Overview

or

Inelegant: better ugly than unavailable

Inelegant groups a series of tools that are very useful for automating tests. Most of them are unreliable or costly "in the wild" but can be useful enough on tests.

Right now there are eight modules in this project.

"Inelegant Process" - running and communicating with a simple processes

This module contains the class inelegant.process.Process. This class extends multiprocessing.Process so one can easily recover information sent by the target.

Returned values and exceptions

For example, one can get the returned value:

>>> from inelegant.process import Process
>>> def invert(n):
...     return 1.0/n
>>> process = Process(target=invert, args=(2.0,))
>>> process.start()
>>> process.join() # The value is only available after the process end.
>>> process.result
0.5


If the process is finished by an exception, it can also be retrieved:

>>> process = Process(target=invert, args=(0.0,))
>>> process.start()
>>> process.join()
>>> process.exception
ZeroDivisionError('float division by zero',)


Getting and sending data

If the target function is a generator function, then one can send values to and receive values from it with the Process.send() and Process.get(). However, we have a limitation here: one should always send a value after getting one, and get() will return all yielded values at each call, even if they are useless:

>>> def add():
...     a = yield
...     b = yield
...     yield a+b
>>> process.start()
>>> process.send(1)
>>> process.send(2)
>>> process.get() # First yield statement gave us nothing so it is None here
>>> process.get() # Same with second yield
>>> process.get() # Finally, the value
3
>>> process.send(None) # Necessary to continue
>>> process.join()


The last send() call can be replaced with the go() method.

(This is not a very intuitive contract but proved itself very useful.)

As a context manager

A very nice feature of inelegant.process.Process is that it is a context manager. If one is given to a with statement, it is guaranteed that it will be finished after the block ends. This is useful because it is too easy to forget to join a process. If it happens, we have problems:

>>> process = Process(target=invert, args=(4,))
>>> process.start()
>>> process.result + 3 # Oops, the value is not available yet!
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: unsupported operand type(s) for +: 'NoneType' and 'int'
>>> process.join() # Alas, it is too late.


Using the with statement it is done automatically and without way less clutter. The process starts itself before proceeding and is joined once the block ends. The parent process will wait for its child's end after the block:

>>> with Process(target=invert, args=(4,)) as process:
...     pass
>>> process.result
0.25

>>> process = Process(target=invert, args=(0.0,))
>>> process.start()
>>> process.join()


Automatic process termination

By default, Process assume the target function will finish itself eventually, but it may execute indefinitely. In these cases, you may want to just kill the process once the with block is done. Then, just set the terminate argument of Process constructor:

>>> def forever():
...     while True: pass
>>> with Process(target=forever, terminate=True) as process:
...     pass
>>> process.is_alive()
False


In general, however, it is better to write a function that finishes itself.

(Note that, if an exception is raised ending the with block, the subprocess is killed as well, since we do not know if it would need more information to proceed with its execution.)

Raising subprocess exceptions at the parent process

Let us suppose an exception ended our subprocess. Having the exception available at Process.exception is useful, indeed, but not very practical to examine most of the time. Fortunately, it can be raised again. Just set the reraise argument of the constructor and any exception will be re-raised once the subprocess is joined:

>>> process = Process(target=invert, args=(0.0,), reraise=True)
>>> process.start()
>>> process.join()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ZeroDivisionError: float division by zero


Since the process is joined after the block if given to a with statement, children exceptions would also be raised - but only after the block finishes:

>>> with Process(target=invert, args=(0.0,), reraise=True):
...     executed = True
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ZeroDivisionError: float division by zero
>>> executed
True


"Inelegant Net" - quick and dirty network tricks

The module inelegant.net provides tools for easing testing some very simple network communication code.

The Server class

For example, it has the inelegant.Server, a subclass of SocketServer.TCPServer that only serves a string in a specific port:

>>> from inelegant.net import Server
>>> server = Server('localhost', 9000, message='my message')
>>> import contextlib, socket, time
>>> with Process(target=server.handle_request):
...     time.sleep(0.1)
...     with contextlib.closing(socket.socket()) as s:
...         s.connect(('localhost', 9000))
...         s.recv(10)
'my message'


However, it is probably best used as a context manager. If given to a with statement, the server will be started alone in the background and finished once the block is exited:

>>> with Server('localhost', 9000, message='my message'):
...     time.sleep(0.1)
...     with contextlib.closing(socket.socket()) as s:
...         s.connect(('localhost', 9000))
...         s.recv(10)
'my message'
>>> with contextlib.closing(socket.socket()) as s:
...     s.connect(('localhost', 9000))
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
error: [Errno 111] Connection refused


Waiter functions

To be honest, the Server class is mostly used to test the reason of the Inelegant Net: the waiter functions.

