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Move the 3k reST doc tree in place.

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Doc-3k/ACKS.txt

-Contributors to the Python Documentation
-----------------------------------------
-
-This file lists people who have contributed in some way to the Python
-documentation.  It is probably not complete -- if you feel that you or
-anyone else should be on this list, please let us know (send email to
-docs@python.org), and we'll be glad to correct the problem.
-
-* Aahz
-* Michael Abbott
-* Steve Alexander
-* Jim Ahlstrom
-* Fred Allen
-* A. Amoroso
-* Pehr Anderson
-* Oliver Andrich
-* Jesús Cea Avión
-* Daniel Barclay
-* Chris Barker
-* Don Bashford
-* Anthony Baxter
-* Bennett Benson
-* Jonathan Black
-* Robin Boerdijk
-* Michal Bozon
-* Aaron Brancotti
-* Georg Brandl
-* Keith Briggs
-* Lee Busby
-* Lorenzo M. Catucci
-* Carl Cerecke
-* Mauro Cicognini
-* Gilles Civario
-* Mike Clarkson
-* Steve Clift
-* Dave Cole
-* Matthew Cowles
-* Jeremy Craven
-* Andrew Dalke
-* Ben Darnell
-* L. Peter Deutsch
-* Robert Donohue
-* Fred L. Drake, Jr.
-* Jeff Epler
-* Michael Ernst
-* Blame Andy Eskilsson
-* Carey Evans
-* Martijn Faassen
-* Carl Feynman
-* Hernán Martínez Foffani
-* Stefan Franke
-* Jim Fulton
-* Peter Funk
-* Lele Gaifax
-* Matthew Gallagher
-* Ben Gertzfield
-* Nadim Ghaznavi
-* Jonathan Giddy
-* Shelley Gooch
-* Nathaniel Gray
-* Grant Griffin
-* Thomas Guettler
-* Anders Hammarquist
-* Mark Hammond
-* Harald Hanche-Olsen
-* Manus Hand
-* Gerhard Häring
-* Travis B. Hartwell
-* Tim Hatch
-* Janko Hauser
-* Bernhard Herzog
-* Magnus L. Hetland
-* Konrad Hinsen
-* Stefan Hoffmeister
-* Albert Hofkamp
-* Gregor Hoffleit
-* Steve Holden
-* Thomas Holenstein
-* Gerrit Holl
-* Rob Hooft
-* Brian Hooper
-* Randall Hopper
-* Michael Hudson
-* Eric Huss
-* Jeremy Hylton
-* Roger Irwin
-* Jack Jansen
-* Philip H. Jensen
-* Pedro Diaz Jimenez
-* Kent Johnson
-* Lucas de Jonge
-* Andreas Jung
-* Robert Kern
-* Jim Kerr
-* Jan Kim
-* Greg Kochanski
-* Guido Kollerie
-* Peter A. Koren
-* Daniel Kozan
-* Andrew M. Kuchling
-* Dave Kuhlman
-* Erno Kuusela
-* Detlef Lannert
-* Piers Lauder
-* Glyph Lefkowitz
-* Marc-André Lemburg
-* Ulf A. Lindgren
-* Everett Lipman
-* Mirko Liss
-* Martin von Löwis
-* Fredrik Lundh
-* Jeff MacDonald
-* John Machin
-* Andrew MacIntyre
-* Vladimir Marangozov
-* Vincent Marchetti
-* Laura Matson
-* Daniel May
-* Doug Mennella
-* Paolo Milani
-* Skip Montanaro
-* Paul Moore
-* Ross Moore
-* Sjoerd Mullender
-* Dale Nagata
-* Ng Pheng Siong
-* Koray Oner
-* Tomas Oppelstrup
-* Denis S. Otkidach
-* Zooko O'Whielacronx
-* William Park
-* Joonas Paalasmaa
-* Harri Pasanen
-* Bo Peng
-* Tim Peters
-* Christopher Petrilli
-* Justin D. Pettit
-* Chris Phoenix
-* François Pinard
-* Paul Prescod
-* Eric S. Raymond
-* Edward K. Ream
-* Sean Reifschneider
-* Bernhard Reiter
-* Armin Rigo
-* Wes Rishel
-* Jim Roskind
-* Guido van Rossum
-* Donald Wallace Rouse II
-* Nick Russo
-* Chris Ryland
-* Constantina S.
-* Hugh Sasse
-* Bob Savage
-* Scott Schram
-* Neil Schemenauer
-* Barry Scott
-* Joakim Sernbrant
-* Justin Sheehy
-* Michael Simcich
-* Ionel Simionescu
-* Gregory P. Smith
-* Roy Smith
-* Clay Spence
-* Nicholas Spies
-* Tage Stabell-Kulo
-* Frank Stajano
-* Anthony Starks
-* Greg Stein
-* Peter Stoehr
-* Mark Summerfield
-* Reuben Sumner
-* Kalle Svensson
-* Jim Tittsler
-* Ville Vainio
-* Martijn Vries
-* Charles G. Waldman
-* Greg Ward
-* Barry Warsaw
-* Corran Webster
-* Glyn Webster
-* Bob Weiner
-* Eddy Welbourne
-* Mats Wichmann
-* Gerry Wiener
-* Timothy Wild
-* Collin Winter
-* Blake Winton
-* Dan Wolfe
-* Steven Work
-* Thomas Wouters
-* Ka-Ping Yee
-* Rory Yorke
-* Moshe Zadka
-* Milan Zamazal
-* Cheng Zhang

