statistics /

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Statistics: efficient, general purpose statistics

This package provides the Statistics module, a Haskell library for
working with statistical data in a space- and time-efficient way.

Where possible, we give citations and computational complexity
estimates for the algorithms used.


This library has been carefully optimised for high performance.  To
obtain the best runtime efficiency, it is imperative to compile
libraries and applications that use this library using a high level of

Suggested GHC options:

  -O -fvia-C -funbox-strict-fields

To illustrate, here are the times (in seconds) to generate and sum 250
million random Word32 values, on a laptop with a 2.4GHz Core2 Duo
P8600 processor, running Fedora 11 and GHC 6.10.3:

  no flags   200+
  -O           1.249
  -O -fvia-C   0.991

As the numbers above suggest, compiling without optimisation will
yield unacceptable performance.

Get involved!

Please feel welcome to contribute new code or bug fixes.  You can
fetch the source repository from here:

darcs get


Bryan O'Sullivan <>