These functions wait for a port to be up or down in a specific host. There are two of them:

wait_server_up(host, port)

Blocks until there is a process listening at the given port from the given host. Useful when we want to do something only when a server is already up and running.

It is not uncommon a server can take a bit of time to start due to resource loading etc. For example, consider the example we saw below. If we remove the waiting time from the second line, it will probably fail:

>>> with Server('localhost', 9000, message='my message'):
...     time.sleep(0.01)
...     with contextlib.closing(socket.socket()) as s:
...         s.connect(('localhost', 9000))
...         s.recv(10)
'my message'


The problem is, these wait times are wasteful: to ensure the server is up, we wait way more time than it is necessary most of the times. It is unreliable, too, because there will be always a time when the waiting time is not enough.

With wait_server_up(), the process waits only for the necessary amount of time - and no more:

>>> from inelegant.net import wait_server_up
>>> start = time.time()
>>> with Server('localhost', 9000, message='my message'):
...     wait_server_up('localhost', 9000)
...     time.time() - start < 0.01
True


It has a timeout: by default, it will not wait more than one second and, if the server is not up, an exception is raised. It can be made longer with the timeout argument:

>>> start = time.time()
>>> with Server('localhost', 9000):
...     wait_server_up('localhost', 9000, timeout=60)
...     time.time() - start < 0.01
True

wait_server_down()

Likewise, it is common to have to wait for a server being down on a specific port. Again, it is common to rely on waiting times. Consider the hypotetical server below:

>>> def slow_server():
...     with Server('localhost', 9000) as server:
...         yield
...         time.sleep(0.01)
...         server.shutdown()


If we start and shutdown it, and then try to bound to the same port, it will likely fail:

>>> with Process(target=slow_server) as p:
...     wait_server_up('localhost', 9000)
...     with contextlib.closing(socket.socket()) as s:
...         p.go() # Request shutdown
...         s.bind(('localhost', 9000))
Traceback (most recent call last):
...


A common solution is to add some wait time:

>>> with Process(target=slow_server) as p:
...     wait_server_up('localhost', 9000)
...     with contextlib.closing(socket.socket()) as s:
...         p.go() # Request shutdown
...         time.sleep(0.02)
...         s.bind(('localhost', 9000))


Again, it is a suboptimal. Generally, the wait time is way larger than needed most of the time, and even in this situation it will fail sometimes.. With wait_server_down(), the client can block itself until the server is not running anymore - and no more:

>>> from inelegant.net import wait_server_up, wait_server_down
>>> with Process(target=slow_server) as p:
...     wait_server_up('localhost', 9000)
...     with contextlib.closing(socket.socket()) as s:
...         p.go() # Request shutdown
...         wait_server_down('localhost', 9000)
...         s.bind(('localhost', 9000))


It will wait for at most one second by default, but the timeout can be changed:

>>> with Process(target=slow_server) as p:
...     wait_server_up('localhost', 9000)
...     with contextlib.closing(socket.socket()) as s:
...         p.go() # Request shutdown
...         wait_server_down('localhost', 9000, timeout=60)
...         s.bind(('localhost', 9000))


"Inelegant Module" - creating modules

With inelegant.module one can create and import modules at runtime, without needing to write a file.

