Commits

Alexander Seifert  committed a0b3927

added new build folder

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  • Parent commits 370d81f

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Files changed (2)

File thesis/css/asciidoctor.css

+/* Asciidoctor default stylesheet | MIT License | http://asciidoctor.org */
+article, aside, details, figcaption, figure, footer, header, hgroup, main, nav, section, summary { display: block; }
+audio, canvas, video { display: inline-block; }
+audio:not([controls]) { display: none; height: 0; }
+[hidden] { display: none; }
+html { font-family: sans-serif; -webkit-text-size-adjust: 100%; -ms-text-size-adjust: 100%; }
+body { margin: 0; }
+a:focus { outline: thin dotted; }
+a:active, a:hover { outline: 0; }
+h1 { font-size: 2em; margin: 0.67em 0; }
+abbr[title] { border-bottom: 1px dotted; }
+b, strong { font-weight: bold; }
+dfn { font-style: italic; }
+hr { -moz-box-sizing: content-box; box-sizing: content-box; height: 0; }
+mark { background: #ff0; color: #000; }
+code, tt, kbd, pre, samp { font-family: monospace, serif; font-size: 1em; }
+pre { white-space: pre-wrap; }
+q { quotes: "\201C" "\201D" "\2018" "\2019"; }
+small { font-size: 80%; }
+sub, sup { font-size: 75%; line-height: 0; position: relative; vertical-align: baseline; }
+sup { top: -0.5em; }
+sub { bottom: -0.25em; }
+img { border: 0; }
+svg:not(:root) { overflow: hidden; }
+figure { margin: 0; }
+fieldset { border: 1px solid #c0c0c0; margin: 0 2px; padding: 0.35em 0.625em 0.75em; }
+legend { border: 0; padding: 0; }
+button, input, select, textarea { font-family: inherit; font-size: 100%; margin: 0; }
+button, input { line-height: normal; }
+button, select { text-transform: none; }
+button, html input[type="button"], input[type="reset"], input[type="submit"] { -webkit-appearance: button; cursor: pointer; }
+button[disabled], html input[disabled] { cursor: default; }
+input[type="checkbox"], input[type="radio"] { box-sizing: border-box; padding: 0; }
+input[type="search"] { -webkit-appearance: textfield; -moz-box-sizing: content-box; -webkit-box-sizing: content-box; box-sizing: content-box; }
+input[type="search"]::-webkit-search-cancel-button, input[type="search"]::-webkit-search-decoration { -webkit-appearance: none; }
+button::-moz-focus-inner, input::-moz-focus-inner { border: 0; padding: 0; }
+textarea { overflow: auto; vertical-align: top; }
+table { border-collapse: collapse; border-spacing: 0; }
+*, *:before, *:after { -moz-box-sizing: border-box; -webkit-box-sizing: border-box; box-sizing: border-box; }
+html, body { font-size: 100%; }
+body { background: white; color: #222222; padding: 0; margin: 0; font-family: "Helvetica Neue", "Helvetica", Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-weight: normal; font-style: normal; line-height: 1; position: relative; }
+a:focus { outline: none; }
+img, object, embed { max-width: 100%; height: auto; }
+object, embed { height: 100%; }
+img { -ms-interpolation-mode: bicubic; }
+#map_canvas img, #map_canvas embed, #map_canvas object, .map_canvas img, .map_canvas embed, .map_canvas object { max-width: none !important; }
+.left { float: left !important; }
+.right { float: right !important; }
+.text-left { text-align: left !important; }
+.text-right { text-align: right !important; }
+.text-center { text-align: center !important; }
+.text-justify { text-align: justify !important; }
+.hide { display: none; }
+.antialiased, body { -webkit-font-smoothing: antialiased; }
+img { display: inline-block; }
+textarea { height: auto; min-height: 50px; }
+select { width: 100%; }
+p.lead, .paragraph.lead > p, #preamble > .sectionbody > .paragraph:first-of-type p { font-size: 1.21875em; line-height: 1.6; }
+.subheader, .admonitionblock td.content > .title, .exampleblock > .title, .imageblock > .title, .listingblock > .title, .literalblock > .title, .openblock > .title, .paragraph > .title, .quoteblock > .title, .sidebarblock > .title, .tableblock > .title, .verseblock > .title, .ulist > .title, .olist > .title, .dlist > .title, .qlist > .title, .tableblock > caption { line-height: 1.4; color: #7a2518; font-weight: 300; margin-top: 0.2em; margin-bottom: 0.5em; }
+div, dl, dt, dd, ul, ol, li, h1, h2, h3, #toctitle, .sidebarblock > .content > .title, h4, h5, h6, pre, form, p, blockquote, th, td { margin: 0; padding: 0; direction: ltr; }
+a { color: #005498; text-decoration: underline; line-height: inherit; }
+a:hover, a:focus { color: #00467f; }
+a img { border: none; }
+p { font-family: inherit; font-weight: normal; font-size: 1em; line-height: 1.6; margin-bottom: 1.25em; text-rendering: optimizeLegibility; }
+p aside { font-size: 0.875em; line-height: 1.35; font-style: italic; }
+h1, h2, h3, #toctitle, .sidebarblock > .content > .title, h4, h5, h6 { font-family: Georgia, "URW Bookman L", Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif; font-weight: normal; font-style: normal; color: #ba3925; text-rendering: optimizeLegibility; margin-top: 1em; margin-bottom: 0.5em; line-height: 1.2125em; }
+h1 small, h2 small, h3 small, #toctitle small, .sidebarblock > .content > .title small, h4 small, h5 small, h6 small { font-size: 60%; color: #e99b8f; line-height: 0; }
+h1 { font-size: 2.125em; }
+h2 { font-size: 1.6875em; }
+h3, #toctitle, .sidebarblock > .content > .title { font-size: 1.375em; }
+h4 { font-size: 1.125em; }
+h5 { font-size: 1.125em; }
+h6 { font-size: 1em; }
+hr { border: solid #dddddd; border-width: 1px 0 0; clear: both; margin: 1.25em 0 1.1875em; height: 0; }
+em, i { font-style: italic; line-height: inherit; }
+strong, b { font-weight: bold; line-height: inherit; }
+small { font-size: 60%; line-height: inherit; }
+code, tt { font-family: Consolas, "Liberation Mono", Courier, monospace; font-weight: normal; color: #6d180b; }
+ul, ol, dl { font-size: 1em; line-height: 1.6; margin-bottom: 1.25em; list-style-position: outside; font-family: inherit; }
+ul li ul, ul li ol { margin-left: 1.5em; margin-bottom: 0; font-size: 1em; }
+ul.square li ul, ul.circle li ul, ul.disc li ul { list-style: inherit; }
+ul.square { list-style-type: square; }
+ul.circle { list-style-type: circle; }
+ul.disc { list-style-type: disc; }
+ul.no-bullet { list-style: none; }
+ol li ul, ol li ol { margin-left: 1.5em; margin-bottom: 0; }
+dl dt { margin-bottom: 0.3125em; font-weight: bold; }
+dl dd { margin-bottom: 1.25em; }
+abbr, acronym { text-transform: uppercase; font-size: 90%; color: #222222; border-bottom: 1px dotted #dddddd; cursor: help; }
+abbr { text-transform: none; }
+blockquote { margin: 0 0 1.25em; padding: 0.5625em 1.25em 0 1.1875em; border-left: 1px solid #dddddd; }
+blockquote cite { display: block; font-size: inherit; color: #555555; }
+blockquote cite:before { content: "\2014 \0020"; }
+blockquote cite a, blockquote cite a:visited { color: #555555; }
+blockquote, blockquote p { line-height: 1.6; color: #6f6f6f; }
+.vcard { display: inline-block; margin: 0 0 1.25em 0; border: 1px solid #dddddd; padding: 0.625em 0.75em; }
+.vcard li { margin: 0; display: block; }
+.vcard .fn { font-weight: bold; font-size: 0.9375em; }
+.vevent .summary { font-weight: bold; }
+.vevent abbr { cursor: default; text-decoration: none; font-weight: bold; border: none; padding: 0 0.0625em; }
+@media only screen and (min-width: 48em) { h1, h2, h3, #toctitle, .sidebarblock > .content > .title, h4, h5, h6 { line-height: 1.4; }
+  h1 { font-size: 2.75em; }
+  h2 { font-size: 2.3125em; }
+  h3, #toctitle, .sidebarblock > .content > .title { font-size: 1.6875em; }
+  h4 { font-size: 1.4375em; } }
+.print-only { display: none !important; }
+@media print { * { background: transparent !important; color: #000 !important; box-shadow: none !important; text-shadow: none !important; }
+  a, a:visited { text-decoration: underline; }
+  a[href]:after { content: " (" attr(href) ")"; }
+  abbr[title]:after { content: " (" attr(title) ")"; }
+  .ir a:after, a[href^="javascript:"]:after, a[href^="#"]:after { content: ""; }
+  pre, blockquote { border: 1px solid #999; page-break-inside: avoid; }
+  thead { display: table-header-group; }
+  tr, img { page-break-inside: avoid; }
+  img { max-width: 100% !important; }
+  @page { margin: 0.5cm; }
