double-conversion / double-conversion / src / strtod.cc

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// Copyright 2010 the V8 project authors. All rights reserved.
// Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
// modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are
// met:
//
//     * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
//       notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
//     * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
//       copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
//       disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided
//       with the distribution.
//     * Neither the name of Google Inc. nor the names of its
//       contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived
//       from this software without specific prior written permission.
//
// THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
// "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
// LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
// A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT
// OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
// SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT
// LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
// DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
// THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
// (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE
// OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

#include <stdarg.h>
#include <limits.h>

#include "strtod.h"
#include "bignum.h"
#include "cached-powers.h"
#include "ieee.h"

namespace double_conversion {

// 2^53 = 9007199254740992.
// Any integer with at most 15 decimal digits will hence fit into a double
// (which has a 53bit significand) without loss of precision.
static const int kMaxExactDoubleIntegerDecimalDigits = 15;
// 2^64 = 18446744073709551616 > 10^19
static const int kMaxUint64DecimalDigits = 19;

// Max double: 1.7976931348623157 x 10^308
// Min non-zero double: 4.9406564584124654 x 10^-324
// Any x >= 10^309 is interpreted as +infinity.
// Any x <= 10^-324 is interpreted as 0.
// Note that 2.5e-324 (despite being smaller than the min double) will be read
// as non-zero (equal to the min non-zero double).
static const int kMaxDecimalPower = 309;
static const int kMinDecimalPower = -324;

// 2^64 = 18446744073709551616
static const uint64_t kMaxUint64 = UINT64_2PART_C(0xFFFFFFFF, FFFFFFFF);


static const double exact_powers_of_ten[] = {
  1.0,  // 10^0
  10.0,
  100.0,
  1000.0,
  10000.0,
  100000.0,
  1000000.0,
  10000000.0,
  100000000.0,
  1000000000.0,
  10000000000.0,  // 10^10
  100000000000.0,
  1000000000000.0,
  10000000000000.0,
  100000000000000.0,
  1000000000000000.0,
  10000000000000000.0,
  100000000000000000.0,
  1000000000000000000.0,
  10000000000000000000.0,
  100000000000000000000.0,  // 10^20
  1000000000000000000000.0,
  // 10^22 = 0x21e19e0c9bab2400000 = 0x878678326eac9 * 2^22
  10000000000000000000000.0
};
static const int kExactPowersOfTenSize = ARRAY_SIZE(exact_powers_of_ten);

// Maximum number of significant digits in the decimal representation.
// In fact the value is 772 (see conversions.cc), but to give us some margin
// we round up to 780.
static const int kMaxSignificantDecimalDigits = 780;

static Vector<const char> TrimLeadingZeros(Vector<const char> buffer) {
  for (int i = 0; i < buffer.length(); i++) {
    if (buffer[i] != '0') {
      return buffer.SubVector(i, buffer.length());
    }
  }
  return Vector<const char>(buffer.start(), 0);
}


static Vector<const char> TrimTrailingZeros(Vector<const char> buffer) {
  for (int i = buffer.length() - 1; i >= 0; --i) {
    if (buffer[i] != '0') {
      return buffer.SubVector(0, i + 1);
    }
  }
  return Vector<const char>(buffer.start(), 0);
}


static void CutToMaxSignificantDigits(Vector<const char> buffer,
                                       int exponent,
                                       char* significant_buffer,
                                       int* significant_exponent) {
  for (int i = 0; i < kMaxSignificantDecimalDigits - 1; ++i) {
    significant_buffer[i] = buffer[i];
  }
  // The input buffer has been trimmed. Therefore the last digit must be
  // different from '0'.
  ASSERT(buffer[buffer.length() - 1] != '0');
  // Set the last digit to be non-zero. This is sufficient to guarantee
  // correct rounding.
  significant_buffer[kMaxSignificantDecimalDigits - 1] = '1';
  *significant_exponent =
      exponent + (buffer.length() - kMaxSignificantDecimalDigits);
}


