cpython-withatomic / Lib / pydoc.py

   1
   2
   3
   4
   5
   6
   7
   8
   9
  10
  11
  12
  13
  14
  15
  16
  17
  18
  19
  20
  21
  22
  23
  24
  25
  26
  27
  28
  29
  30
  31
  32
  33
  34
  35
  36
  37
  38
  39
  40
  41
  42
  43
  44
  45
  46
  47
  48
  49
  50
  51
  52
  53
  54
  55
  56
  57
  58
  59
  60
  61
  62
  63
  64
  65
  66
  67
  68
  69
  70
  71
  72
  73
  74
  75
  76
  77
  78
  79
  80
  81
  82
  83
  84
  85
  86
  87
  88
  89
  90
  91
  92
  93
  94
  95
  96
  97
  98
  99
 100
 101
 102
 103
 104
 105
 106
 107
 108
 109
 110
 111
 112
 113
 114
 115
 116
 117
 118
 119
 120
 121
 122
 123
 124
 125
 126
 127
 128
 129
 130
 131
 132
 133
 134
 135
 136
 137
 138
 139
 140
 141
 142
 143
 144
 145
 146
 147
 148
 149
 150
 151
 152
 153
 154
 155
 156
 157
 158
 159
 160
 161
 162
 163
 164
 165
 166
 167
 168
 169
 170
 171
 172
 173
 174
 175
 176
 177
 178
 179
 180
 181
 182
 183
 184
 185
 186
 187
 188
 189
 190
 191
 192
 193
 194
 195
 196
 197
 198
 199
 200
 201
 202
 203
 204
 205
 206
 207
 208
 209
 210
 211
 212
 213
 214
 215
 216
 217
 218
 219
 220
 221
 222
 223
 224
 225
 226
 227
 228
 229
 230
 231
 232
 233
 234
 235
 236
 237
 238
 239
 240
 241
 242
 243
 244
 245
 246
 247
 248
 249
 250
 251
 252
 253
 254
 255
 256
 257
 258
 259
 260
 261
 262
 263
 264
 265
 266
 267
 268
 269
 270
 271
 272
 273
 274
 275
 276
 277
 278
 279
 280
 281
 282
 283
 284
 285
 286
 287
 288
 289
 290
 291
 292
 293
 294
 295
 296
 297
 298
 299
 300
 301
 302
 303
 304
 305
 306
 307
 308
 309
 310
 311
 312
 313
 314
 315
 316
 317
 318
 319
 320
 321
 322
 323
 324
 325
 326
 327
 328
 329
 330
 331
 332
 333
 334
 335
 336
 337
 338
 339
 340
 341
 342
 343
 344
 345
 346
 347
 348
 349
 350
 351
 352
 353
 354
 355
 356
 357
 358
 359
 360
 361
 362
 363
 364
 365
 366
 367
 368
 369
 370
 371
 372
 373
 374
 375
 376
 377
 378
 379
 380
 381
 382
 383
 384
 385
 386
 387
 388
 389
 390
 391
 392
 393
 394
 395
 396
 397
 398
 399
 400
 401
 402
 403
 404
 405
 406
 407
 408
 409
 410
 411
 412
 413
 414
 415
 416
 417
 418
 419
 420
 421
 422
 423
 424
 425
 426
 427
 428
 429
 430
 431
 432
 433
 434
 435
 436
 437
 438
 439
 440
 441
 442
 443
 444
 445
 446
 447
 448
 449
 450
 451
 452
 453
 454
 455
 456
 457
 458
 459
 460
 461
 462
 463
 464
 465
 466
 467
 468
 469
 470
 471
 472
 473
 474
 475
 476
 477
 478
 479
 480
 481
 482
 483
 484
 485
 486
 487
 488
 489
 490
 491
 492
 493
 494
 495
 496
 497
 498
 499
 500
 501
 502
 503
 504
 505
 506
 507
 508
 509
 510
 511
 512
 513
 514
 515
 516
 517
 518
 519
 520
 521
 522
 523
 524
 525
 526
 527
 528
 529
 530
 531
 532
 533
 534
 535
 536
 537
 538
 539
 540
 541
 542
 543
 544
 545
 546
 547
 548
 549
 550
 551
 552
 553
 554
 555
 556
 557
 558
 559
 560
 561
 562
 563
 564
 565
 566
 567
 568
 569
 570
 571
 572
 573
 574
 575
 576
 577
 578
 579
 580
 581
 582
 583
 584
 585
 586
 587
 588
 589
 590
 591
 592
 593
 594
 595
 596
 597
 598
 599
 600
 601
 602
 603
 604
 605
 606
 607
 608
 609
 610
 611
 612
 613
 614
 615
 616
 617
 618
 619
 620
 621
 622
 623
 624
 625
 626
 627
 628
 629
 630
 631
 632
 633
 634
 635
 636
 637
 638
 639
 640
 641
 642
 643
 644
 645
 646
 647
 648
 649
 650
 651
 652
 653
 654
 655
 656
 657
 658
 659
 660
 661
 662
 663
 664
 665
 666
 667
 668
 669
 670
 671
 672
 673
 674
 675
 676
 677
 678
 679
 680
 681
 682
 683
 684
 685
 686
 687
 688
 689
 690
 691
 692
 693
 694
 695
 696
 697
 698
 699
 700
 701
 702
 703
 704
 705
 706
 707
 708
 709
 710
 711
 712
 713
 714
 715
 716
 717
 718
 719
 720
 721
 722
 723
 724
 725
 726
 727
 728
 729
 730
 731
 732
 733
 734
 735
 736
 737
 738
 739
 740
 741
 742
 743
 744
 745
 746
 747
 748
 749
 750
 751
 752
 753
 754
 755
 756
 757
 758
 759
 760
 761
 762
 763
 764
 765
 766
 767
 768
 769
 770
 771
 772
 773
 774
 775
 776
 777
 778
 779
 780
 781
 782
 783
 784
 785
 786
 787
 788
 789
 790
 791
 792
 793
 794
 795
 796
 797
 798
 799
 800
 801
 802
 803
 804
 805
 806
 807
 808
 809
 810
 811
 812
 813
 814
 815
 816
 817
 818
 819
 820
 821
 822
 823
 824
 825
 826
 827
 828
 829
 830
 831
 832
 833
 834
 835
 836
 837
 838
 839
 840
 841
 842
 843
 844
 845
 846
 847
 848
 849
 850
 851
 852
 853
 854
 855
 856
 857
 858
 859
 860
 861
 862
 863
 864
 865
 866
 867
 868
 869
 870
 871
 872
 873
 874
 875
 876
 877
 878
 879
 880
 881
 882
 883
 884
 885
 886
 887
 888
 889
 890
 891
 892
 893
 894
 895
 896
 897
 898
 899
 900
 901
 902
 903
 904
 905
 906
 907
 908
 909
 910
 911
 912
 913
 914
 915
 916
 917
 918
 919
 920
 921
 922
 923
 924
 925
 926
 927
 928
 929
 930
 931
 932
 933
 934
 935
 936
 937
 938
 939
 940
 941
 942
 943
 944
 945
 946
 947
 948
 949
 950
 951
 952
 953
 954
 955
 956
 957
 958
 959
 960
 961
 962
 963
 964
 965
 966
 967
 968
 969
 970
 971
 972
 973
 974
 975
 976
 977
 978
 979
 980
 981
 982
 983
 984
 985
 986
 987
 988
 989
 990
 991
 992
 993
 994
 995
 996
 997
 998
 999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749
1750
1751
1752
1753
1754
1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
1762
1763
1764
1765
1766
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771
1772
1773
1774
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
1789
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061
2062
2063
2064
2065
2066
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071
2072
2073
2074
2075
2076
2077
2078
2079
2080
2081
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086
2087
2088
2089
2090
2091
2092
2093
2094
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099
2100
2101
2102
2103
2104
2105
2106
2107
2108
2109
2110
2111
2112
2113
2114
2115
2116
2117
2118
2119
2120
2121
2122
2123
2124
2125
2126
2127
2128
2129
2130
2131
2132
2133
2134
2135
2136
2137
2138
2139
2140
2141
2142
2143
2144
2145
2146
2147
2148
2149
2150
2151
2152
2153
2154
2155
2156
2157
2158
2159
2160
2161
2162
2163
2164
2165
2166
2167
2168
2169
2170
2171
2172
2173
2174
2175
2176
2177
2178
2179
2180
2181
2182
2183
2184
2185
2186
2187
2188
2189
2190
2191
2192
2193
2194
2195
2196
2197
2198
2199
2200
2201
2202
2203
2204
2205
2206
2207
2208
2209
2210
2211
2212
2213
2214
2215
2216
2217
2218
2219
2220
2221
2222
2223
2224
2225
2226
2227
2228
2229
2230
2231
2232
2233
2234
2235
2236
2237
2238
2239
2240
2241
2242
2243
2244
2245
2246
2247
2248
2249
2250
2251
2252
2253
2254
2255
2256
2257
2258
2259
2260
2261
2262
2263
2264
2265
2266
2267
2268
2269
2270
2271
2272
2273
2274
2275
2276
2277
2278
2279
2280
2281
2282
2283
2284
2285
2286
2287
2288
2289
2290
2291
2292
2293
2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299
2300
2301
2302
2303
2304
2305
2306
2307
2308
2309
2310
2311
2312
2313
2314
2315
2316
2317
2318
2319
2320
2321
2322
2323
2324
2325
2326
2327
2328
2329
2330
2331
2332
2333
#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: latin-1 -*-
"""Generate Python documentation in HTML or text for interactive use.

In the Python interpreter, do "from pydoc import help" to provide online
help.  Calling help(thing) on a Python object documents the object.

Or, at the shell command line outside of Python:

Run "pydoc <name>" to show documentation on something.  <name> may be
the name of a function, module, package, or a dotted reference to a
class or function within a module or module in a package.  If the
argument contains a path segment delimiter (e.g. slash on Unix,
backslash on Windows) it is treated as the path to a Python source file.

Run "pydoc -k <keyword>" to search for a keyword in the synopsis lines
of all available modules.

Run "pydoc -p <port>" to start an HTTP server on a given port on the
local machine to generate documentation web pages.

For platforms without a command line, "pydoc -g" starts the HTTP server
and also pops up a little window for controlling it.

Run "pydoc -w <name>" to write out the HTML documentation for a module
to a file named "<name>.html".