+  p, h2, h3, #toctitle, .sidebarblock > .content > .title { orphans: 3; widows: 3; }
+  h2, h3, #toctitle, .sidebarblock > .content > .title { page-break-after: avoid; }
+  .hide-on-print { display: none !important; }
+  .print-only { display: block !important; }
+  .hide-for-print { display: none !important; }
+  .show-for-print { display: inherit !important; } }
+table { background: white; margin-bottom: 1.25em; border: solid 1px #dddddd; }
+table thead, table tfoot { background: whitesmoke; font-weight: bold; }
+table thead tr th, table thead tr td, table tfoot tr th, table tfoot tr td { padding: 0.5em 0.625em 0.625em; font-size: inherit; color: #222222; text-align: left; }
+table tr th, table tr td { padding: 0.5625em 0.625em; font-size: inherit; color: #222222; }
+table tr.even, table tr.alt, table tr:nth-of-type(even) { background: #f9f9f9; }
+table thead tr th, table tfoot tr th, table tbody tr td, table tr td, table tfoot tr td { display: table-cell; line-height: 1.6; }
+pre > code, pre > tt { color: #222222; }
+tt { font-size: 0.9375em; padding: 1px 3px 0; white-space: nowrap; background-color: #f2f2f2; border: 1px solid #cccccc; -webkit-border-radius: 4px; border-radius: 4px; text-shadow: none; }
+kbd.keyseq { color: #555555; }
+kbd:not(.keyseq) { display: inline-block; color: #222222; font-size: 0.75em; line-height: 1.4; background-color: #F7F7F7; border: 1px solid #ccc; -webkit-border-radius: 3px; border-radius: 3px; -webkit-box-shadow: 0 1px 0 rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.2), 0 0 0 2px white inset; box-shadow: 0 1px 0 rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.2), 0 0 0 2px white inset; margin: -0.15em 0.15em 0 0.15em; padding: 0.2em 0.6em 0.2em 0.5em; vertical-align: middle; white-space: nowrap; }
+kbd kbd:first-child { margin-left: 0; }
+kbd kbd:last-child { margin-right: 0; }
+.menuseq, .menu { color: #090909; }
+p a > tt { text-decoration: underline; }
+p a > tt:hover { color: #561309; }
+#header, #content, #footnotes, #footer { width: 100%; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto; margin-top: 0; margin-bottom: 0; max-width: 62.5em; *zoom: 1; position: relative; padding-left: 0.9375em; padding-right: 0.9375em; }
+#header:before, #header:after, #content:before, #content:after, #footnotes:before, #footnotes:after, #footer:before, #footer:after { content: " "; display: table; }
+#header:after, #content:after, #footnotes:after, #footer:after { clear: both; }
+#header { margin-bottom: 2.5em; }
+#header > h1 { color: black; font-weight: normal; border-bottom: 1px solid #dddddd; margin-bottom: -28px; padding-bottom: 32px; }
+#header span { color: #6f6f6f; }
+#header #revnumber { text-transform: capitalize; }
+#header br { display: none; }
+#header br + span { padding-left: 3px; }
+#header br + span:before { content: "\2013 \0020"; }
+#toc { border-bottom: 3px double #ebebeb; padding-bottom: 1.25em; }
+#toc > ol { margin-left: 0.25em; }
+#toc ol.sectlevel0 > li > a { font-style: italic; }
+#toc ol.sectlevel0 ol.sectlevel1 { margin-left: 0; margin-top: 0.5em; margin-bottom: 0.5em; }
+#toc ol { list-style-type: none; }
+#toctitle { color: #7a2518; }
+@media only screen and (min-width: 80em) { body.toc2 { padding-left: 20em; }
+  #toc.toc2 { position: fixed; width: 20em; left: 0; top: 0; border-right: 1px solid #ebebeb; border-bottom: 0; z-index: 1000; padding: 1em; height: 100%; overflow: auto; }
+  #toc.toc2 #toctitle { margin-top: 0; }
+  #toc.toc2 > ol { font-size: .95em; }
+  #toc.toc2 ol ol { margin-left: 0; padding-left: 1em; }
+  #toc.toc2 ol.sectlevel0 ol.sectlevel1 { padding-left: 0; margin-top: 0.5em; margin-bottom: 0.5em; } }
+#footer { max-width: 100%; background-color: #222222; padding: 1.25em; }
+#footer-text { color: #dddddd; line-height: 1.44; }
+.sect1 { border-bottom: 3px double #ebebeb; padding-bottom: 1.25em; }
+.sect1:last-of-type { border-bottom: 0; }
+#content h1 > a.anchor, h2 > a.anchor, h3 > a.anchor, #toctitle > a.anchor, .sidebarblock > .content > .title > a.anchor, h4 > a.anchor, h5 > a.anchor, h6 > a.anchor { position: absolute; width: 1em; margin-left: -1em; display: block; text-decoration: none; visibility: hidden; text-align: center; font-weight: normal; }
+#content h1 > a.anchor:before, h2 > a.anchor:before, h3 > a.anchor:before, #toctitle > a.anchor:before, .sidebarblock > .content > .title > a.anchor:before, h4 > a.anchor:before, h5 > a.anchor:before, h6 > a.anchor:before { content: '\00A7'; font-size: .85em; vertical-align: text-top; display: block; margin-top: 0.05em; }
+#content h1:hover > a.anchor, #content h1 > a.anchor:hover, h2:hover > a.anchor, h2 > a.anchor:hover, h3:hover > a.anchor, #toctitle:hover > a.anchor, .sidebarblock > .content > .title:hover > a.anchor, h3 > a.anchor:hover, #toctitle > a.anchor:hover, .sidebarblock > .content > .title > a.anchor:hover, h4:hover > a.anchor, h4 > a.anchor:hover, h5:hover > a.anchor, h5 > a.anchor:hover, h6:hover > a.anchor, h6 > a.anchor:hover { visibility: visible; }
+#content h1 > a.link, h2 > a.link, h3 > a.link, #toctitle > a.link, .sidebarblock > .content > .title > a.link, h4 > a.link, h5 > a.link, h6 > a.link { color: #ba3925; text-decoration: none; }
+#content h1 > a.link:hover, h2 > a.link:hover, h3 > a.link:hover, #toctitle > a.link:hover, .sidebarblock > .content > .title > a.link:hover, h4 > a.link:hover, h5 > a.link:hover, h6 > a.link:hover { color: #a53221; }
+.admonitionblock td.content > .title, .exampleblock > .title, .imageblock > .title, .listingblock > .title, .literalblock > .title, .openblock > .title, .paragraph > .title, .quoteblock > .title, .sidebarblock > .title, .tableblock > .title, .verseblock > .title, .ulist > .title, .olist > .title, .dlist > .title, .qlist > .title { text-align: left; font-weight: bold; }
+.tableblock > caption { text-align: left; font-weight: bold; white-space: nowrap; overflow: visible; max-width: 0; }
+table.tableblock #preamble > .sectionbody > .paragraph:first-of-type p { font-size: inherit; }
+.admonitionblock > table { border: 0; background: none; width: 100%; }
+.admonitionblock > table td.icon { text-align: center; width: 80px; }
+.admonitionblock > table td.icon img { max-width: none; }
+.admonitionblock > table td.icon .title { font-weight: bold; text-transform: uppercase; }
+.admonitionblock > table td.content { padding-left: 1.125em; padding-right: 1.25em; border-left: 1px solid #dddddd; color: #6f6f6f; }
+.admonitionblock > table td.content > .paragraph:last-child > p { margin-bottom: 0; }
+.exampleblock > .content { border-style: solid; border-width: 1px; border-color: #e6e6e6; margin-bottom: 1.25em; padding: 1.25em; background: white; -webkit-border-radius: 4px; border-radius: 4px; }
+.exampleblock > .content h1, .exampleblock > .content h2, .exampleblock > .content h3, .exampleblock > .content #toctitle, .sidebarblock.exampleblock > .content > .title, .exampleblock > .content h4, .exampleblock > .content h5, .exampleblock > .content h6, .exampleblock > .content p { color: #333333; }
+.exampleblock > .content > :first-child { margin-top: 0; }
+.exampleblock > .content > :last-child { margin-bottom: 0; }
+.exampleblock > .content h1, .exampleblock > .content h2, .exampleblock > .content h3, .exampleblock > .content #toctitle, .sidebarblock.exampleblock > .content > .title, .exampleblock > .content h4, .exampleblock > .content h5, .exampleblock > .content h6 { line-height: 1; margin-bottom: 0.625em; }
+.exampleblock > .content h1.subheader, .exampleblock > .content h2.subheader, .exampleblock > .content h3.subheader, .exampleblock > .content .subheader#toctitle, .sidebarblock.exampleblock > .content > .subheader.title, .exampleblock > .content h4.subheader, .exampleblock > .content h5.subheader, .exampleblock > .content h6.subheader { line-height: 1.4; }
+.exampleblock > .content > :last-child > :last-child, .exampleblock > .content .olist > ol > li:last-child > :last-child, .exampleblock > .content .ulist > ul > li:last-child > :last-child, .exampleblock > .content .qlist > ol > li:last-child > :last-child { margin-bottom: 0; }
+.exampleblock.result > .content { -webkit-box-shadow: 0 1px 8px #d9d9d9; box-shadow: 0 1px 8px #d9d9d9; }
+.imageblock { margin-bottom: 1.25em; }
