.decode("utf8")
            value = value.decode("utf8")

            pax_headers[keyword] = value
            pos += length

        # Fetch the next header.
        try:
            next = self.fromtarfile(tarfile)
        except HeaderError:
            raise SubsequentHeaderError("missing or bad subsequent header")

        if self.type in (XHDTYPE, SOLARIS_XHDTYPE):
            # Patch the TarInfo object with the extended header info.
            next._apply_pax_info(pax_headers, tarfile.encoding, tarfile.errors)
            next.offset = self.offset

            if "size" in pax_headers:
                # If the extended header replaces the size field,
                # we need to recalculate the offset where the next
                # header starts.
                offset = next.offset_data
                if next.isreg() or next.type not in SUPPORTED_TYPES:
                    offset += next._block(next.size)
                tarfile.offset = offset

        return next

    def _apply_pax_info(self, pax_headers, encoding, errors):
        """Replace fields with supplemental information from a previous
           pax extended or global header.
        """
        for keyword, value in pax_headers.iteritems():
            if keyword not in PAX_FIELDS:
                continue

            if keyword == "path":
                value = value.rstrip("/")

            if keyword in PAX_NUMBER_FIELDS:
                try:
                    value = PAX_NUMBER_FIELDS[keyword](value)
                except ValueError:
                    value = 0
            else:
                value = uts(value, encoding, errors)

            setattr(self, keyword, value)

        self.pax_headers = pax_headers.copy()

    def _block(self, count):
        """Round up a byte count by BLOCKSIZE and return it,
           e.g. _block(834) => 1024.
        """
        blocks, remainder = divmod(count, BLOCKSIZE)
        if remainder:
            blocks += 1
        return blocks * BLOCKSIZE

    def isreg(self):
        return self.type in REGULAR_TYPES
    def isfile(self):
        return self.isreg()
    def isdir(self):
        return self.type == DIRTYPE
    def issym(self):
        return self.type == SYMTYPE
    def islnk(self):
        return self.type == LNKTYPE
    def ischr(self):
        return self.type == CHRTYPE
    def isblk(self):
        return self.type == BLKTYPE
    def isfifo(self):
        return self.type == FIFOTYPE
    def issparse(self):
        return self.type == GNUTYPE_SPARSE
    def isdev(self):
        return self.type in (CHRTYPE, BLKTYPE, FIFOTYPE)
# class TarInfo

class TarFile(object):
    """The TarFile Class provides an interface to tar archives.
    """

    debug = 0                   # May be set from 0 (no msgs) to 3 (all msgs)

    dereference = False         # If true, add content of linked file to the
                                # tar file, else the link.

    ignore_zeros = False        # If true, skips empty or invalid blocks and
                                # continues processing.

    errorlevel = 1              # If 0, fatal errors only appear in debug
                                # messages (if debug >= 0). If > 0, errors
                                # are passed to the caller as exceptions.

    format = DEFAULT_FORMAT     # The format to use when creating an archive.

    encoding = ENCODING         # Encoding for 8-bit character strings.

    errors = None               # Error handler for unicode conversion.

    tarinfo = TarInfo           # The default TarInfo class to use.

    fileobject = ExFileObject   # The default ExFileObject class to use.

    def __init__(self, name=None, mode="r", fileobj=None, format=None,
            tarinfo=None, dereference=None, ignore_zeros=None, encoding=None,
            errors=None, pax_headers=None, debug=None, errorlevel=None):
        """Open an (uncompressed) tar archive `name'. `mode' is either 'r' to
           read from an existing archive, 'a' to append data to an existing
           file or 'w' to create a new file overwriting an existing one. `mode'
           defaults to 'r'.
           If `fileobj' is given, it is used for reading or writing data. If it
           can be determined, `mode' is overridden by `fileobj's mode.
           `fileobj' is not closed, when TarFile is closed.
        """
        if len(mode) > 1 or mode not in "raw":
            raise ValueError("mode must be 'r', 'a' or 'w'")
        self.mode = mode
        self._mode = {"r": "rb", "a": "r+b", "w": "wb"}[mode]

        if not fileobj:
            if self.mode == "a" and not os.path.exists(name):
                # Create nonexistent files in append mode.
                self.mode = "w"
                self._mode = "wb"
            fileobj = bltn_open(name, self._mode)
            self._extfileobj = False
        else:
            if name is None and hasattr(fileobj, "name"):
                name = fileobj.name
            if hasattr(fileobj, "mode"):
                self._mode = fileobj.mode
            self._extfileobj = True
        self.name = os.path.abspath(name) if name else None
        self.fileobj = fileobj