Doc-3k/Makefile

-#
-# Makefile for Python documentation
-# ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-#
-
-# You can set these variables from the command line.
-PYTHON       ?= python
-SVNROOT      ?= http://svn.python.org/projects
-SPHINXOPTS   ?=
-
-ALLSPHINXOPTS = -b$(BUILDER) -dbuild/doctrees $(SPHINXOPTS) . build/$(BUILDER)
-
-.PHONY: help checkout update build html web htmlhelp clean
-
-help:
-	@echo "Please use \`make <target>' where <target> is one of"
-	@echo "  html  to make standalone HTML files"
-	@echo "  web   to make file usable by Sphinx.web"
-	@echo "  htmlhelp to make HTML files and a HTML help project"
-
-checkout:
-	@if [ ! -d tools/sphinx ]; then \
-	  echo "Checking out Sphinx..."; \
-	  svn checkout $(SVNROOT)/doctools/trunk/sphinx tools/sphinx; \
-	fi
-	@if [ ! -d tools/docutils ]; then \
-	  echo "Checking out Docutils..."; \
-	  svn checkout $(SVNROOT)/external/docutils-0.4/docutils tools/docutils; \
-	fi
-	@if [ ! -d tools/pygments ]; then \
-	  echo "Checking out Pygments..."; \
-	  svn checkout $(SVNROOT)/external/Pygments-0.8.1/pygments tools/pygments; \
-	fi
-
-update:
-	svn update tools/sphinx
-	svn update tools/docutils
-	svn update tools/pygments
-
-build: checkout
-	mkdir -p build/$(BUILDER) build/doctrees
-	$(PYTHON) tools/sphinx-build.py $(ALLSPHINXOPTS)
-	@echo
-
-html: BUILDER = html
-html: build
-	@echo "Build finished. The HTML pages are in build/html."
-
-web: BUILDER = web
-web: build
-	@echo "Build finished; now you can run"
-	@echo "  PYTHONPATH=tools $(PYTHON) -m sphinx.web build/web"
-	@echo "to start the server."
-
-htmlhelp: BUILDER = htmlhelp
-htmlhelp: build
-	@echo "Build finished; now you can run HTML Help Workshop with the" \
-	      "build/hhp/pydoc.hhp project file."
-
-clean:
-	-rm -rf build/*
-	-rm -rf tools/sphinx

Doc-3k/README.txt

-Python Documentation README
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-
-This directory contains the reStructuredText (reST) sources to the Python
-documentation.  You don't need to build them yourself, prebuilt versions are
-available at http://docs.python.org/download/.
-
-Documentation on the authoring Python documentation, including information about
-both style and markup, is available in the "Documenting Python" chapter of the
-documentation.  There's also a chapter intended to point out differences to
-those familiar with the previous docs written in LaTeX.
-
-
-Building the docs
-=================
-
-You need to install Python 2.5 or higher; the toolset used to build the docs are
-written in Python.  The toolset used to build the documentation is called
-*Sphinx*, it is not included in this tree, but maintained separately in the
-Python Subversion repository.  Also needed are Jinja, a templating engine
-(included in Sphinx as a Subversion external), and optionally Pygments, a code
-highlighter.
-
-
-Using make
-----------
-
-Luckily, a Makefile has been prepared so that on Unix, provided you have
-installed Python and Subversion, you can just run ::
-
-   make html
-
-to check out the necessary toolset in the `tools/` subdirectory and build the
-HTML output files.  To view the generated HTML, point your favorite browser at
-the top-level index `build/html/index.html` after running "make".
-
-Available make targets are:
-
- * "html", which builds standalone HTML files for offline viewing.
-
- * "web", which builds files usable with the Sphinx.web application (used to
-   serve the docs online at http://docs.python.org/).
-
- * "htmlhelp", which builds HTML files and a HTML Help project file usable to
-   convert them into a single Compiled HTML (.chm) file -- these are popular
-   under Microsoft Windows, but very handy on every platform.
-
-   To create the CHM file, you need to run the Microsoft HTML Help Workshop
-   over the generated project (.hhp) file.
-
-A "make update" updates the Subversion checkouts in `tools/`.
-
-
-Without make
-------------
-
-You'll need to checkout the Sphinx package to the `tools/` directory::
-
-   svn co http://svn.python.org/projects/doctools/trunk/sphinx tools/sphinx
-
-Then, you need to install Docutils 0.4 (the SVN snapshot won't work), either
-by checking it out via ::
-
-   svn co http://svn.python.org/projects/external/docutils-0.4/docutils tools/docutils
-
-or by installing it from http://docutils.sf.net/.
-
-You can optionally also install Pygments, either as a checkout via :: 
-
-   svn co http://svn.python.org/projects/external/Pygments-0.8.1/pygments tools/pygments
-
-or from PyPI at http://pypi.python.org/pypi/Pygments.
-
-
-Then, make an output directory, e.g. under `build/`, and run ::
-
-   python tools/sphinx-build.py -b<builder> . build/<outputdirectory>
-
-where `<builder>` is one of html, web or htmlhelp (for explanations see the make
-targets above).
-
-
-Contributing
-============
-
-For bugs in the content, the online version at http://docs.python.org/ has a
-"suggest change" facility that can be used to correct errors in the source text
-and submit them as a patch to the maintainers.
-
-Bugs in the toolset should be reported in the Python bug tracker at
-http://bugs.python.org/.
-
-You can also send a mail to the Python Documentation Team at docs@python.org,
-and we will process your request as soon as possible.
-
-If you want to help the Documentation Team, you are always welcome.  Just send
-a mail to docs@python.org.
-
-
-Copyright notice
-================
-
-The Python source is copyrighted, but you can freely use and copy it
-as long as you don't change or remove the copyright notice:
-
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
-Copyright (c) 2000-2007 Python Software Foundation.
-All rights reserved.
-
-Copyright (c) 2000 BeOpen.com.
-All rights reserved.
-
-Copyright (c) 1995-2000 Corporation for National Research Initiatives.
-All rights reserved.
-
-Copyright (c) 1991-1995 Stichting Mathematisch Centrum.
-All rights reserved.
-
-See the file "license.rst" for information on usage and redistribution
-of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Doc-3k/TODO.txt

-To do
-=====
-
-* split very large files and add toctrees
-* finish "Documenting Python"
-* care about XXX comments

Doc-3k/about.rst

-=====================
-About these documents
-=====================
-
-
-These documents are generated from `reStructuredText
-<http://docutils.sf.net/rst.html>`_ sources by *Sphinx*, a document processor
-specifically written for the Python documentation.
-
-In the online version of these documents, you can submit comments and suggest
-changes directly on the documentation pages.
-
-Development of the documentation and its toolchain takes place on the
-docs@python.org mailing list.  We're always looking for volunteers wanting
-to help with the docs, so feel free to send a mail there!
-
-Many thanks go to:
-
-* Fred L. Drake, Jr., the creator of the original Python documentation toolset
-  and writer of much of the content;
-* the `docutils <http://docutils.sf.net/>`_ project for creating
-  reStructuredText and the docutils suite;
-* Fredrik Lundh for his `Alternative Python Reference
-  <http://effbot.org/zone/pyref.htm>`_ project from which Sphinx got many good
-  ideas.
-
-See :ref:`reporting-bugs` for information how to report bugs in Python itself.
-
-.. including the ACKS file here so that it can be maintained separately
-.. include:: ACKS.txt
-
-It is only with the input and contributions of the Python community
-that Python has such wonderful documentation -- Thank You!