Module docs for core modules are assumed to be in

    http://docs.python.org/library/

This can be overridden by setting the PYTHONDOCS environment variable
to a different URL or to a local directory containing the Library
Reference Manual pages.
"""

__author__ = "Ka-Ping Yee <ping@lfw.org>"
__date__ = "26 February 2001"

__version__ = "$Revision$"
__credits__ = """Guido van Rossum, for an excellent programming language.
Tommy Burnette, the original creator of manpy.
Paul Prescod, for all his work on onlinehelp.
Richard Chamberlain, for the first implementation of textdoc.
"""

# Known bugs that can't be fixed here:
#   - imp.load_module() cannot be prevented from clobbering existing
#     loaded modules, so calling synopsis() on a binary module file
#     changes the contents of any existing module with the same name.
#   - If the __file__ attribute on a module is a relative path and
#     the current directory is changed with os.chdir(), an incorrect
#     path will be displayed.

import sys, imp, os, re, types, inspect, __builtin__, pkgutil
from repr import Repr
from string import expandtabs, find, join, lower, split, strip, rfind, rstrip
from traceback import extract_tb
try:
    from collections import deque
except ImportError:
    # Python 2.3 compatibility
    class deque(list):
        def popleft(self):
            return self.pop(0)

# --------------------------------------------------------- common routines

def pathdirs():
    """Convert sys.path into a list of absolute, existing, unique paths."""
    dirs = []
    normdirs = []
    for dir in sys.path:
        dir = os.path.abspath(dir or '.')
        normdir = os.path.normcase(dir)
        if normdir not in normdirs and os.path.isdir(dir):
            dirs.append(dir)
            normdirs.append(normdir)
    return dirs

def getdoc(object):
    """Get the doc string or comments for an object."""
    result = inspect.getdoc(object) or inspect.getcomments(object)
    return result and re.sub('^ *\n', '', rstrip(result)) or ''

def splitdoc(doc):
    """Split a doc string into a synopsis line (if any) and the rest."""
    lines = split(strip(doc), '\n')
    if len(lines) == 1:
        return lines[0], ''
    elif len(lines) >= 2 and not rstrip(lines[1]):
        return lines[0], join(lines[2:], '\n')
    return '', join(lines, '\n')

def classname(object, modname):
    """Get a class name and qualify it with a module name if necessary."""
    name = object.__name__
    if object.__module__ != modname:
        name = object.__module__ + '.' + name
    return name

def isdata(object):
    """Check if an object is of a type that probably means it's data."""
    return not (inspect.ismodule(object) or inspect.isclass(object) or
                inspect.isroutine(object) or inspect.isframe(object) or
                inspect.istraceback(object) or inspect.iscode(object))

def replace(text, *pairs):
    """Do a series of global replacements on a string."""
    while pairs:
        text = join(split(text, pairs[0]), pairs[1])
        pairs = pairs[2:]
    return text

def cram(text, maxlen):
    """Omit part of a string if needed to make it fit in a maximum length."""
    if len(text) > maxlen:
        pre = max(0, (maxlen-3)//2)
        post = max(0, maxlen-3-pre)
        return text[:pre] + '...' + text[len(text)-post:]
    return text

_re_stripid = re.compile(r' at 0x[0-9a-f]{6,16}(>+)$', re.IGNORECASE)
def stripid(text):
    """Remove the hexadecimal id from a Python object representation."""
    # The behaviour of %p is implementation-dependent in terms of case.
    if _re_stripid.search(repr(Exception)):
        return _re_stripid.sub(r'\1', text)
    return text

def _is_some_method(obj):
    return inspect.ismethod(obj) or inspect.ismethoddescriptor(obj)

def allmethods(cl):
    methods = {}
    for key, value in inspect.getmembers(cl, _is_some_method):
        methods[key] = 1
    for base in cl.__bases__:
        methods.update(allmethods(base)) # all your base are belong to us
    for key in methods.keys():
        methods[key] = getattr(cl, key)
    return methods

def _split_list(s, predicate):
    """Split sequence s via predicate, and return pair ([true], [false]).

    The return value is a 2-tuple of lists,
        ([x for x in s if predicate(x)],
         [x for x in s if not predicate(x)])
    """

    yes = []
    no = []
    for x in s:
        if predicate(x):
            yes.append(x)
        else:
            no.append(x)
    return yes, no

def visiblename(name, all=None):
    """Decide whether to show documentation on a variable."""
    # Certain special names are redundant.
    _hidden_names = ('__builtins__', '__doc__', '__file__', '__path__',
                     '__module__', '__name__', '__slots__', '__package__')
    if name in _hidden_names: return 0
    # Private names are hidden, but special names are displayed.
    if name.startswith('__') and name.endswith('__'): return 1
    if all is not None:
        # only document that which the programmer exported in __all__
        return name in all
    else:
        return not name.startswith('_')

def classify_class_attrs(object):
    """Wrap inspect.classify_class_attrs, with fixup for data descriptors."""
    def fixup(data):
        name, kind, cls, value = data
        if inspect.isdatadescriptor(value):
            kind = 'data descriptor'
        return name, kind, cls, value
    return map(fixup, inspect.classify_class_attrs(object))

# ----------------------------------------------------- module manipulation

def ispackage(path):
    """Guess whether a path refers to a package directory."""
    if os.path.isdir(path):
        for ext in ('.py', '.pyc', '.pyo'):
            if os.path.isfile(os.path.join(path, '__init__' + ext)):
                return True
    return False

def source_synopsis(file):
    line = file.readline()
    while line[:1] == '#' or not strip(line):
        line = file.readline()
        if not line: break
    line = strip(line)
    if line[:4] == 'r"""': line = line[1:]
    if line[:3] == '"""':
        line = line[3:]
        if line[-1:] == '\\': line = line[:-1]
        while not strip(line):
            line = file.readline()
            if not line: break
        result = strip(split(line, '"""')[0])
    else: result = None
    return result

def synopsis(filename, cache={}):
    """Get the one-line summary out of a module file."""
    mtime = os.stat(filename).st_mtime
    lastupdate, result = cache.get(filename, (0, None))
    if lastupdate < mtime:
        info = inspect.getmoduleinfo(filename)
        try:
            file = open(filename)
        except IOError:
            # module can't be opened, so skip it
            return None
        if info and 'b' in info[2]: # binary modules have to be imported
            try: module = imp.load_module('__temp__', file, filename, info[1:])
            except: return None
            result = (module.__doc__ or '').splitlines()[0]
            del sys.modules['__temp__']
        else: # text modules can be directly examined
            result = source_synopsis(file)
            file.close()
        cache[filename] = (mtime, result)
    return result

class ErrorDuringImport(Exception):
    """Errors that occurred while trying to import something to document it."""
    def __init__(self, filename, exc_info):
        exc, value, tb = exc_info
        self.filename = filename
        self.exc = exc
        self.value = value
        self.tb = tb

    def __str__(self):
        exc = self.exc
        if type(exc) is types.ClassType:
            exc = exc.__name__
        return 'problem in %s - %s: %s' % (self.filename, exc, self.value)

def importfile(path):
    """Import a Python source file or compiled file given its path."""
    magic = imp.get_magic()
    file = open(path, 'r')
    if file.read(len(magic)) == magic:
        kind = imp.PY_COMPILED
    else:
        kind = imp.PY_SOURCE
    file.close()
    filename = os.path.basename(path)
    name, ext = os.path.splitext(filename)
    file = open(path, 'r')
    try:
        module = imp.load_module(name, file, path, (ext, 'r', kind))
    except:
        raise ErrorDuringImport(path, sys.exc_info())
    file.close()
    return module

def safeimport(path, forceload=0, cache={}):
    """Import a module; handle errors; return None if the module isn't found.

    If the module *is* found but an exception occurs, it's wrapped in an
    ErrorDuringImport exception and reraised.  Unlike __import__, if a
    package path is specified, the module at the end of the path is returned,
    not the package at the beginning.  If the optional 'forceload' argument
    is 1, we reload the module from disk (unless it's a dynamic extension)."""
    try:
        # If forceload is 1 and the module has been previously loaded from
        # disk, we always have to reload the module.  Checking the file's
        # mtime isn't good enough (e.g. the module could contain a class
        # that inherits from another module that has changed).
        if forceload and path in sys.modules:
            if path not in sys.builtin_module_names:
                # Avoid simply calling reload() because it leaves names in
                # the currently loaded module lying around if they're not
                # defined in the new source file.  Instead, remove the
                # module from sys.modules and re-import.  Also remove any
                # submodules because they won't appear in the newly loaded
                # module's namespace if they're already in sys.modules.
                subs = [m for m in sys.modules if m.startswith(path + '.')]
                for key in [path] + subs:
                    # Prevent garbage collection.
                    cache[key] = sys.modules[key]
                    del sys.modules[key]
        module = __import__(path)
    except:
        # Did the error occur before or after the module was found?
        (exc, value, tb) = info = sys.exc_info()
        if path in sys.modules:
            # An error occurred while executing the imported module.
            raise ErrorDuringImport(sys.modules[path].__file__, info)
        elif exc is SyntaxError:
            # A SyntaxError occurred before we could execute the module.
            raise ErrorDuringImport(value.filename, info)
        elif exc is ImportError and extract_tb(tb)[-1][2]=='safeimport':
            # The import error occurred directly in this function,
            # which means there is no such module in the path.
            return None
        else:
            # Some other error occurred during the importing process.
            raise ErrorDuringImport(path, sys.exc_info())
    for part in split(path, '.')[1:]:
        try: module = getattr(module, part)
        except AttributeError: return None
    return module

# ---------------------------------------------------- formatter base class

class Doc:
    def document(self, object, name=None, *args):
        """Generate documentation for an object."""
        args = (object, name) + args
        # 'try' clause is to attempt to handle the possibility that inspect
        # identifies something in a way that pydoc itself has issues handling;
        # think 'super' and how it is a descriptor (which raises the exception
        # by lacking a __name__ attribute) and an instance.
        if inspect.isgetsetdescriptor(object): return self.docdata(*args)
        if inspect.ismemberdescriptor(object): return self.docdata(*args)
        try:
            if inspect.ismodule(object): return self.docmodule(*args)
            if inspect.isclass(object): return self.docclass(*args)
            if inspect.isroutine(object): return self.docroutine(*args)
        except AttributeError:
            pass
        if isinstance(object, property): return self.docproperty(*args)
        return self.docother(*args)

    def fail(self, object, name=None, *args):
        """Raise an exception for unimplemented types."""
        message = "don't know how to document object%s of type %s" % (
            name and ' ' + repr(name), type(object).__name__)
        raise TypeError, message

    docmodule = docclass = docroutine = docother = docproperty = docdata = fail

    def getdocloc(self, object):
        """Return the location of module docs or None"""

        try:
            file = inspect.getabsfile(object)
        except TypeError:
            file = '(built-in)'

        docloc = os.environ.get("PYTHONDOCS",
                                "http://docs.python.org/library")
        basedir = os.path.join(sys.exec_prefix, "lib",
                               "python"+sys.version[0:3])
        if (isinstance(object, type(os)) and
            (object.__name__ in ('errno', 'exceptions', 'gc', 'imp',
                                 'marshal', 'posix', 'signal', 'sys',
                                 'thread', 'zipimport') or
             (file.startswith(basedir) and
              not file.startswith(os.path.join(basedir, 'site-packages'))))):
            if docloc.startswith("http://"):
                docloc = "%s/%s" % (docloc.rstrip("/"), object.__name__)
            else:
                docloc = os.path.join(docloc, object.__name__ + ".html")
        else:
            docloc = None
        return docloc

# -------------------------------------------- HTML documentation generator

class HTMLRepr(Repr):
    """Class for safely making an HTML representation of a Python object."""
    def __init__(self):
        Repr.__init__(self)
        self.maxlist = self.maxtuple = 20
        self.maxdict = 10
        self.maxstring = self.maxother = 100

    def escape(self, text):
        return replace(text, '&', '&amp;', '<', '&lt;', '>', '&gt;')

    def repr(self, object):
        return Repr.repr(self, object)

    def repr1(self, x, level):
        if hasattr(type(x), '__name__'):
            methodname = 'repr_' + join(split(type(x).__name__), '_')
            if hasattr(self, methodname):
                return getattr(self, methodname)(x, level)
        return self.escape(cram(stripid(repr(x)), self.maxother))

    def repr_string(self, x, level):
        test = cram(x, self.maxstring)
        testrepr = repr(test)
        if '\\' in test and '\\' not in replace(testrepr, r'\\', ''):
            # Backslashes are only literal in the string and are never
            # needed to make any special characters, so show a raw string.
            return 'r' + testrepr[0] + self.escape(test) + testrepr[0]
        return re.sub(r'((\\[\\abfnrtv\'"]|\\[0-9]..|\\x..|\\u....)+)',
                      r'<font color="#c040c0">\1</font>',
                      self.escape(testrepr))

    repr_str = repr_string

    def repr_instance(self, x, level):
        try:
            return self.escape(cram(stripid(repr(x)), self.maxstring))
        except:
            return self.escape('<%s instance>' % x.__class__.__name__)

    repr_unicode = repr_string

class HTMLDoc(Doc):
    """Formatter class for HTML documentation."""

