statistics /

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Statistics: efficient, general purpose statistics

This package provides the Statistics module, a Haskell library for working with statistical data in a space- and time-efficient way.

Where possible, we give citations and computational complexity estimates for the algorithms used.


This library has been carefully optimised for high performance. To obtain the best runtime efficiency, it is imperative to compile libraries and applications that use this library using a high level of optimisation.

Suggested GHC options:

-O -funbox-strict-fields

To illustrate, here are the times (in seconds) to generate and sum 250 million random Word32 values, on a laptop with a 2.4GHz Core2 Duo P8600 processor, running Fedora 11 and GHC 6.10.3:

no flags   200+
-O           1.249
-O -fvia-C   0.991

As the numbers above suggest, compiling without optimisation will yield unacceptable performance.

Get involved!

Please report bugs via the bitbucket issue tracker.

Master Mercurial repository:

  • hg clone

There's also a git mirror:

  • git clone git://

(You can create and contribute changes using either Mercurial or git.)


This library is written and maintained by Bryan O'Sullivan,