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Initial checkin of the 2.6 and 3.0 doc trees.

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+Contributors to the Python Documentation
+----------------------------------------
+
+This file lists people who have contributed in some way to the Python
+documentation.  It is probably not complete -- if you feel that you or
+anyone else should be on this list, please let us know (send email to
+docs@python.org), and we'll be glad to correct the problem.
+
+It is only with the input and contributions of the Python community
+that Python has such wonderful documentation -- Thank You!
+
+
+* Aahz
+* Michael Abbott
+* Steve Alexander
+* Jim Ahlstrom
+* Fred Allen
+* A. Amoroso
+* Pehr Anderson
+* Oliver Andrich
+* Jesús Cea Avión
+* Daniel Barclay
+* Chris Barker
+* Don Bashford
+* Anthony Baxter
+* Bennett Benson
+* Jonathan Black
+* Robin Boerdijk
+* Michal Bozon
+* Aaron Brancotti
+* Keith Briggs
+* Lee Busby
+* Lorenzo M. Catucci
+* Mauro Cicognini
+* Gilles Civario
+* Mike Clarkson
+* Steve Clift
+* Dave Cole
+* Matthew Cowles
+* Jeremy Craven
+* Andrew Dalke
+* Ben Darnell
+* L. Peter Deutsch
+* Robert Donohue
+* Fred L. Drake, Jr.
+* Jeff Epler
+* Michael Ernst
+* Blame Andy Eskilsson
+* Carey Evans
+* Martijn Faassen
+* Carl Feynman
+* Hernán Martínez Foffani
+* Stefan Franke
+* Jim Fulton
+* Peter Funk
+* Lele Gaifax
+* Matthew Gallagher
+* Ben Gertzfield
+* Nadim Ghaznavi
+* Jonathan Giddy
+* Shelley Gooch
+* Nathaniel Gray
+* Grant Griffin
+* Thomas Guettler
+* Anders Hammarquist
+* Mark Hammond
+* Harald Hanche-Olsen
+* Manus Hand
+* Gerhard Häring
+* Travis B. Hartwell
+* Janko Hauser
+* Bernhard Herzog
+* Magnus L. Hetland
+* Konrad Hinsen
+* Stefan Hoffmeister
+* Albert Hofkamp
+* Gregor Hoffleit
+* Steve Holden
+* Thomas Holenstein
+* Gerrit Holl
+* Rob Hooft
+* Brian Hooper
+* Randall Hopper
+* Michael Hudson
+* Eric Huss
+* Jeremy Hylton
+* Roger Irwin
+* Jack Jansen
+* Philip H. Jensen
+* Pedro Diaz Jimenez
+* Kent Johnson
+* Lucas de Jonge
+* Andreas Jung
+* Robert Kern
+* Jim Kerr
+* Jan Kim
+* Greg Kochanski
+* Guido Kollerie
+* Peter A. Koren
+* Daniel Kozan
+* Andrew M. Kuchling
+* Dave Kuhlman
+* Erno Kuusela
+* Detlef Lannert
+* Piers Lauder
+* Glyph Lefkowitz
+* Marc-André Lemburg
+* Ulf A. Lindgren
+* Everett Lipman
+* Mirko Liss
+* Martin von Löwis
+* Fredrik Lundh
+* Jeff MacDonald
+* John Machin
+* Andrew MacIntyre
+* Vladimir Marangozov
+* Vincent Marchetti
+* Laura Matson
+* Daniel May
+* Doug Mennella
+* Paolo Milani
+* Skip Montanaro
+* Paul Moore
+* Ross Moore
+* Sjoerd Mullender
+* Dale Nagata
+* Ng Pheng Siong
+* Koray Oner
+* Tomas Oppelstrup
+* Denis S. Otkidach
+* Zooko O'Whielacronx
+* William Park
+* Joonas Paalasmaa
+* Harri Pasanen
+* Bo Peng
+* Tim Peters
+* Christopher Petrilli
+* Justin D. Pettit
+* Chris Phoenix
+* François Pinard
+* Paul Prescod
+* Eric S. Raymond
+* Edward K. Ream
+* Sean Reifschneider
+* Bernhard Reiter
+* Armin Rigo
+* Wes Rishel
+* Jim Roskind
+* Guido van Rossum
+* Donald Wallace Rouse II
+* Nick Russo
+* Chris Ryland
+* Constantina S.