// Trims the buffer and cuts it to at most kMaxSignificantDecimalDigits.
// If possible the input-buffer is reused, but if the buffer needs to be
// modified (due to cutting), then the input needs to be copied into the
// buffer_copy_space.
static void TrimAndCut(Vector<const char> buffer, int exponent,
                       char* buffer_copy_space, int space_size,
                       Vector<const char>* trimmed, int* updated_exponent) {
  Vector<const char> left_trimmed = TrimLeadingZeros(buffer);
  Vector<const char> right_trimmed = TrimTrailingZeros(left_trimmed);
  exponent += left_trimmed.length() - right_trimmed.length();
  if (right_trimmed.length() > kMaxSignificantDecimalDigits) {
    ASSERT(space_size >= kMaxSignificantDecimalDigits);
    CutToMaxSignificantDigits(right_trimmed, exponent,
                              buffer_copy_space, updated_exponent);
    *trimmed = Vector<const char>(buffer_copy_space,
                                 kMaxSignificantDecimalDigits);
  } else {
    *trimmed = right_trimmed;
    *updated_exponent = exponent;
  }
}


// Reads digits from the buffer and converts them to a uint64.
// Reads in as many digits as fit into a uint64.
// When the string starts with "1844674407370955161" no further digit is read.
// Since 2^64 = 18446744073709551616 it would still be possible read another
// digit if it was less or equal than 6, but this would complicate the code.
static uint64_t ReadUint64(Vector<const char> buffer,
                           int* number_of_read_digits) {
  uint64_t result = 0;
  int i = 0;
  while (i < buffer.length() && result <= (kMaxUint64 / 10 - 1)) {
    int digit = buffer[i++] - '0';
    ASSERT(0 <= digit && digit <= 9);
    result = 10 * result + digit;
  }
  *number_of_read_digits = i;
  return result;
}


// Reads a DiyFp from the buffer.
// The returned DiyFp is not necessarily normalized.
// If remaining_decimals is zero then the returned DiyFp is accurate.
// Otherwise it has been rounded and has error of at most 1/2 ulp.
static void ReadDiyFp(Vector<const char> buffer,
                      DiyFp* result,
                      int* remaining_decimals) {
  int read_digits;
  uint64_t significand = ReadUint64(buffer, &read_digits);
  if (buffer.length() == read_digits) {
    *result = DiyFp(significand, 0);
    *remaining_decimals = 0;
  } else {
    // Round the significand.
    if (buffer[read_digits] >= '5') {
      significand++;
    }
    // Compute the binary exponent.
    int exponent = 0;
    *result = DiyFp(significand, exponent);
    *remaining_decimals = buffer.length() - read_digits;
  }
}


static bool DoubleStrtod(Vector<const char> trimmed,
                         int exponent,
                         double* result) {
#if !defined(DOUBLE_CONVERSION_CORRECT_DOUBLE_OPERATIONS)
  // On x86 the floating-point stack can be 64 or 80 bits wide. If it is
  // 80 bits wide (as is the case on Linux) then double-rounding occurs and the
  // result is not accurate.
  // We know that Windows32 uses 64 bits and is therefore accurate.
  // Note that the ARM simulator is compiled for 32bits. It therefore exhibits
  // the same problem.
  return false;
#endif
  if (trimmed.length() <= kMaxExactDoubleIntegerDecimalDigits) {
    int read_digits;
    // The trimmed input fits into a double.
    // If the 10^exponent (resp. 10^-exponent) fits into a double too then we
    // can compute the result-double simply by multiplying (resp. dividing) the
    // two numbers.
    // This is possible because IEEE guarantees that floating-point operations
    // return the best possible approximation.
    if (exponent < 0 && -exponent < kExactPowersOfTenSize) {
      // 10^-exponent fits into a double.
      *result = static_cast<double>(ReadUint64(trimmed, &read_digits));
      ASSERT(read_digits == trimmed.length());
      *result /= exact_powers_of_ten[-exponent];
      return true;
    }
    if (0 <= exponent && exponent < kExactPowersOfTenSize) {
      // 10^exponent fits into a double.
      *result = static_cast<double>(ReadUint64(trimmed, &read_digits));
      ASSERT(read_digits == trimmed.length());
      *result *= exact_powers_of_ten[exponent];
      return true;
    }
    int remaining_digits =
        kMaxExactDoubleIntegerDecimalDigits - trimmed.length();
    if ((0 <= exponent) &&
        (exponent - remaining_digits < kExactPowersOfTenSize)) {
      // The trimmed string was short and we can multiply it with
      // 10^remaining_digits. As a result the remaining exponent now fits
      // into a double too.
      *result = static_cast<double>(ReadUint64(trimmed, &read_digits));
      ASSERT(read_digits == trimmed.length());
      *result *= exact_powers_of_ten[remaining_digits];
      *result *= exact_powers_of_ten[exponent - remaining_digits];
      return true;
    }
  }
  return false;
}