+.sidebarblock { border-style: solid; border-width: 1px; border-color: #d9d9d9; margin-bottom: 1.25em; padding: 1.25em; background: #f2f2f2; -webkit-border-radius: 4px; border-radius: 4px; }
+.sidebarblock h1, .sidebarblock h2, .sidebarblock h3, .sidebarblock #toctitle, .sidebarblock > .content > .title, .sidebarblock h4, .sidebarblock h5, .sidebarblock h6, .sidebarblock p { color: #333333; }
+.sidebarblock > :first-child { margin-top: 0; }
+.sidebarblock > :last-child { margin-bottom: 0; }
+.sidebarblock h1, .sidebarblock h2, .sidebarblock h3, .sidebarblock #toctitle, .sidebarblock > .content > .title, .sidebarblock h4, .sidebarblock h5, .sidebarblock h6 { line-height: 1; margin-bottom: 0.625em; }
+.sidebarblock h1.subheader, .sidebarblock h2.subheader, .sidebarblock h3.subheader, .sidebarblock .subheader#toctitle, .sidebarblock > .content > .subheader.title, .sidebarblock h4.subheader, .sidebarblock h5.subheader, .sidebarblock h6.subheader { line-height: 1.4; }
+.sidebarblock > .content > .title { color: #7a2518; margin-top: 0; line-height: 1.6; }
+.sidebarblock > .content > .paragraph:last-child p { margin-bottom: 0; }
+pre { color: inherit; font-family: Consolas, "Liberation Mono", Courier, monospace; overflow-x: auto; line-height: 1.6; }
+.verseblock { margin-bottom: 1.25em; }
+.literalblock, .listingblock { margin-bottom: 1.25em; }
+.literalblock > .content > pre, .listingblock > .content > pre { background: none; color: inherit; font-family: Consolas, "Liberation Mono", Courier, monospace; border-width: 1px 0; border-style: dotted; border-color: #bfbfbf; -webkit-border-radius: 4px; border-radius: 4px; padding: 0.75em 0.75em 0.5em 0.75em; white-space: pre; overflow-x: auto; line-height: 1.6; }
+.literalblock > .content > pre > code, .literalblock > .content > pre > tt, .listingblock > .content > pre > code, .listingblock > .content > pre > tt { color: inherit; font-family: Consolas, "Liberation Mono", Courier, monospace; padding: 0; background: none; font-weight: normal; }
+@media only screen { .literalblock > .content > pre, .listingblock > .content > pre { font-size: 0.8em; } }
+@media only screen and (min-width: 48em) { .literalblock > .content > pre, .listingblock > .content > pre { font-size: 0.9em; } }
+@media only screen and (min-width: 80em) { .literalblock > .content > pre, .listingblock > .content > pre { font-size: 1em; } }
+.listingblock:hover .xml:before { content: "xml"; text-transform: uppercase; float: right; font-size: 0.9em; color: #999; }
+.listingblock:hover .html:before { content: "html"; text-transform: uppercase; float: right; font-size: 0.9em; color: #999; }
+.listingblock:hover .ruby:before { content: "ruby"; text-transform: uppercase; float: right; font-size: 0.9em; color: #999; }
+.listingblock:hover .asciidoc:before { content: "asciidoc"; text-transform: uppercase; float: right; font-size: 0.9em; color: #999; }
+.listingblock:hover .java:before { content: "java"; text-transform: uppercase; float: right; font-size: 0.9em; color: #999; }
+.listingblock:hover .javascript:before { content: "javascript"; text-transform: uppercase; float: right; font-size: 0.9em; color: #999; }
+.listingblock:hover .css:before { content: "css"; text-transform: uppercase; float: right; font-size: 0.9em; color: #999; }
+.listingblock:hover .scss:before { content: "scss"; text-transform: uppercase; float: right; font-size: 0.9em; color: #999; }
+.quoteblock { margin: 0 0 1.25em; padding: 0.5625em 1.25em 0 1.1875em; border-left: 1px solid #dddddd; }
+.quoteblock blockquote { margin: 0 0 1.25em 0; padding: 0 0 0.5625em 0; border: 0; }
+.quoteblock blockquote > .paragraph:last-child p { margin-bottom: 0; }
+.quoteblock .attribution { margin-top: -.25em; padding-bottom: 0.5625em; font-size: inherit; color: #555555; }
+.quoteblock .attribution br { display: none; }
+.quoteblock .attribution cite { display: block; margin-bottom: 0.625em; }
+table thead th, table tfoot th { font-weight: bold; }
+table.tableblock.grid-all { border-collapse: separate; border-spacing: 1px; -webkit-border-radius: 4px; border-radius: 4px; border-top: 1px solid #dddddd; border-bottom: 1px solid #dddddd; }
+table.tableblock.frame-topbot, table.tableblock.frame-none { border-left: 0; border-right: 0; }
+table.tableblock.frame-sides, table.tableblock.frame-none { border-top: 0; border-bottom: 0; }
+table.tableblock td .paragraph:last-child p, table.tableblock td > p:last-child { margin-bottom: 0; }
+th.tableblock.halign-left, td.tableblock.halign-left { text-align: left; }
+th.tableblock.halign-right, td.tableblock.halign-right { text-align: right; }
+th.tableblock.halign-center, td.tableblock.halign-center { text-align: center; }
+th.tableblock.halign-top, td.tableblock.halign-top { vertical-align: top; }
+th.tableblock.halign-bottom, td.tableblock.halign-bottom { vertical-align: bottom; }
+th.tableblock.halign-middle, td.tableblock.halign-middle { vertical-align: middle; }
+p.tableblock.header { color: #222222; font-weight: bold; }
+td > div.verse { white-space: pre; }
+ul { margin-left: 1.75em; }
+ol { margin-left: 1.875em; }
+dl dd { margin-left: 1.125em; }
+dl dd:last-child, dl dd:last-child > :last-child { margin-bottom: 0; }
+.unstyled dl dt { font-weight: normal; font-style: normal; }
+ol > li p, ul > li p, ul dd, ol dd { margin-bottom: 0.625em; }
+ol.arabic { list-style-type: decimal; }
+ol.loweralpha { list-style-type: lower-alpha; }
+ol.upperalpha { list-style-type: upper-alpha; }
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File thesis/index.html

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+<title>The Impact of Underdetermination on the Deliverances of Imagination and Intuition</title>
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+</head>
+<body class="book toc2 toc-left" style="max-width: 58em;">
+<div id="header">
+<h1>The Impact of Underdetermination on the Deliverances of Imagination and Intuition</h1>
+<span id="author" class="author">Alexander Seifert</span><br>
+<span id="email" class="email"><a href="mailto:alexander.seifert@gmail.com">alexander.seifert@gmail.com</a></span><br>
+<div id="toc" class="toc2">
+<div id="toctitle">Table of Contents</div>
+<ul class="sectlevel0">
+<li><a href="#part-ii">Part II</a></li>
+<li>
+<ul class="sectlevel1">
+<li><a href="#underdetermination-and-the-deliverances-of-imagination-sentence-level">1. Underdetermination and the Deliverances of Imagination / Sentence Level</a></li>
+<li>
+<ul class="sectlevel2">
+<li><a href="#parfit-s-combined-spectrum-chalmer-s-zombies">1.1. Parfit&#8217;s Combined Spectrum &amp; Chalmer&#8217;s Zombies</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a href="#underdetermination-and-the-deliverances-of-intuition">2. Underdetermination and the Deliverances of Intuition</a></li>
+<li>
+<ul class="sectlevel2">
+<li><a href="#putnam-s-twin-earth-cases">2.1. Putnam&#8217;s Twin Earth cases</a></li>
+<li><a href="#the-debate-that-followed">2.2. The debate that followed</a></li>
+<li>
+<ul class="sectlevel3">
+<li><a href="#water-or-no-water">2.2.1. Water or no water?</a></li>
+<li><a href="#questioning-the-scientific-basis-of-twin-earth">2.2.2. Questioning the scientific basis of Twin Earth</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a href="#underdetermination-of-concept-extension">2.3. Underdetermination of Concept Extension</a></li>
+<li>
+<ul class="sectlevel3">
+<li><a href="#knowing-what-we-would-say-wittgenstein-and-quine">2.3.1. Knowing what we would say: Wittgenstein and Quine</a></li>
+<li><a href="#meaning-finitism-and-the-underdetermination-of-concept-extension">2.3.2. Meaning Finitism and the Underdetermination of Concept Extension</a></li>
+<li><a href="#implications">2.3.3. Implications</a></li>
+<li><a href="#relationship-to-other-theories">2.3.4. Relationship to other theories</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a href="#references">3. References</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="content">
+<h1 id="part-ii" class="sect0">Part II</h1>
+<div class="sect1">
+<h2 id="underdetermination-and-the-deliverances-of-imagination-sentence-level">1. Underdetermination and the Deliverances of Imagination / Sentence Level</h2>
+<div class="sectionbody">
+<div class="sect2">