Doc-3k/bugs.rst

-.. _reporting-bugs:
-
-************************
-Reporting Bugs in Python
-************************
-
-Python is a mature programming language which has established a reputation for
-stability.  In order to maintain this reputation, the developers would like to
-know of any deficiencies you find in Python.
-
-If you find errors in the documentation, please use either the "Add a comment"
-or the "Suggest a change" features of the relevant page in the most recent
-online documentation at http://docs.python.org/.
-
-All other bug reports should be submitted via the Python Bug Tracker
-(http://bugs.python.org/).  The bug tracker offers a Web form which allows
-pertinent information to be entered and submitted to the developers.
-
-The first step in filing a report is to determine whether the problem has
-already been reported.  The advantage in doing so, aside from saving the
-developers time, is that you learn what has been done to fix it; it may be that
-the problem has already been fixed for the next release, or additional
-information is needed (in which case you are welcome to provide it if you can!).
-To do this, search the bug database using the search box on the top of the page.
-
-If the problem you're reporting is not already in the bug tracker, go back to
-the Python Bug Tracker.  If you don't already have a tracker account, select the
-"Register" link in the sidebar and undergo the registration procedure.
-Otherwise, if you're not logged in, enter your credentials and select "Login".
-It is not possible to submit a bug report anonymously.
-
-Being now logged in, you can submit a bug.  Select the "Create New" link in the
-sidebar to open the bug reporting form.
-
-The submission form has a number of fields.  For the "Title" field, enter a
-*very* short description of the problem; less than ten words is good.  In the
-"Type" field, select the type of your problem; also select the "Component" and
-"Versions" to which the bug relates.
-
-In the "Change Note" field, describe the problem in detail, including what you
-expected to happen and what did happen.  Be sure to include whether any
-extension modules were involved, and what hardware and software platform you
-were using (including version information as appropriate).
-
-Each bug report will be assigned to a developer who will determine what needs to
-be done to correct the problem.  You will receive an update each time action is
-taken on the bug.
-
-
-.. seealso::
-
-   `How to Report Bugs Effectively <http://www-mice.cs.ucl.ac.uk/multimedia/software/documentation/ReportingBugs.html>`_
-      Article which goes into some detail about how to create a useful bug report.
-      This describes what kind of information is useful and why it is useful.
-
-   `Bug Writing Guidelines <http://www.mozilla.org/quality/bug-writing-guidelines.html>`_
-      Information about writing a good bug report.  Some of this is specific to the
-      Mozilla project, but describes general good practices.
-