    # ------------------------------------------- HTML formatting utilities

    _repr_instance = HTMLRepr()
    repr = _repr_instance.repr
    escape = _repr_instance.escape

    def page(self, title, contents):
        """Format an HTML page."""
        return '''
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN">
<html><head><title>Python: %s</title>
</head><body bgcolor="#f0f0f8">
%s
</body></html>''' % (title, contents)

    def heading(self, title, fgcol, bgcol, extras=''):
        """Format a page heading."""
        return '''
<table width="100%%" cellspacing=0 cellpadding=2 border=0 summary="heading">
<tr bgcolor="%s">
<td valign=bottom>&nbsp;<br>
<font color="%s" face="helvetica, arial">&nbsp;<br>%s</font></td
><td align=right valign=bottom
><font color="%s" face="helvetica, arial">%s</font></td></tr></table>
    ''' % (bgcol, fgcol, title, fgcol, extras or '&nbsp;')

    def section(self, title, fgcol, bgcol, contents, width=6,
                prelude='', marginalia=None, gap='&nbsp;'):
        """Format a section with a heading."""
        if marginalia is None:
            marginalia = '<tt>' + '&nbsp;' * width + '</tt>'
        result = '''<p>
<table width="100%%" cellspacing=0 cellpadding=2 border=0 summary="section">
<tr bgcolor="%s">
<td colspan=3 valign=bottom>&nbsp;<br>
<font color="%s" face="helvetica, arial">%s</font></td></tr>
    ''' % (bgcol, fgcol, title)
        if prelude:
            result = result + '''
<tr bgcolor="%s"><td rowspan=2>%s</td>
<td colspan=2>%s</td></tr>
<tr><td>%s</td>''' % (bgcol, marginalia, prelude, gap)
        else:
            result = result + '''
<tr><td bgcolor="%s">%s</td><td>%s</td>''' % (bgcol, marginalia, gap)

        return result + '\n<td width="100%%">%s</td></tr></table>' % contents

    def bigsection(self, title, *args):
        """Format a section with a big heading."""
        title = '<big><strong>%s</strong></big>' % title
        return self.section(title, *args)

    def preformat(self, text):
        """Format literal preformatted text."""
        text = self.escape(expandtabs(text))
        return replace(text, '\n\n', '\n \n', '\n\n', '\n \n',
                             ' ', '&nbsp;', '\n', '<br>\n')

    def multicolumn(self, list, format, cols=4):
        """Format a list of items into a multi-column list."""
        result = ''
        rows = (len(list)+cols-1)/cols
        for col in range(cols):
            result = result + '<td width="%d%%" valign=top>' % (100/cols)
            for i in range(rows*col, rows*col+rows):
                if i < len(list):
                    result = result + format(list[i]) + '<br>\n'
            result = result + '</td>'
        return '<table width="100%%" summary="list"><tr>%s</tr></table>' % result

    def grey(self, text): return '<font color="#909090">%s</font>' % text

    def namelink(self, name, *dicts):
        """Make a link for an identifier, given name-to-URL mappings."""
        for dict in dicts:
            if name in dict:
                return '<a href="%s">%s</a>' % (dict[name], name)
        return name

    def classlink(self, object, modname):
        """Make a link for a class."""
        name, module = object.__name__, sys.modules.get(object.__module__)
        if hasattr(module, name) and getattr(module, name) is object:
            return '<a href="%s.html#%s">%s</a>' % (
                module.__name__, name, classname(object, modname))
        return classname(object, modname)

    def modulelink(self, object):
        """Make a link for a module."""
        return '<a href="%s.html">%s</a>' % (object.__name__, object.__name__)

    def modpkglink(self, data):
        """Make a link for a module or package to display in an index."""
        name, path, ispackage, shadowed = data
        if shadowed:
            return self.grey(name)
        if path:
            url = '%s.%s.html' % (path, name)
        else:
            url = '%s.html' % name
        if ispackage:
            text = '<strong>%s</strong>&nbsp;(package)' % name
        else:
            text = name
        return '<a href="%s">%s</a>' % (url, text)

    def markup(self, text, escape=None, funcs={}, classes={}, methods={}):
        """Mark up some plain text, given a context of symbols to look for.
        Each context dictionary maps object names to anchor names."""
        escape = escape or self.escape
        results = []
        here = 0
        pattern = re.compile(r'\b((http|ftp)://\S+[\w/]|'
                                r'RFC[- ]?(\d+)|'
                                r'PEP[- ]?(\d+)|'
                                r'(self\.)?(\w+))')
        while True:
            match = pattern.search(text, here)
            if not match: break
            start, end = match.span()
            results.append(escape(text[here:start]))

            all, scheme, rfc, pep, selfdot, name = match.groups()
            if scheme:
                url = escape(all).replace('"', '&quot;')
                results.append('<a href="%s">%s</a>' % (url, url))
            elif rfc:
                url = 'http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc%d.txt' % int(rfc)
                results.append('<a href="%s">%s</a>' % (url, escape(all)))
            elif pep:
                url = 'http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-%04d/' % int(pep)
                results.append('<a href="%s">%s</a>' % (url, escape(all)))
            elif text[end:end+1] == '(':
                results.append(self.namelink(name, methods, funcs, classes))
            elif selfdot:
                results.append('self.<strong>%s</strong>' % name)
            else:
                results.append(self.namelink(name, classes))
            here = end
        results.append(escape(text[here:]))
        return join(results, '')

    # ---------------------------------------------- type-specific routines

    def formattree(self, tree, modname, parent=None):
        """Produce HTML for a class tree as given by inspect.getclasstree()."""
        result = ''
        for entry in tree:
            if type(entry) is type(()):
                c, bases = entry
                result = result + '<dt><font face="helvetica, arial">'
                result = result + self.classlink(c, modname)
                if bases and bases != (parent,):
                    parents = []
                    for base in bases:
                        parents.append(self.classlink(base, modname))
                    result = result + '(' + join(parents, ', ') + ')'
                result = result + '\n</font></dt>'
            elif type(entry) is type([]):
                result = result + '<dd>\n%s</dd>\n' % self.formattree(
                    entry, modname, c)
        return '<dl>\n%s</dl>\n' % result

    def docmodule(self, object, name=None, mod=None, *ignored):
        """Produce HTML documentation for a module object."""
        name = object.__name__ # ignore the passed-in name
        try:
            all = object.__all__
        except AttributeError:
            all = None
        parts = split(name, '.')
        links = []
        for i in range(len(parts)-1):
            links.append(
                '<a href="%s.html"><font color="#ffffff">%s</font></a>' %
                (join(parts[:i+1], '.'), parts[i]))
        linkedname = join(links + parts[-1:], '.')
        head = '<big><big><strong>%s</strong></big></big>' % linkedname
        try:
            path = inspect.getabsfile(object)
            url = path
            if sys.platform == 'win32':
                import nturl2path
                url = nturl2path.pathname2url(path)
            filelink = '<a href="file:%s">%s</a>' % (url, path)
        except TypeError:
            filelink = '(built-in)'
        info = []
        if hasattr(object, '__version__'):
            version = str(object.__version__)
            if version[:11] == '$' + 'Revision: ' and version[-1:] == '$':
                version = strip(version[11:-1])
            info.append('version %s' % self.escape(version))
        if hasattr(object, '__date__'):
            info.append(self.escape(str(object.__date__)))
        if info:
            head = head + ' (%s)' % join(info, ', ')
        docloc = self.getdocloc(object)
        if docloc is not None:
            docloc = '<br><a href="%(docloc)s">Module Docs</a>' % locals()
        else:
            docloc = ''
        result = self.heading(
            head, '#ffffff', '#7799ee',
            '<a href=".">index</a><br>' + filelink + docloc)

        modules = inspect.getmembers(object, inspect.ismodule)

        classes, cdict = [], {}
        for key, value in inspect.getmembers(object, inspect.isclass):
            # if __all__ exists, believe it.  Otherwise use old heuristic.
            if (all is not None or
                (inspect.getmodule(value) or object) is object):
                if visiblename(key, all):
                    classes.append((key, value))
                    cdict[key] = cdict[value] = '#' + key
        for key, value in classes:
            for base in value.__bases__:
                key, modname = base.__name__, base.__module__
                module = sys.modules.get(modname)
                if modname != name and module and hasattr(module, key):
                    if getattr(module, key) is base:
                        if not key in cdict:
                            cdict[key] = cdict[base] = modname + '.html#' + key
        funcs, fdict = [], {}
        for key, value in inspect.getmembers(object, inspect.isroutine):
            # if __all__ exists, believe it.  Otherwise use old heuristic.
            if (all is not None or
                inspect.isbuiltin(value) or inspect.getmodule(value) is object):
                if visiblename(key, all):
                    funcs.append((key, value))
                    fdict[key] = '#-' + key
                    if inspect.isfunction(value): fdict[value] = fdict[key]
        data = []
        for key, value in inspect.getmembers(object, isdata):
            if visiblename(key, all):
                data.append((key, value))

        doc = self.markup(getdoc(object), self.preformat, fdict, cdict)
        doc = doc and '<tt>%s</tt>' % doc
        result = result + '<p>%s</p>\n' % doc

        if hasattr(object, '__path__'):
            modpkgs = []
            for importer, modname, ispkg in pkgutil.iter_modules(object.__path__):
                modpkgs.append((modname, name, ispkg, 0))
            modpkgs.sort()
            contents = self.multicolumn(modpkgs, self.modpkglink)
            result = result + self.bigsection(
                'Package Contents', '#ffffff', '#aa55cc', contents)
        elif modules:
            contents = self.multicolumn(
                modules, lambda key_value, s=self: s.modulelink(key_value[1]))
            result = result + self.bigsection(
                'Modules', '#ffffff', '#aa55cc', contents)

        if classes:
            classlist = map(lambda key_value: key_value[1], classes)
            contents = [
                self.formattree(inspect.getclasstree(classlist, 1), name)]
            for key, value in classes:
                contents.append(self.document(value, key, name, fdict, cdict))
            result = result + self.bigsection(
                'Classes', '#ffffff', '#ee77aa', join(contents))
        if funcs:
            contents = []
            for key, value in funcs:
                contents.append(self.document(value, key, name, fdict, cdict))
            result = result + self.bigsection(
                'Functions', '#ffffff', '#eeaa77', join(contents))
        if data:
            contents = []
            for key, value in data:
                contents.append(self.document(value, key))
            result = result + self.bigsection(
                'Data', '#ffffff', '#55aa55', join(contents, '<br>\n'))
        if hasattr(object, '__author__'):
            contents = self.markup(str(object.__author__), self.preformat)
            result = result + self.bigsection(
                'Author', '#ffffff', '#7799ee', contents)
        if hasattr(object, '__credits__'):
            contents = self.markup(str(object.__credits__), self.preformat)
            result = result + self.bigsection(
                'Credits', '#ffffff', '#7799ee', contents)

        return result

    def docclass(self, object, name=None, mod=None, funcs={}, classes={},
                 *ignored):
        """Produce HTML documentation for a class object."""
        realname = object.__name__
        name = name or realname
        bases = object.__bases__

        contents = []
        push = contents.append

        # Cute little class to pump out a horizontal rule between sections.
        class HorizontalRule:
            def __init__(self):
                self.needone = 0
            def maybe(self):
                if self.needone:
                    push('<hr>\n')
                self.needone = 1
        hr = HorizontalRule()