+* Hugh Sasse
+* Bob Savage
+* Scott Schram
+* Neil Schemenauer
+* Barry Scott
+* Joakim Sernbrant
+* Justin Sheehy
+* Michael Simcich
+* Ionel Simionescu
+* Gregory P. Smith
+* Roy Smith
+* Clay Spence
+* Nicholas Spies
+* Tage Stabell-Kulo
+* Frank Stajano
+* Anthony Starks
+* Greg Stein
+* Peter Stoehr
+* Mark Summerfield
+* Reuben Sumner
+* Kalle Svensson
+* Jim Tittsler
+* Ville Vainio
+* Martijn Vries
+* Charles G. Waldman
+* Greg Ward
+* Barry Warsaw
+* Corran Webster
+* Glyn Webster
+* Bob Weiner
+* Eddy Welbourne
+* Mats Wichmann
+* Gerry Wiener
+* Timothy Wild
+* Collin Winter
+* Blake Winton
+* Dan Wolfe
+* Steven Work
+* Thomas Wouters
+* Ka-Ping Yee
+* Rory Yorke
+* Moshe Zadka
+* Milan Zamazal
+* Cheng Zhang
+To do after conversion
+======================
+
+* fix all references and links marked with `XXX`
+* adjust all literal include paths
+* remove all non-literal includes
+* fix all duplicate labels and undefined label references
+* fix the email package docs: add a toctree
+* split very large files and add toctrees
+* integrate standalone HOWTOs
+* find out which files get "comments disabled" metadata
+* double backslashes in production lists
+* add synopses for each module
+* write "About these documents"
+* finish "Documenting Python"
+* extend copyright.rst
+* fix the "quadruple" index term
+* fix :file: and |version| in install
+=====================
+About these documents
+=====================
+
+These documents are generated from `reStructuredText
+<http://docutils.sf.net/rst.html>`_ sources by *Sphinx*, a document processor
+specifically written for the Python documentation.
+
+In the online version of these documents, you can submit comments and suggest
+changes directly on the documentation pages.
+
+Development of the documentation and its toolchain takes place on the
+docs@python.org mailing list.  We're always looking for volunteers wanting
+to help with the docs, so feel free to send a mail there!
+
+See :ref:`reporting-bugs` for information how to report bugs in Python itself.
+
+.. include:: ACKS
+**************
+Reporting Bugs
+**************
+
+.. _reporting-bugs:
+
+Python is a mature programming language which has established a reputation for
+stability.  In order to maintain this reputation, the developers would like to
+know of any deficiencies you find in Python or its documentation.
+
+Before submitting a report, you will be required to log into SourceForge; this
+will make it possible for the developers to contact you for additional
+information if needed.  It is not possible to submit a bug report anonymously.
+
+All bug reports should be submitted via the Python Bug Tracker on SourceForge
+(http://sourceforge.net/bugs/?group_id=5470).  The bug tracker offers a Web form
+which allows pertinent information to be entered and submitted to the
+developers.
+
+The first step in filing a report is to determine whether the problem has
+already been reported.  The advantage in doing so, aside from saving the
+developers time, is that you learn what has been done to fix it; it may be that
+the problem has already been fixed for the next release, or additional
+information is needed (in which case you are welcome to provide it if you can!).
+To do this, search the bug database using the search box on the left side of the
+page.
+
+If the problem you're reporting is not already in the bug tracker, go back to
+the Python Bug Tracker (http://sourceforge.net/bugs/?group_id=5470).  Select the
+"Submit a Bug" link at the top of the page to open the bug reporting form.
+
+The submission form has a number of fields.  The only fields that are required
+are the "Summary" and "Details" fields.  For the summary, enter a *very* short
+description of the problem; less than ten words is good.  In the Details field,
+describe the problem in detail, including what you expected to happen and what
+did happen.  Be sure to include the version of Python you used, whether any
+extension modules were involved, and what hardware and software platform you
+were using (including version information as appropriate).
+
+The only other field that you may want to set is the "Category" field, which
+allows you to place the bug report into a broad category (such as
+"Documentation" or "Library").
+
+Each bug report will be assigned to a developer who will determine what needs to
+be done to correct the problem.  You will receive an update each time action is
+taken on the bug.
+
+
+.. seealso::
+
+   `How to Report Bugs Effectively <http://www-mice.cs.ucl.ac.uk/multimedia/software/documentation/ReportingBugs.html>`_
+      Article which goes into some detail about how to create a useful bug report.
+      This describes what kind of information is useful and why it is useful.