The create_module() function

To create a module, one can use the create_module() function. The function has a mandatory argument, the module name:

>>> from inelegant.module import create_module
>>> create_module('m') # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<module 'm' ...>


Note, however, that creating a module does not make it available for importing:

>>> import m
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ImportError: No module named m


Giving scope, definitions and code to the module

An empty module is not very useful, so create_module() provides some ways of putting stuff on it. She simplest one is probably the scope argument. It should be a dictionary, and every value from it will be attributed to a variable whose name is its key:

>>> m = create_module('m', scope={'x': 3})
>>> m.x
3


Modules can also define classes and functions. Such entities, when defined on a module, will have a __module__ attribute set. If one passes these entities through the scopes dict, however, the module name will not have it set:

   >>> class Class(object):
...     pass
>>> m = create_module('m', scope={'Class': Class})
>>> m.Class.__module__ == 'm'
False

One should pass them through the to_adopt argument (which should be
iterable) to have the classes and functions "adopted" by the module::

>>> m.Class.__module__
'm'


Finally, sometimes it is more practical to just pass a bunch of code to be executed as the module source. In these cases, the code attribute should be used:

>>> m = create_module('m', scope={'x': 3}, code="""
...     y = x+1
... """)
>>> m.x
3
>>> m.y
4


As you can see, the values from the scope dict are available to the code being executed.

The installed_module() context manager

While it may be useful to create a module by itself, many times we want to be able to import them as well. In tests, we usually want to make it available for importing only temporarily. IN this cases, we can use the installed_module() functions. It receives exactly the same arguments from create_module() but returns a context manager. If given to a with statement, the module will be available for importing...

>>> from inelegant.module import installed_module
>>> with installed_module('some_module', scope={'x': 3}) as m:
...     import some_module
...     m == some_module
True


...but only inside the with block:

>>> import some_module
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ImportError: No module named some_module


The available_module() context manager

Makes a module available to be imported - but does not import it.

available_module() expects two arguments: the name of the module and its code. The name is mandatory, but the code is optional:

>>> from inelegant.module import available_module
>>> with available_module(name='m', code='x = 3'):
...     import m
...     m.x
3


Once its context is closed, the module is not available for importing anymore:

>>> import m
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ImportError: No module named m


It is similar installed_module() but its context does not return the module itself:

>>> with installed_module('m') as m:
...     m                                           # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<module 'm' ...>
>>> with available_module('m') as m:
...     m is None
True


Instead, the user should necessarily import the module.

Also, the code is not executed when the module is created, but only when it is imported:

>>> with available_module(name='m', code="print('During importing.')"):
...     print('Before importing.')
...     import m
...     print('After importing.')
Before importing.
During importing.
After importing.
>>> with installed_module(name='m', code="print('During importing.')"):
...     print('Before importing?')
...     import m
...     print('After importing.')
During importing.
Before importing?
After importing.


This behavior is useful when we need a module that raises an exception when imported.

The available_resource function

Another thing we can only do with available modules (for now) is to add resource files to them. We do it with the available_resource() function.

As much as available_module(), available_resource() is a context manager. It expects at least the name of the module and the name of the resource file:

>>> from inelegant.module import available_resource
>>> import pkgutil
>>> with available_module('m'):
...     with available_resource('m', 'my-file.txt'):
...         pkgutil.get_data('m', 'my-file.txt')
''


Since we want to put content on these resources, we can give it to the function with the content argument:

>>> with available_module('m'):
...     with available_resource('m', 'my-file.txt', content='example'):
...         pkgutil.get_data('m', 'my-file.txt')
'example'


Once the available_resource() context ends, the resource is not available anymore:

>>> with available_module('m'):
...     with available_resource('m', 'my-file.txt', content='example 2'):
...         assert pkgutil.get_data('m', 'my-file.txt') == 'example 2'
...     pkgutil.get_data('m', 'my-file.txt') # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
IOError: ...


The get_caller_module() function

Finally, inelegant.module provides the get_caller_module() function. It basically returns the module from where the current function was called.

For example, suppose we have a module m1 with a function f():

>>> from inelegant.module import get_caller_module
>>> def f():
...     print get_caller_module()


m2 imports m1 and call it. What will it return? It will return m2 since it is the module calling f():

>>> with installed_module('m1', to_adopt=[f]),\
...         installed_module('m2', code='import m1; m1.f()'):
...     pass # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<module 'm2' ...>


As we like to put it, get_caller_module() doesn't tell you who you are - you already know that. I tell you who is calling you.

That said, get_caller_module() accepts an index as its argument. In this case, it will return the n-th module from the frame stack, being 0 the module where get_caller_module() was called. Basically, it means the default value of the index is 1:

>>> def f2():
...     print get_caller_module(1)
...         installed_module('m2', code='import m1; m1.f2()'):
...     pass # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<module 'm2' ...>


"Inelegant Finder": straightforward way of finding test cases

Finally, we have inelegant.finder.TestFinder, a unittest.TestSuite subclass that finds tests by itself.