        # List the mro, if non-trivial.
        mro = deque(inspect.getmro(object))
        if len(mro) > 2:
            hr.maybe()
            push('<dl><dt>Method resolution order:</dt>\n')
            for base in mro:
                push('<dd>%s</dd>\n' % self.classlink(base,
                                                      object.__module__))
            push('</dl>\n')

        def spill(msg, attrs, predicate):
            ok, attrs = _split_list(attrs, predicate)
            if ok:
                hr.maybe()
                push(msg)
                for name, kind, homecls, value in ok:
                    push(self.document(getattr(object, name), name, mod,
                                       funcs, classes, mdict, object))
                    push('\n')
            return attrs

        def spilldescriptors(msg, attrs, predicate):
            ok, attrs = _split_list(attrs, predicate)
            if ok:
                hr.maybe()
                push(msg)
                for name, kind, homecls, value in ok:
                    push(self._docdescriptor(name, value, mod))
            return attrs

        def spilldata(msg, attrs, predicate):
            ok, attrs = _split_list(attrs, predicate)
            if ok:
                hr.maybe()
                push(msg)
                for name, kind, homecls, value in ok:
                    base = self.docother(getattr(object, name), name, mod)
                    if (hasattr(value, '__call__') or
                            inspect.isdatadescriptor(value)):
                        doc = getattr(value, "__doc__", None)
                    else:
                        doc = None
                    if doc is None:
                        push('<dl><dt>%s</dl>\n' % base)
                    else:
                        doc = self.markup(getdoc(value), self.preformat,
                                          funcs, classes, mdict)
                        doc = '<dd><tt>%s</tt>' % doc
                        push('<dl><dt>%s%s</dl>\n' % (base, doc))
                    push('\n')
            return attrs

        attrs = filter(lambda data: visiblename(data[0]),
                       classify_class_attrs(object))
        mdict = {}
        for key, kind, homecls, value in attrs:
            mdict[key] = anchor = '#' + name + '-' + key
            value = getattr(object, key)
            try:
                # The value may not be hashable (e.g., a data attr with
                # a dict or list value).
                mdict[value] = anchor
            except TypeError:
                pass

        while attrs:
            if mro:
                thisclass = mro.popleft()
            else:
                thisclass = attrs[0][2]
            attrs, inherited = _split_list(attrs, lambda t: t[2] is thisclass)

            if thisclass is __builtin__.object:
                attrs = inherited
                continue
            elif thisclass is object:
                tag = 'defined here'
            else:
                tag = 'inherited from %s' % self.classlink(thisclass,
                                                           object.__module__)
            tag += ':<br>\n'

            # Sort attrs by name.
            try:
                attrs.sort(key=lambda t: t[0])
            except TypeError:
                attrs.sort(lambda t1, t2: cmp(t1[0], t2[0]))    # 2.3 compat

            # Pump out the attrs, segregated by kind.
            attrs = spill('Methods %s' % tag, attrs,
                          lambda t: t[1] == 'method')
            attrs = spill('Class methods %s' % tag, attrs,
                          lambda t: t[1] == 'class method')
            attrs = spill('Static methods %s' % tag, attrs,
                          lambda t: t[1] == 'static method')
            attrs = spilldescriptors('Data descriptors %s' % tag, attrs,
                                     lambda t: t[1] == 'data descriptor')
            attrs = spilldata('Data and other attributes %s' % tag, attrs,
                              lambda t: t[1] == 'data')
            assert attrs == []
            attrs = inherited

        contents = ''.join(contents)

        if name == realname:
            title = '<a name="%s">class <strong>%s</strong></a>' % (
                name, realname)
        else:
            title = '<strong>%s</strong> = <a name="%s">class %s</a>' % (
                name, name, realname)
        if bases:
            parents = []
            for base in bases:
                parents.append(self.classlink(base, object.__module__))
            title = title + '(%s)' % join(parents, ', ')
        doc = self.markup(getdoc(object), self.preformat, funcs, classes, mdict)
        doc = doc and '<tt>%s<br>&nbsp;</tt>' % doc

        return self.section(title, '#000000', '#ffc8d8', contents, 3, doc)

    def formatvalue(self, object):
        """Format an argument default value as text."""
        return self.grey('=' + self.repr(object))

    def docroutine(self, object, name=None, mod=None,
                   funcs={}, classes={}, methods={}, cl=None):
        """Produce HTML documentation for a function or method object."""
        realname = object.__name__
        name = name or realname
        anchor = (cl and cl.__name__ or '') + '-' + name
        note = ''
        skipdocs = 0
        if inspect.ismethod(object):
            imclass = object.im_class
            if cl:
                if imclass is not cl:
                    note = ' from ' + self.classlink(imclass, mod)
            else:
                if object.im_self is not None:
                    note = ' method of %s instance' % self.classlink(
                        object.im_self.__class__, mod)
                else:
                    note = ' unbound %s method' % self.classlink(imclass,mod)
            object = object.im_func

        if name == realname:
            title = '<a name="%s"><strong>%s</strong></a>' % (anchor, realname)
        else:
            if (cl and realname in cl.__dict__ and
                cl.__dict__[realname] is object):
                reallink = '<a href="#%s">%s</a>' % (
                    cl.__name__ + '-' + realname, realname)
                skipdocs = 1
            else:
                reallink = realname
            title = '<a name="%s"><strong>%s</strong></a> = %s' % (
                anchor, name, reallink)
        if inspect.isfunction(object):
            args, varargs, varkw, defaults = inspect.getargspec(object)
            argspec = inspect.formatargspec(
                args, varargs, varkw, defaults, formatvalue=self.formatvalue)
            if realname == '<lambda>':
                title = '<strong>%s</strong> <em>lambda</em> ' % name
                argspec = argspec[1:-1] # remove parentheses
        else:
            argspec = '(...)'

        decl = title + argspec + (note and self.grey(
               '<font face="helvetica, arial">%s</font>' % note))

        if skipdocs:
            return '<dl><dt>%s</dt></dl>\n' % decl
        else:
            doc = self.markup(
                getdoc(object), self.preformat, funcs, classes, methods)
            doc = doc and '<dd><tt>%s</tt></dd>' % doc
            return '<dl><dt>%s</dt>%s</dl>\n' % (decl, doc)

    def _docdescriptor(self, name, value, mod):
        results = []
        push = results.append

        if name:
            push('<dl><dt><strong>%s</strong></dt>\n' % name)
        if value.__doc__ is not None:
            doc = self.markup(getdoc(value), self.preformat)
            push('<dd><tt>%s</tt></dd>\n' % doc)
        push('</dl>\n')

        return ''.join(results)

    def docproperty(self, object, name=None, mod=None, cl=None):
        """Produce html documentation for a property."""
        return self._docdescriptor(name, object, mod)

    def docother(self, object, name=None, mod=None, *ignored):
        """Produce HTML documentation for a data object."""
        lhs = name and '<strong>%s</strong> = ' % name or ''
        return lhs + self.repr(object)

    def docdata(self, object, name=None, mod=None, cl=None):
        """Produce html documentation for a data descriptor."""
        return self._docdescriptor(name, object, mod)

    def index(self, dir, shadowed=None):
        """Generate an HTML index for a directory of modules."""
        modpkgs = []
        if shadowed is None: shadowed = {}
        for importer, name, ispkg in pkgutil.iter_modules([dir]):
            modpkgs.append((name, '', ispkg, name in shadowed))
            shadowed[name] = 1

        modpkgs.sort()
        contents = self.multicolumn(modpkgs, self.modpkglink)
        return self.bigsection(dir, '#ffffff', '#ee77aa', contents)

# -------------------------------------------- text documentation generator

class TextRepr(Repr):
    """Class for safely making a text representation of a Python object."""
    def __init__(self):
        Repr.__init__(self)
        self.maxlist = self.maxtuple = 20
        self.maxdict = 10
        self.maxstring = self.maxother = 100

    def repr1(self, x, level):
        if hasattr(type(x), '__name__'):
            methodname = 'repr_' + join(split(type(x).__name__), '_')
            if hasattr(self, methodname):
                return getattr(self, methodname)(x, level)
        return cram(stripid(repr(x)), self.maxother)

    def repr_string(self, x, level):
        test = cram(x, self.maxstring)
        testrepr = repr(test)
        if '\\' in test and '\\' not in replace(testrepr, r'\\', ''):
            # Backslashes are only literal in the string and are never
            # needed to make any special characters, so show a raw string.
            return 'r' + testrepr[0] + test + testrepr[0]
        return testrepr

    repr_str = repr_string

    def repr_instance(self, x, level):
        try:
            return cram(stripid(repr(x)), self.maxstring)
        except:
            return '<%s instance>' % x.__class__.__name__

class TextDoc(Doc):
    """Formatter class for text documentation."""

    # ------------------------------------------- text formatting utilities

    _repr_instance = TextRepr()
    repr = _repr_instance.repr

    def bold(self, text):
        """Format a string in bold by overstriking."""
        return join(map(lambda ch: ch + '\b' + ch, text), '')

    def indent(self, text, prefix='    '):
        """Indent text by prepending a given prefix to each line."""
        if not text: return ''
        lines = split(text, '\n')
        lines = map(lambda line, prefix=prefix: prefix + line, lines)
        if lines: lines[-1] = rstrip(lines[-1])
        return join(lines, '\n')

    def section(self, title, contents):
        """Format a section with a given heading."""
        return self.bold(title) + '\n' + rstrip(self.indent(contents)) + '\n\n'

    # ---------------------------------------------- type-specific routines

    def formattree(self, tree, modname, parent=None, prefix=''):
        """Render in text a class tree as returned by inspect.getclasstree()."""
        result = ''
        for entry in tree:
            if type(entry) is type(()):
                c, bases = entry
                result = result + prefix + classname(c, modname)
                if bases and bases != (parent,):
                    parents = map(lambda c, m=modname: classname(c, m), bases)
                    result = result + '(%s)' % join(parents, ', ')
                result = result + '\n'
            elif type(entry) is type([]):
                result = result + self.formattree(
                    entry, modname, c, prefix + '    ')
        return result

    def docmodule(self, object, name=None, mod=None):
        """Produce text documentation for a given module object."""
        name = object.__name__ # ignore the passed-in name
        synop, desc = splitdoc(getdoc(object))
        result = self.section('NAME', name + (synop and ' - ' + synop))

        try:
            all = object.__all__
        except AttributeError:
            all = None

        try:
            file = inspect.getabsfile(object)
        except TypeError:
            file = '(built-in)'
        result = result + self.section('FILE', file)

        docloc = self.getdocloc(object)
        if docloc is not None:
            result = result + self.section('MODULE DOCS', docloc)

        if desc:
            result = result + self.section('DESCRIPTION', desc)

        classes = []
        for key, value in inspect.getmembers(object, inspect.isclass):
            # if __all__ exists, believe it.  Otherwise use old heuristic.
            if (all is not None
                or (inspect.getmodule(value) or object) is object):
                if visiblename(key, all):
                    classes.append((key, value))
        funcs = []
        for key, value in inspect.getmembers(object, inspect.isroutine):
            # if __all__ exists, believe it.  Otherwise use old heuristic.
            if (all is not None or
                inspect.isbuiltin(value) or inspect.getmodule(value) is object):
                if visiblename(key, all):
                    funcs.append((key, value))
        data = []
        for key, value in inspect.getmembers(object, isdata):
            if visiblename(key, all):
                data.append((key, value))

        modpkgs = []
        modpkgs_names = set()
        if hasattr(object, '__path__'):
            for importer, modname, ispkg in pkgutil.iter_modules(object.__path__):
                modpkgs_names.add(modname)
                if ispkg:
                    modpkgs.append(modname + ' (package)')
                else:
                    modpkgs.append(modname)

            modpkgs.sort()
            result = result + self.section(
                'PACKAGE CONTENTS', join(modpkgs, '\n'))