        # Init attributes.
        if format is not None:
            self.format = format
        if tarinfo is not None:
            self.tarinfo = tarinfo
        if dereference is not None:
            self.dereference = dereference
        if ignore_zeros is not None:
            self.ignore_zeros = ignore_zeros
        if encoding is not None:
            self.encoding = encoding

        if errors is not None:
            self.errors = errors
        elif mode == "r":
            self.errors = "utf-8"
        else:
            self.errors = "strict"

        if pax_headers is not None and self.format == PAX_FORMAT:
            self.pax_headers = pax_headers
        else:
            self.pax_headers = {}

        if debug is not None:
            self.debug = debug
        if errorlevel is not None:
            self.errorlevel = errorlevel

        # Init datastructures.
        self.closed = False
        self.members = []       # list of members as TarInfo objects
        self._loaded = False    # flag if all members have been read
        self.offset = self.fileobj.tell()
                                # current position in the archive file
        self.inodes = {}        # dictionary caching the inodes of
                                # archive members already added

        try:
            if self.mode == "r":
                self.firstmember = None
                self.firstmember = self.next()

            if self.mode == "a":
                # Move to the end of the archive,
                # before the first empty block.
                while True:
                    self.fileobj.seek(self.offset)
                    try:
                        tarinfo = self.tarinfo.fromtarfile(self)
                        self.members.append(tarinfo)
                    except EOFHeaderError:
                        self.fileobj.seek(self.offset)
                        break
                    except HeaderError, e:
                        raise ReadError(str(e))

            if self.mode in "aw":
                self._loaded = True

                if self.pax_headers:
                    buf = self.tarinfo.create_pax_global_header(self.pax_headers.copy())
                    self.fileobj.write(buf)
                    self.offset += len(buf)
        except:
            if not self._extfileobj:
                self.fileobj.close()
            self.closed = True
            raise

    def _getposix(self):
        return self.format == USTAR_FORMAT
    def _setposix(self, value):
        import warnings
        warnings.warn("use the format attribute instead", DeprecationWarning,
                      2)
        if value:
            self.format = USTAR_FORMAT
        else:
            self.format = GNU_FORMAT
    posix = property(_getposix, _setposix)

    #--------------------------------------------------------------------------
    # Below are the classmethods which act as alternate constructors to the
    # TarFile class. The open() method is the only one that is needed for
    # public use; it is the "super"-constructor and is able to select an
    # adequate "sub"-constructor for a particular compression using the mapping
    # from OPEN_METH.
    #
    # This concept allows one to subclass TarFile without losing the comfort of
    # the super-constructor. A sub-constructor is registered and made available
    # by adding it to the mapping in OPEN_METH.

    @classmethod
    def open(cls, name=None, mode="r", fileobj=None, bufsize=RECORDSIZE, **kwargs):
        """Open a tar archive for reading, writing or appending. Return
           an appropriate TarFile class.

           mode:
           'r' or 'r:*' open for reading with transparent compression
           'r:'         open for reading exclusively uncompressed
           'r:gz'       open for reading with gzip compression
           'r:bz2'      open for reading with bzip2 compression
           'a' or 'a:'  open for appending, creating the file if necessary
           'w' or 'w:'  open for writing without compression
           'w:gz'       open for writing with gzip compression
           'w:bz2'      open for writing with bzip2 compression

           'r|*'        open a stream of tar blocks with transparent compression
           'r|'         open an uncompressed stream of tar blocks for reading
           'r|gz'       open a gzip compressed stream of tar blocks
           'r|bz2'      open a bzip2 compressed stream of tar blocks
           'w|'         open an uncompressed stream for writing
           'w|gz'       open a gzip compressed stream for writing
           'w|bz2'      open a bzip2 compressed stream for writing
        """

        if not name and not fileobj:
            raise ValueError("nothing to open")

        if mode in ("r", "r:*"):
            # Find out which *open() is appropriate for opening the file.
            for comptype in cls.OPEN_METH:
                func = getattr(cls, cls.OPEN_METH[comptype])
                if fileobj is not None:
                    saved_pos = fileobj.tell()
                try:
                    return func(name, "r", fileobj, **kwargs)
                except (ReadError, CompressionError), e:
                    if fileobj is not None:
                        fileobj.seek(saved_pos)
                    continue
            raise ReadError("file could not be opened successfully")

        elif ":" in mode:
            filemode, comptype = mode.split(":", 1)
            filemode = filemode or "r"
            comptype = comptype or "tar"