Doc-3k/c-api/abstract.rst

-.. highlightlang:: c
-
-
-.. _abstract:
-
-**********************
-Abstract Objects Layer
-**********************
-
-The functions in this chapter interact with Python objects regardless of their
-type, or with wide classes of object types (e.g. all numerical types, or all
-sequence types).  When used on object types for which they do not apply, they
-will raise a Python exception.
-
-It is not possible to use these functions on objects that are not properly
-initialized, such as a list object that has been created by :cfunc:`PyList_New`,
-but whose items have not been set to some non-\ ``NULL`` value yet.
-
-
-.. _object:
-
-Object Protocol
-===============
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyObject_Print(PyObject *o, FILE *fp, int flags)
-
-   Print an object *o*, on file *fp*.  Returns ``-1`` on error.  The flags argument
-   is used to enable certain printing options.  The only option currently supported
-   is :const:`Py_PRINT_RAW`; if given, the :func:`str` of the object is written
-   instead of the :func:`repr`.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyObject_HasAttrString(PyObject *o, const char *attr_name)
-
-   Returns ``1`` if *o* has the attribute *attr_name*, and ``0`` otherwise.  This
-   is equivalent to the Python expression ``hasattr(o, attr_name)``.  This function
-   always succeeds.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_GetAttrString(PyObject *o, const char *attr_name)
-
-   Retrieve an attribute named *attr_name* from object *o*. Returns the attribute
-   value on success, or *NULL* on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python
-   expression ``o.attr_name``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyObject_HasAttr(PyObject *o, PyObject *attr_name)
-
-   Returns ``1`` if *o* has the attribute *attr_name*, and ``0`` otherwise.  This
-   is equivalent to the Python expression ``hasattr(o, attr_name)``.  This function
-   always succeeds.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_GetAttr(PyObject *o, PyObject *attr_name)
-
-   Retrieve an attribute named *attr_name* from object *o*. Returns the attribute
-   value on success, or *NULL* on failure.  This is the equivalent of the Python
-   expression ``o.attr_name``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyObject_SetAttrString(PyObject *o, const char *attr_name, PyObject *v)
-
-   Set the value of the attribute named *attr_name*, for object *o*, to the value
-   *v*. Returns ``-1`` on failure.  This is the equivalent of the Python statement
-   ``o.attr_name = v``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyObject_SetAttr(PyObject *o, PyObject *attr_name, PyObject *v)
-
-   Set the value of the attribute named *attr_name*, for object *o*, to the value
-   *v*. Returns ``-1`` on failure.  This is the equivalent of the Python statement
-   ``o.attr_name = v``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyObject_DelAttrString(PyObject *o, const char *attr_name)
-
-   Delete attribute named *attr_name*, for object *o*. Returns ``-1`` on failure.
-   This is the equivalent of the Python statement: ``del o.attr_name``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyObject_DelAttr(PyObject *o, PyObject *attr_name)
-
-   Delete attribute named *attr_name*, for object *o*. Returns ``-1`` on failure.
-   This is the equivalent of the Python statement ``del o.attr_name``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_RichCompare(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2, int opid)
-
-   Compare the values of *o1* and *o2* using the operation specified by *opid*,
-   which must be one of :const:`Py_LT`, :const:`Py_LE`, :const:`Py_EQ`,
-   :const:`Py_NE`, :const:`Py_GT`, or :const:`Py_GE`, corresponding to ``<``,
-   ``<=``, ``==``, ``!=``, ``>``, or ``>=`` respectively. This is the equivalent of
-   the Python expression ``o1 op o2``, where ``op`` is the operator corresponding
-   to *opid*. Returns the value of the comparison on success, or *NULL* on failure.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyObject_RichCompareBool(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2, int opid)
-
-   Compare the values of *o1* and *o2* using the operation specified by *opid*,
-   which must be one of :const:`Py_LT`, :const:`Py_LE`, :const:`Py_EQ`,
-   :const:`Py_NE`, :const:`Py_GT`, or :const:`Py_GE`, corresponding to ``<``,
-   ``<=``, ``==``, ``!=``, ``>``, or ``>=`` respectively. Returns ``-1`` on error,
-   ``0`` if the result is false, ``1`` otherwise. This is the equivalent of the
-   Python expression ``o1 op o2``, where ``op`` is the operator corresponding to
-   *opid*.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyObject_Cmp(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2, int *result)
-
-   .. index:: builtin: cmp
-
-   Compare the values of *o1* and *o2* using a routine provided by *o1*, if one
-   exists, otherwise with a routine provided by *o2*.  The result of the comparison
-   is returned in *result*.  Returns ``-1`` on failure.  This is the equivalent of
-   the Python statement ``result = cmp(o1, o2)``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyObject_Compare(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   .. index:: builtin: cmp
-
-   Compare the values of *o1* and *o2* using a routine provided by *o1*, if one
-   exists, otherwise with a routine provided by *o2*.  Returns the result of the
-   comparison on success.  On error, the value returned is undefined; use
-   :cfunc:`PyErr_Occurred` to detect an error.  This is equivalent to the Python
-   expression ``cmp(o1, o2)``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_Repr(PyObject *o)
-
-   .. index:: builtin: repr
-
-   Compute a string representation of object *o*.  Returns the string
-   representation on success, *NULL* on failure.  This is the equivalent of the
-   Python expression ``repr(o)``.  Called by the :func:`repr` built-in function and
-   by reverse quotes.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_Str(PyObject *o)
-
-   .. index:: builtin: str
-
-   Compute a string representation of object *o*.  Returns the string
-   representation on success, *NULL* on failure.  This is the equivalent of the
-   Python expression ``str(o)``.  Called by the :func:`str` built-in function and
-   by the :keyword:`print` statement.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_Unicode(PyObject *o)
-
-   .. index:: builtin: unicode
-
-   Compute a Unicode string representation of object *o*.  Returns the Unicode
-   string representation on success, *NULL* on failure. This is the equivalent of
-   the Python expression ``unicode(o)``.  Called by the :func:`unicode` built-in
-   function.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyObject_IsInstance(PyObject *inst, PyObject *cls)
-
-   Returns ``1`` if *inst* is an instance of the class *cls* or a subclass of
-   *cls*, or ``0`` if not.  On error, returns ``-1`` and sets an exception.  If
-   *cls* is a type object rather than a class object, :cfunc:`PyObject_IsInstance`
-   returns ``1`` if *inst* is of type *cls*.  If *cls* is a tuple, the check will
-   be done against every entry in *cls*. The result will be ``1`` when at least one
-   of the checks returns ``1``, otherwise it will be ``0``. If *inst* is not a
-   class instance and *cls* is neither a type object, nor a class object, nor a
-   tuple, *inst* must have a :attr:`__class__` attribute --- the class relationship
-   of the value of that attribute with *cls* will be used to determine the result
-   of this function.
-
-   .. versionadded:: 2.1
-
-   .. versionchanged:: 2.2
-      Support for a tuple as the second argument added.
-
-Subclass determination is done in a fairly straightforward way, but includes a
-wrinkle that implementors of extensions to the class system may want to be aware
-of.  If :class:`A` and :class:`B` are class objects, :class:`B` is a subclass of
-:class:`A` if it inherits from :class:`A` either directly or indirectly.  If
-either is not a class object, a more general mechanism is used to determine the
-class relationship of the two objects.  When testing if *B* is a subclass of
-*A*, if *A* is *B*, :cfunc:`PyObject_IsSubclass` returns true.  If *A* and *B*
-are different objects, *B*'s :attr:`__bases__` attribute is searched in a
-depth-first fashion for *A* --- the presence of the :attr:`__bases__` attribute
-is considered sufficient for this determination.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyObject_IsSubclass(PyObject *derived, PyObject *cls)
-
-   Returns ``1`` if the class *derived* is identical to or derived from the class
-   *cls*, otherwise returns ``0``.  In case of an error, returns ``-1``. If *cls*
-   is a tuple, the check will be done against every entry in *cls*. The result will
-   be ``1`` when at least one of the checks returns ``1``, otherwise it will be
-   ``0``. If either *derived* or *cls* is not an actual class object (or tuple),
-   this function uses the generic algorithm described above.
-
-   .. versionadded:: 2.1
-
-   .. versionchanged:: 2.3
-      Older versions of Python did not support a tuple as the second argument.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyCallable_Check(PyObject *o)
-
-   Determine if the object *o* is callable.  Return ``1`` if the object is callable
-   and ``0`` otherwise.  This function always succeeds.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_Call(PyObject *callable_object, PyObject *args, PyObject *kw)
-
-   Call a callable Python object *callable_object*, with arguments given by the
-   tuple *args*, and named arguments given by the dictionary *kw*. If no named
-   arguments are needed, *kw* may be *NULL*. *args* must not be *NULL*, use an
-   empty tuple if no arguments are needed. Returns the result of the call on
-   success, or *NULL* on failure.  This is the equivalent of the Python expression
-   ``callable_object(*args, **kw)``.
-
-   .. versionadded:: 2.2
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_CallObject(PyObject *callable_object, PyObject *args)
-
-   Call a callable Python object *callable_object*, with arguments given by the
-   tuple *args*.  If no arguments are needed, then *args* may be *NULL*.  Returns