        # Detect submodules as sometimes created by C extensions
        submodules = []
        for key, value in inspect.getmembers(object, inspect.ismodule):
            if value.__name__.startswith(name + '.') and key not in modpkgs_names:
                submodules.append(key)
        if submodules:
            submodules.sort()
            result = result + self.section(
                'SUBMODULES', join(submodules, '\n'))

        if classes:
            classlist = map(lambda key_value: key_value[1], classes)
            contents = [self.formattree(
                inspect.getclasstree(classlist, 1), name)]
            for key, value in classes:
                contents.append(self.document(value, key, name))
            result = result + self.section('CLASSES', join(contents, '\n'))

        if funcs:
            contents = []
            for key, value in funcs:
                contents.append(self.document(value, key, name))
            result = result + self.section('FUNCTIONS', join(contents, '\n'))

        if data:
            contents = []
            for key, value in data:
                contents.append(self.docother(value, key, name, maxlen=70))
            result = result + self.section('DATA', join(contents, '\n'))

        if hasattr(object, '__version__'):
            version = str(object.__version__)
            if version[:11] == '$' + 'Revision: ' and version[-1:] == '$':
                version = strip(version[11:-1])
            result = result + self.section('VERSION', version)
        if hasattr(object, '__date__'):
            result = result + self.section('DATE', str(object.__date__))
        if hasattr(object, '__author__'):
            result = result + self.section('AUTHOR', str(object.__author__))
        if hasattr(object, '__credits__'):
            result = result + self.section('CREDITS', str(object.__credits__))
        return result

    def docclass(self, object, name=None, mod=None):
        """Produce text documentation for a given class object."""
        realname = object.__name__
        name = name or realname
        bases = object.__bases__

        def makename(c, m=object.__module__):
            return classname(c, m)

        if name == realname:
            title = 'class ' + self.bold(realname)
        else:
            title = self.bold(name) + ' = class ' + realname
        if bases:
            parents = map(makename, bases)
            title = title + '(%s)' % join(parents, ', ')

        doc = getdoc(object)
        contents = doc and [doc + '\n'] or []
        push = contents.append

        # List the mro, if non-trivial.
        mro = deque(inspect.getmro(object))
        if len(mro) > 2:
            push("Method resolution order:")
            for base in mro:
                push('    ' + makename(base))
            push('')

        # Cute little class to pump out a horizontal rule between sections.
        class HorizontalRule:
            def __init__(self):
                self.needone = 0
            def maybe(self):
                if self.needone:
                    push('-' * 70)
                self.needone = 1
        hr = HorizontalRule()

        def spill(msg, attrs, predicate):
            ok, attrs = _split_list(attrs, predicate)
            if ok:
                hr.maybe()
                push(msg)
                for name, kind, homecls, value in ok:
                    push(self.document(getattr(object, name),
                                       name, mod, object))
            return attrs

        def spilldescriptors(msg, attrs, predicate):
            ok, attrs = _split_list(attrs, predicate)
            if ok:
                hr.maybe()
                push(msg)
                for name, kind, homecls, value in ok:
                    push(self._docdescriptor(name, value, mod))
            return attrs

        def spilldata(msg, attrs, predicate):
            ok, attrs = _split_list(attrs, predicate)
            if ok:
                hr.maybe()
                push(msg)
                for name, kind, homecls, value in ok:
                    if (hasattr(value, '__call__') or
                            inspect.isdatadescriptor(value)):
                        doc = getdoc(value)
                    else:
                        doc = None
                    push(self.docother(getattr(object, name),
                                       name, mod, maxlen=70, doc=doc) + '\n')
            return attrs

        attrs = filter(lambda data: visiblename(data[0]),
                       classify_class_attrs(object))
        while attrs:
            if mro:
                thisclass = mro.popleft()
            else:
                thisclass = attrs[0][2]
            attrs, inherited = _split_list(attrs, lambda t: t[2] is thisclass)

            if thisclass is __builtin__.object:
                attrs = inherited
                continue
            elif thisclass is object:
                tag = "defined here"
            else:
                tag = "inherited from %s" % classname(thisclass,
                                                      object.__module__)

            # Sort attrs by name.
            attrs.sort()

            # Pump out the attrs, segregated by kind.
            attrs = spill("Methods %s:\n" % tag, attrs,
                          lambda t: t[1] == 'method')
            attrs = spill("Class methods %s:\n" % tag, attrs,
                          lambda t: t[1] == 'class method')
            attrs = spill("Static methods %s:\n" % tag, attrs,
                          lambda t: t[1] == 'static method')
            attrs = spilldescriptors("Data descriptors %s:\n" % tag, attrs,
                                     lambda t: t[1] == 'data descriptor')
            attrs = spilldata("Data and other attributes %s:\n" % tag, attrs,
                              lambda t: t[1] == 'data')
            assert attrs == []
            attrs = inherited

        contents = '\n'.join(contents)
        if not contents:
            return title + '\n'
        return title + '\n' + self.indent(rstrip(contents), ' |  ') + '\n'

    def formatvalue(self, object):
        """Format an argument default value as text."""
        return '=' + self.repr(object)

    def docroutine(self, object, name=None, mod=None, cl=None):
        """Produce text documentation for a function or method object."""
        realname = object.__name__
        name = name or realname
        note = ''
        skipdocs = 0
        if inspect.ismethod(object):
            imclass = object.im_class
            if cl:
                if imclass is not cl:
                    note = ' from ' + classname(imclass, mod)
            else:
                if object.im_self is not None:
                    note = ' method of %s instance' % classname(
                        object.im_self.__class__, mod)
                else:
                    note = ' unbound %s method' % classname(imclass,mod)
            object = object.im_func

        if name == realname:
            title = self.bold(realname)
        else:
            if (cl and realname in cl.__dict__ and
                cl.__dict__[realname] is object):
                skipdocs = 1
            title = self.bold(name) + ' = ' + realname
        if inspect.isfunction(object):
            args, varargs, varkw, defaults = inspect.getargspec(object)
            argspec = inspect.formatargspec(
                args, varargs, varkw, defaults, formatvalue=self.formatvalue)
            if realname == '<lambda>':
                title = self.bold(name) + ' lambda '
                argspec = argspec[1:-1] # remove parentheses
        else:
            argspec = '(...)'
        decl = title + argspec + note

        if skipdocs:
            return decl + '\n'
        else:
            doc = getdoc(object) or ''
            return decl + '\n' + (doc and rstrip(self.indent(doc)) + '\n')

    def _docdescriptor(self, name, value, mod):
        results = []
        push = results.append

        if name:
            push(self.bold(name))
            push('\n')
        doc = getdoc(value) or ''
        if doc:
            push(self.indent(doc))
            push('\n')
        return ''.join(results)

    def docproperty(self, object, name=None, mod=None, cl=None):
        """Produce text documentation for a property."""
        return self._docdescriptor(name, object, mod)

    def docdata(self, object, name=None, mod=None, cl=None):
        """Produce text documentation for a data descriptor."""
        return self._docdescriptor(name, object, mod)

    def docother(self, object, name=None, mod=None, parent=None, maxlen=None, doc=None):
        """Produce text documentation for a data object."""
        repr = self.repr(object)
        if maxlen:
            line = (name and name + ' = ' or '') + repr
            chop = maxlen - len(line)
            if chop < 0: repr = repr[:chop] + '...'
        line = (name and self.bold(name) + ' = ' or '') + repr
        if doc is not None:
            line += '\n' + self.indent(str(doc))
        return line

# --------------------------------------------------------- user interfaces

def pager(text):
    """The first time this is called, determine what kind of pager to use."""
    global pager
    pager = getpager()
    pager(text)

def getpager():
    """Decide what method to use for paging through text."""
    if type(sys.stdout) is not types.FileType:
        return plainpager
    if not sys.stdin.isatty() or not sys.stdout.isatty():
        return plainpager
    if 'PAGER' in os.environ:
        if sys.platform == 'win32': # pipes completely broken in Windows
            return lambda text: tempfilepager(plain(text), os.environ['PAGER'])
        elif os.environ.get('TERM') in ('dumb', 'emacs'):
            return lambda text: pipepager(plain(text), os.environ['PAGER'])
        else:
            return lambda text: pipepager(text, os.environ['PAGER'])
    if os.environ.get('TERM') in ('dumb', 'emacs'):
        return plainpager
    if sys.platform == 'win32' or sys.platform.startswith('os2'):
        return lambda text: tempfilepager(plain(text), 'more <')
    if hasattr(os, 'system') and os.system('(less) 2>/dev/null') == 0:
        return lambda text: pipepager(text, 'less')

    import tempfile
    (fd, filename) = tempfile.mkstemp()
    os.close(fd)
    try:
        if hasattr(os, 'system') and os.system('more "%s"' % filename) == 0:
            return lambda text: pipepager(text, 'more')
        else:
            return ttypager
    finally:
        os.unlink(filename)

def plain(text):
    """Remove boldface formatting from text."""
    return re.sub('.\b', '', text)

def pipepager(text, cmd):
    """Page through text by feeding it to another program."""
    pipe = os.popen(cmd, 'w')
    try:
        pipe.write(text)
        pipe.close()
    except IOError:
        pass # Ignore broken pipes caused by quitting the pager program.

def tempfilepager(text, cmd):
    """Page through text by invoking a program on a temporary file."""
    import tempfile
    filename = tempfile.mktemp()
    file = open(filename, 'w')
    file.write(text)
    file.close()
    try:
        os.system(cmd + ' "' + filename + '"')
    finally:
        os.unlink(filename)

def ttypager(text):
    """Page through text on a text terminal."""
    lines = split(plain(text), '\n')
    try:
        import tty
        fd = sys.stdin.fileno()
        old = tty.tcgetattr(fd)
        tty.setcbreak(fd)
        getchar = lambda: sys.stdin.read(1)
    except (ImportError, AttributeError):
        tty = None
        getchar = lambda: sys.stdin.readline()[:-1][:1]

    try:
        r = inc = os.environ.get('LINES', 25) - 1
        sys.stdout.write(join(lines[:inc], '\n') + '\n')
        while lines[r:]:
            sys.stdout.write('-- more --')
            sys.stdout.flush()
            c = getchar()

            if c in ('q', 'Q'):
                sys.stdout.write('\r          \r')
                break
            elif c in ('\r', '\n'):
                sys.stdout.write('\r          \r' + lines[r] + '\n')
                r = r + 1
                continue
            if c in ('b', 'B', '\x1b'):
                r = r - inc - inc
                if r < 0: r = 0
            sys.stdout.write('\n' + join(lines[r:r+inc], '\n') + '\n')
            r = r + inc

    finally:
        if tty:
            tty.tcsetattr(fd, tty.TCSAFLUSH, old)

def plainpager(text):
    """Simply print unformatted text.  This is the ultimate fallback."""
    sys.stdout.write(plain(text))

def describe(thing):
    """Produce a short description of the given thing."""
    if inspect.ismodule(thing):
        if thing.__name__ in sys.builtin_module_names:
            return 'built-in module ' + thing.__name__
        if hasattr(thing, '__path__'):
            return 'package ' + thing.__name__
        else:
            return 'module ' + thing.__name__
    if inspect.isbuiltin(thing):
        return 'built-in function ' + thing.__name__
    if inspect.isgetsetdescriptor(thing):
        return 'getset descriptor %s.%s.%s' % (
            thing.__objclass__.__module__, thing.__objclass__.__name__,
            thing.__name__)
    if inspect.ismemberdescriptor(thing):
        return 'member descriptor %s.%s.%s' % (
            thing.__objclass__.__module__, thing.__objclass__.__name__,
            thing.__name__)
    if inspect.isclass(thing):
        return 'class ' + thing.__name__
    if inspect.isfunction(thing):
        return 'function ' + thing.__name__
    if inspect.ismethod(thing):
        return 'method ' + thing.__name__
    if type(thing) is types.InstanceType:
        return 'instance of ' + thing.__class__.__name__
    return type(thing).__name__

def locate(path, forceload=0):
    """Locate an object by name or dotted path, importing as necessary."""
    parts = [part for part in split(path, '.') if part]
    module, n = None, 0
    while n < len(parts):
        nextmodule = safeimport(join(parts[:n+1], '.'), forceload)
        if nextmodule: module, n = nextmodule, n + 1
        else: break
    if module:
        object = module
        for part in parts[n:]:
            try: object = getattr(object, part)
            except AttributeError: return None
        return object
    else:
        if hasattr(__builtin__, path):
            return getattr(__builtin__, path)