            # Select the *open() function according to
            # given compression.
            if comptype in cls.OPEN_METH:
                func = getattr(cls, cls.OPEN_METH[comptype])
            else:
                raise CompressionError("unknown compression type %r" % comptype)
            return func(name, filemode, fileobj, **kwargs)

        elif "|" in mode:
            filemode, comptype = mode.split("|", 1)
            filemode = filemode or "r"
            comptype = comptype or "tar"

            if filemode not in "rw":
                raise ValueError("mode must be 'r' or 'w'")

            t = cls(name, filemode,
                    _Stream(name, filemode, comptype, fileobj, bufsize),
                    **kwargs)
            t._extfileobj = False
            return t

        elif mode in "aw":
            return cls.taropen(name, mode, fileobj, **kwargs)

        raise ValueError("undiscernible mode")

    @classmethod
    def taropen(cls, name, mode="r", fileobj=None, **kwargs):
        """Open uncompressed tar archive name for reading or writing.
        """
        if len(mode) > 1 or mode not in "raw":
            raise ValueError("mode must be 'r', 'a' or 'w'")
        return cls(name, mode, fileobj, **kwargs)

    @classmethod
    def gzopen(cls, name, mode="r", fileobj=None, compresslevel=9, **kwargs):
        """Open gzip compressed tar archive name for reading or writing.
           Appending is not allowed.
        """
        if len(mode) > 1 or mode not in "rw":
            raise ValueError("mode must be 'r' or 'w'")

        try:
            import gzip
            gzip.GzipFile
        except (ImportError, AttributeError):
            raise CompressionError("gzip module is not available")

        if fileobj is None:
            fileobj = bltn_open(name, mode + "b")

        try:
            t = cls.taropen(name, mode,
                gzip.GzipFile(name, mode, compresslevel, fileobj),
                **kwargs)
        except IOError:
            raise ReadError("not a gzip file")
        t._extfileobj = False
        return t

    @classmethod
    def bz2open(cls, name, mode="r", fileobj=None, compresslevel=9, **kwargs):
        """Open bzip2 compressed tar archive name for reading or writing.
           Appending is not allowed.
        """
        if len(mode) > 1 or mode not in "rw":
            raise ValueError("mode must be 'r' or 'w'.")

        try:
            import bz2
        except ImportError:
            raise CompressionError("bz2 module is not available")

        if fileobj is not None:
            fileobj = _BZ2Proxy(fileobj, mode)
        else:
            fileobj = bz2.BZ2File(name, mode, compresslevel=compresslevel)

        try:
            t = cls.taropen(name, mode, fileobj, **kwargs)
        except (IOError, EOFError):
            raise ReadError("not a bzip2 file")
        t._extfileobj = False
        return t

    # All *open() methods are registered here.
    OPEN_METH = {
        "tar": "taropen",   # uncompressed tar
        "gz":  "gzopen",    # gzip compressed tar
        "bz2": "bz2open"    # bzip2 compressed tar
    }

    #--------------------------------------------------------------------------
    # The public methods which TarFile provides:

    def close(self):
        """Close the TarFile. In write-mode, two finishing zero blocks are
           appended to the archive.
        """
        if self.closed:
            return

        if self.mode in "aw":
            self.fileobj.write(NUL * (BLOCKSIZE * 2))
            self.offset += (BLOCKSIZE * 2)
            # fill up the end with zero-blocks
            # (like option -b20 for tar does)
            blocks, remainder = divmod(self.offset, RECORDSIZE)
            if remainder > 0:
                self.fileobj.write(NUL * (RECORDSIZE - remainder))

        if not self._extfileobj:
            self.fileobj.close()
        self.closed = True

    def getmember(self, name):
        """Return a TarInfo object for member `name'. If `name' can not be
           found in the archive, KeyError is raised. If a member occurs more
           than once in the archive, its last occurrence is assumed to be the
           most up-to-date version.
        """
        tarinfo = self._getmember(name)
        if tarinfo is None:
            raise KeyError("filename %r not found" % name)
        return tarinfo

    def getmembers(self):
        """Return the members of the archive as a list of TarInfo objects. The
           list has the same order as the members in the archive.
        """
        self._check()
        if not self._loaded:    # if we want to obtain a list of
            self._load()        # all members, we first have to
                                # scan the whole archive.
        return self.members

    def getnames(self):
        """Return the members of the archive as a list of their names. It has
           the same order as the list returned by getmembers().
        """
        return [tarinfo.name for tarinfo in self.getmembers()]

    def gettarinfo(self, name=None, arcname=None, fileobj=None):
        """Create a TarInfo object for either the file `name' or the file
           object `fileobj' (using os.fstat on its file descriptor). You can
           modify some of the TarInfo's attributes before you add it using
           addfile(). If given, `arcname' specifies an alternative name for the
           file in the archive.
        """
        self._check("aw")

        # When fileobj is given, replace name by
        # fileobj's real name.
        if fileobj is not None:
            name = fileobj.name