-   the result of the call on success, or *NULL* on failure.  This is the equivalent
-   of the Python expression ``callable_object(*args)``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_CallFunction(PyObject *callable, char *format, ...)
-
-   Call a callable Python object *callable*, with a variable number of C arguments.
-   The C arguments are described using a :cfunc:`Py_BuildValue` style format
-   string.  The format may be *NULL*, indicating that no arguments are provided.
-   Returns the result of the call on success, or *NULL* on failure.  This is the
-   equivalent of the Python expression ``callable(*args)``. Note that if you only
-   pass :ctype:`PyObject \*` args, :cfunc:`PyObject_CallFunctionObjArgs` is a
-   faster alternative.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_CallMethod(PyObject *o, char *method, char *format, ...)
-
-   Call the method named *method* of object *o* with a variable number of C
-   arguments.  The C arguments are described by a :cfunc:`Py_BuildValue` format
-   string that should  produce a tuple.  The format may be *NULL*, indicating that
-   no arguments are provided. Returns the result of the call on success, or *NULL*
-   on failure.  This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o.method(args)``.
-   Note that if you only pass :ctype:`PyObject \*` args,
-   :cfunc:`PyObject_CallMethodObjArgs` is a faster alternative.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_CallFunctionObjArgs(PyObject *callable, ..., NULL)
-
-   Call a callable Python object *callable*, with a variable number of
-   :ctype:`PyObject\*` arguments.  The arguments are provided as a variable number
-   of parameters followed by *NULL*. Returns the result of the call on success, or
-   *NULL* on failure.
-
-   .. versionadded:: 2.2
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_CallMethodObjArgs(PyObject *o, PyObject *name, ..., NULL)
-
-   Calls a method of the object *o*, where the name of the method is given as a
-   Python string object in *name*.  It is called with a variable number of
-   :ctype:`PyObject\*` arguments.  The arguments are provided as a variable number
-   of parameters followed by *NULL*. Returns the result of the call on success, or
-   *NULL* on failure.
-
-   .. versionadded:: 2.2
-
-
-.. cfunction:: long PyObject_Hash(PyObject *o)
-
-   .. index:: builtin: hash
-
-   Compute and return the hash value of an object *o*.  On failure, return ``-1``.
-   This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``hash(o)``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyObject_IsTrue(PyObject *o)
-
-   Returns ``1`` if the object *o* is considered to be true, and ``0`` otherwise.
-   This is equivalent to the Python expression ``not not o``.  On failure, return
-   ``-1``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyObject_Not(PyObject *o)
-
-   Returns ``0`` if the object *o* is considered to be true, and ``1`` otherwise.
-   This is equivalent to the Python expression ``not o``.  On failure, return
-   ``-1``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_Type(PyObject *o)
-
-   .. index:: builtin: type
-
-   When *o* is non-*NULL*, returns a type object corresponding to the object type
-   of object *o*. On failure, raises :exc:`SystemError` and returns *NULL*.  This
-   is equivalent to the Python expression ``type(o)``. This function increments the
-   reference count of the return value. There's really no reason to use this
-   function instead of the common expression ``o->ob_type``, which returns a
-   pointer of type :ctype:`PyTypeObject\*`, except when the incremented reference
-   count is needed.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyObject_TypeCheck(PyObject *o, PyTypeObject *type)
-
-   Return true if the object *o* is of type *type* or a subtype of *type*.  Both
-   parameters must be non-*NULL*.
-
-   .. versionadded:: 2.2
-
-
-.. cfunction:: Py_ssize_t PyObject_Length(PyObject *o)
-               Py_ssize_t PyObject_Size(PyObject *o)
-
-   .. index:: builtin: len
-
-   Return the length of object *o*.  If the object *o* provides either the sequence
-   and mapping protocols, the sequence length is returned.  On error, ``-1`` is
-   returned.  This is the equivalent to the Python expression ``len(o)``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_GetItem(PyObject *o, PyObject *key)
-
-   Return element of *o* corresponding to the object *key* or *NULL* on failure.
-   This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o[key]``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyObject_SetItem(PyObject *o, PyObject *key, PyObject *v)
-
-   Map the object *key* to the value *v*.  Returns ``-1`` on failure.  This is the
-   equivalent of the Python statement ``o[key] = v``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyObject_DelItem(PyObject *o, PyObject *key)
-
-   Delete the mapping for *key* from *o*.  Returns ``-1`` on failure. This is the
-   equivalent of the Python statement ``del o[key]``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyObject_AsFileDescriptor(PyObject *o)
-
-   Derives a file-descriptor from a Python object.  If the object is an integer or
-   long integer, its value is returned.  If not, the object's :meth:`fileno` method
-   is called if it exists; the method must return an integer or long integer, which
-   is returned as the file descriptor value.  Returns ``-1`` on failure.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_Dir(PyObject *o)
-
-   This is equivalent to the Python expression ``dir(o)``, returning a (possibly
-   empty) list of strings appropriate for the object argument, or *NULL* if there
-   was an error.  If the argument is *NULL*, this is like the Python ``dir()``,
-   returning the names of the current locals; in this case, if no execution frame
-   is active then *NULL* is returned but :cfunc:`PyErr_Occurred` will return false.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_GetIter(PyObject *o)
-
-   This is equivalent to the Python expression ``iter(o)``. It returns a new
-   iterator for the object argument, or the object  itself if the object is already
-   an iterator.  Raises :exc:`TypeError` and returns *NULL* if the object cannot be
-   iterated.
-
-
-.. _number:
-
-Number Protocol
-===============
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyNumber_Check(PyObject *o)
-
-   Returns ``1`` if the object *o* provides numeric protocols, and false otherwise.
-   This function always succeeds.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Add(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   Returns the result of adding *o1* and *o2*, or *NULL* on failure.  This is the
-   equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 + o2``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Subtract(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   Returns the result of subtracting *o2* from *o1*, or *NULL* on failure.  This is
-   the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 - o2``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Multiply(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   Returns the result of multiplying *o1* and *o2*, or *NULL* on failure.  This is
-   the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 * o2``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Divide(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   Returns the result of dividing *o1* by *o2*, or *NULL* on failure.  This is the
-   equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 / o2``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_FloorDivide(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   Return the floor of *o1* divided by *o2*, or *NULL* on failure.  This is
-   equivalent to the "classic" division of integers.
-
-   .. versionadded:: 2.2
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_TrueDivide(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   Return a reasonable approximation for the mathematical value of *o1* divided by
-   *o2*, or *NULL* on failure.  The return value is "approximate" because binary
-   floating point numbers are approximate; it is not possible to represent all real
-   numbers in base two.  This function can return a floating point value when
-   passed two integers.
-
-   .. versionadded:: 2.2
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Remainder(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   Returns the remainder of dividing *o1* by *o2*, or *NULL* on failure.  This is
-   the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 % o2``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Divmod(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   .. index:: builtin: divmod
-
-   See the built-in function :func:`divmod`. Returns *NULL* on failure.  This is
-   the equivalent of the Python expression ``divmod(o1, o2)``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Power(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2, PyObject *o3)
-
-   .. index:: builtin: pow
-
-   See the built-in function :func:`pow`. Returns *NULL* on failure.  This is the
-   equivalent of the Python expression ``pow(o1, o2, o3)``, where *o3* is optional.
-   If *o3* is to be ignored, pass :cdata:`Py_None` in its place (passing *NULL* for
-   *o3* would cause an illegal memory access).
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Negative(PyObject *o)
-
-   Returns the negation of *o* on success, or *NULL* on failure. This is the
-   equivalent of the Python expression ``-o``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Positive(PyObject *o)
-
-   Returns *o* on success, or *NULL* on failure.  This is the equivalent of the
-   Python expression ``+o``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Absolute(PyObject *o)
-
-   .. index:: builtin: abs
-
-   Returns the absolute value of *o*, or *NULL* on failure.  This is the equivalent
-   of the Python expression ``abs(o)``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Invert(PyObject *o)
-
-   Returns the bitwise negation of *o* on success, or *NULL* on failure.  This is
-   the equivalent of the Python expression ``~o``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Lshift(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   Returns the result of left shifting *o1* by *o2* on success, or *NULL* on