+
+   `Bug Writing Guidelines <http://www.mozilla.org/quality/bug-writing-guidelines.html>`_
+      Information about writing a good bug report.  Some of this is specific to the
+      Mozilla project, but describes general good practices.
+

Doc-26/c-api/abstract.rst

+.. highlightlang:: c
+
+
+.. _abstract:
+
+**********************
+Abstract Objects Layer
+**********************
+
+The functions in this chapter interact with Python objects regardless of their
+type, or with wide classes of object types (e.g. all numerical types, or all
+sequence types).  When used on object types for which they do not apply, they
+will raise a Python exception.
+
+It is not possible to use these functions on objects that are not properly
+initialized, such as a list object that has been created by :cfunc:`PyList_New`,
+but whose items have not been set to some non-\ ``NULL`` value yet.
+
+
+.. _object:
+
+Object Protocol
+===============
+
+
+.. cfunction:: int PyObject_Print(PyObject *o, FILE *fp, int flags)
+
+   Print an object *o*, on file *fp*.  Returns ``-1`` on error.  The flags argument
+   is used to enable certain printing options.  The only option currently supported
+   is :const:`Py_PRINT_RAW`; if given, the :func:`str` of the object is written
+   instead of the :func:`repr`.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: int PyObject_HasAttrString(PyObject *o, const char *attr_name)
+
+   Returns ``1`` if *o* has the attribute *attr_name*, and ``0`` otherwise.  This
+   is equivalent to the Python expression ``hasattr(o, attr_name)``.  This function
+   always succeeds.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_GetAttrString(PyObject *o, const char *attr_name)
+
+   Retrieve an attribute named *attr_name* from object *o*. Returns the attribute
+   value on success, or *NULL* on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python
+   expression ``o.attr_name``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: int PyObject_HasAttr(PyObject *o, PyObject *attr_name)
+
+   Returns ``1`` if *o* has the attribute *attr_name*, and ``0`` otherwise.  This
+   is equivalent to the Python expression ``hasattr(o, attr_name)``.  This function
+   always succeeds.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_GetAttr(PyObject *o, PyObject *attr_name)
+
+   Retrieve an attribute named *attr_name* from object *o*. Returns the attribute
+   value on success, or *NULL* on failure.  This is the equivalent of the Python
+   expression ``o.attr_name``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: int PyObject_SetAttrString(PyObject *o, const char *attr_name, PyObject *v)
+
+   Set the value of the attribute named *attr_name*, for object *o*, to the value
+   *v*. Returns ``-1`` on failure.  This is the equivalent of the Python statement
+   ``o.attr_name = v``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: int PyObject_SetAttr(PyObject *o, PyObject *attr_name, PyObject *v)
+
+   Set the value of the attribute named *attr_name*, for object *o*, to the value
+   *v*. Returns ``-1`` on failure.  This is the equivalent of the Python statement
+   ``o.attr_name = v``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: int PyObject_DelAttrString(PyObject *o, const char *attr_name)
+
+   Delete attribute named *attr_name*, for object *o*. Returns ``-1`` on failure.
+   This is the equivalent of the Python statement: ``del o.attr_name``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: int PyObject_DelAttr(PyObject *o, PyObject *attr_name)
+
+   Delete attribute named *attr_name*, for object *o*. Returns ``-1`` on failure.