        # Building the name of the member in the archive.
        # Backward slashes are converted to forward slashes,
        # Absolute paths are turned to relative paths.
        if arcname is None:
            arcname = name
        drv, arcname = os.path.splitdrive(arcname)
        arcname = arcname.replace(os.sep, "/")
        arcname = arcname.lstrip("/")

        # Now, fill the TarInfo object with
        # information specific for the file.
        tarinfo = self.tarinfo()
        tarinfo.tarfile = self

        # Use os.stat or os.lstat, depending on platform
        # and if symlinks shall be resolved.
        if fileobj is None:
            if hasattr(os, "lstat") and not self.dereference:
                statres = os.lstat(name)
            else:
                statres = os.stat(name)
        else:
            statres = os.fstat(fileobj.fileno())
        linkname = ""

        stmd = statres.st_mode
        if stat.S_ISREG(stmd):
            inode = (statres.st_ino, statres.st_dev)
            if not self.dereference and statres.st_nlink > 1 and \
                    inode in self.inodes and arcname != self.inodes[inode]:
                # Is it a hardlink to an already
                # archived file?
                type = LNKTYPE
                linkname = self.inodes[inode]
            else:
                # The inode is added only if its valid.
                # For win32 it is always 0.
                type = REGTYPE
                if inode[0]:
                    self.inodes[inode] = arcname
        elif stat.S_ISDIR(stmd):
            type = DIRTYPE
        elif stat.S_ISFIFO(stmd):
            type = FIFOTYPE
        elif stat.S_ISLNK(stmd):
            type = SYMTYPE
            linkname = os.readlink(name)
        elif stat.S_ISCHR(stmd):
            type = CHRTYPE
        elif stat.S_ISBLK(stmd):
            type = BLKTYPE
        else:
            return None

        # Fill the TarInfo object with all
        # information we can get.
        tarinfo.name = arcname
        tarinfo.mode = stmd
        tarinfo.uid = statres.st_uid
        tarinfo.gid = statres.st_gid
        if type == REGTYPE:
            tarinfo.size = statres.st_size
        else:
            tarinfo.size = 0L
        tarinfo.mtime = statres.st_mtime
        tarinfo.type = type
        tarinfo.linkname = linkname
        if pwd:
            try:
                tarinfo.uname = pwd.getpwuid(tarinfo.uid)[0]
            except KeyError:
                pass
        if grp:
            try:
                tarinfo.gname = grp.getgrgid(tarinfo.gid)[0]
            except KeyError:
                pass

        if type in (CHRTYPE, BLKTYPE):
            if hasattr(os, "major") and hasattr(os, "minor"):
                tarinfo.devmajor = os.major(statres.st_rdev)
                tarinfo.devminor = os.minor(statres.st_rdev)
        return tarinfo

    def list(self, verbose=True):
        """Print a table of contents to sys.stdout. If `verbose' is False, only
           the names of the members are printed. If it is True, an `ls -l'-like
           output is produced.
        """
        self._check()

        for tarinfo in self:
            if verbose:
                print filemode(tarinfo.mode),
                print "%s/%s" % (tarinfo.uname or tarinfo.uid,
                                 tarinfo.gname or tarinfo.gid),
                if tarinfo.ischr() or tarinfo.isblk():
                    print "%10s" % ("%d,%d" \
                                    % (tarinfo.devmajor, tarinfo.devminor)),
                else:
                    print "%10d" % tarinfo.size,
                print "%d-%02d-%02d %02d:%02d:%02d" \
                      % time.localtime(tarinfo.mtime)[:6],

            print tarinfo.name + ("/" if tarinfo.isdir() else ""),

            if verbose:
                if tarinfo.issym():
                    print "->", tarinfo.linkname,
                if tarinfo.islnk():
                    print "link to", tarinfo.linkname,
            print

    def add(self, name, arcname=None, recursive=True, exclude=None, filter=None):
        """Add the file `name' to the archive. `name' may be any type of file
           (directory, fifo, symbolic link, etc.). If given, `arcname'
           specifies an alternative name for the file in the archive.
           Directories are added recursively by default. This can be avoided by
           setting `recursive' to False. `exclude' is a function that should
           return True for each filename to be excluded. `filter' is a function
           that expects a TarInfo object argument and returns the changed
           TarInfo object, if it returns None the TarInfo object will be
           excluded from the archive.
        """
        self._check("aw")

        if arcname is None:
            arcname = name

        # Exclude pathnames.
        if exclude is not None:
            import warnings
            warnings.warn("use the filter argument instead",
                    DeprecationWarning, 2)
            if exclude(name):
                self._dbg(2, "tarfile: Excluded %r" % name)
                return

        # Skip if somebody tries to archive the archive...
        if self.name is not None and os.path.abspath(name) == self.name:
            self._dbg(2, "tarfile: Skipped %r" % name)
            return

        self._dbg(1, name)