-   failure.  This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 << o2``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Rshift(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   Returns the result of right shifting *o1* by *o2* on success, or *NULL* on
-   failure.  This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 >> o2``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_And(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   Returns the "bitwise and" of *o1* and *o2* on success and *NULL* on failure.
-   This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 & o2``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Xor(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   Returns the "bitwise exclusive or" of *o1* by *o2* on success, or *NULL* on
-   failure.  This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 ^ o2``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Or(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   Returns the "bitwise or" of *o1* and *o2* on success, or *NULL* on failure.
-   This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 | o2``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceAdd(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   Returns the result of adding *o1* and *o2*, or *NULL* on failure.  The operation
-   is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.  This is the equivalent of the Python
-   statement ``o1 += o2``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceSubtract(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   Returns the result of subtracting *o2* from *o1*, or *NULL* on failure.  The
-   operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.  This is the equivalent of
-   the Python statement ``o1 -= o2``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceMultiply(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   Returns the result of multiplying *o1* and *o2*, or *NULL* on failure.  The
-   operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.  This is the equivalent of
-   the Python statement ``o1 *= o2``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceDivide(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   Returns the result of dividing *o1* by *o2*, or *NULL* on failure.  The
-   operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it. This is the equivalent of
-   the Python statement ``o1 /= o2``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceFloorDivide(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   Returns the mathematical floor of dividing *o1* by *o2*, or *NULL* on failure.
-   The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.  This is the equivalent
-   of the Python statement ``o1 //= o2``.
-
-   .. versionadded:: 2.2
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceTrueDivide(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   Return a reasonable approximation for the mathematical value of *o1* divided by
-   *o2*, or *NULL* on failure.  The return value is "approximate" because binary
-   floating point numbers are approximate; it is not possible to represent all real
-   numbers in base two.  This function can return a floating point value when
-   passed two integers.  The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.
-
-   .. versionadded:: 2.2
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceRemainder(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   Returns the remainder of dividing *o1* by *o2*, or *NULL* on failure.  The
-   operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.  This is the equivalent of
-   the Python statement ``o1 %= o2``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlacePower(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2, PyObject *o3)
-
-   .. index:: builtin: pow
-
-   See the built-in function :func:`pow`. Returns *NULL* on failure.  The operation
-   is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.  This is the equivalent of the Python
-   statement ``o1 **= o2`` when o3 is :cdata:`Py_None`, or an in-place variant of
-   ``pow(o1, o2, o3)`` otherwise. If *o3* is to be ignored, pass :cdata:`Py_None`
-   in its place (passing *NULL* for *o3* would cause an illegal memory access).
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceLshift(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   Returns the result of left shifting *o1* by *o2* on success, or *NULL* on
-   failure.  The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.  This is the
-   equivalent of the Python statement ``o1 <<= o2``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceRshift(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   Returns the result of right shifting *o1* by *o2* on success, or *NULL* on
-   failure.  The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.  This is the
-   equivalent of the Python statement ``o1 >>= o2``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceAnd(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   Returns the "bitwise and" of *o1* and *o2* on success and *NULL* on failure. The
-   operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.  This is the equivalent of
-   the Python statement ``o1 &= o2``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceXor(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   Returns the "bitwise exclusive or" of *o1* by *o2* on success, or *NULL* on
-   failure.  The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.  This is the
-   equivalent of the Python statement ``o1 ^= o2``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceOr(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   Returns the "bitwise or" of *o1* and *o2* on success, or *NULL* on failure.  The
-   operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.  This is the equivalent of
-   the Python statement ``o1 |= o2``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Int(PyObject *o)
-
-   .. index:: builtin: int
-
-   Returns the *o* converted to an integer object on success, or *NULL* on failure.
-   If the argument is outside the integer range a long object will be returned
-   instead. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``int(o)``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Long(PyObject *o)
-
-   .. index:: builtin: long
-
-   Returns the *o* converted to a long integer object on success, or *NULL* on
-   failure.  This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``long(o)``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Float(PyObject *o)
-
-   .. index:: builtin: float
-
-   Returns the *o* converted to a float object on success, or *NULL* on failure.
-   This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``float(o)``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Index(PyObject *o)
-
-   Returns the *o* converted to a Python int or long on success or *NULL* with a
-   TypeError exception raised on failure.
-
-   .. versionadded:: 2.5
-
-
-.. cfunction:: Py_ssize_t PyNumber_AsSsize_t(PyObject *o, PyObject *exc)
-
-   Returns *o* converted to a Py_ssize_t value if *o* can be interpreted as an
-   integer. If *o* can be converted to a Python int or long but the attempt to
-   convert to a Py_ssize_t value would raise an :exc:`OverflowError`, then the
-   *exc* argument is the type of exception that will be raised (usually
-   :exc:`IndexError` or :exc:`OverflowError`).  If *exc* is *NULL*, then the
-   exception is cleared and the value is clipped to *PY_SSIZE_T_MIN* for a negative
-   integer or *PY_SSIZE_T_MAX* for a positive integer.
-
-   .. versionadded:: 2.5
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyIndex_Check(PyObject *o)
-
-   Returns True if *o* is an index integer (has the nb_index slot of  the
-   tp_as_number structure filled in).
-
-   .. versionadded:: 2.5
-
-
-.. _sequence:
-
-Sequence Protocol
-=================
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PySequence_Check(PyObject *o)
-
-   Return ``1`` if the object provides sequence protocol, and ``0`` otherwise.
-   This function always succeeds.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: Py_ssize_t PySequence_Size(PyObject *o)
-
-   .. index:: builtin: len
-
-   Returns the number of objects in sequence *o* on success, and ``-1`` on failure.
-   For objects that do not provide sequence protocol, this is equivalent to the
-   Python expression ``len(o)``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: Py_ssize_t PySequence_Length(PyObject *o)
-
-   Alternate name for :cfunc:`PySequence_Size`.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PySequence_Concat(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   Return the concatenation of *o1* and *o2* on success, and *NULL* on failure.
-   This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 + o2``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PySequence_Repeat(PyObject *o, Py_ssize_t count)
-
-   Return the result of repeating sequence object *o* *count* times, or *NULL* on
-   failure.  This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o * count``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PySequence_InPlaceConcat(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
-
-   Return the concatenation of *o1* and *o2* on success, and *NULL* on failure.
-   The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.  This is the equivalent
-   of the Python expression ``o1 += o2``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PySequence_InPlaceRepeat(PyObject *o, Py_ssize_t count)
-
-   Return the result of repeating sequence object *o* *count* times, or *NULL* on
-   failure.  The operation is done *in-place* when *o* supports it.  This is the
-   equivalent of the Python expression ``o *= count``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PySequence_GetItem(PyObject *o, Py_ssize_t i)
-
-   Return the *i*th element of *o*, or *NULL* on failure. This is the equivalent of
-   the Python expression ``o[i]``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PySequence_GetSlice(PyObject *o, Py_ssize_t i1, Py_ssize_t i2)
-
-   Return the slice of sequence object *o* between *i1* and *i2*, or *NULL* on
