bitsquid / foundation / memory.cpp

#include "memory.h"

#include <assert.h>
#include <new>

namespace {
	using namespace foundation;

	// Header stored at the beginning of a memory allocation to indicate the
	// size of the allocated data.
	struct Header {
		uint32_t size;

	// If we need to align the memory allocation we pad the header with this
	// value after storing the size. That way we can 
	const uint32_t HEADER_PAD_VALUE = 0xffffffffu;

	// Given a pointer to the header, returns a pointer to the data that follows it.
	inline void *data_pointer(Header *header, uint32_t align) {
		void *p = header + 1;
		return memory::align_forward(p, align);

	// Given a pointer to the data, returns a pointer to the header before it.
	inline Header *header(void *data)
		uint32_t *p = (uint32_t *)data;
		while (p[-1] == HEADER_PAD_VALUE)
		return (Header *)p - 1;

	// Stores the size in the header and pads with HEADER_PAD_VALUE up to the
	// data pointer.
	inline void fill(Header *header, void *data, uint32_t size)
		header->size = size;
		uint32_t *p = (uint32_t *)(header + 1);
		while (p < data)

	/// An allocator that uses the default system malloc(). Allocations are
	/// padded so that we can store the size of each allocation and align them
	/// to the desired alignment.
	/// (Note: An OS-specific allocator that can do alignment and tracks size
	/// does need this padding and can thus be more efficient than the
	/// MallocAllocator.)
	class MallocAllocator : public Allocator
		uint32_t _total_allocated;

		// Returns the size to allocate from malloc() for a given size and align.		
		static inline uint32_t size_with_padding(uint32_t size, uint32_t align) {
			return size + align + sizeof(Header);

		MallocAllocator() : _total_allocated(0) {}

		~MallocAllocator() {
			// Check that we don't have any memory leaks when allocator is
			// destroyed.
			assert(_total_allocated == 0);

		virtual void *allocate(uint32_t size, uint32_t align) {
			const uint32_t ts = size_with_padding(size, align);
			Header *h = (Header *)malloc(ts);
			void *p = data_pointer(h, align);
			fill(h, p, ts);
			_total_allocated += ts;
			return p;

		virtual void deallocate(void *p) {
			if (!p)

			Header *h = header(p);
			_total_allocated -= h->size;

		virtual uint32_t allocated_size(void *p) {
			return header(p)->size;

		virtual uint32_t total_allocated() {
			return _total_allocated;

	/// An allocator used to allocate temporary "scratch" memory. The allocator
	/// uses a fixed size ring buffer to services the requests.
	/// Memory is always always allocated linearly. An allocation pointer is
	/// advanced through the buffer as memory is allocated and wraps around at
	/// the end of the buffer. Similarly, a free pointer is advanced as memory
	/// is freed.
	/// It is important that the scratch allocator is only used for short-lived
	/// memory allocations. A long lived allocator will lock the "free" pointer
	/// and prevent the "allocate" pointer from proceeding past it, which means
	/// the ring buffer can't be used.
	/// If the ring buffer is exhausted, the scratch allocator will use its backing
	/// allocator to allocate memory instead.
	class ScratchAllocator : public Allocator
		Allocator &_backing;
		// Start and end of the ring buffer.
		char *_begin, *_end;

		// Pointers to where to allocate memory and where to free memory.
		char *_allocate, *_free;
		/// Creates a ScratchAllocator. The allocator will use the backing
		/// allocator to create the ring buffer and to service any requests
		/// that don't fit in the ring buffer.
		/// size specifies the size of the ring buffer.
		ScratchAllocator(Allocator &backing, uint32_t size) : _backing(backing) {
			_begin = (char *)_backing.allocate(size);
			_end = _begin + size;
			_allocate = _begin;
			_free = _begin;

		~ScratchAllocator() {
			assert(_free == _allocate);

		bool in_use(void *p)
			if (_free == _allocate)
				return false;
			if (_allocate > _free)
				return p >= _free && p < _allocate;
			return p >= _free || p < _allocate;

		virtual void *allocate(uint32_t size, uint32_t align) {
			assert(align % 4 == 0);
			size = ((size + 3)/4)*4;

			char *p = _allocate;
			Header *h = (Header *)p;
			char *data = (char *)data_pointer(h, align);
			p = data + size;

			// Reached the end of the buffer, wrap around to the beginning.
			if (p > _end) {
				h->size = (_end - (char *)h) | 0x80000000u;
				p = _begin;
				h = (Header *)p;
				data = (char *)data_pointer(h, align);
				p = data + size;
			// If the buffer is exhausted use the backing allocator instead.
			if (in_use(p))
				return _backing.allocate(size, align);

			fill(h, data, p - (char *)h);
			_allocate = p;
			return data;

		virtual void deallocate(void *p) {
			if (!p)

			if (p < _begin || p >= _end) {

			// Mark this slot as free
			Header *h = header(p);
			assert((h->size & 0x80000000u) == 0);
			h->size = h->size | 0x80000000u;

			// Advance the free pointer past all free slots.
			while (_free != _allocate) {
				Header *h = (Header *)_free;
				if ((h->size & 0x80000000u) == 0)

				_free += h->size & 0x7fffffffu;
				if (_free == _end)
					_free = _begin;

		virtual uint32_t allocated_size(void *p) {
			Header *h = header(p);
			return h->size - ((char *)p - (char *)h);

		virtual uint32_t total_allocated() {
			return _end - _begin;

	struct MemoryGlobals {
		static const int ALLOCATOR_MEMORY = sizeof(MallocAllocator) + sizeof(ScratchAllocator);
		char buffer[ALLOCATOR_MEMORY];

		MallocAllocator *default_allocator;
		ScratchAllocator *default_scratch_allocator;

		MemoryGlobals() : default_allocator(0), default_scratch_allocator(0) {}

	MemoryGlobals _memory_globals;

namespace foundation
	namespace memory_globals
		void init(uint32_t temporary_memory) {
			char *p = _memory_globals.buffer;
			_memory_globals.default_allocator = new (p) MallocAllocator();
			p += sizeof(MallocAllocator);
			_memory_globals.default_scratch_allocator = new (p) ScratchAllocator(*_memory_globals.default_allocator, temporary_memory);

		Allocator &default_allocator() {
			return *_memory_globals.default_allocator;

		Allocator &default_scratch_allocator() {
			return *_memory_globals.default_scratch_allocator;

		void shutdown() {
			_memory_globals = MemoryGlobals();
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