+   This is the equivalent of the Python statement ``del o.attr_name``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_RichCompare(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2, int opid)
+
+   Compare the values of *o1* and *o2* using the operation specified by *opid*,
+   which must be one of :const:`Py_LT`, :const:`Py_LE`, :const:`Py_EQ`,
+   :const:`Py_NE`, :const:`Py_GT`, or :const:`Py_GE`, corresponding to ``<``,
+   ``<=``, ``==``, ``!=``, ``>``, or ``>=`` respectively. This is the equivalent of
+   the Python expression ``o1 op o2``, where ``op`` is the operator corresponding
+   to *opid*. Returns the value of the comparison on success, or *NULL* on failure.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: int PyObject_RichCompareBool(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2, int opid)
+
+   Compare the values of *o1* and *o2* using the operation specified by *opid*,
+   which must be one of :const:`Py_LT`, :const:`Py_LE`, :const:`Py_EQ`,
+   :const:`Py_NE`, :const:`Py_GT`, or :const:`Py_GE`, corresponding to ``<``,
+   ``<=``, ``==``, ``!=``, ``>``, or ``>=`` respectively. Returns ``-1`` on error,
+   ``0`` if the result is false, ``1`` otherwise. This is the equivalent of the
+   Python expression ``o1 op o2``, where ``op`` is the operator corresponding to
+   *opid*.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: int PyObject_Cmp(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2, int *result)
+
+   .. index:: builtin: cmp
+
+   Compare the values of *o1* and *o2* using a routine provided by *o1*, if one
+   exists, otherwise with a routine provided by *o2*.  The result of the comparison
+   is returned in *result*.  Returns ``-1`` on failure.  This is the equivalent of
+   the Python statement ``result = cmp(o1, o2)``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: int PyObject_Compare(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   .. index:: builtin: cmp
+
+   Compare the values of *o1* and *o2* using a routine provided by *o1*, if one
+   exists, otherwise with a routine provided by *o2*.  Returns the result of the
+   comparison on success.  On error, the value returned is undefined; use
+   :cfunc:`PyErr_Occurred` to detect an error.  This is equivalent to the Python
+   expression ``cmp(o1, o2)``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_Repr(PyObject *o)
+
+   .. index:: builtin: repr
+
+   Compute a string representation of object *o*.  Returns the string
+   representation on success, *NULL* on failure.  This is the equivalent of the
+   Python expression ``repr(o)``.  Called by the :func:`repr` built-in function and
+   by reverse quotes.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_Str(PyObject *o)
+
+   .. index:: builtin: str
+
+   Compute a string representation of object *o*.  Returns the string
+   representation on success, *NULL* on failure.  This is the equivalent of the
+   Python expression ``str(o)``.  Called by the :func:`str` built-in function and
+   by the :keyword:`print` statement.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_Unicode(PyObject *o)
+
+   .. index:: builtin: unicode
+
+   Compute a Unicode string representation of object *o*.  Returns the Unicode
+   string representation on success, *NULL* on failure. This is the equivalent of
+   the Python expression ``unicode(o)``.  Called by the :func:`unicode` built-in
+   function.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: int PyObject_IsInstance(PyObject *inst, PyObject *cls)
+
+   Returns ``1`` if *inst* is an instance of the class *cls* or a subclass of
+   *cls*, or ``0`` if not.  On error, returns ``-1`` and sets an exception.  If
+   *cls* is a type object rather than a class object, :cfunc:`PyObject_IsInstance`
+   returns ``1`` if *inst* is of type *cls*.  If *cls* is a tuple, the check will
+   be done against every entry in *cls*. The result will be ``1`` when at least one
+   of the checks returns ``1``, otherwise it will be ``0``. If *inst* is not a
+   class instance and *cls* is neither a type object, nor a class object, nor a
+   tuple, *inst* must have a :attr:`__class__` attribute --- the class relationship
+   of the value of that attribute with *cls* will be used to determine the result
+   of this function.
+
+   .. versionadded:: 2.1
+
+   .. versionchanged:: 2.2
+      Support for a tuple as the second argument added.
+
+Subclass determination is done in a fairly straightforward way, but includes a
+wrinkle that implementors of extensions to the class system may want to be aware
+of.  If :class:`A` and :class:`B` are class objects, :class:`B` is a subclass of
+:class:`A` if it inherits from :class:`A` either directly or indirectly.  If
+either is not a class object, a more general mechanism is used to determine the
+class relationship of the two objects.  When testing if *B* is a subclass of
+*A*, if *A* is *B*, :cfunc:`PyObject_IsSubclass` returns true.  If *A* and *B*
+are different objects, *B*'s :attr:`__bases__` attribute is searched in a depth-
+first fashion for *A* --- the presence of the :attr:`__bases__` attribute is
+considered sufficient for this determination.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: int PyObject_IsSubclass(PyObject *derived, PyObject *cls)
+
+   Returns ``1`` if the class *derived* is identical to or derived from the class
+   *cls*, otherwise returns ``0``.  In case of an error, returns ``-1``. If *cls*
+   is a tuple, the check will be done against every entry in *cls*. The result will
+   be ``1`` when at least one of the checks returns ``1``, otherwise it will be
+   ``0``. If either *derived* or *cls* is not an actual class object (or tuple),
+   this function uses the generic algorithm described above.