Finding tests in modules

TestFinder can receive an arbitrary number of modules as its constructor arguments. The finder will then find every test case from these modules, as well as any doctests in docstrings from it.

Consider the definitions below:

>>> import unittest
...     """
...     Sums two values:
...
...     FAIL
...     """
...     return a + b
...     def test22(self):


We can put them on modules and give the modules to test finder. Both the doctest and the unit test will be called when the finder suite be executed:

>>> from inelegant.finder import TestFinder
...     finder = TestFinder(a, ta)
...     import sys
...     runner = unittest.TextTestRunner(stream=sys.stdout)
...     runner.run(finder) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
FF
...
Failed example:
Expected:
FAIL
Got:
4
...
...
AssertionError: 3 != 4
...
<unittest.runner.TextTestResult run=2 errors=0 failures=2>


We do not even need to import the modules - it is possible to just pass their names:

>>> with installed_module('a', to_adopt=[add]),\
...     finder = TestFinder('a', 'ta')
...     import os
...     runner = unittest.TextTestRunner(stream=open(os.devnull, 'w'))
...     runner.run(finder) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<unittest.runner.TextTestResult run=2 errors=0 failures=2>


The TestFinder also accepts file paths (or even file objects) as its arguments. In this case, the file is expected to be a text file containing doctests (like yours truly, indeed).

Another good example would be the file created below:

>>> import tempfile
>>> _, path = tempfile.mkstemp()
>>> with open(path, 'w') as f:
...     f.write('''
...         >>> 2+2
...         3
...     ''')


We just need to give the path to the finder:

>>> finder = TestFinder(path)
>>> runner = unittest.TextTestRunner(stream=sys.stdout)
>>> runner.run(finder) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
F
...
File "...", line 2, in ...
Failed example:
2+2
Expected:
3
Got:
4
...
FAILED (failures=1)
<unittest.runner.TextTestResult run=1 errors=0 failures=1>
>>> os.remove(path)


The file path can be either relative or absolute. If it is not absolute, it will be relative to the module where TestFinder was instantiated.

Python's unittest has this nice feature named "load_tests protocol". To understand it, one should know that TestLoader.loadTestsFromModule() looks for all subclasses of unittest.TestCase inside the modules given to it:

>>> class TestCase1(unittest.TestCase):
...     def test1(self):
...         self.assertEquals(1, 1)
>>> class TestCase2(unittest.TestCase):
...     def test2(self):
...         self.assertEquals(2, 1)
>>> with installed_module('t', to_adopt=[TestCase1,TestCase2]) as t:
...     runner = unittest.TextTestRunner(stream=open(os.devnull, 'w'))
...     runner.run(suite)
<unittest.runner.TextTestResult run=2 errors=0 failures=1>


We can change this default behavior by defining a function called load_tests() in the module. This function receives three arguments: an unittest.TestLoader instance, a test suite with all tests found in the module, and a pattern to match files (only really useful when loading tests from packages). load_tests() should itself return a test suite - and this test suite will be the one returned by loadTestsFromModule(). With this, one can customize which tests are loaded from the module. For example, the code below will only run TestCase1, although there are two test cases in the module:

>>> def load_tests(loader, tests, pattern):
...     # We merely ignore the given tests.
...     suite = unittest.TestSuite()
...     return suite
>>> with installed_module(
...     ) as t:
...     runner = unittest.TextTestRunner(stream=open(os.devnull, 'w'))
...     runner.run(suite)
<unittest.runner.TextTestResult run=1 errors=0 failures=0>


For its turn, TestFinder has a method called load_tests() that merely returns the finder instance itself - also, it accepts the three expected arguments. So, if you want the automatic test discoverers (such as unittest.TestLoader.loadTestsFromModule()) to load all tests found by TestFinder in a module, you just need to assign the instance's load_tests() method to the load_tests module variable.