# --------------------------------------- interactive interpreter interface

text = TextDoc()
html = HTMLDoc()

class _OldStyleClass: pass
_OLD_INSTANCE_TYPE = type(_OldStyleClass())

def resolve(thing, forceload=0):
    """Given an object or a path to an object, get the object and its name."""
    if isinstance(thing, str):
        object = locate(thing, forceload)
        if not object:
            raise ImportError, 'no Python documentation found for %r' % thing
        return object, thing
    else:
        return thing, getattr(thing, '__name__', None)

def render_doc(thing, title='Python Library Documentation: %s', forceload=0):
    """Render text documentation, given an object or a path to an object."""
    object, name = resolve(thing, forceload)
    desc = describe(object)
    module = inspect.getmodule(object)
    if name and '.' in name:
        desc += ' in ' + name[:name.rfind('.')]
    elif module and module is not object:
        desc += ' in module ' + module.__name__
    if type(object) is _OLD_INSTANCE_TYPE:
        # If the passed object is an instance of an old-style class,
        # document its available methods instead of its value.
        object = object.__class__
    elif not (inspect.ismodule(object) or
              inspect.isclass(object) or
              inspect.isroutine(object) or
              inspect.isgetsetdescriptor(object) or
              inspect.ismemberdescriptor(object) or
              isinstance(object, property)):
        # If the passed object is a piece of data or an instance,
        # document its available methods instead of its value.
        object = type(object)
        desc += ' object'
    return title % desc + '\n\n' + text.document(object, name)

def doc(thing, title='Python Library Documentation: %s', forceload=0):
    """Display text documentation, given an object or a path to an object."""
    try:
        pager(render_doc(thing, title, forceload))
    except (ImportError, ErrorDuringImport), value:
        print value

def writedoc(thing, forceload=0):
    """Write HTML documentation to a file in the current directory."""
    try:
        object, name = resolve(thing, forceload)
        page = html.page(describe(object), html.document(object, name))
        file = open(name + '.html', 'w')
        file.write(page)
        file.close()
        print 'wrote', name + '.html'
    except (ImportError, ErrorDuringImport), value:
        print value

def writedocs(dir, pkgpath='', done=None):
    """Write out HTML documentation for all modules in a directory tree."""
    if done is None: done = {}
    for importer, modname, ispkg in pkgutil.walk_packages([dir], pkgpath):
        writedoc(modname)
    return

class Helper:

    # These dictionaries map a topic name to either an alias, or a tuple
    # (label, seealso-items).  The "label" is the label of the corresponding
    # section in the .rst file under Doc/ and an index into the dictionary
    # in pydoc_topics.py.
    #
    # CAUTION: if you change one of these dictionaries, be sure to adapt the
    #          list of needed labels in Doc/tools/sphinxext/pyspecific.py and
    #          regenerate the pydoc_topics.py file by running
    #              make pydoc-topics
    #          in Doc/ and copying the output file into the Lib/ directory.

    keywords = {
        'and': 'BOOLEAN',
        'as': 'with',
        'assert': ('assert', ''),
        'break': ('break', 'while for'),
        'class': ('class', 'CLASSES SPECIALMETHODS'),
        'continue': ('continue', 'while for'),
        'def': ('function', ''),
        'del': ('del', 'BASICMETHODS'),
        'elif': 'if',
        'else': ('else', 'while for'),
        'except': 'try',
        'exec': ('exec', ''),
        'finally': 'try',
        'for': ('for', 'break continue while'),
        'from': 'import',
        'global': ('global', 'NAMESPACES'),
        'if': ('if', 'TRUTHVALUE'),
        'import': ('import', 'MODULES'),
        'in': ('in', 'SEQUENCEMETHODS2'),
        'is': 'COMPARISON',
        'lambda': ('lambda', 'FUNCTIONS'),
        'not': 'BOOLEAN',
        'or': 'BOOLEAN',
        'pass': ('pass', ''),
        'print': ('print', ''),
        'raise': ('raise', 'EXCEPTIONS'),
        'return': ('return', 'FUNCTIONS'),
        'try': ('try', 'EXCEPTIONS'),
        'while': ('while', 'break continue if TRUTHVALUE'),
        'with': ('with', 'CONTEXTMANAGERS EXCEPTIONS yield'),
        'yield': ('yield', ''),
    }
    # Either add symbols to this dictionary or to the symbols dictionary
    # directly: Whichever is easier. They are merged later.
    _symbols_inverse = {
        'STRINGS' : ("'", "'''", "r'", "u'", '"""', '"', 'r"', 'u"'),
        'OPERATORS' : ('+', '-', '*', '**', '/', '//', '%', '<<', '>>', '&',
                       '|', '^', '~', '<', '>', '<=', '>=', '==', '!=', '<>'),
        'COMPARISON' : ('<', '>', '<=', '>=', '==', '!=', '<>'),
        'UNARY' : ('-', '~'),
        'AUGMENTEDASSIGNMENT' : ('+=', '-=', '*=', '/=', '%=', '&=', '|=',
                                '^=', '<<=', '>>=', '**=', '//='),
        'BITWISE' : ('<<', '>>', '&', '|', '^', '~'),
        'COMPLEX' : ('j', 'J')
    }
    symbols = {
        '%': 'OPERATORS FORMATTING',
        '**': 'POWER',
        ',': 'TUPLES LISTS FUNCTIONS',
        '.': 'ATTRIBUTES FLOAT MODULES OBJECTS',
        '...': 'ELLIPSIS',
        ':': 'SLICINGS DICTIONARYLITERALS',
        '@': 'def class',
        '\\': 'STRINGS',
        '_': 'PRIVATENAMES',
        '__': 'PRIVATENAMES SPECIALMETHODS',
        '`': 'BACKQUOTES',
        '(': 'TUPLES FUNCTIONS CALLS',
        ')': 'TUPLES FUNCTIONS CALLS',
        '[': 'LISTS SUBSCRIPTS SLICINGS',
        ']': 'LISTS SUBSCRIPTS SLICINGS'
    }
    for topic, symbols_ in _symbols_inverse.iteritems():
        for symbol in symbols_:
            topics = symbols.get(symbol, topic)
            if topic not in topics:
                topics = topics + ' ' + topic
            symbols[symbol] = topics

    topics = {
        'TYPES': ('types', 'STRINGS UNICODE NUMBERS SEQUENCES MAPPINGS '
                  'FUNCTIONS CLASSES MODULES FILES inspect'),
        'STRINGS': ('strings', 'str UNICODE SEQUENCES STRINGMETHODS FORMATTING '
                    'TYPES'),
        'STRINGMETHODS': ('string-methods', 'STRINGS FORMATTING'),
        'FORMATTING': ('formatstrings', 'OPERATORS'),
        'UNICODE': ('strings', 'encodings unicode SEQUENCES STRINGMETHODS '
                    'FORMATTING TYPES'),
        'NUMBERS': ('numbers', 'INTEGER FLOAT COMPLEX TYPES'),
        'INTEGER': ('integers', 'int range'),
        'FLOAT': ('floating', 'float math'),
        'COMPLEX': ('imaginary', 'complex cmath'),
        'SEQUENCES': ('typesseq', 'STRINGMETHODS FORMATTING xrange LISTS'),
        'MAPPINGS': 'DICTIONARIES',
        'FUNCTIONS': ('typesfunctions', 'def TYPES'),
        'METHODS': ('typesmethods', 'class def CLASSES TYPES'),
        'CODEOBJECTS': ('bltin-code-objects', 'compile FUNCTIONS TYPES'),
        'TYPEOBJECTS': ('bltin-type-objects', 'types TYPES'),
        'FRAMEOBJECTS': 'TYPES',
        'TRACEBACKS': 'TYPES',
        'NONE': ('bltin-null-object', ''),
        'ELLIPSIS': ('bltin-ellipsis-object', 'SLICINGS'),
        'FILES': ('bltin-file-objects', ''),
        'SPECIALATTRIBUTES': ('specialattrs', ''),
        'CLASSES': ('types', 'class SPECIALMETHODS PRIVATENAMES'),
        'MODULES': ('typesmodules', 'import'),
        'PACKAGES': 'import',
        'EXPRESSIONS': ('operator-summary', 'lambda or and not in is BOOLEAN '
                        'COMPARISON BITWISE SHIFTING BINARY FORMATTING POWER '
                        'UNARY ATTRIBUTES SUBSCRIPTS SLICINGS CALLS TUPLES '
                        'LISTS DICTIONARIES BACKQUOTES'),
        'OPERATORS': 'EXPRESSIONS',
        'PRECEDENCE': 'EXPRESSIONS',
        'OBJECTS': ('objects', 'TYPES'),
        'SPECIALMETHODS': ('specialnames', 'BASICMETHODS ATTRIBUTEMETHODS '
                           'CALLABLEMETHODS SEQUENCEMETHODS1 MAPPINGMETHODS '
                           'SEQUENCEMETHODS2 NUMBERMETHODS CLASSES'),
        'BASICMETHODS': ('customization', 'cmp hash repr str SPECIALMETHODS'),
        'ATTRIBUTEMETHODS': ('attribute-access', 'ATTRIBUTES SPECIALMETHODS'),
        'CALLABLEMETHODS': ('callable-types', 'CALLS SPECIALMETHODS'),
        'SEQUENCEMETHODS1': ('sequence-types', 'SEQUENCES SEQUENCEMETHODS2 '
                             'SPECIALMETHODS'),
        'SEQUENCEMETHODS2': ('sequence-methods', 'SEQUENCES SEQUENCEMETHODS1 '
                             'SPECIALMETHODS'),
        'MAPPINGMETHODS': ('sequence-types', 'MAPPINGS SPECIALMETHODS'),
        'NUMBERMETHODS': ('numeric-types', 'NUMBERS AUGMENTEDASSIGNMENT '
                          'SPECIALMETHODS'),
        'EXECUTION': ('execmodel', 'NAMESPACES DYNAMICFEATURES EXCEPTIONS'),
        'NAMESPACES': ('naming', 'global ASSIGNMENT DELETION DYNAMICFEATURES'),
        'DYNAMICFEATURES': ('dynamic-features', ''),
        'SCOPING': 'NAMESPACES',
        'FRAMES': 'NAMESPACES',
        'EXCEPTIONS': ('exceptions', 'try except finally raise'),
        'COERCIONS': ('coercion-rules','CONVERSIONS'),
        'CONVERSIONS': ('conversions', 'COERCIONS'),
        'IDENTIFIERS': ('identifiers', 'keywords SPECIALIDENTIFIERS'),
        'SPECIALIDENTIFIERS': ('id-classes', ''),
        'PRIVATENAMES': ('atom-identifiers', ''),
        'LITERALS': ('atom-literals', 'STRINGS BACKQUOTES NUMBERS '
                     'TUPLELITERALS LISTLITERALS DICTIONARYLITERALS'),
        'TUPLES': 'SEQUENCES',
        'TUPLELITERALS': ('exprlists', 'TUPLES LITERALS'),
        'LISTS': ('typesseq-mutable', 'LISTLITERALS'),
        'LISTLITERALS': ('lists', 'LISTS LITERALS'),
        'DICTIONARIES': ('typesmapping', 'DICTIONARYLITERALS'),
        'DICTIONARYLITERALS': ('dict', 'DICTIONARIES LITERALS'),
        'BACKQUOTES': ('string-conversions', 'repr str STRINGS LITERALS'),
        'ATTRIBUTES': ('attribute-references', 'getattr hasattr setattr '
                       'ATTRIBUTEMETHODS'),
        'SUBSCRIPTS': ('subscriptions', 'SEQUENCEMETHODS1'),
        'SLICINGS': ('slicings', 'SEQUENCEMETHODS2'),
        'CALLS': ('calls', 'EXPRESSIONS'),
        'POWER': ('power', 'EXPRESSIONS'),
        'UNARY': ('unary', 'EXPRESSIONS'),
        'BINARY': ('binary', 'EXPRESSIONS'),
        'SHIFTING': ('shifting', 'EXPRESSIONS'),
        'BITWISE': ('bitwise', 'EXPRESSIONS'),
        'COMPARISON': ('comparisons', 'EXPRESSIONS BASICMETHODS'),
        'BOOLEAN': ('booleans', 'EXPRESSIONS TRUTHVALUE'),
        'ASSERTION': 'assert',
        'ASSIGNMENT': ('assignment', 'AUGMENTEDASSIGNMENT'),
        'AUGMENTEDASSIGNMENT': ('augassign', 'NUMBERMETHODS'),
        'DELETION': 'del',
        'PRINTING': 'print',
        'RETURNING': 'return',
        'IMPORTING': 'import',
        'CONDITIONAL': 'if',
        'LOOPING': ('compound', 'for while break continue'),
        'TRUTHVALUE': ('truth', 'if while and or not BASICMETHODS'),
        'DEBUGGING': ('debugger', 'pdb'),
        'CONTEXTMANAGERS': ('context-managers', 'with'),
    }