+
+   .. versionadded:: 2.1
+
+   .. versionchanged:: 2.3
+      Older versions of Python did not support a tuple as the second argument.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: int PyCallable_Check(PyObject *o)
+
+   Determine if the object *o* is callable.  Return ``1`` if the object is callable
+   and ``0`` otherwise.  This function always succeeds.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_Call(PyObject *callable_object, PyObject *args, PyObject *kw)
+
+   .. index:: builtin: apply
+
+   Call a callable Python object *callable_object*, with arguments given by the
+   tuple *args*, and named arguments given by the dictionary *kw*. If no named
+   arguments are needed, *kw* may be *NULL*. *args* must not be *NULL*, use an
+   empty tuple if no arguments are needed. Returns the result of the call on
+   success, or *NULL* on failure.  This is the equivalent of the Python expression
+   ``apply(callable_object, args, kw)`` or ``callable_object(*args, **kw)``.
+
+   .. versionadded:: 2.2
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_CallObject(PyObject *callable_object, PyObject *args)
+
+   .. index:: builtin: apply
+
+   Call a callable Python object *callable_object*, with arguments given by the
+   tuple *args*.  If no arguments are needed, then *args* may be *NULL*.  Returns
+   the result of the call on success, or *NULL* on failure.  This is the equivalent
+   of the Python expression ``apply(callable_object, args)`` or
+   ``callable_object(*args)``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_CallFunction(PyObject *callable, char *format, ...)
+
+   .. index:: builtin: apply
+
+   Call a callable Python object *callable*, with a variable number of C arguments.
+   The C arguments are described using a :cfunc:`Py_BuildValue` style format
+   string.  The format may be *NULL*, indicating that no arguments are provided.
+   Returns the result of the call on success, or *NULL* on failure.  This is the
+   equivalent of the Python expression ``apply(callable, args)`` or
+   ``callable(*args)``. Note that if you only pass :ctype:`PyObject \*` args,
+   :cfunc:`PyObject_CallFunctionObjArgs` is a faster alternative.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_CallMethod(PyObject *o, char *method, char *format, ...)
+
+   Call the method named *method* of object *o* with a variable number of C
+   arguments.  The C arguments are described by a :cfunc:`Py_BuildValue` format
+   string that should  produce a tuple.  The format may be *NULL*, indicating that
+   no arguments are provided. Returns the result of the call on success, or *NULL*
+   on failure.  This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o.method(args)``.
+   Note that if you only pass :ctype:`PyObject \*` args,
+   :cfunc:`PyObject_CallMethodObjArgs` is a faster alternative.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_CallFunctionObjArgs(PyObject *callable, ..., NULL)
+
+   Call a callable Python object *callable*, with a variable number of
+   :ctype:`PyObject\*` arguments.  The arguments are provided as a variable number
+   of parameters followed by *NULL*. Returns the result of the call on success, or
+   *NULL* on failure.
+
+   .. versionadded:: 2.2
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_CallMethodObjArgs(PyObject *o, PyObject *name, ..., NULL)
+
+   Calls a method of the object *o*, where the name of the method is given as a
+   Python string object in *name*.  It is called with a variable number of
+   :ctype:`PyObject\*` arguments.  The arguments are provided as a variable number
+   of parameters followed by *NULL*. Returns the result of the call on success, or
+   *NULL* on failure.
+
+   .. versionadded:: 2.2
+
+
+.. cfunction:: long PyObject_Hash(PyObject *o)
+
+   .. index:: builtin: hash
+
+   Compute and return the hash value of an object *o*.  On failure, return ``-1``.
+   This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``hash(o)``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: int PyObject_IsTrue(PyObject *o)
+
+   Returns ``1`` if the object *o* is considered to be true, and ``0`` otherwise.
+   This is equivalent to the Python expression ``not not o``.  On failure, return
+   ``-1``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: int PyObject_Not(PyObject *o)
+
+   Returns ``0`` if the object *o* is considered to be true, and ``1`` otherwise.
+   This is equivalent to the Python expression ``not o``.  On failure, return
+   ``-1``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_Type(PyObject *o)
+
+   .. index:: builtin: type
+
+   When *o* is non-*NULL*, returns a type object corresponding to the object type
+   of object *o*. On failure, raises :exc:`SystemError` and returns *NULL*.  This
+   is equivalent to the Python expression ``type(o)``. This function increments the
+   reference count of the return value. There's really no reason to use this
+   function instead of the common expression ``o->ob_type``, which returns a
+   pointer of type :ctype:`PyTypeObject\*`, except when the incremented reference
+   count is needed.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: int PyObject_TypeCheck(PyObject *o, PyTypeObject *type)
+
+   Return true if the object *o* is of type *type* or a subtype of *type*.  Both
+   parameters must be non-*NULL*.