+<h3 id="parfit-s-combined-spectrum-chalmer-s-zombies">1.1. Parfit&#8217;s Combined Spectrum &amp; Chalmer&#8217;s Zombies</h3>
+
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect1">
+<h2 id="underdetermination-and-the-deliverances-of-intuition">2. Underdetermination and the Deliverances of Intuition</h2>
+<div class="sectionbody">
+<div class="sect2">
+<h3 id="putnam-s-twin-earth-cases">2.1. Putnam&#8217;s Twin Earth cases</h3>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Putnam&#8217;s Twin Earth is often cited as one of the most influential thought experiments in the history of philosophy. That story about a planet not much different from our own has become what Gabriel Segal called a &#8220;sort of paradigm in the philosophies of language and mind&#8221; (<a href="#Segal2000">Segal&#44; 2000&#44; p.&#160;24</a>) (via <a href="#Slezak2013">Slezak (2013&#44; p.&#160;1)</a>). It challenged the received view of meaning, which held that (1) the meaning that a speaker associates with a word is determined by individualistic facts about that speaker, and (2) the meaning of a word determines its extension. Putnam&#8217;s thought experiment convinced many philosophers that these two assumptions cannot be jointly satisfied. The following rendition is taken from a chapter called &#8220;Experimental Methods and Conceptual Confusion&#8221; from Phil Hutchinson&#8217;s book &#8220;Shame and Philosophy&#8221;:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="quoteblock">
+<blockquote>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Oscar lives on Earth. This is our Earth. He uses water in all the usual ways: he drinks it; heats it to use in the making of tea and coffee; he freezes it into cubes of ice to put in his &#8216;g&amp;t&#8217;; he swims in it when on holiday; pours it on to the soil around his plants; takes baths and showers in it; washes and cooks his rice in it; &amp;c. Someone who is just like Oscar in every way, let&#8217;s call him, following Putnam, Oscar<sub>2</sub>, lives on Twin Earth. Twin Earth is like Earth in every way, bar one. Oscar&#8217;s doppelganger on Twin Earth does all the things Oscar does with a liquid he calls water. When asked &#8220;what do you use water for?&#8221; he lists those practices I listed above in which Oscar employs water. &#8220;I drink it; heat it to use in the making of tea and coffee; I freeze it into cubes of ice &#8230;;&#8221; &amp;c. Now, while on Earth water has the chemical composition H<sub>2</sub>O, on Twin Earth water has the chemical composition XYZ. While Oscar and Oscar<sub>2</sub> use what they both call water, in the same way, for the same purposes, simultaneously on their almost identical Earths, they do so with different liquids. The referent (extension) of water on Earth and Twin Earth, for Oscar and Oscar<sub>2</sub>, is different.&#8201;&#8212;&#8201;(<a href="#Hutchinson2008">Hutchinson&#44; 2008&#44; p.&#160;19f</a>)</p>
+</div>
+</blockquote>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Putnam crafts this story to make explicit that we intuitively judge Oscar and Oscar<sub>2</sub> to have different thought contents. Remember that the received view of meaning held that (1) the meaning that a speaker associates with a word is determined by individualistic facts about that speaker, and (2) the meaning of a word determines its extension.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>As Putnam holds the second assumption to be warranted, he follows that individualistic facts alone cannot determine meaning. The difference in thought contents can only be explained with additional reference to the extension of the natural kind&#8201;&#8212;&#8201;i.&thinsp;e. H<sub>2</sub>O in Oscar&#8217;s case, and XYZ in Oscar<sub>2</sub>'s case: &#8220;Cut the pie any way you like&#8221;, he concluded famously, &#8220;&#8216;meanings&#8217; just ain&#8217;t in the head!&#8221; (<a href="#Putnam1975">Putnam&#44; 1975&#44; p.&#160;144</a>)</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Instead of deriving his conclusion from some background theory, Putnam cites his intuition as counterevidence against the received view of meaning. He then proposes a different theory, which can account for the intuition. According to one characterization by Jerry Fodor, the Twin‐Earth
 Problem
 &#8220;isn&#8217;t
 a
 problem;
 it&#8217;s
 just
 a
 handful
 of
 intuitions
 together
 with
 a
 commentary
 on
 some
 immediate
 implications
 of
 accepting
 them&#8221; [cite:Fodor1987,208].</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>In the opening sentence of the section, where Putnam tells the Twin Earth story, he announces that his claim will be &#8220;shown with the aid of a little science fiction.&#8221; (<a href="#Putnam1975">Putnam&#44; 1975&#44; p.&#160;139</a>) Instead of first telling the story and then giving us his intuition on it, he weaves the intuition cleverly into the narrative. The key passage is the following:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="quoteblock">
+<blockquote>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>If a spaceship from Earth ever visits Twin Earth, then the supposition at first will be that &#8220;water&#8221; has the same meaning on Earth and on Twin Earth. This supposition will be corrected when it is discovered that &#8220;water&#8221; on Twin Earth is XYZ, and the Earthian spaceship will report somewhat as follows:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>&#8220;On Twin Earth the word &#8216;water&#8217; means XYZ.&#8221; (<a href="#Putnam1975">Putnam&#44; 1975&#44; p.&#160;140</a>)</p>
+</div>
+</blockquote>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Or, to make Putnam&#8217;s intuition explicit: <em>When uttered on planet Earth, the word &#8216;water&#8217; refers to H<sub>2</sub>O, but when uttered on Twin Earth it refers to XYZ.</em></p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect2">
+<h3 id="the-debate-that-followed">2.2. The debate that followed</h3>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>The implications Putnam&#8217;s thought experiment had were huge: it touched central tenants of the philosophy of mind, the philosophy of language and also epistemology. It took the philosophical world by surprise. As Paul Boghossian described his reaction at a recent conference on intuition:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="quoteblock">
+<blockquote>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>[T]hat I was tempted to make that verdict having read through the thought experiment came as a big surprise to me. I tried to resist it, but it kept forcing itself back upon me. It seemed like an unexpected and significant new realization. I despise it even to this day. It has made a lot of trouble. But it can&#8217;t be helped.&#8201;&#8212;&#8201;(<a href="#BoghossianLondonTalk2013">Boghossian&#44; 2013</a>)</p>
+</div>
+</blockquote>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>A lot of philosophers shared that feeling and quickly went on to draw out the conclusions that followed from Putnam&#8217;s results, without paying attention to the fact that the intuition is not unanimously accepted. In his critique of the method of reflective equilibrium, Robert Cummins criticizes the way philosophers reacted to the Twin Earth results:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="quoteblock">
+<blockquote>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>&#8220;It is commonplace for researchers in the Theory of Content to proceed as if the relevant intuitions were undisputed. Nor is the reason for this practice far to seek. The Putnamian take on these cases is widely enough shared to allow for a range of thriving intramural sports among believers. Those who do not share the intuition are simply not invited to the games. This kind of selection allows things to move forward, but it has its price. Since most nonphilosophers do not share the intuition, the resulting theories of content have little weight with them, and this is surely a drawback for a theory that is supposed to form an essential part of the foundations of cognitive psychology.&#8221; (<a href="#Cummins1998">Cummins&#44; 1998&#44; p.&#160;116</a>)</p>
+</div>
+</blockquote>