        # Create a TarInfo object from the file.
        tarinfo = self.gettarinfo(name, arcname)

        if tarinfo is None:
            self._dbg(1, "tarfile: Unsupported type %r" % name)
            return

        # Change or exclude the TarInfo object.
        if filter is not None:
            tarinfo = filter(tarinfo)
            if tarinfo is None:
                self._dbg(2, "tarfile: Excluded %r" % name)
                return

        # Append the tar header and data to the archive.
        if tarinfo.isreg():
            f = bltn_open(name, "rb")
            self.addfile(tarinfo, f)
            f.close()

        elif tarinfo.isdir():
            self.addfile(tarinfo)
            if recursive:
                for f in os.listdir(name):
                    self.add(os.path.join(name, f), os.path.join(arcname, f),
                            recursive, exclude, filter)

        else:
            self.addfile(tarinfo)

    def addfile(self, tarinfo, fileobj=None):
        """Add the TarInfo object `tarinfo' to the archive. If `fileobj' is
           given, tarinfo.size bytes are read from it and added to the archive.
           You can create TarInfo objects using gettarinfo().
           On Windows platforms, `fileobj' should always be opened with mode
           'rb' to avoid irritation about the file size.
        """
        self._check("aw")

        tarinfo = copy.copy(tarinfo)

        buf = tarinfo.tobuf(self.format, self.encoding, self.errors)
        self.fileobj.write(buf)
        self.offset += len(buf)

        # If there's data to follow, append it.
        if fileobj is not None:
            copyfileobj(fileobj, self.fileobj, tarinfo.size)
            blocks, remainder = divmod(tarinfo.size, BLOCKSIZE)
            if remainder > 0:
                self.fileobj.write(NUL * (BLOCKSIZE - remainder))
                blocks += 1
            self.offset += blocks * BLOCKSIZE

        self.members.append(tarinfo)

    def extractall(self, path=".", members=None):
        """Extract all members from the archive to the current working
           directory and set owner, modification time and permissions on
           directories afterwards. `path' specifies a different directory
           to extract to. `members' is optional and must be a subset of the
           list returned by getmembers().
        """
        directories = []

        if members is None:
            members = self

        for tarinfo in members:
            if tarinfo.isdir():
                # Extract directories with a safe mode.
                directories.append(tarinfo)
                tarinfo = copy.copy(tarinfo)
                tarinfo.mode = 0700
            self.extract(tarinfo, path)

        # Reverse sort directories.
        directories.sort(key=operator.attrgetter('name'))
        directories.reverse()

        # Set correct owner, mtime and filemode on directories.
        for tarinfo in directories:
            dirpath = os.path.join(path, tarinfo.name)
            try:
                self.chown(tarinfo, dirpath)
                self.utime(tarinfo, dirpath)
                self.chmod(tarinfo, dirpath)
            except ExtractError, e:
                if self.errorlevel > 1:
                    raise
                else:
                    self._dbg(1, "tarfile: %s" % e)

    def extract(self, member, path=""):
        """Extract a member from the archive to the current working directory,
           using its full name. Its file information is extracted as accurately
           as possible. `member' may be a filename or a TarInfo object. You can
           specify a different directory using `path'.
        """
        self._check("r")

        if isinstance(member, basestring):
            tarinfo = self.getmember(member)
        else:
            tarinfo = member

        # Prepare the link target for makelink().
        if tarinfo.islnk():
            tarinfo._link_target = os.path.join(path, tarinfo.linkname)

        try:
            self._extract_member(tarinfo, os.path.join(path, tarinfo.name))
        except EnvironmentError, e:
            if self.errorlevel > 0:
                raise
            else:
                if e.filename is None:
                    self._dbg(1, "tarfile: %s" % e.strerror)
                else:
                    self._dbg(1, "tarfile: %s %r" % (e.strerror, e.filename))
        except ExtractError, e:
            if self.errorlevel > 1:
                raise
            else:
                self._dbg(1, "tarfile: %s" % e)

    def extractfile(self, member):
        """Extract a member from the archive as a file object. `member' may be
           a filename or a TarInfo object. If `member' is a regular file, a
           file-like object is returned. If `member' is a link, a file-like
           object is constructed from the link's target. If `member' is none of
           the above, None is returned.
           The file-like object is read-only and provides the following
           methods: read(), readline(), readlines(), seek() and tell()
        """
        self._check("r")

        if isinstance(member, basestring):
            tarinfo = self.getmember(member)
        else:
            tarinfo = member

        if tarinfo.isreg():
            return self.fileobject(self, tarinfo)