+
+   .. versionadded:: 2.2
+
+
+.. cfunction:: Py_ssize_t PyObject_Length(PyObject *o)
+               Py_ssize_t PyObject_Size(PyObject *o)
+
+   .. index:: builtin: len
+
+   Return the length of object *o*.  If the object *o* provides either the sequence
+   and mapping protocols, the sequence length is returned.  On error, ``-1`` is
+   returned.  This is the equivalent to the Python expression ``len(o)``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_GetItem(PyObject *o, PyObject *key)
+
+   Return element of *o* corresponding to the object *key* or *NULL* on failure.
+   This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o[key]``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: int PyObject_SetItem(PyObject *o, PyObject *key, PyObject *v)
+
+   Map the object *key* to the value *v*.  Returns ``-1`` on failure.  This is the
+   equivalent of the Python statement ``o[key] = v``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: int PyObject_DelItem(PyObject *o, PyObject *key)
+
+   Delete the mapping for *key* from *o*.  Returns ``-1`` on failure. This is the
+   equivalent of the Python statement ``del o[key]``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: int PyObject_AsFileDescriptor(PyObject *o)
+
+   Derives a file-descriptor from a Python object.  If the object is an integer or
+   long integer, its value is returned.  If not, the object's :meth:`fileno` method
+   is called if it exists; the method must return an integer or long integer, which
+   is returned as the file descriptor value.  Returns ``-1`` on failure.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_Dir(PyObject *o)
+
+   This is equivalent to the Python expression ``dir(o)``, returning a (possibly
+   empty) list of strings appropriate for the object argument, or *NULL* if there
+   was an error.  If the argument is *NULL*, this is like the Python ``dir()``,
+   returning the names of the current locals; in this case, if no execution frame
+   is active then *NULL* is returned but :cfunc:`PyErr_Occurred` will return false.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyObject_GetIter(PyObject *o)
+
+   This is equivalent to the Python expression ``iter(o)``. It returns a new
+   iterator for the object argument, or the object  itself if the object is already
+   an iterator.  Raises :exc:`TypeError` and returns *NULL* if the object cannot be
+   iterated.
+
+
+.. _number:
+
+Number Protocol
+===============
+
+
+.. cfunction:: int PyNumber_Check(PyObject *o)
+
+   Returns ``1`` if the object *o* provides numeric protocols, and false otherwise.
+   This function always succeeds.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Add(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   Returns the result of adding *o1* and *o2*, or *NULL* on failure.  This is the
+   equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 + o2``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Subtract(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   Returns the result of subtracting *o2* from *o1*, or *NULL* on failure.  This is
+   the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 - o2``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Multiply(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   Returns the result of multiplying *o1* and *o2*, or *NULL* on failure.  This is
+   the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 * o2``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Divide(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   Returns the result of dividing *o1* by *o2*, or *NULL* on failure.  This is the
+   equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 / o2``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_FloorDivide(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   Return the floor of *o1* divided by *o2*, or *NULL* on failure.  This is
+   equivalent to the "classic" division of integers.
+
+   .. versionadded:: 2.2
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_TrueDivide(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   Return a reasonable approximation for the mathematical value of *o1* divided by
+   *o2*, or *NULL* on failure.  The return value is "approximate" because binary
+   floating point numbers are approximate; it is not possible to represent all real
+   numbers in base two.  This function can return a floating point value when
+   passed two integers.
+
+   .. versionadded:: 2.2
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Remainder(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   Returns the remainder of dividing *o1* by *o2*, or *NULL* on failure.  This is
+   the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 % o2``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Divmod(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   .. index:: builtin: divmod
+
+   See the built-in function :func:`divmod`. Returns *NULL* on failure.  This is
+   the equivalent of the Python expression ``divmod(o1, o2)``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Power(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2, PyObject *o3)
+
+   .. index:: builtin: pow
+
+   See the built-in function :func:`pow`. Returns *NULL* on failure.  This is the
+   equivalent of the Python expression ``pow(o1, o2, o3)``, where *o3* is optional.
+   If *o3* is to be ignored, pass :cdata:`Py_None` in its place (passing *NULL* for
+   *o3* would cause an illegal memory access).