+</div>
+<div class="sect3">
+<h4 id="water-or-no-water">2.2.1. Water or no water?</h4>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Cummins only cites nonphilosophers as not sharing the Putnam intuition, but professional philosophers were divided on this issue just as well. In a recount of the debate that followed Putnam&#8217;s Twin Earth experiment, Barry Barnes frames these diverging intuitions in terms of a disagreement between descriptivists and realists. Descriptivists hold the orthodox view that &#8220;the extension of a kind term is fixed by a verbal specification of a set of manifest properties&#8221; (<a href="#Barnes1982">Barnes&#44; 1982</a>), in other words: what a term means is fixed by its definition alone. This would be the view of John Searle (<a href="#Searle1958">Searle&#44; 1958</a>), Hugh Mellor (<a href="#Mellor1977">Mellor&#44; 1977</a>) or Timothy Crane (<a href="#Crane1991">Crane&#44; 1991</a>). Realists on the other hand claim that when a term is first applied to a particular thing or instance, it &#8216;baptizes&#8217; (or &#8216;christens&#8217; or &#8216;dubs&#8217;) that thing or instance. This theory is also called the causal theory of reference, because the term finds its way into the linguistic community through a kind of dissemination, which is in any case a causal process. Putnam is of course a proponent of this view, but also Kripke and Paul Boghossian are on this side of the intuitive divide.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>In his discussion of the debate, Barnes pits Putnam&#8217;s realist intuition against Mellor&#8217;s descriptivist intuition:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="quoteblock">
+<blockquote>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>&#8220;Putnam suggests that the new material should be set without the extension of &#8216;water&#8217; because it has a different microstructure&#8221;, while &#8220;Mellor, in contrast, sees nothing objectionable in the descriptivist alternative of holding that water has been discovered to vary in its microstructure.&#8221; (<a href="#Barnes1982">Barnes&#44; 1982</a>)</p>
+</div>
+</blockquote>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Barnes goes on to draw a wide-reaching metaphilosophical conclusion based on the form of that debate, which we will discuss later. Before we do that, I want to cite one further reaction to the Putnam intuition, which can not be subsumed under the dichotomy that Barnes created.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect3">
+<h4 id="questioning-the-scientific-basis-of-twin-earth">2.2.2. Questioning the scientific basis of Twin Earth</h4>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Trying to save his concept of incommensurability in the face of rigid designation (which would be able to fix a sample&#8217;s reference even across scientific revolutions), Kuhn offers his own interpretation of the Twin Earth story (<a href="#Kuhn1990">Kuhn&#44; 1990</a>).</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Putnam describes Twin Earth as a place which &#8220;apart from the differences we shall specify in our science-fiction examples &#8230; is <em>exactly</em> like Earth.&#8221; (<a href="#Putnam1975">Putnam&#44; 1975&#44; p.&#160;139</a>) Said difference is that the liquid called water is composed of a substance with a long complicated formula, abbreviated as XYZ. It is a substance which, as Putnam stresses, &#8220;is indistinguishable from water at normal temperatures and pressures&#8221; (<a href="#Putnam1975">Putnam&#44; 1975&#44; p.&#160;140</a>).<span class="footnote">[<a id="_footnoteref_1" class="footnote" href="#_footnote_1" title="View footnote.">1</a>]</span></p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>But while Putnam describes the scientist who visits Twin Earth as judging the watery stuff there not to be &#8216;water&#8217;, Kuhn gives a different description of what would happen: The report that visitors send home about the stuff that lies in Twin Earth&#8217;s lakes &#8220;should not be about language but about chemistry&#8221;, he writes. &#8220;It must take some form like: &#8216;Back to the drawing board! Something is badly wrong with chemical theory.&#8217;&#8221; (<a href="#Kuhn1990">Kuhn&#44; 1990&#44; p.&#160;310</a>)</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Now one might interpret Kuhn as simply offering another diverging intuition. After all, he gives us one more story of what the scientist &#8220;would say&#8221;. On this view, we would have three different intuitions corresponding to three things the scientist might say: &#8220;that stuff is not &#8216;water&#8217;&#8221; (Putnam et al.), &#8220;that stuff is &#8216;water&#8217;&#8221; (Mellor et al.), &#8220;something is badly wrong with chemical theory&#8221; (<a href="#Kuhn1990">Kuhn (1990)</a> et al.). However, even though the debate is indeed often framed in terms of asking what the scientist visiting Twin Earth would say, I think this way of putting the question is misleading. After all, Putnam wants to find out whether the extensions of the two linguistic communities' word &#8216;water&#8217; are overlapping or non-overlapping. It might very well be that the visiting scientist would react by saying: &#8220;We need to rewrite all of our chemistry&#8221;, but even then Putnam might <em>still</em> ask whether or not the estranged visitor would refer to the stuff on Twin Earth as &#8216;water&#8217;. The compatibility of the visitor&#8217;s reaction with this question shows that the third possible reaction isn&#8217;t the manifestation of a third competing intuition on the same question, but rather an artifact of posing the question in an imprecise manner. The better way to phrase the question, then, is to ask: If Oscar on Earth and Twin Oscar on Twin Earth utter (or think) the word &#8216;water&#8217;, do they mean the same thing? This is a question to which Kuhn doesn&#8217;t really give an answer. Therefore I think Kuhn ist best understood as questioning the scientific basis of the thought experiment:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="quoteblock">
+<blockquote>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>&#8220;The terms &#8216;XYZ&#8217; and &#8216;H<sub>2</sub>O&#8217; are drawn from modern chemical theory, and that theory is incompatible with the existence of a  substance with properties very nearly the same as water but described by an elaborate chemical formula. Such a substance would &#8230; demonstrate the presence of fundamental errors in the chemical theory that gives meanings to compound names like &#8216;H<sub>2</sub>O&#8217; and the unabbreviated form of &#8216;XYZ&#8217;.&#8221;&#8201;&#8212;&#8201;(<a href="#Kuhn1990">Kuhn&#44; 1990&#44; p.&#160;310</a>)</p>
+</div>
+</blockquote>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>A recent, scientifically more comprehensive support for this position comes from Christopher Grisdale. He agin points out that our chemistry tells us that there is no possible world which is (1) exactly like ours but where at the same time (2) watery stuff is not H<sub>2</sub>O. This is because water&#8217;s microstructure significantly influences its macrostructure. As Paul Thagard summarizes Grisdale&#8217;s work:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="quoteblock">
+<blockquote>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>&#8220;even a slight change in the chemical constitution of water produces dramatic changes in its effects. If normal hydrogen is replaced by different isotopes, deuterium or tritium, the water molecule markedly changes its chemical properties. Life would be impossible if H<sub>2</sub>O were replaced by heavy water, D<sub>2</sub>O or T<sub>2</sub>O; and compounds made of elements different from hydrogen and oxygen would be even more different in their properties.&#8221;&#8201;&#8212;&#8201; (<a href="#Thagard2012">Thagard&#44; 2012</a>)</p>
+</div>
+</blockquote>
+</div>
+<div class="admonitionblock warning">
+<table>
+<tr>
+<td class="icon">
+<i class="icon-warning" title="Warning"></i>
+</td>
+<td class="content">
+Reference to earlier chapter about inconceivability.