-   failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o[i1:i2]``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PySequence_SetItem(PyObject *o, Py_ssize_t i, PyObject *v)
-
-   Assign object *v* to the *i*th element of *o*.  Returns ``-1`` on failure.  This
-   is the equivalent of the Python statement ``o[i] = v``.  This function *does
-   not* steal a reference to *v*.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PySequence_DelItem(PyObject *o, Py_ssize_t i)
-
-   Delete the *i*th element of object *o*.  Returns ``-1`` on failure.  This is the
-   equivalent of the Python statement ``del o[i]``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PySequence_SetSlice(PyObject *o, Py_ssize_t i1, Py_ssize_t i2, PyObject *v)
-
-   Assign the sequence object *v* to the slice in sequence object *o* from *i1* to
-   *i2*.  This is the equivalent of the Python statement ``o[i1:i2] = v``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PySequence_DelSlice(PyObject *o, Py_ssize_t i1, Py_ssize_t i2)
-
-   Delete the slice in sequence object *o* from *i1* to *i2*.  Returns ``-1`` on
-   failure.  This is the equivalent of the Python statement ``del o[i1:i2]``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: Py_ssize_t PySequence_Count(PyObject *o, PyObject *value)
-
-   Return the number of occurrences of *value* in *o*, that is, return the number
-   of keys for which ``o[key] == value``.  On failure, return ``-1``.  This is
-   equivalent to the Python expression ``o.count(value)``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PySequence_Contains(PyObject *o, PyObject *value)
-
-   Determine if *o* contains *value*.  If an item in *o* is equal to *value*,
-   return ``1``, otherwise return ``0``. On error, return ``-1``.  This is
-   equivalent to the Python expression ``value in o``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: Py_ssize_t PySequence_Index(PyObject *o, PyObject *value)
-
-   Return the first index *i* for which ``o[i] == value``.  On error, return
-   ``-1``.    This is equivalent to the Python expression ``o.index(value)``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PySequence_List(PyObject *o)
-
-   Return a list object with the same contents as the arbitrary sequence *o*.  The
-   returned list is guaranteed to be new.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PySequence_Tuple(PyObject *o)
-
-   .. index:: builtin: tuple
-
-   Return a tuple object with the same contents as the arbitrary sequence *o* or
-   *NULL* on failure.  If *o* is a tuple, a new reference will be returned,
-   otherwise a tuple will be constructed with the appropriate contents.  This is
-   equivalent to the Python expression ``tuple(o)``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PySequence_Fast(PyObject *o, const char *m)
-
-   Returns the sequence *o* as a tuple, unless it is already a tuple or list, in
-   which case *o* is returned.  Use :cfunc:`PySequence_Fast_GET_ITEM` to access the
-   members of the result.  Returns *NULL* on failure.  If the object is not a
-   sequence, raises :exc:`TypeError` with *m* as the message text.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PySequence_Fast_GET_ITEM(PyObject *o, Py_ssize_t i)
-
-   Return the *i*th element of *o*, assuming that *o* was returned by
-   :cfunc:`PySequence_Fast`, *o* is not *NULL*, and that *i* is within bounds.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject** PySequence_Fast_ITEMS(PyObject *o)
-
-   Return the underlying array of PyObject pointers.  Assumes that *o* was returned
-   by :cfunc:`PySequence_Fast` and *o* is not *NULL*.
-
-   .. versionadded:: 2.4
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PySequence_ITEM(PyObject *o, Py_ssize_t i)
-
-   Return the *i*th element of *o* or *NULL* on failure. Macro form of
-   :cfunc:`PySequence_GetItem` but without checking that
-   :cfunc:`PySequence_Check(o)` is true and without adjustment for negative
-   indices.
-
-   .. versionadded:: 2.3
-
-
-.. cfunction:: Py_ssize_t PySequence_Fast_GET_SIZE(PyObject *o)
-
-   Returns the length of *o*, assuming that *o* was returned by
-   :cfunc:`PySequence_Fast` and that *o* is not *NULL*.  The size can also be
-   gotten by calling :cfunc:`PySequence_Size` on *o*, but
-   :cfunc:`PySequence_Fast_GET_SIZE` is faster because it can assume *o* is a list
-   or tuple.
-
-
-.. _mapping:
-
-Mapping Protocol
-================
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyMapping_Check(PyObject *o)
-
-   Return ``1`` if the object provides mapping protocol, and ``0`` otherwise.  This
-   function always succeeds.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: Py_ssize_t PyMapping_Length(PyObject *o)
-
-   .. index:: builtin: len
-
-   Returns the number of keys in object *o* on success, and ``-1`` on failure.  For
-   objects that do not provide mapping protocol, this is equivalent to the Python
-   expression ``len(o)``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyMapping_DelItemString(PyObject *o, char *key)
-
-   Remove the mapping for object *key* from the object *o*. Return ``-1`` on
-   failure.  This is equivalent to the Python statement ``del o[key]``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyMapping_DelItem(PyObject *o, PyObject *key)
-
-   Remove the mapping for object *key* from the object *o*. Return ``-1`` on
-   failure.  This is equivalent to the Python statement ``del o[key]``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyMapping_HasKeyString(PyObject *o, char *key)
-
-   On success, return ``1`` if the mapping object has the key *key* and ``0``
-   otherwise.  This is equivalent to the Python expression ``o.has_key(key)``.
-   This function always succeeds.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyMapping_HasKey(PyObject *o, PyObject *key)
-
-   Return ``1`` if the mapping object has the key *key* and ``0`` otherwise.  This
-   is equivalent to the Python expression ``o.has_key(key)``.  This function always
-   succeeds.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyMapping_Keys(PyObject *o)
-
-   On success, return a list of the keys in object *o*.  On failure, return *NULL*.
-   This is equivalent to the Python expression ``o.keys()``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyMapping_Values(PyObject *o)
-
-   On success, return a list of the values in object *o*.  On failure, return
-   *NULL*. This is equivalent to the Python expression ``o.values()``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyMapping_Items(PyObject *o)
-
-   On success, return a list of the items in object *o*, where each item is a tuple
-   containing a key-value pair.  On failure, return *NULL*. This is equivalent to
-   the Python expression ``o.items()``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyMapping_GetItemString(PyObject *o, char *key)
-
-   Return element of *o* corresponding to the object *key* or *NULL* on failure.
-   This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o[key]``.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyMapping_SetItemString(PyObject *o, char *key, PyObject *v)
-
-   Map the object *key* to the value *v* in object *o*. Returns ``-1`` on failure.
-   This is the equivalent of the Python statement ``o[key] = v``.
-
-
-.. _iterator:
-
-Iterator Protocol
-=================
-
-.. versionadded:: 2.2
-
-There are only a couple of functions specifically for working with iterators.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyIter_Check(PyObject *o)
-
-   Return true if the object *o* supports the iterator protocol.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyIter_Next(PyObject *o)
-
-   Return the next value from the iteration *o*.  If the object is an iterator,
-   this retrieves the next value from the iteration, and returns *NULL* with no
-   exception set if there are no remaining items.  If the object is not an
-   iterator, :exc:`TypeError` is raised, or if there is an error in retrieving the
-   item, returns *NULL* and passes along the exception.
-
-To write a loop which iterates over an iterator, the C code should look
-something like this::
-
-   PyObject *iterator = PyObject_GetIter(obj);
-   PyObject *item;
-
-   if (iterator == NULL) {
-       /* propagate error */
-   }
-
-   while (item = PyIter_Next(iterator)) {
-       /* do something with item */
-       ...
-       /* release reference when done */
-       Py_DECREF(item);
-   }
-
-   Py_DECREF(iterator);
-
-   if (PyErr_Occurred()) {
-       /* propagate error */
-   }
-   else {
-       /* continue doing useful work */
-   }
-
-
-.. _abstract-buffer:
-
-Buffer Protocol
-===============
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyObject_AsCharBuffer(PyObject *obj, const char **buffer, Py_ssize_t *buffer_len)
-
-   Returns a pointer to a read-only memory location useable as character- based
-   input.  The *obj* argument must support the single-segment character buffer
-   interface.  On success, returns ``0``, sets *buffer* to the memory location and
-   *buffer_len* to the buffer length.  Returns ``-1`` and sets a :exc:`TypeError`
-   on error.
-
-   .. versionadded:: 1.6
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyObject_AsReadBuffer(PyObject *obj, const void **buffer, Py_ssize_t *buffer_len)
-
-   Returns a pointer to a read-only memory location containing arbitrary data.  The
-   *obj* argument must support the single-segment readable buffer interface.  On
-   success, returns ``0``, sets *buffer* to the memory location and *buffer_len* to
-   the buffer length.  Returns ``-1`` and sets a :exc:`TypeError` on error.
-
-   .. versionadded:: 1.6
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyObject_CheckReadBuffer(PyObject *o)
-
-   Returns ``1`` if *o* supports the single-segment readable buffer interface.
-   Otherwise returns ``0``.
-
-   .. versionadded:: 2.2
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyObject_AsWriteBuffer(PyObject *obj, void **buffer, Py_ssize_t *buffer_len)
-
-   Returns a pointer to a writeable memory location.  The *obj* argument must
-   support the single-segment, character buffer interface.  On success, returns
-   ``0``, sets *buffer* to the memory location and *buffer_len* to the buffer
-   length.  Returns ``-1`` and sets a :exc:`TypeError` on error.
-
-   .. versionadded:: 1.6
-