    def __init__(self, input, output):
        self.input = input
        self.output = output

    def __repr__(self):
        if inspect.stack()[1][3] == '?':
            self()
            return ''
        return '<pydoc.Helper instance>'

    def __call__(self, request=None):
        if request is not None:
            self.help(request)
        else:
            self.intro()
            self.interact()
            self.output.write('''
You are now leaving help and returning to the Python interpreter.
If you want to ask for help on a particular object directly from the
interpreter, you can type "help(object)".  Executing "help('string')"
has the same effect as typing a particular string at the help> prompt.
''')

    def interact(self):
        self.output.write('\n')
        while True:
            try:
                request = self.getline('help> ')
                if not request: break
            except (KeyboardInterrupt, EOFError):
                break
            request = strip(replace(request, '"', '', "'", ''))
            if lower(request) in ('q', 'quit'): break
            self.help(request)

    def getline(self, prompt):
        """Read one line, using raw_input when available."""
        if self.input is sys.stdin:
            return raw_input(prompt)
        else:
            self.output.write(prompt)
            self.output.flush()
            return self.input.readline()

    def help(self, request):
        if type(request) is type(''):
            request = request.strip()
            if request == 'help': self.intro()
            elif request == 'keywords': self.listkeywords()
            elif request == 'symbols': self.listsymbols()
            elif request == 'topics': self.listtopics()
            elif request == 'modules': self.listmodules()
            elif request[:8] == 'modules ':
                self.listmodules(split(request)[1])
            elif request in self.symbols: self.showsymbol(request)
            elif request in self.keywords: self.showtopic(request)
            elif request in self.topics: self.showtopic(request)
            elif request: doc(request, 'Help on %s:')
        elif isinstance(request, Helper): self()
        else: doc(request, 'Help on %s:')
        self.output.write('\n')

    def intro(self):
        self.output.write('''
Welcome to Python %s!  This is the online help utility.

If this is your first time using Python, you should definitely check out
the tutorial on the Internet at http://docs.python.org/tutorial/.

Enter the name of any module, keyword, or topic to get help on writing
Python programs and using Python modules.  To quit this help utility and
return to the interpreter, just type "quit".

To get a list of available modules, keywords, or topics, type "modules",
"keywords", or "topics".  Each module also comes with a one-line summary
of what it does; to list the modules whose summaries contain a given word
such as "spam", type "modules spam".
''' % sys.version[:3])

    def list(self, items, columns=4, width=80):
        items = items[:]
        items.sort()
        colw = width / columns
        rows = (len(items) + columns - 1) / columns
        for row in range(rows):
            for col in range(columns):
                i = col * rows + row
                if i < len(items):
                    self.output.write(items[i])
                    if col < columns - 1:
                        self.output.write(' ' + ' ' * (colw-1 - len(items[i])))
            self.output.write('\n')

    def listkeywords(self):
        self.output.write('''
Here is a list of the Python keywords.  Enter any keyword to get more help.

''')
        self.list(self.keywords.keys())

    def listsymbols(self):
        self.output.write('''
Here is a list of the punctuation symbols which Python assigns special meaning
to. Enter any symbol to get more help.

''')
        self.list(self.symbols.keys())

    def listtopics(self):
        self.output.write('''
Here is a list of available topics.  Enter any topic name to get more help.

''')
        self.list(self.topics.keys())

    def showtopic(self, topic, more_xrefs=''):
        try:
            import pydoc_topics
        except ImportError:
            self.output.write('''
Sorry, topic and keyword documentation is not available because the
module "pydoc_topics" could not be found.
''')
            return
        target = self.topics.get(topic, self.keywords.get(topic))
        if not target:
            self.output.write('no documentation found for %s\n' % repr(topic))
            return
        if type(target) is type(''):
            return self.showtopic(target, more_xrefs)

        label, xrefs = target
        try:
            doc = pydoc_topics.topics[label]
        except KeyError:
            self.output.write('no documentation found for %s\n' % repr(topic))
            return
        pager(strip(doc) + '\n')
        if more_xrefs:
            xrefs = (xrefs or '') + ' ' + more_xrefs
        if xrefs:
            import StringIO, formatter
            buffer = StringIO.StringIO()
            formatter.DumbWriter(buffer).send_flowing_data(
                'Related help topics: ' + join(split(xrefs), ', ') + '\n')
            self.output.write('\n%s\n' % buffer.getvalue())

    def showsymbol(self, symbol):
        target = self.symbols[symbol]
        topic, _, xrefs = target.partition(' ')
        self.showtopic(topic, xrefs)

    def listmodules(self, key=''):
        if key:
            self.output.write('''
Here is a list of matching modules.  Enter any module name to get more help.

''')
            apropos(key)
        else:
            self.output.write('''
Please wait a moment while I gather a list of all available modules...

''')
            modules = {}
            def callback(path, modname, desc, modules=modules):
                if modname and modname[-9:] == '.__init__':
                    modname = modname[:-9] + ' (package)'
                if find(modname, '.') < 0:
                    modules[modname] = 1
            def onerror(modname):
                callback(None, modname, None)
            ModuleScanner().run(callback, onerror=onerror)
            self.list(modules.keys())
            self.output.write('''
Enter any module name to get more help.  Or, type "modules spam" to search
for modules whose descriptions contain the word "spam".
''')

help = Helper(sys.stdin, sys.stdout)

class Scanner:
    """A generic tree iterator."""
    def __init__(self, roots, children, descendp):
        self.roots = roots[:]
        self.state = []
        self.children = children
        self.descendp = descendp

    def next(self):
        if not self.state:
            if not self.roots:
                return None
            root = self.roots.pop(0)
            self.state = [(root, self.children(root))]
        node, children = self.state[-1]
        if not children:
            self.state.pop()
            return self.next()
        child = children.pop(0)
        if self.descendp(child):
            self.state.append((child, self.children(child)))
        return child


class ModuleScanner:
    """An interruptible scanner that searches module synopses."""

    def run(self, callback, key=None, completer=None, onerror=None):
        if key: key = lower(key)
        self.quit = False
        seen = {}

        for modname in sys.builtin_module_names:
            if modname != '__main__':
                seen[modname] = 1
                if key is None:
                    callback(None, modname, '')
                else:
                    desc = split(__import__(modname).__doc__ or '', '\n')[0]
                    if find(lower(modname + ' - ' + desc), key) >= 0:
                        callback(None, modname, desc)

        for importer, modname, ispkg in pkgutil.walk_packages(onerror=onerror):
            if self.quit:
                break
            if key is None:
                callback(None, modname, '')
            else:
                loader = importer.find_module(modname)
                if hasattr(loader,'get_source'):
                    import StringIO
                    desc = source_synopsis(
                        StringIO.StringIO(loader.get_source(modname))
                    ) or ''
                    if hasattr(loader,'get_filename'):
                        path = loader.get_filename(modname)
                    else:
                        path = None
                else:
                    module = loader.load_module(modname)
                    desc = (module.__doc__ or '').splitlines()[0]
                    path = getattr(module,'__file__',None)
                if find(lower(modname + ' - ' + desc), key) >= 0:
                    callback(path, modname, desc)

        if completer:
            completer()

def apropos(key):
    """Print all the one-line module summaries that contain a substring."""
    def callback(path, modname, desc):
        if modname[-9:] == '.__init__':
            modname = modname[:-9] + ' (package)'
        print modname, desc and '- ' + desc
    try: import warnings
    except ImportError: pass
    else: warnings.filterwarnings('ignore') # ignore problems during import
    ModuleScanner().run(callback, key)

# --------------------------------------------------- web browser interface

def serve(port, callback=None, completer=None):
    import BaseHTTPServer, mimetools, select