        elif tarinfo.type not in SUPPORTED_TYPES:
            # If a member's type is unknown, it is treated as a
            # regular file.
            return self.fileobject(self, tarinfo)

        elif tarinfo.islnk() or tarinfo.issym():
            if isinstance(self.fileobj, _Stream):
                # A small but ugly workaround for the case that someone tries
                # to extract a (sym)link as a file-object from a non-seekable
                # stream of tar blocks.
                raise StreamError("cannot extract (sym)link as file object")
            else:
                # A (sym)link's file object is its target's file object.
                return self.extractfile(self._find_link_target(tarinfo))
        else:
            # If there's no data associated with the member (directory, chrdev,
            # blkdev, etc.), return None instead of a file object.
            return None

    def _extract_member(self, tarinfo, targetpath):
        """Extract the TarInfo object tarinfo to a physical
           file called targetpath.
        """
        # Fetch the TarInfo object for the given name
        # and build the destination pathname, replacing
        # forward slashes to platform specific separators.
        targetpath = targetpath.rstrip("/")
        targetpath = targetpath.replace("/", os.sep)

        # Create all upper directories.
        upperdirs = os.path.dirname(targetpath)
        if upperdirs and not os.path.exists(upperdirs):
            # Create directories that are not part of the archive with
            # default permissions.
            os.makedirs(upperdirs)

        if tarinfo.islnk() or tarinfo.issym():
            self._dbg(1, "%s -> %s" % (tarinfo.name, tarinfo.linkname))
        else:
            self._dbg(1, tarinfo.name)

        if tarinfo.isreg():
            self.makefile(tarinfo, targetpath)
        elif tarinfo.isdir():
            self.makedir(tarinfo, targetpath)
        elif tarinfo.isfifo():
            self.makefifo(tarinfo, targetpath)
        elif tarinfo.ischr() or tarinfo.isblk():
            self.makedev(tarinfo, targetpath)
        elif tarinfo.islnk() or tarinfo.issym():
            self.makelink(tarinfo, targetpath)
        elif tarinfo.type not in SUPPORTED_TYPES:
            self.makeunknown(tarinfo, targetpath)
        else:
            self.makefile(tarinfo, targetpath)

        self.chown(tarinfo, targetpath)
        if not tarinfo.issym():
            self.chmod(tarinfo, targetpath)
            self.utime(tarinfo, targetpath)

    #--------------------------------------------------------------------------
    # Below are the different file methods. They are called via
    # _extract_member() when extract() is called. They can be replaced in a
    # subclass to implement other functionality.

    def makedir(self, tarinfo, targetpath):
        """Make a directory called targetpath.
        """
        try:
            # Use a safe mode for the directory, the real mode is set
            # later in _extract_member().
            os.mkdir(targetpath, 0700)
        except EnvironmentError, e:
            if e.errno != errno.EEXIST:
                raise

    def makefile(self, tarinfo, targetpath):
        """Make a file called targetpath.
        """
        source = self.extractfile(tarinfo)
        target = bltn_open(targetpath, "wb")
        copyfileobj(source, target)
        source.close()
        target.close()

    def makeunknown(self, tarinfo, targetpath):
        """Make a file from a TarInfo object with an unknown type
           at targetpath.
        """
        self.makefile(tarinfo, targetpath)
        self._dbg(1, "tarfile: Unknown file type %r, " \
                     "extracted as regular file." % tarinfo.type)

    def makefifo(self, tarinfo, targetpath):
        """Make a fifo called targetpath.
        """
        if hasattr(os, "mkfifo"):
            os.mkfifo(targetpath)
        else:
            raise ExtractError("fifo not supported by system")

    def makedev(self, tarinfo, targetpath):
        """Make a character or block device called targetpath.
        """
        if not hasattr(os, "mknod") or not hasattr(os, "makedev"):
            raise ExtractError("special devices not supported by system")

        mode = tarinfo.mode
        if tarinfo.isblk():
            mode |= stat.S_IFBLK
        else:
            mode |= stat.S_IFCHR

        os.mknod(targetpath, mode,
                 os.makedev(tarinfo.devmajor, tarinfo.devminor))

    def makelink(self, tarinfo, targetpath):
        """Make a (symbolic) link called targetpath. If it cannot be created
          (platform limitation), we try to make a copy of the referenced file
          instead of a link.
        """
        if hasattr(os, "symlink") and hasattr(os, "link"):
            # For systems that support symbolic and hard links.
            if tarinfo.issym():
                if os.path.lexists(targetpath):
                    os.unlink(targetpath)
                os.symlink(tarinfo.linkname, targetpath)
            else:
                # See extract().
                if os.path.exists(tarinfo._link_target):
                    if os.path.lexists(targetpath):
                        os.unlink(targetpath)
                    os.link(tarinfo._link_target, targetpath)
                else:
                    self._extract_member(self._find_link_target(tarinfo), targetpath)
        else:
            try:
                self._extract_member(self._find_link_target(tarinfo), targetpath)
            except KeyError:
                raise ExtractError("unable to resolve link inside archive")