Doc-3k/c-api/concrete.rst

-.. highlightlang:: c
-
-
-.. _concrete:
-
-**********************
-Concrete Objects Layer
-**********************
-
-The functions in this chapter are specific to certain Python object types.
-Passing them an object of the wrong type is not a good idea; if you receive an
-object from a Python program and you are not sure that it has the right type,
-you must perform a type check first; for example, to check that an object is a
-dictionary, use :cfunc:`PyDict_Check`.  The chapter is structured like the
-"family tree" of Python object types.
-
-.. warning::
-
-   While the functions described in this chapter carefully check the type of the
-   objects which are passed in, many of them do not check for *NULL* being passed
-   instead of a valid object.  Allowing *NULL* to be passed in can cause memory
-   access violations and immediate termination of the interpreter.
-
-
-.. _fundamental:
-
-Fundamental Objects
-===================
-
-This section describes Python type objects and the singleton object ``None``.
-
-
-.. _typeobjects:
-
-Type Objects
-------------
-
-.. index:: object: type
-
-
-.. ctype:: PyTypeObject
-
-   The C structure of the objects used to describe built-in types.
-
-
-.. cvar:: PyObject* PyType_Type
-
-   .. index:: single: TypeType (in module types)
-
-   This is the type object for type objects; it is the same object as ``type`` and
-   ``types.TypeType`` in the Python layer.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyType_Check(PyObject *o)
-
-   Return true if the object *o* is a type object, including instances of types
-   derived from the standard type object.  Return false in all other cases.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyType_CheckExact(PyObject *o)
-
-   Return true if the object *o* is a type object, but not a subtype of the
-   standard type object.  Return false in all other cases.
-
-   .. versionadded:: 2.2
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyType_HasFeature(PyObject *o, int feature)
-
-   Return true if the type object *o* sets the feature *feature*.  Type features
-   are denoted by single bit flags.
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyType_IS_GC(PyObject *o)
-
-   Return true if the type object includes support for the cycle detector; this
-   tests the type flag :const:`Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC`.
-
-   .. versionadded:: 2.0
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyType_IsSubtype(PyTypeObject *a, PyTypeObject *b)
-
-   Return true if *a* is a subtype of *b*.
-
-   .. versionadded:: 2.2
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyType_GenericAlloc(PyTypeObject *type, Py_ssize_t nitems)
-
-   .. versionadded:: 2.2
-
-
-.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyType_GenericNew(PyTypeObject *type, PyObject *args, PyObject *kwds)
-
-   .. versionadded:: 2.2
-
-
-.. cfunction:: int PyType_Ready(PyTypeObject *type)
-
-   Finalize a type object.  This should be called on al