// Returns 10^exponent as an exact DiyFp.
// The given exponent must be in the range [1; kDecimalExponentDistance[.
static DiyFp AdjustmentPowerOfTen(int exponent) {
  ASSERT(0 < exponent);
  ASSERT(exponent < PowersOfTenCache::kDecimalExponentDistance);
  // Simply hardcode the remaining powers for the given decimal exponent
  // distance.
  ASSERT(PowersOfTenCache::kDecimalExponentDistance == 8);
  switch (exponent) {
    case 1: return DiyFp(UINT64_2PART_C(0xa0000000, 00000000), -60);
    case 2: return DiyFp(UINT64_2PART_C(0xc8000000, 00000000), -57);
    case 3: return DiyFp(UINT64_2PART_C(0xfa000000, 00000000), -54);
    case 4: return DiyFp(UINT64_2PART_C(0x9c400000, 00000000), -50);
    case 5: return DiyFp(UINT64_2PART_C(0xc3500000, 00000000), -47);
    case 6: return DiyFp(UINT64_2PART_C(0xf4240000, 00000000), -44);
    case 7: return DiyFp(UINT64_2PART_C(0x98968000, 00000000), -40);
    default:
      UNREACHABLE();
      return DiyFp(0, 0);
  }
}


// If the function returns true then the result is the correct double.
// Otherwise it is either the correct double or the double that is just below
// the correct double.
static bool DiyFpStrtod(Vector<const char> buffer,
                        int exponent,
                        double* result) {
  DiyFp input;
  int remaining_decimals;
  ReadDiyFp(buffer, &input, &remaining_decimals);
  // Since we may have dropped some digits the input is not accurate.
  // If remaining_decimals is different than 0 than the error is at most
  // .5 ulp (unit in the last place).
  // We don't want to deal with fractions and therefore keep a common
  // denominator.
  const int kDenominatorLog = 3;
  const int kDenominator = 1 << kDenominatorLog;
  // Move the remaining decimals into the exponent.
  exponent += remaining_decimals;
  int error = (remaining_decimals == 0 ? 0 : kDenominator / 2);

  int old_e = input.e();
  input.Normalize();
  error <<= old_e - input.e();

  ASSERT(exponent <= PowersOfTenCache::kMaxDecimalExponent);
  if (exponent < PowersOfTenCache::kMinDecimalExponent) {
    *result = 0.0;
    return true;
  }
  DiyFp cached_power;
  int cached_decimal_exponent;
  PowersOfTenCache::GetCachedPowerForDecimalExponent(exponent,
                                                     &cached_power,
                                                     &cached_decimal_exponent);

  if (cached_decimal_exponent != exponent) {
    int adjustment_exponent = exponent - cached_decimal_exponent;
    DiyFp adjustment_power = AdjustmentPowerOfTen(adjustment_exponent);
    input.Multiply(adjustment_power);
    if (kMaxUint64DecimalDigits - buffer.length() >= adjustment_exponent) {
      // The product of input with the adjustment power fits into a 64 bit
      // integer.
      ASSERT(DiyFp::kSignificandSize == 64);
    } else {
      // The adjustment power is exact. There is hence only an error of 0.5.
      error += kDenominator / 2;
    }
  }

  input.Multiply(cached_power);
  // The error introduced by a multiplication of a*b equals
  //   error_a + error_b + error_a*error_b/2^64 + 0.5
  // Substituting a with 'input' and b with 'cached_power' we have
  //   error_b = 0.5  (all cached powers have an error of less than 0.5 ulp),
  //   error_ab = 0 or 1 / kDenominator > error_a*error_b/ 2^64
  int error_b = kDenominator / 2;
  int error_ab = (error == 0 ? 0 : 1);  // We round up to 1.
  int fixed_error = kDenominator / 2;
  error += error_b + error_ab + fixed_error;

  old_e = input.e();
  input.Normalize();
  error <<= old_e - input.e();