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Negative(PyObject *o)
+
+   Returns the negation of *o* on success, or *NULL* on failure. This is the
+   equivalent of the Python expression ``-o``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Positive(PyObject *o)
+
+   Returns *o* on success, or *NULL* on failure.  This is the equivalent of the
+   Python expression ``+o``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Absolute(PyObject *o)
+
+   .. index:: builtin: abs
+
+   Returns the absolute value of *o*, or *NULL* on failure.  This is the equivalent
+   of the Python expression ``abs(o)``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Invert(PyObject *o)
+
+   Returns the bitwise negation of *o* on success, or *NULL* on failure.  This is
+   the equivalent of the Python expression ``~o``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Lshift(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   Returns the result of left shifting *o1* by *o2* on success, or *NULL* on
+   failure.  This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 << o2``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Rshift(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   Returns the result of right shifting *o1* by *o2* on success, or *NULL* on
+   failure.  This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 >> o2``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_And(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   Returns the "bitwise and" of *o1* and *o2* on success and *NULL* on failure.
+   This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 & o2``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Xor(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   Returns the "bitwise exclusive or" of *o1* by *o2* on success, or *NULL* on
+   failure.  This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 ^ o2``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Or(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   Returns the "bitwise or" of *o1* and *o2* on success, or *NULL* on failure.
+   This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 | o2``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceAdd(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   Returns the result of adding *o1* and *o2*, or *NULL* on failure.  The operation
+   is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.  This is the equivalent of the Python
+   statement ``o1 += o2``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceSubtract(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   Returns the result of subtracting *o2* from *o1*, or *NULL* on failure.  The
+   operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.  This is the equivalent of
+   the Python statement ``o1 -= o2``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceMultiply(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   Returns the result of multiplying *o1* and *o2*, or *NULL* on failure.  The
+   operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.  This is the equivalent of
+   the Python statement ``o1 *= o2``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceDivide(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   Returns the result of dividing *o1* by *o2*, or *NULL* on failure.  The
+   operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it. This is the equivalent of
+   the Python statement ``o1 /= o2``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceFloorDivide(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   Returns the mathematical floor of dividing *o1* by *o2*, or *NULL* on failure.
+   The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.  This is the equivalent
+   of the Python statement ``o1 //= o2``.
+
+   .. versionadded:: 2.2
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceTrueDivide(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   Return a reasonable approximation for the mathematical value of *o1* divided by
+   *o2*, or *NULL* on failure.  The return value is "approximate" because binary
+   floating point numbers are approximate; it is not possible to represent all real
+   numbers in base two.  This function can return a floating point value when
+   passed two integers.  The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.
+
+   .. versionadded:: 2.2
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceRemainder(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   Returns the remainder of dividing *o1* by *o2*, or *NULL* on failure.  The
+   operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.  This is the equivalent of
+   the Python statement ``o1 %= o2``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlacePower(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2, PyObject *o3)
+
+   .. index:: builtin: pow
+
+   See the built-in function :func:`pow`. Returns *NULL* on failure.  The operation
+   is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.  This is the equivalent of the Python
+   statement ``o1 **= o2`` when o3 is :cdata:`Py_None`, or an in-place variant of
+   ``pow(o1, o2, o3)`` otherwise. If *o3* is to be ignored, pass :cdata:`Py_None`
+   in its place (passing *NULL* for *o3* would cause an illegal memory access).
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceLshift(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   Returns the result of left shifting *o1* by *o2* on success, or *NULL* on
+   failure.  The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.  This is the
+   equivalent of the Python statement ``o1 <<= o2``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceRshift(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   Returns the result of right shifting *o1* by *o2* on success, or *NULL* on
+   failure.  The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.  This is the
+   equivalent of the Python statement ``o1 >>= o2``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceAnd(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   Returns the "bitwise and" of *o1* and *o2* on success and *NULL* on failure. The
+   operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.  This is the equivalent of
+   the Python statement ``o1 &= o2``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceXor(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   Returns the "bitwise exclusive or" of *o1* by *o2* on success, or *NULL* on
+   failure.  The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.  This is the
+   equivalent of the Python statement ``o1 ^= o2``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceOr(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   Returns the "bitwise or" of *o1* and *o2* on success, or *NULL* on failure.  The
+   operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.  This is the equivalent of
+   the Python statement ``o1 |= o2``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: int PyNumber_Coerce(PyObject **p1, PyObject **p2)
+
+   .. index:: builtin: coerce
+
+   This function takes the addresses of two variables of type :ctype:`PyObject\*`.