    def chown(self, tarinfo, targetpath):
        """Set owner of targetpath according to tarinfo.
        """
        if pwd and hasattr(os, "geteuid") and os.geteuid() == 0:
            # We have to be root to do so.
            try:
                g = grp.getgrnam(tarinfo.gname)[2]
            except KeyError:
                g = tarinfo.gid
            try:
                u = pwd.getpwnam(tarinfo.uname)[2]
            except KeyError:
                u = tarinfo.uid
            try:
                if tarinfo.issym() and hasattr(os, "lchown"):
                    os.lchown(targetpath, u, g)
                else:
                    if sys.platform != "os2emx":
                        os.chown(targetpath, u, g)
            except EnvironmentError, e:
                raise ExtractError("could not change owner")

    def chmod(self, tarinfo, targetpath):
        """Set file permissions of targetpath according to tarinfo.
        """
        if hasattr(os, 'chmod'):
            try:
                os.chmod(targetpath, tarinfo.mode)
            except EnvironmentError, e:
                raise ExtractError("could not change mode")

    def utime(self, tarinfo, targetpath):
        """Set modification time of targetpath according to tarinfo.
        """
        if not hasattr(os, 'utime'):
            return
        try:
            os.utime(targetpath, (tarinfo.mtime, tarinfo.mtime))
        except EnvironmentError, e:
            raise ExtractError("could not change modification time")

    #--------------------------------------------------------------------------
    def next(self):
        """Return the next member of the archive as a TarInfo object, when
           TarFile is opened for reading. Return None if there is no more
           available.
        """
        self._check("ra")
        if self.firstmember is not None:
            m = self.firstmember
            self.firstmember = None
            return m

        # Read the next block.
        self.fileobj.seek(self.offset)
        tarinfo = None
        while True:
            try:
                tarinfo = self.tarinfo.fromtarfile(self)
            except EOFHeaderError, e:
                if self.ignore_zeros:
                    self._dbg(2, "0x%X: %s" % (self.offset, e))
                    self.offset += BLOCKSIZE
                    continue
            except InvalidHeaderError, e:
                if self.ignore_zeros:
                    self._dbg(2, "0x%X: %s" % (self.offset, e))
                    self.offset += BLOCKSIZE
                    continue
                elif self.offset == 0:
                    raise ReadError(str(e))
            except EmptyHeaderError:
                if self.offset == 0:
                    raise ReadError("empty file")
            except TruncatedHeaderError, e:
                if self.offset == 0:
                    raise ReadError(str(e))
            except SubsequentHeaderError, e:
                raise ReadError(str(e))
            break

        if tarinfo is not None:
            self.members.append(tarinfo)
        else:
            self._loaded = True

        return tarinfo

    #--------------------------------------------------------------------------
    # Little helper methods:

    def _getmember(self, name, tarinfo=None, normalize=False):
        """Find an archive member by name from bottom to top.
           If tarinfo is given, it is used as the starting point.
        """
        # Ensure that all members have been loaded.
        members = self.getmembers()

        # Limit the member search list up to tarinfo.
        if tarinfo is not None:
            members = members[:members.index(tarinfo)]

        if normalize:
            name = os.path.normpath(name)

        for member in reversed(members):
            if normalize:
                member_name = os.path.normpath(member.name)
            else:
                member_name = member.name

            if name == member_name:
                return member

    def _load(self):
        """Read through the entire archive file and look for readable
           members.
        """
        while True:
            tarinfo = self.next()
            if tarinfo is None:
                break
        self._loaded = True

    def _check(self, mode=None):
        """Check if TarFile is still open, and if the operation's mode
           corresponds to TarFile's mode.
        """
        if self.closed:
            raise IOError("%s is closed" % self.__class__.__name__)
        if mode is not None and self.mode not in mode:
            raise IOError("bad operation for mode %r" % self.mode)

    def _find_link_target(self, tarinfo):
        """Find the target member of a symlink or hardlink member in the
           archive.
        """
        if tarinfo.issym():
            # Always search the entire archive.
            linkname = os.path.dirname(tarinfo.name) + "/" + tarinfo.linkname
            limit = None
        else:
            # Search the archive before the link, because a hard link is
            # just a reference to an already archived file.
            linkname = tarinfo.linkname
            limit = tarinfo

        member = self._getmember(linkname, tarinfo=limit, normalize=True)
        if member is None:
            raise KeyError("linkname %r not found" % linkname)
        return member

    def __iter__(self):
        """Provide an iterator object.
        """
        if self._loaded:
            return iter(self.members)
        else:
            return TarIter(self)

    def _dbg(self, level, msg):
        """Write debugging output to sys.stderr.
        """
        if level <= self.debug:
            print >> sys.stderr, msg

    def __enter__(self):
        self._check()
        return self

    def __exit__(self, type, value, traceback):
        if type is None:
            self.close()
        else:
            # An exception occurred. We must not call close() because
            # it would try to write end-of-archive blocks and padding.
            if not self._extfileobj:
                self.fileobj.close()
            self.closed = True
# class TarFile

class TarIter:
    """Iterator Class.