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>As the stipulated world is not coherently possible for all we know, it is illegitimate to ask that question in the first place.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect2">
+<h3 id="underdetermination-of-concept-extension">2.3. Underdetermination of Concept Extension</h3>
+<div class="admonitionblock warning">
+<table>
+<tr>
+<td class="icon">
+<i class="icon-warning" title="Warning"></i>
+</td>
+<td class="content">
+say more about descriptivism, realism, theories of concepts; meaning determinism vs. meaning finitism (cf. de Saussure&#8217;s structuralism, St Augustine&#8217;s ostensive element)
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>How can we explain this clash of intuitions? Before we come to Barnes' answer, let us consider the historical roots in Wittgenstein and Quine.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="sect3">
+<h4 id="knowing-what-we-would-say-wittgenstein-and-quine">2.3.1. Knowing what we would say: Wittgenstein and Quine</h4>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Wittgenstein suggests that the method of cases might enable us to stipulate situations, which are so far from our actual world, that our concepts don&#8217;t fit these circumstances.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="quoteblock">
+<blockquote>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>„‚Es ist als wären unsere Begriffe bedingt durch ein Gerüst von Tatsachen.‘</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Das hieße doch: Wenn du dir gewisse Tatsachen anders denkst, sie anders beschreibst, als sie sind, dann kannst du die Anwendung gewisser Begriffe dir nicht mehr vorstellen, weil die Regeln ihrer Anwendung kein Analogon unter den neuen Umständen haben.&#8201;&#8212;&#8201;Was ich sage, kommt also darauf hinaus: Ein Gesetz wird für Menschen gegeben, und ein Jurist mag wohl fähig sein, Konsequenzen für jeden Fall zu ziehen, der ihm gewöhnlich vorkommt, das Gesetz hat also offenbar seine Verwendung, einen Sinn. Trotzdem aber setzt seine Gültigkeit allerlei voraus; und wenn das Wesen, welches er zu richten hat, ganz vom gewöhnlichen Menschen abweicht, dann wird z.&thinsp;B. die Entscheidung, ob er eine Tat mit böser Absicht begangen hat, nicht etwa schwer, sondern (einfach) unmöglich werden.“&#8201;&#8212;&#8201;[cite:Wittgenstein1967,Z 350]</p>
+</div>
+</blockquote>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>In a very similar vein, W.&thinsp;V.&thinsp;O.&nbsp;Quine wonders whether language is cut out for such extraordinary circumstances:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="quoteblock">
+<blockquote>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>&#8220;The method of imaginary cases has its uses in philosophy, but at points [&#8230;] I wonder whether the limits of the method are properly heeded. To seek what is &#8216;logically required&#8217; for sameness of person under unprecedented circumstances is to suggest that words have some logical force beyond what our past needs have invested them with.&#8221; (<a href="#Cohnitz2005">Cohnitz&#44; 2005&#44; p.&#160;156</a>)</p>
+</div>
+</blockquote>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>His background assumption is that language is an instrument that was developed in order to describe our actual world, and this is where it can be used successfully. In situations that are so extraordinary that they don&#8217;t occur in our everyday life, language consequently fails to be an adequate tool for description.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>In <em>Reasons and Persons</em>, Parfit addresses this objection:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="quoteblock">
+<blockquote>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>&#8220;Quine&#8217;s and Wittgenstein&#8217;s criticism might be justified if, when considering such imagined cases, we had no reactions. But these cases arouse in most of us strong beliefs.&#8221; (<a href="#Parfit1986">Parfit&#44; 1986&#44; p.&#160;200</a>)</p>
+</div>
+</blockquote>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Parfit is probably right to notice that these cases arouse in most of us strong beliefs. But leaving aside that empirical matter, simply pointing to that strong reaction cannot ground the epistemic value of our intuitions. After all, we have seen that intuitions can and do clash, and from analogy with perception we know that even in cases where our reactions systematically align, as in the case of optical illusions, they might be misleading us.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>In a forthcoming paper, Peter Slezak takes up this point. Slezak follows Chomsky, who argues that our blind acceptance of seductive intuitions creates a deeply persuasive, but illegitimate, picture of the world (<a href="#Chomsky2000">Chomsky&#44; 2000</a>). But simply brushing them off as unscientific is not enough, Slezak says, because &#8220;characterizing the error as a commitment to commonsense conceptions leaves its precise source and character obscure&#8221;. He acknowledges that the intuitions at the heart of mental externalism are not random, but &#8220;systematic, robust and widely shared&#8221;, and in this respect are &#8220;much like the intuitions that are the data for Chomsky&#8217;s generative grammars&#8221;. He compares the externalist intuitions with the ones arising in paradoxes, and suggests that an explanation of their faulty etiology &#8220;may defuse the intuition even if not curing us of it&#8221; (<a href="#Slezak2013">Slezak&#44; 2013&#44; p.&#160; 6</a>)</p>
+</div>
+<div class="admonitionblock tip">
+<table>
+<tr>
+<td class="icon">
+<i class="icon-tip" title="Tip"></i>
+</td>
+<td class="content">
+should I expand on Slezak&#8217;s explanation at this point?
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Barnes gives just such an explanation. And so, as promised earlier, we will now discuss the metaphilosophical conclusion that Barnes drew from examining the Twin Earth debate.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect3">
+<h4 id="meaning-finitism-and-the-underdetermination-of-concept-extension">2.3.2. Meaning Finitism and the Underdetermination of Concept Extension</h4>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Barnes recounts the Twin Earth debate in terms of two opposing camps, who each proposed a theory of meaning of their own and relied heavily upon examples of normal accepted usage, or modification of usage. These two camps cited their respective intuitions as support while at the same time acknowledged (but failed to account for) a number of counterexamples.  When it came to hypothetical situations, he says, &#8220;both sides [were] able to gloss them to their own satisfaction.&#8221; (<a href="#Barnes1982">Barnes&#44; 1982&#44; p.&#160;30</a>)</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Even though Barnes doesn&#8217;t exactly explain how each of the clashing intuitions came to be, he gives an explanation of why it is possible for them to clash in the first place. Barnes answer to that riddle is a theory now known as <em>Meaning Finitism</em>. According to that view, our concepts (for example in this case H<sub>2</sub>O) are themselves underdetermined. This means that concepts don&#8217;t have a fixed extension and that concept application is a matter of contingent judgment on behalf of the actors of a language community.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Central to the language learning under Meaning Finitism is the act of ostension. As a child is shown instances of cats throughout its life, the child acquires an <em>array of exemplars</em> of what his language community will accept as falling under the concept of a &#8216;cat&#8217;. Some of those exemplars will be paradigmatic, bearing more importance to classifying instances under that concept, while others will be less central or even borderline cases. The child thus develops a linguistic disposition to apply the concept to certain individuals while withholding application in other cases. Judgments about concept application thus become judgments of similarity to more or less paradigmatic instances of a concept.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Because Meaning Finitism does away with clear-cut definitions and judgments based on identity, and sees concepts as social institutions, it rejects what Martin Kuch called three central tenenans of the orthodox philosophy of meaning: semantic determination, the notion of fixed, unchanging extensions, and the central role of truth in semantics:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="quoteblock">
+<blockquote>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>&#8220;there is no utility in the notion of the extension of a concept &#8230; Far from the meaning of a concept fixing its future proper use, we can now see that people judge how to develop the use of a concept, and that imputations of meaning can do no better than to follow on behind, rationalizing the effects of sequences of such judgments.&#8221; (<a href="#Barnes1982">Barnes&#44; 1982&#44; p.&#160;32</a>)</p>
+</div>
+</blockquote>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>In the original paper from 1982 Barnes presents his conclusions as if they followed easily from the phenomenon of two clashing intuitions in a single thought experiment on the extension of &#8216;water&#8217;. Apart from that observation, he offers no substantive argument in favor of a finitist semantics, or, conversely, against meaning determinism. But regardless of this shortcoming in his original paper from 1982, the underlying idea of a language community making up, shaping and constantly reshaping the extension of our concepts seems to be so apparent as to be almost undeniable. Still, this concession to the fleeting nature of our concepts is hardly at all reflected in the philosophical discourse, and so &#8220;all too often at present we adopt a finitist approach when studying knowledge and an extensional approach when celebrating it.&#8221; (<a href="#Barnes1982">Barnes&#44; 1982&#44; p.&#160;38</a>)</p>
+</div>
+<div class="admonitionblock warning">
+<table>
+<tr>
+<td class="icon">
+<i class="icon-warning" title="Warning"></i>
+</td>
+<td class="content">
+give arguments for intuitions being manifestation of conceptual competence
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Barnes would later go on to develop a program called the <em>Sociological Study of Knowledge</em>  (SSK) together with David Bloor and John Henry. In their programmatic book &#8220;Scientific Knowledge: A Sociological Analysis&#8221; (<a href="#SSK1996">Barnes&#44; Bloor &#38; Henry&#44; 1996</a>) the authors further develop the meaning finitist view and summarize their position in five main theses (ibid, pp.&nbsp;55&#8212;59):</p>
+</div>
+<div class="dlist">
+<dl>
+<dt class="hdlist1">1&thinsp;| &#8220;the future applications of concepts are open-ended&#8221;</dt>
+<dd>
+<p>Because concepts application is based on judgments of similarity and because the array of exemplars is different for every speaker and shifts also intrapersonally, the extension of a concept cannot be fixed at any point in time.</p>
+</dd>