+   If the objects pointed to by ``*p1`` and ``*p2`` have the same type, increment
+   their reference count and return ``0`` (success). If the objects can be
+   converted to a common numeric type, replace ``*p1`` and ``*p2`` by their
+   converted value (with 'new' reference counts), and return ``0``. If no
+   conversion is possible, or if some other error occurs, return ``-1`` (failure)
+   and don't increment the reference counts.  The call ``PyNumber_Coerce(&o1,
+   &o2)`` is equivalent to the Python statement ``o1, o2 = coerce(o1, o2)``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Int(PyObject *o)
+
+   .. index:: builtin: int
+
+   Returns the *o* converted to an integer object on success, or *NULL* on failure.
+   If the argument is outside the integer range a long object will be returned
+   instead. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``int(o)``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Long(PyObject *o)
+
+   .. index:: builtin: long
+
+   Returns the *o* converted to a long integer object on success, or *NULL* on
+   failure.  This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``long(o)``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Float(PyObject *o)
+
+   .. index:: builtin: float
+
+   Returns the *o* converted to a float object on success, or *NULL* on failure.
+   This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``float(o)``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Index(PyObject *o)
+
+   Returns the *o* converted to a Python int or long on success or *NULL* with a
+   TypeError exception raised on failure.
+
+   .. versionadded:: 2.5
+
+
+.. cfunction:: Py_ssize_t PyNumber_AsSsize_t(PyObject *o, PyObject *exc)
+
+   Returns *o* converted to a Py_ssize_t value if *o* can be interpreted as an
+   integer. If *o* can be converted to a Python int or long but the attempt to
+   convert to a Py_ssize_t value would raise an :exc:`OverflowError`, then the
+   *exc* argument is the type of exception that will be raised (usually
+   :exc:`IndexError` or :exc:`OverflowError`).  If *exc* is *NULL*, then the
+   exception is cleared and the value is clipped to *PY_SSIZE_T_MIN* for a negative
+   integer or *PY_SSIZE_T_MAX* for a positive integer.
+
+   .. versionadded:: 2.5
+
+
+.. cfunction:: int PyIndex_Check(PyObject *o)
+
+   Returns True if *o* is an index integer (has the nb_index slot of  the
+   tp_as_number structure filled in).
+
+   .. versionadded:: 2.5
+
+
+.. _sequence:
+
+Sequence Protocol
+=================
+
+
+.. cfunction:: int PySequence_Check(PyObject *o)
+
+   Return ``1`` if the object provides sequence protocol, and ``0`` otherwise.
+   This function always succeeds.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: Py_ssize_t PySequence_Size(PyObject *o)
+
+   .. index:: builtin: len
+
+   Returns the number of objects in sequence *o* on success, and ``-1`` on failure.
+   For objects that do not provide sequence protocol, this is equivalent to the
+   Python expression ``len(o)``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: Py_ssize_t PySequence_Length(PyObject *o)
+
+   Alternate name for :cfunc:`PySequence_Size`.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PySequence_Concat(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   Return the concatenation of *o1* and *o2* on success, and *NULL* on failure.
+   This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 + o2``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PySequence_Repeat(PyObject *o, Py_ssize_t count)
+
+   Return the result of repeating sequence object *o* *count* times, or *NULL* on
+   failure.  This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o * count``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PySequence_InPlaceConcat(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
+
+   Return the concatenation of *o1* and *o2* on success, and *NULL* on failure.
+   The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it.  This is the equivalent
+   of the Python expression ``o1 += o2``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PySequence_InPlaceRepeat(PyObject *o, Py_ssize_t count)
+
+   Return the result of repeating sequence object *o* *count* times, or *NULL* on
+   failure.  The operation is done *in-place* when *o* supports it.  This is the
+   equivalent of the Python expression ``o *= count``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PySequence_GetItem(PyObject *o, Py_ssize_t i)
+
+   Return the *i*th element of *o*, or *NULL* on failure. This is the equivalent of
+   the Python expression ``o[i]``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: PyObject* PySequence_GetSlice(PyObject *o, Py_ssize_t i1, Py_ssize_t i2)
+
+   Return the slice of sequence object *o* between *i1* and *i2*, or *NULL* on
+   failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o[i1:i2]``.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: int PySequence_SetItem(PyObject *o, Py_ssize_t i, PyObject *v)
+
+   Assign object *v* to the *i*th element of *o*.  Returns ``-1`` on failure.  This
+   is the equivalent of the Python statement ``o[i] = v``.  This function *does
+   not* steal a reference to *v*.
+
+
+.. cfunction:: int PySequence_DelItem(PyObject *o, Py_ssize_t i)
+
+   Delete the *i*th element of object *o*.  Returns ``-1`` on failure.  This is the