  // See if the double's significand changes if we add/subtract the error.
  int order_of_magnitude = DiyFp::kSignificandSize + input.e();
  int effective_significand_size =
      Double::SignificandSizeForOrderOfMagnitude(order_of_magnitude);
  int precision_digits_count =
      DiyFp::kSignificandSize - effective_significand_size;
  if (precision_digits_count + kDenominatorLog >= DiyFp::kSignificandSize) {
    // This can only happen for very small denormals. In this case the
    // half-way multiplied by the denominator exceeds the range of an uint64.
    // Simply shift everything to the right.
    int shift_amount = (precision_digits_count + kDenominatorLog) -
        DiyFp::kSignificandSize + 1;
    input.set_f(input.f() >> shift_amount);
    input.set_e(input.e() + shift_amount);
    // We add 1 for the lost precision of error, and kDenominator for
    // the lost precision of input.f().
    error = (error >> shift_amount) + 1 + kDenominator;
    precision_digits_count -= shift_amount;
  }
  // We use uint64_ts now. This only works if the DiyFp uses uint64_ts too.
  ASSERT(DiyFp::kSignificandSize == 64);
  ASSERT(precision_digits_count < 64);
  uint64_t one64 = 1;
  uint64_t precision_bits_mask = (one64 << precision_digits_count) - 1;
  uint64_t precision_bits = input.f() & precision_bits_mask;
  uint64_t half_way = one64 << (precision_digits_count - 1);
  precision_bits *= kDenominator;
  half_way *= kDenominator;
  DiyFp rounded_input(input.f() >> precision_digits_count,
                      input.e() + precision_digits_count);
  if (precision_bits >= half_way + error) {
    rounded_input.set_f(rounded_input.f() + 1);
  }
  // If the last_bits are too close to the half-way case than we are too
  // inaccurate and round down. In this case we return false so that we can
  // fall back to a more precise algorithm.

  *result = Double(rounded_input).value();
  if (half_way - error < precision_bits && precision_bits < half_way + error) {
    // Too imprecise. The caller will have to fall back to a slower version.
    // However the returned number is guaranteed to be either the correct
    // double, or the next-lower double.
    return false;
  } else {
    return true;
  }
}


// Returns
//   - -1 if buffer*10^exponent < diy_fp.
//   -  0 if buffer*10^exponent == diy_fp.
//   - +1 if buffer*10^exponent > diy_fp.
// Preconditions:
//   buffer.length() + exponent <= kMaxDecimalPower + 1
//   buffer.length() + exponent > kMinDecimalPower
//   buffer.length() <= kMaxDecimalSignificantDigits
static int CompareBufferWithDiyFp(Vector<const char> buffer,
                                  int exponent,
                                  DiyFp diy_fp) {
  ASSERT(buffer.length() + exponent <= kMaxDecimalPower + 1);
  ASSERT(buffer.length() + exponent > kMinDecimalPower);
  ASSERT(buffer.length() <= kMaxSignificantDecimalDigits);
  // Make sure that the Bignum will be able to hold all our numbers.
  // Our Bignum implementation has a separate field for exponents. Shifts will
  // consume at most one bigit (< 64 bits).
  // ln(10) == 3.3219...
  ASSERT(((kMaxDecimalPower + 1) * 333 / 100) < Bignum::kMaxSignificantBits);
  Bignum buffer_bignum;
  Bignum diy_fp_bignum;
  buffer_bignum.AssignDecimalString(buffer);
  diy_fp_bignum.AssignUInt64(diy_fp.f());
  if (exponent >= 0) {
    buffer_bignum.MultiplyByPowerOfTen(exponent);
  } else {
    diy_fp_bignum.MultiplyByPowerOfTen(-exponent);
  }
  if (diy_fp.e() > 0) {
    diy_fp_bignum.ShiftLeft(diy_fp.e());
  } else {
    buffer_bignum.ShiftLeft(-diy_fp.e());
  }
  return Bignum::Compare(buffer_bignum, diy_fp_bignum);
}