+<dt class="hdlist1">2&thinsp;| &#8220;no act of classification is ever indefeasibly correct&#8221;</dt>
+<dd>
+<p>The dichotomy of correct and incorrect is the product of a social instution, depending on the consensus of a language community, and is thus always subject to change: &#8220;People must <em>decide</em> what is correct and what is not.&#8221; (<a href="#SSK1996">Barnes&#44; Bloor &#38; Henry&#44; 1996&#44; p.&#160;56</a>)</p>
+</dd>
+<dt class="hdlist1">3&thinsp;| &#8220;all acts of classification are revisable&#8221;</dt>
+<dd>
+<p>The open-ended character of classification extends not only into the future, but also into the past. With acts of classification never being indefeasibly correct, and always being subject to change, a community might revise certain acts of classification. An example that has received much attention from the media is the re-classification of Pluto, which is now, poor Pluto, no longer a planet.</p>
+</dd>
+<dt class="hdlist1">4&thinsp;| &#8220;successive applications of a kind term are not independent&#8221;</dt>
+<dd>
+<p>Because each application of a kind term influences the array of exemplars, successive judgments of similarity are influenced by earlier uses of a term.</p>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<div class="dlist">
+<dl>
+<dt class="hdlist1">5&thinsp;| &#8220;the applications of different kind terms are not independent of each other&#8221;</dt>
+<dd>
+<p>Concepts hang together in complex ways, and, accordingly, concept applications are interdependent too. &#8220;How some individuals use &#8216;duck&#8217; may affect how others use &#8216;goose&#8217;.&#8221; (<a href="#SSK1996">Barnes&#44; Bloor &#38; Henry&#44; 1996&#44; p.&#160;59</a>)</p>
+</dd>
+</dl>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>In a sense, this view echoes Quine&#8217;s position on the method of cases, only that it is thought to its radical conclusion. The problem with the method of cases, to repeat the gist of Quine&#8217;s view, is the false assumption &#8220;that words have some logical force beyond what our past needs have invested them with&#8221;. While this remark is situated in the context of the personal identity debate, with examples arguably far removed from our everyday situations, Barnes takes Quine&#8217;s idea one step further, and extends it even to each and every act of concept application:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="quoteblock">
+<blockquote>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Concept application is always a matter of contingent judgment in every particular case. No act of concept application is ever fixed or determined by previous acts of concept application or by alleged &#8216;meanings&#8217; intrinsic to concepts. (<a href="#Barnes1982">Barnes&#44; 1982&#44; p.&#160;33</a>)</p>
+</div>
+</blockquote>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>&#8203;</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>We have now arrived at a point where the reader is hopefully at least sympathetic to the plausibility of the meaning finitist view of concept extension. I cannot here go into the pros and cons of meaning finitism as much as I&#8217;d want to. For discussions of its benefits I refer the reader to (<a href="#SSK1996">Barnes&#44; Bloor &#38; Henry&#44; 1996&#44; p.&#160;ch3</a>; <a href="#Bloor1997">Bloor&#44; 1997</a>; <a href="#Barnes1992">Barnes&#44; 1992</a>). For a discussion of its problems see ##.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="admonitionblock warning">
+<table>
+<tr>
+<td class="icon">
+<i class="icon-warning" title="Warning"></i>
+</td>
+<td class="content">
+add references to counter-position
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>I will now conclude this section by drawing out the consequences this position&#8201;&#8212;&#8201;if true&#8201;&#8212;&#8201;has for the method of cases and for the deliverances of intuition.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect3">
+<h4 id="implications">2.3.3. Implications</h4>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>As I see it, the implications are threefold. First of all, it shows philosophers' widespread but latent commitment to meaning determinism (maybe also to classic theory of concept). As Martin Kusch observes: &#8220;Most of mainstream philosophy of language falls within the [&#8230;] &#8216;meaning-determinist&#8217; camp.&#8221; (<a href="#Kusch2005">Kusch&#44; 2005&#44; p.&#160;201</a>)&#8201;&#8212;&#8201;I suspect that the vast majority of philosophers from other sub-disciplines quietly shares this view too.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="admonitionblock warning">
+<table>
+<tr>
+<td class="icon">
+<i class="icon-warning" title="Warning"></i>
+</td>
+<td class="content">
+Expand
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Second, the contingency of concept application also implies that diverging intuitions can be explained in psychological and sociological terms. My judgment over a matter of concept application reflects both facts about my personal psychology and my individual interests. Insofar, as the relevant part of my psychology or of my interests is widely (or even universally) shared, my judgment will be more likely to fall in line with other people&#8217;s judgments. Tamar Gendler did some interesting philosophical work about the types of concepts, which we will get confused in our judgments (cf. <a href="#tamar-szabo-gendler">Tamar Szabo Gendler</a>). Jennifer Nagel complements that picture with an examination of the empirical theories on intuition and ?? (cf. <a href="#jennifer-nagel">Jennifer Nagel</a>). As far as a sociological analyses of concept application goes, I don&#8217;t know of any really comprehensive, qualitative studies. There exists of course the very coarse-grained work of the experimental philosophers, but these studies are mostly quantitative and seem contempt with showing basic regularities correlating to sociological categories. If Meaning Finitism is taken seriously, illuminating the philosophical debates over intuitive responses to thought experiments could be an interesting field of research, which is severely neglected as of yet.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Finally, the status of the method of cases as an objective philosophical method is called into question once again&#8201;&#8212;&#8201;and very radically so. Because concepts are inherently open-ended and their future application is &#8220;always a matter of contingent judgment in every particular case&#8221; (<a href="#Barnes1982">Barnes&#44; 1982&#44; p.&#160;33</a>), the faculty of intuition loses its privileged epistemic status as a bearer of objective conceptual truth. My intuitive judgment of a particular situation can henceforth only be understood as a manifestation of my linguistic disposition and how I personally <em>wish</em> the concept to be extended; it simply reflects my community&#8217;s and my individual interests.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>A concept&#8217;s meaning is fixed through its acceptance and coming to use by a linguistic community, and is thus a social category. My personal intuition matters only insofar as it is shared by a larger proportion of my linguistic community. This is because, as Martin Kusch pointed out, shared interests are much more powerful determinants of conceptual judgments, &#8220;because they enter in many more acts of judgements and because they lead to collective actions.&#8221; (<a href="#Kusch2005">Kusch&#44; 2005&#44; p.&#160;206</a>)</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect3">
+<h4 id="relationship-to-other-theories">2.3.4. Relationship to other theories</h4>
+<div class="sect4">
+<h5 id="richard-foley">Richard Foley</h5>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>In a recently published book called &#8220;When is True Belief Knowledge?&#8221; (<a href="#Foley2012">Foley&#44; 2012</a>), Richard Foley suggests a new approach to the analysis of knowledge. As I want to show briefly, this approach fits perfectly into the meanining finitist view outlined above.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Traditional proposals for the analysis of knowledge all assume that what needs to be added to justified true belief is something related to, but distinct from true belief. Some traditions seek it in a special kind of justification (nondefective, indefeasible, &#8230;), others try to qualify the process and faculties that produce or sustain a belief (reliably generated, truth tracking, product of properly functioning cognitive faculties, &#8230;). Foley suggests that what is really needed in order to get from true belief to knowledge are <em>more true beliefs</em>. Not any true beliefs however, but those which are deemed important in the evaluative context. Restating the problem as one of important information allows Foley to zoom out of the problem space and better account for the full diversity of those instances we call knowledge: &#8220;Although there is a variety of such shortcomings, it can be tempting to fasten upon stories involving a particular kind of shortcoming and to try to build an entire theory of knowledge around them.&#8221; (<a href="#Foley2012">Foley&#44; 2012&#44; p.&#160;22</a>) By making the test of what&#8217;s important relative both to the situation and the values, interests and interests (??) of the community judging that situation, he can elegantly subsume all those competing analyses of knowledge under his account: &#8220;[J]ustification theoriests, reliability theorists, or proponents of other approaches &#8230; provide a directory to the sorts of gaps that are apt to strike observers as important.&#8221; (<a href="#Foley2012">Foley&#44; 2012&#44; p.&#160;24</a>)</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Foley&#8217;s view fits neatly with the idea of contingent concept application. Remember that this position holds that concepts are malleable rather than fixed, and each and every concept application amounts to a contingent judgment on the part of an actor in a language community. We can see here that Foley&#8217;s account has a latent commitment to meaning finitism: Whether or not the concept of &#8216;knowledge&#8217; applies to a certain situation is not inherently contained in some fixed definition of knowledge, but depends on contingent facts about the actor. The contingency of important information, depends on the values and interests of an actor, correspond to the contingent judgments about concept application, which are responsible for our malleable and ever-shifting terms.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect4">
+<h5 id="tamar-szabo-gendler">Tamar Szabo Gendler</h5>
+<div class="admonitionblock tip">
+<table>
+<tr>
+<td class="icon">
+<i class="icon-tip" title="Tip"></i>
+</td>
+<td class="content">
+tie this together with the concept of exemplars in meaning finitism