    # Patch up mimetools.Message so it doesn't break if rfc822 is reloaded.
    class Message(mimetools.Message):
        def __init__(self, fp, seekable=1):
            Message = self.__class__
            Message.__bases__[0].__bases__[0].__init__(self, fp, seekable)
            self.encodingheader = self.getheader('content-transfer-encoding')
            self.typeheader = self.getheader('content-type')
            self.parsetype()
            self.parseplist()

    class DocHandler(BaseHTTPServer.BaseHTTPRequestHandler):
        def send_document(self, title, contents):
            try:
                self.send_response(200)
                self.send_header('Content-Type', 'text/html')
                self.end_headers()
                self.wfile.write(html.page(title, contents))
            except IOError: pass

        def do_GET(self):
            path = self.path
            if path[-5:] == '.html': path = path[:-5]
            if path[:1] == '/': path = path[1:]
            if path and path != '.':
                try:
                    obj = locate(path, forceload=1)
                except ErrorDuringImport, value:
                    self.send_document(path, html.escape(str(value)))
                    return
                if obj:
                    self.send_document(describe(obj), html.document(obj, path))
                else:
                    self.send_document(path,
'no Python documentation found for %s' % repr(path))
            else:
                heading = html.heading(
'<big><big><strong>Python: Index of Modules</strong></big></big>',
'#ffffff', '#7799ee')
                def bltinlink(name):
                    return '<a href="%s.html">%s</a>' % (name, name)
                names = filter(lambda x: x != '__main__',
                               sys.builtin_module_names)
                contents = html.multicolumn(names, bltinlink)
                indices = ['<p>' + html.bigsection(
                    'Built-in Modules', '#ffffff', '#ee77aa', contents)]

                seen = {}
                for dir in sys.path:
                    indices.append(html.index(dir, seen))
                contents = heading + join(indices) + '''<p align=right>
<font color="#909090" face="helvetica, arial"><strong>
pydoc</strong> by Ka-Ping Yee &lt;ping@lfw.org&gt;</font>'''
                self.send_document('Index of Modules', contents)

        def log_message(self, *args): pass

    class DocServer(BaseHTTPServer.HTTPServer):
        def __init__(self, port, callback):
            host = (sys.platform == 'mac') and '127.0.0.1' or 'localhost'
            self.address = ('', port)
            self.url = 'http://%s:%d/' % (host, port)
            self.callback = callback
            self.base.__init__(self, self.address, self.handler)

        def serve_until_quit(self):
            import select
            self.quit = False
            while not self.quit:
                rd, wr, ex = select.select([self.socket.fileno()], [], [], 1)
                if rd: self.handle_request()

        def server_activate(self):
            self.base.server_activate(self)
            if self.callback: self.callback(self)

    DocServer.base = BaseHTTPServer.HTTPServer
    DocServer.handler = DocHandler
    DocHandler.MessageClass = Message
    try:
        try:
            DocServer(port, callback).serve_until_quit()
        except (KeyboardInterrupt, select.error):
            pass
    finally:
        if completer: completer()

# ----------------------------------------------------- graphical interface

def gui():
    """Graphical interface (starts web server and pops up a control window)."""
    class GUI:
        def __init__(self, window, port=7464):
            self.window = window
            self.server = None
            self.scanner = None

            import Tkinter
            self.server_frm = Tkinter.Frame(window)
            self.title_lbl = Tkinter.Label(self.server_frm,
                text='Starting server...\n ')
            self.open_btn = Tkinter.Button(self.server_frm,
                text='open browser', command=self.open, state='disabled')
            self.quit_btn = Tkinter.Button(self.server_frm,
                text='quit serving', command=self.quit, state='disabled')

            self.search_frm = Tkinter.Frame(window)
            self.search_lbl = Tkinter.Label(self.search_frm, text='Search for')
            self.search_ent = Tkinter.Entry(self.search_frm)
            self.search_ent.bind('<Return>', self.search)
            self.stop_btn = Tkinter.Button(self.search_frm,
                text='stop', pady=0, command=self.stop, state='disabled')
            if sys.platform == 'win32':
                # Trying to hide and show this button crashes under Windows.
                self.stop_btn.pack(side='right')

            self.window.title('pydoc')
            self.window.protocol('WM_DELETE_WINDOW', self.quit)
            self.title_lbl.pack(side='top', fill='x')
            self.open_btn.pack(side='left', fill='x', expand=1)
            self.quit_btn.pack(side='right', fill='x', expand=1)
            self.server_frm.pack(side='top', fill='x')

            self.search_lbl.pack(side='left')
            self.search_ent.pack(side='right', fill='x', expand=1)
            self.search_frm.pack(side='top', fill='x')
            self.search_ent.focus_set()

            font = ('helvetica', sys.platform == 'win32' and 8 or 10)
            self.result_lst = Tkinter.Listbox(window, font=font, height=6)
            self.result_lst.bind('<Button-1>', self.select)
            self.result_lst.bind('<Double-Button-1>', self.goto)
            self.result_scr = Tkinter.Scrollbar(window,
                orient='vertical', command=self.result_lst.yview)
            self.result_lst.config(yscrollcommand=self.result_scr.set)

            self.result_frm = Tkinter.Frame(window)
            self.goto_btn = Tkinter.Button(self.result_frm,
                text='go to selected', command=self.goto)
            self.hide_btn = Tkinter.Button(self.result_frm,
                text='hide results', command=self.hide)
            self.goto_btn.pack(side='left', fill='x', expand=1)
            self.hide_btn.pack(side='right', fill='x', expand=1)

            self.window.update()
            self.minwidth = self.window.winfo_width()
            self.minheight = self.window.winfo_height()
            self.bigminheight = (self.server_frm.winfo_reqheight() +
                                 self.search_frm.winfo_reqheight() +
                                 self.result_lst.winfo_reqheight() +
                                 self.result_frm.winfo_reqheight())
            self.bigwidth, self.bigheight = self.minwidth, self.bigminheight
            self.expanded = 0
            self.window.wm_geometry('%dx%d' % (self.minwidth, self.minheight))
            self.window.wm_minsize(self.minwidth, self.minheight)
            self.window.tk.willdispatch()

            import threading
            threading.Thread(
                target=serve, args=(port, self.ready, self.quit)).start()

        def ready(self, server):
            self.server = server
            self.title_lbl.config(
                text='Python documentation server at\n' + server.url)
            self.open_btn.config(state='normal')
            self.quit_btn.config(state='normal')

        def open(self, event=None, url=None):
            url = url or self.server.url
            try:
                import webbrowser
                webbrowser.open(url)
            except ImportError: # pre-webbrowser.py compatibility
                if sys.platform == 'win32':
                    os.system('start "%s"' % url)
                elif sys.platform == 'mac':
                    try: import ic
                    except ImportError: pass
                    else: ic.launchurl(url)
                else:
                    rc = os.system('netscape -remote "openURL(%s)" &' % url)
                    if rc: os.system('netscape "%s" &' % url)

        def quit(self, event=None):
            if self.server:
                self.server.quit = 1
            self.window.quit()

        def search(self, event=None):
            key = self.search_ent.get()
            self.stop_btn.pack(side='right')
            self.stop_btn.config(state='normal')
            self.search_lbl.config(text='Searching for "%s"...' % key)
            self.search_ent.forget()
            self.search_lbl.pack(side='left')
            self.result_lst.delete(0, 'end')
            self.goto_btn.config(state='disabled')
            self.expand()

            import threading
            if self.scanner:
                self.scanner.quit = 1
            self.scanner = ModuleScanner()
            threading.Thread(target=self.scanner.run,
                             args=(self.update, key, self.done)).start()

        def update(self, path, modname, desc):
            if modname[-9:] == '.__init__':
                modname = modname[:-9] + ' (package)'
            self.result_lst.insert('end',
                modname + ' - ' + (desc or '(no description)'))

        def stop(self, event=None):
            if self.scanner:
                self.scanner.quit = 1
                self.scanner = None

        def done(self):
            self.scanner = None
            self.search_lbl.config(text='Search for')
            self.search_lbl.pack(side='left')
            self.search_ent.pack(side='right', fill='x', expand=1)
            if sys.platform != 'win32': self.stop_btn.forget()
            self.stop_btn.config(state='disabled')

        def select(self, event=None):
            self.goto_btn.config(state='normal')

        def goto(self, event=None):
            selection = self.result_lst.curselection()
            if selection:
                modname = split(self.result_lst.get(selection[0]))[0]
                self.open(url=self.server.url + modname + '.html')

        def collapse(self):
            if not self.expanded: return
            self.result_frm.forget()
            self.result_scr.forget()
            self.result_lst.forget()
            self.bigwidth = self.window.winfo_width()
            self.bigheight = self.window.winfo_height()
            self.window.wm_geometry('%dx%d' % (self.minwidth, self.minheight))
            self.window.wm_minsize(self.minwidth, self.minheight)
            self.expanded = 0

        def expand(self):
            if self.expanded: return
            self.result_frm.pack(side='bottom', fill='x')
            self.result_scr.pack(side='right', fill='y')
            self.result_lst.pack(side='top', fill='both', expand=1)
            self.window.wm_geometry('%dx%d' % (self.bigwidth, self.bigheight))
            self.window.wm_minsize(self.minwidth, self.bigminheight)
            self.expanded = 1

        def hide(self, event=None):
            self.stop()
            self.collapse()

    import Tkinter
    try:
        root = Tkinter.Tk()
        # Tk will crash if pythonw.exe has an XP .manifest
        # file and the root has is not destroyed explicitly.
        # If the problem is ever fixed in Tk, the explicit
        # destroy can go.
        try:
            gui = GUI(root)
            root.mainloop()
        finally:
            root.destroy()
    except KeyboardInterrupt:
        pass

# -------------------------------------------------- command-line interface

def ispath(x):
    return isinstance(x, str) and find(x, os.sep) >= 0

def cli():
    """Command-line interface (looks at sys.argv to decide what to do)."""
    import getopt
    class BadUsage: pass

    # Scripts don't get the current directory in their path by default.
    scriptdir = os.path.dirname(sys.argv[0])
    if scriptdir in sys.path:
        sys.path.remove(scriptdir)
    sys.path.insert(0, '.')

    try:
        opts, args = getopt.getopt(sys.argv[1:], 'gk:p:w')
        writing = 0

        for opt, val in opts:
            if opt == '-g':
                gui()
                return
            if opt == '-k':
                apropos(val)
                return
            if opt == '-p':
                try:
                    port = int(val)
                except ValueError:
                    raise BadUsage
                def ready(server):
                    print 'pydoc server ready at %s' % server.url
                def stopped():
                    print 'pydoc server stopped'
                serve(port, ready, stopped)
                return
            if opt == '-w':
                writing = 1

        if not args: raise BadUsage
        for arg in args:
            if ispath(arg) and not os.path.exists(arg):
                print 'file %r does not exist' % arg
                break
            try:
                if ispath(arg) and os.path.isfile(arg):
                    arg = importfile(arg)
                if writing:
                    if ispath(arg) and os.path.isdir(arg):
                        writedocs(arg)
                    else:
                        writedoc(arg)
                else:
                    help.help(arg)
            except ErrorDuringImport, value:
                print value

    except (getopt.error, BadUsage):
        cmd = os.path.basename(sys.argv[0])
        print """pydoc - the Python documentation tool

%s <name> ...
    Show text documentation on something.  <name> may be the name of a
    Python keyword, topic, function, module, or package, or a dotted
    reference to a class or function within a module or module in a
    package.  If <name> contains a '%s', it is used as the path to a
    Python source file to document. If name is 'keywords', 'topics',
    or 'modules', a listing of these things is displayed.

%s -k <keyword>
    Search for a keyword in the synopsis lines of all available modules.

%s -p <port>
    Start an HTTP server on the given port on the local machine.

%s -g
    Pop up a graphical interface for finding and serving documentation.

%s -w <name> ...
    Write out the HTML documentation for a module to a file in the current
    directory.  If <name> contains a '%s', it is treated as a filename; if
    it names a directory, documentation is written for all the contents.
""" % (cmd, os.sep, cmd, cmd, cmd, cmd, os.sep)

if __name__ == '__main__': cli()
Tip: Filter by directory path e.g. /media app.js to search for public/media/app.js.
Tip: Use camelCasing e.g. ProjME to search for ProjectModifiedEvent.java.
Tip: Filter by extension type e.g. /repo .js to search for all .js files in the /repo directory.
Tip: Separate your search with spaces e.g. /ssh pom.xml to search for src/ssh/pom.xml.
Tip: Use ↑ and ↓ arrow keys to navigate and return to view the file.
Tip: You can also navigate files with Ctrl+j (next) and Ctrl+k (previous) and view the file with Ctrl+o.
Tip: You can also navigate files with Alt+j (next) and Alt+k (previous) and view the file with Alt+o.