// Returns true if the guess is the correct double.
// Returns false, when guess is either correct or the next-lower double.
static bool ComputeGuess(Vector<const char> trimmed, int exponent,
                         double* guess) {
  if (trimmed.length() == 0) {
    *guess = 0.0;
    return true;
  }
  if (exponent + trimmed.length() - 1 >= kMaxDecimalPower) {
    *guess = Double::Infinity();
    return true;
  }
  if (exponent + trimmed.length() <= kMinDecimalPower) {
    *guess = 0.0;
    return true;
  }

  if (DoubleStrtod(trimmed, exponent, guess) ||
      DiyFpStrtod(trimmed, exponent, guess)) {
    return true;
  }
  if (*guess == Double::Infinity()) {
    return true;
  }
  return false;
}

double Strtod(Vector<const char> buffer, int exponent) {
  char copy_buffer[kMaxSignificantDecimalDigits];
  Vector<const char> trimmed;
  int updated_exponent;
  TrimAndCut(buffer, exponent, copy_buffer, kMaxSignificantDecimalDigits,
             &trimmed, &updated_exponent);
  exponent = updated_exponent;

  double guess;
  bool is_correct = ComputeGuess(trimmed, exponent, &guess);
  if (is_correct) return guess;

  DiyFp upper_boundary = Double(guess).UpperBoundary();
  int comparison = CompareBufferWithDiyFp(trimmed, exponent, upper_boundary);
  if (comparison < 0) {
    return guess;
  } else if (comparison > 0) {
    return Double(guess).NextDouble();
  } else if ((Double(guess).Significand() & 1) == 0) {
    // Round towards even.
    return guess;
  } else {
    return Double(guess).NextDouble();
  }
}

float Strtof(Vector<const char> buffer, int exponent) {
  char copy_buffer[kMaxSignificantDecimalDigits];
  Vector<const char> trimmed;
  int updated_exponent;
  TrimAndCut(buffer, exponent, copy_buffer, kMaxSignificantDecimalDigits,
             &trimmed, &updated_exponent);
  exponent = updated_exponent;

  double double_guess;
  bool is_correct = ComputeGuess(trimmed, exponent, &double_guess);

  float float_guess = static_cast<float>(double_guess);
  if (float_guess == double_guess) {
    // This shortcut triggers for integer values.
    return float_guess;
  }

  // We must catch double-rounding. Say the double has been rounded up, and is
  // now a boundary of a float, and rounds up again. This is why we have to
  // look at previous too.
  // Example (in decimal numbers):
  //    input: 12349
  //    high-precision (4 digits): 1235
  //    low-precision (3 digits):
  //       when read from input: 123
  //       when rounded from high precision: 124.
  // To do this we simply look at the neigbors of the correct result and see
  // if they would round to the same float. If the guess is not correct we have
  // to look at four values (since two different doubles could be the correct
  // double).

  double double_next = Double(double_guess).NextDouble();
  double double_previous = Double(double_guess).PreviousDouble();

  float f1 = static_cast<float>(double_previous);
  float f2 = float_guess;
  float f3 = static_cast<float>(double_next);
  float f4;
  if (is_correct) {
    f4 = f3;
  } else {
    double double_next2 = Double(double_next).NextDouble();
    f4 = static_cast<float>(double_next2);
  }
  ASSERT(f1 <= f2 && f2 <= f3 && f3 <= f4);

  // If the guess doesn't lie near a single-precision boundary we can simply
  // return its float-value.
  if (f1 == f4) {
    return float_guess;
  }

  ASSERT((f1 != f2 && f2 == f3 && f3 == f4) ||
         (f1 == f2 && f2 != f3 && f3 == f4) ||
         (f1 == f2 && f2 == f3 && f3 != f4));

  // guess and next are the two possible canditates (in the same way that
  // double_guess was the lower candidate for a double-precision guess).
  float guess = f1;
  float next = f4;
  DiyFp upper_boundary;
  if (guess == 0.0f) {
    float min_float = 1e-45f;
    upper_boundary = Double(static_cast<double>(min_float) / 2).AsDiyFp();
  } else {
    upper_boundary = Single(guess).UpperBoundary();
  }
  int comparison = CompareBufferWithDiyFp(trimmed, exponent, upper_boundary);
  if (comparison < 0) {
    return guess;
  } else if (comparison > 0) {
    return next;
  } else if ((Single(guess).Significand() & 1) == 0) {
    // Round towards even.
    return guess;
  } else {
    return next;
  }
}

}  // namespace double_conversion
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