+</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Many critics of the method of cases have suggested that the more far-fetched a case is, the less likely it is to be informative. In a paper titled &#8220;Exceptional Persons: On the Limits of Imaginary Cases&#8221; (<a href="#Gendler1998">Gendler&#44; 1998</a>) Tamar Gendler argues that it is not the outlandishness of the scenarios, but the structure of the concept which the thought experiment is intended to explore. Using two cases from Bernard Williams, she shows that the concepts of personhood and personal identity are not organized around necessary and sufficient conditions, but rather through the continued coincidence of enough of the factors that ordinarily allow us to persist over time. This has the consequence that we judge one and the same case depending on how it is framed, because we will assimilate the case to different general rule.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>In a paper called &#8220;Personal Identity and Thought Experiments&#8221; (<a href="#Gendler2002">Gendler&#44; 2002</a>) Gendler expands on that idea and argues that our judgments concerning imaginary scenarios can go awry in certain situations. Many thought experiments make use of what John Stuart Mill called the <em>method of agreement</em>, which holds that &#8220;[i]f two or more instances of the phenomenon under investigation have only one circumstance in comon, the circumstance in which alone all the instances agree, is the cause (or effect) of the given phenomenon&#8221;. (<a href="#Mill1973">Mill&#44; 1973&#44; p.&#160;390</a>) Gendler argues that this principle, useful as it is for causal explanations, can mislead us in cases where we want to explain value judgments. To illustrate this, she gives examples of both an unproblematic as well as a problematic assessment:</p>
+</div>
+<div class="quoteblock">
+<blockquote>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>&#8220;Suppose that whenever I strike a match against the side of a matchbox and say &#8216;Let there be light&#8217;, the match bursts into flame; whenever I strike a match against the side of a matchbox and say nothing, the match bursts into flame; whenever I simply hold the match in the air and say &#8216;Let there be light&#8217;, the match remains unlit; and whenever I neither strike the match nor recite the incantation, the match remains unlit.&#8221; (<a href="#Gendler2002">Gendler&#44; 2002&#44; p.&#160;42</a>)</p>
+</div>
+</blockquote>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Which gives:</p>
+</div>
+<table class="tableblock frame-all grid-all" style="width:90%; ">
+<colgroup>
+<col style="width:33%;">
+<col style="width:33%;">
+<col style="width:33%;"> 
+</colgroup>
+<thead>
+<tr>
+<th class="tableblock halign-left valign-top"></th>
+<th class="tableblock halign-left valign-top">Striking match against box</th>
+<th class="tableblock halign-left valign-top">No striking against box</th>
+</tr>
+</thead>
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+<td class="tableblock halign-left valign-top"><p class="tableblock"><strong>Let there be light</strong></p></td>
+<td class="tableblock halign-left valign-top"><p class="tableblock">Flame</p></td>
+<td class="tableblock halign-left valign-top"><p class="tableblock">No flame</p></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="tableblock halign-left valign-top"><p class="tableblock"><strong>[silence]</strong></p></td>
+<td class="tableblock halign-left valign-top"><p class="tableblock">Flame</p></td>
+<td class="tableblock halign-left valign-top"><p class="tableblock">No flame</p></td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>She contrasts this with cases like the following:</p>
+</div>
+<table class="tableblock frame-all grid-all" style="width:90%; ">
+<colgroup>
+<col style="width:33%;">
+<col style="width:33%;">
+<col style="width:33%;"> 
+</colgroup>
+<thead>
+<tr>
+<th class="tableblock halign-left valign-top"></th>
+<th class="tableblock halign-left valign-top">X is square-like</th>
+<th class="tableblock halign-left valign-top">X is not square-like</th>
+</tr>
+</thead>
+<tbody>
+<tr>
+<td class="tableblock halign-left valign-top"><p class="tableblock"><strong>X is a square</strong></p></td>
+<td class="tableblock halign-left valign-top"><p class="tableblock">X is an appropriate target of veneration</p></td>
+<td class="tableblock halign-left valign-top"></td>
+</tr>
+<tr>
+<td class="tableblock halign-left valign-top"><p class="tableblock"><strong>X is not a square</strong></p></td>
+<td class="tableblock halign-left valign-top"><p class="tableblock">X is an appropriate target of veneration</p></td>
+<td class="tableblock halign-left valign-top"><p class="tableblock">X is not an appropriate target of veneration</p></td>
+</tr>
+</tbody>
+</table>
+
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>The chart reveals that whenever something is square-like, it is an appropriate target of geometrical veneration, and whenever something is not square-like, it is not an appropriate target of geometrical veneration. It would be mistaken to think, however, that it is square-likeness rather than squareness that explains the appropriateness of geometrical veneration. What explains the veneration is rather the approximation to an ideal, i.&thinsp;e. (the approximation to) ideal squareness.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Gendler calls this the problem of &#8216;borrowed lustre&#8217;, &#8220;where both pure and impure instances of a phenomenon are accorded the same assessment because impure instances are treated as relevantly similar to pure ones.&#8221; (<a href="#Gendler2002">Gendler&#44; 2002&#44; p.&#160;47</a>)</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect4">
+<h5 id="jennifer-nagel">Jennifer Nagel</h5>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p>Think about relationship to Jennifer Nagel&#8217;s view</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div class="sect1">
+<h2 id="references">3. References</h2>
+<div class="sectionbody">
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><a id="Barnes1982"></a>Barnes, B. (1982). On the extensions of concepts and the growth of knowledge. <em>Sociol. Rev.</em>, <em>30</em>(1), 23–44. doi:10.1111/j.1467-954X.1982.tb00652.x</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><a id="Barnes1992"></a>Barnes, B. (1992). Realism, relativism and finitism. In D. Raven, L. Van Vucht Tijssen &#38; J. de Wolf (Eds.), <em>Cognitive Relativism and Social Science</em> (131–47).</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><a id="SSK1996"></a>Barnes, B., Bloor, D., &#38; Henry, J. (1996). <em>Scientific Knowledge: A Sociological Analysis</em>. Chicago University Press and Athlone Press.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><a id="Bloor1997"></a>Bloor, D. (1997). <em>Wittgenstein, Rules and Institutions</em>. Routledge.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><a id="BoghossianLondonTalk2013"></a>Boghossian, P. (2013). Philosophy without Intuitions - PhilEvents.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><a id="Chomsky2000"></a>Chomsky, N. (2000). <em>New Horizons in the Study of Language and Mind</em>. Cambridge University Press.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><a id="Cohnitz2005"></a>Cohnitz, D. (2005). <em>Gedankenexperimente in der Philosophie</em>. Paderborn: Mentis.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><a id="Crane1991"></a>Crane, T. (1991). All The Difference in the World. <em>Philos. Q.</em>, <em>41</em>(162), 1–25.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><a id="Cummins1998"></a>Cummins, R. C. (1998). Reflection on Reflective Equilibrium. In M. DePaul &#38; W. Ramsey (Eds.), <em>Rethinking Intuition: The Psychology of Intuition and Its Role in Philosophical Inquiry</em> (113–127). Rowman &#38; Littlefield.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><a id="Fodor1987"></a>Fodor, Ja. (1987). <em>Psychosemantics: The problem of meaning in the philosophy of mind</em>. doi.apa.org.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><a id="Foley2012"></a>Foley, R. (2012). <em>When Is True Belief Knowledge?</em>. Princeton University Press.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><a id="Gendler1998"></a>Gendler, T. S. (1998). Exceptional Persons: On the Limits of Imaginary Cases. <em>Journal of Consciousness Studies</em>, <em>5</em>(5-6), 592–610.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><a id="Gendler2002"></a>Gendler, T. S. (2002). Personal Identity and Thought-Experiments. <em>Philos. Q.</em>, <em>52</em>(206), 34–54.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><a id="Hutchinson2008"></a>Hutchinson, P. (2008). <em>Shame and Philosophy: An Investigation in the Philosophy of Emotions and Ethics</em>. Palgrave Macmillan.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><a id="Kuhn1990"></a>Kuhn, T. S. (1990). Dubbing and redubbing: The vulnerability of rigid designation. In C. Wade Savage (Ed.), <em>Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science</em> (Vol. 14, 298–318). University of Minnesota Press.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><a id="Kusch2005"></a>Kusch, M. (2005). <em>Knowledge by Agreement: The Programme of Communitarian Epistemology</em>. Oxford University Press.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><a id="Mellor1977"></a>Mellor, D. H. (1977). Natural Kinds. <em>Br. J. Philos. Sci.</em>, <em>28</em>, 299–312. doi:10.1007/s10441-008-9056-7</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><a id="Mill1973"></a>Mill, J. S. (1973). A System of Logic, III viii 2. In Jm. Robson (Ed.), <em>Collected Works, Vol. VII</em>. University of Toronto Press.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><a id="Parfit1986"></a>Parfit, D. (1986). <em>Reasons and Persons</em> (560). Oxford University Press.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><a id="Putnam1975"></a>Putnam, H. (1975). The Meaning of “Meaning”. <em>Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science</em>, <em>7</em>, 131–193.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><a id="Searle1958"></a>Searle, Jr. (1958). Proper Names. <em>Mind</em>, <em>67</em>, 166–173.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><a id="Segal2000"></a>Segal, G. M. A. (2000). <em>A Slim Book About Narrow Content</em>. Contemporary Philosophical Monographs. Cambridge: MIT Press.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><a id="Slezak2013"></a>Slezak, P. (2013). <em>Content Externalism and Intuition</em>.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><a id="Stalnaker1993"></a>Stalnaker, R. (1993). Twin Earth Revisited. <em>Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society</em>, <em>93</em>, 297–311.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><a id="Thagard2012"></a>Thagard, P. (2012). <em>The Cognitive Science of Science</em>. Mit Press.</p>
+</div>
+<div class="paragraph">
+<p><a id="Wittgenstein1967"></a>Wittgenstein, L., Anscombe, G., &#38; Wright, G. H. von. (1967). <em>Zettel</em>. University of California Press.</p>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="footnotes">
+<hr>
+<div class="footnote" id="_footnote_1">
+<a href="#_footnoteref_1">1</a>. We shall put aside the point that Twin Oscar can&#8217;t really be identical to Oscar, given the fact that the human body consists to a very large part of H<sub>2</sub>O. (&lt;&lt;Stalnaker1993,Stalnaker (1993)&gt;&gt; and others TODO)
+</div>
+</div>
+<div id="footer">
+<div id="footer-text">
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