So, consider the function and class defined below:

>>> def add(a, b):
...     """
...     Sums two values:
...
...     FAIL
...     """
...     return a + b
...     def test22(self):


We can force a test module to return both the doctests and the unittest by using the load_tests() method:

>>> with installed_module('a', to_adopt=[add]),\
...         installed_module(
...             code="""
...                 from inelegant.finder import TestFinder
...                 finder = TestFinder(__name__, 'a')
...             """
...         ) as ta:
...     runner = unittest.TextTestRunner(stream=open(os.devnull, 'w'))
...     runner.run(suite)
<unittest.runner.TextTestResult run=2 errors=0 failures=2>


"Inelegant FS" - quick-and-dirty filesystem operations

The module inelegant.fs contains tools to some common file system operation. Notably, we have some context managers that ensure such operations are reverted.

Changing working directory

inelegant.fs.change_dir() is a context manager to change directories. While the context manager is executed, we will be at the given directory; after that, we will be back to the original one:

>>> from inelegant.fs import temp_dir, change_dir as cd
>>> curdir = os.getcwd()
>>> with temp_dir() as tempdir:
...     with cd(tempdir):
...         os.getcwd() == curdir
...         os.getcwd() == tempdir
False
True
>>> os.getcwd() == curdir
True


It yields the path to which it moved (which is very practical if one wants to give an expression to change_dir()):

>>> with cd(tempfile.gettempdir()) as path:
...     os.getcwd() == path
True


Creating temporary files

inelegant.fs.temp_file() is a context manager that creates temporary files:

>>> from inelegant.fs import temp_file
>>> with temp_file() as p:
...     with open(p, 'w') as f:
...         f.write('test')
...     with open(p, 'r') as f:
'test'


Once the context is finished, the file is removed:

>>> open(p, 'r')  # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
IOError: ...


One can also give the path to the file to be created:

>>> with temp_dir() as tempdir:
...     with temp_file(where=tempdir, name='test') as p:
...         os.path.basename(p)
...         os.path.dirname(p) == tempdir
...         os.path.exists(p)
'test'
True
True


If you do not care about the file name but wants it to be created in a specific directory, you can use the where argument:

>>> with temp_file(where=tempfile.gettempdir()) as p:
...     os.path.dirname(p) == tempfile.gettempdir()
...     os.path.exists(p)
True
True


To put some content inside the file, use the content argument, which can receive a string:

>>> with temp_file(content='example') as p:
...     with open(p, 'r') as f:
'example'


Remember, however, that choosing the name, path or directory of the temporary file can result in errors if one already exists with this name:

>>> with temp_file(name='example'):
...     with temp_file(name='example'): # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
...         pass
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
IOError: ...


Creating temporary directories

temp_dir() is a context manager to create temporary directories. The yielded value will be the path to the temporary directory:

>>> with temp_dir() as p:
...     os.path.isdir(p)
True


Once the context is done, the directory is deleted:

>>> os.path.isdir(p)
False


To use the temporary directory as the working one, make the cd argument true:

>>> with temp_dir(cd=True) as p:
...     os.getcwd() == p
True


Once the context is closed, we are back to the previous directory:

>>> curdir = os.getcwd()
>>> with temp_dir(cd=True) as p:
...     os.getcwd() == curdir
False
>>> os.getcwd() == curdir
True


Also, you can choose the directory where to create the new one, as well as its name:

>>> with temp_dir() as p1, temp_dir(where=p1) as p2:
...     os.path.dirname(p2) == p1
True
>>> with temp_dir(name='example') as p:
...     os.path.basename(p)
'example'


Note, however, that choosing the name of the temporary directory can result in errors if one already exists with this name:

>>> with temp_dir(name='example'):
...     with temp_dir(name='example'): # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
...         pass
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
OSError: ...


"Inelegant Toggle" - enable and disable a global condition

intelegant.toggle is home for the Toggle class, which generate objects that can be either disabled or enabled. The main purpose of Toggle is to enable global behaviors - most of the time, deprecated behaviors.

A use case

For example, suppose we have a function that returns the quotient of two numbers. If the divisor is zero, it returns float('NaN'):

>>> def div(dividend, divisor):
...     if divisor != 0:
...         return dividend / divisor
...     else:
...         return float('NaN')
>>> div(6, 3)
2
>>> div(6, 0)
nan


So far, so good. Yet the experience proves that it is not the best choice for most uses of the function. Developers in general expect the function to raise an exception for zero divisors. We decide to change this behavor, then:

>>> def div(dividend, divisor):
...     return dividend / divisor
>>> div(6, 3)
2
>>> div(6, 0)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ZeroDivisionError: integer division or modulo by zero


The problem is, many programs are already using the function and relying on the old behavor. To rewrite all of them at once is not viable. We can then enable the old behavior via toggle, giving the option to the developer to update later.