       for tarinfo in TarFile(...):
           suite...
    """

    def __init__(self, tarfile):
        """Construct a TarIter object.
        """
        self.tarfile = tarfile
        self.index = 0
    def __iter__(self):
        """Return iterator object.
        """
        return self
    def next(self):
        """Return the next item using TarFile's next() method.
           When all members have been read, set TarFile as _loaded.
        """
        # Fix for SF #1100429: Under rare circumstances it can
        # happen that getmembers() is called during iteration,
        # which will cause TarIter to stop prematurely.
        if not self.tarfile._loaded:
            tarinfo = self.tarfile.next()
            if not tarinfo:
                self.tarfile._loaded = True
                raise StopIteration
        else:
            try:
                tarinfo = self.tarfile.members[self.index]
            except IndexError:
                raise StopIteration
        self.index += 1
        return tarinfo

# Helper classes for sparse file support
class _section:
    """Base class for _data and _hole.
    """
    def __init__(self, offset, size):
        self.offset = offset
        self.size = size
    def __contains__(self, offset):
        return self.offset <= offset < self.offset + self.size

class _data(_section):
    """Represent a data section in a sparse file.
    """
    def __init__(self, offset, size, realpos):
        _section.__init__(self, offset, size)
        self.realpos = realpos

class _hole(_section):
    """Represent a hole section in a sparse file.
    """
    pass

class _ringbuffer(list):
    """Ringbuffer class which increases performance
       over a regular list.
    """
    def __init__(self):
        self.idx = 0
    def find(self, offset):
        idx = self.idx
        while True:
            item = self[idx]
            if offset in item:
                break
            idx += 1
            if idx == len(self):
                idx = 0
            if idx == self.idx:
                # End of File
                return None
        self.idx = idx
        return item

#---------------------------------------------
# zipfile compatible TarFile class
#---------------------------------------------
TAR_PLAIN = 0           # zipfile.ZIP_STORED
TAR_GZIPPED = 8         # zipfile.ZIP_DEFLATED
class TarFileCompat:
    """TarFile class compatible with standard module zipfile's
       ZipFile class.
    """
    def __init__(self, file, mode="r", compression=TAR_PLAIN):
        from warnings import warnpy3k
        warnpy3k("the TarFileCompat class has been removed in Python 3.0",
                stacklevel=2)
        if compression == TAR_PLAIN:
            self.tarfile = TarFile.taropen(file, mode)
        elif compression == TAR_GZIPPED:
            self.tarfile = TarFile.gzopen(file, mode)
        else:
            raise ValueError("unknown compression constant")
        if mode[0:1] == "r":
            members = self.tarfile.getmembers()
            for m in members:
                m.filename = m.name
                m.file_size = m.size
                m.date_time = time.gmtime(m.mtime)[:6]
    def namelist(self):
        return map(lambda m: m.name, self.infolist())
    def infolist(self):
        return filter(lambda m: m.type in REGULAR_TYPES,
                      self.tarfile.getmembers())
    def printdir(self):
        self.tarfile.list()
    def testzip(self):
        return
    def getinfo(self, name):
        return self.tarfile.getmember(name)
    def read(self, name):
        return self.tarfile.extractfile(self.tarfile.getmember(name)).read()
    def write(self, filename, arcname=None, compress_type=None):
        self.tarfile.add(filename, arcname)
    def writestr(self, zinfo, bytes):
        try:
            from cStringIO import StringIO
        except ImportError:
            from StringIO import StringIO
        import calendar
        tinfo = TarInfo(zinfo.filename)
        tinfo.size = len(bytes)
        tinfo.mtime = calendar.timegm(zinfo.date_time)
        self.tarfile.addfile(tinfo, StringIO(bytes))
    def close(self):
        self.tarfile.close()
#class TarFileCompat

#--------------------
# exported functions
#--------------------
def is_tarfile(name):
    """Return True if name points to a tar archive that we
       are able to handle, else return False.
    """
    try:
        t = open(name)
        t.close()
        return True
    except TarError:
        return False

bltn_open = open
open = TarFile.open
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