First, we create a toggle:

>>> from inelegant.toggle import Toggle
>>> div_returns_nan = Toggle()


Then we rewrite the function to use it. To check if the toggle is enabled, we see its enabled attribute:

>>> def div(dividend, divisor):
...     try:
...         return dividend / divisor
...     except ZeroDivisionError:
...         if div_returns_nan.enabled:
...             return float('NaN')
...         else:
...             raise


The function will have the new behavior with a disabled toggle (the default state):

>>> div(6, 0)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ZeroDivisionError: integer division or modulo by zero


Once the toggle is enabled, however, the old behavior will emerge:

>>> div_returns_nan.enable()
>>> div(6, 0)
nan


Disabling a toggle

You can disable a toggle as well:

>>> div_returns_nan.disable()
>>> div(6, 0)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ZeroDivisionError: integer division or modulo by zero


This, however, is probably not a good idea most of the time. Currently, toggles are expected to only be enabled in the very beginning of the Python program and to stay thsi way for the rest of it. Crucially, toggles are not thread-safe, so enabling and disabling them at will may result in very strange bugs.

Toggles as context managers

If you are sure there would be no two threads in your program (as we are, since our tests are executed synchronously), you can use the toggle as a context manager. During its context, the toggle is enabled; after that, it is disabled:

>>> with div_returns_nan:
...     div(6, 0)
nan
>>> div(6, 0)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ZeroDivisionError: integer division or modulo by zero


A warning for each toogle

Since toggles are used for enabling deprecated behavior, we think it may be a good idea to always add a warning when it is observed as being enabled. This way, the developer will be continuously remembered that the program relies in deprecated behavior:

>>> def div(dividend, divisor):
...     try:
...         return dividend / divisor
...     except ZeroDivisionError:
...         if div_returns_nan.enabled:
...             print(
...                 'Returning nan for a zero divisor is deprecated '
...                 'behavior from div.')
...             return float('NaN')
...         else:
...             raise

>>> with div_returns_nan:
...     div(6, 0)
Returning nan for a zero divisor is deprecated behavior from div.
nan


(Also, we would rather write it to sys.stderr but you got the idea.)

"Inelegant Dict" - dictionaries idioms

Currently, inelegant.dict has only one utility, temp_key(). It is a context manager that adds a key to a dict only during its context. While it is a very simple context manager, this is a need we see arising time and time again.

Something like this:

>>> from inelegant.dict import temp_key
>>> d = {}
>>> with temp_key(d, key='a', value=1):
...     d
{'a': 1}


Once the context finishes, the key is gone:

>>> d
{}


"Inelegant I/O" - dealing with standard input/output

The module inelegant.io provides tools to control the standard output and standard error. (It is a bit of a funny name because it does not handle standard input, right?)

This module has has four utilities. redirect_stdout and redirect_stderr are two context managers/decorators that capture output and allow the developer to see it. suppress_stdout and suppress_stderr are similar but only suppress the output.

Redirecting standard output

redirect_stdout() will redirect the standard output to a file object given to it:

>>> from StringIO import StringIO
>>> from inelegant.io import redirect_stdout
>>> output = StringIO()
>>> with redirect_stdout(output):
...     print 'this will be redirected'


Everything that would get into the standard output will be written to this file:

>>> output.getvalue()
'this will be redirected\n'


Once the context is exited, the previous standard output is restored:

>>> print 'this will not be redirected'
this will not be redirected


The context manager returns the object to which it will write the redirected content:

>>> with redirect_stdout(StringIO()) as o:
...     print 'new file-like object'
>>> o.getvalue()
'new file-like object\n'


If no argument is given to the context manager, it will create and return a StringIO object:

>>> with redirect_stdout() as o:
...     print 'automatically created file-like object'
>>> o.getvalue()
'automatically created file-like object\n'


Redirecting standard error

redirect_stderr() will redirect the standard error to a file object given to it:

>>> from inelegant.io import redirect_stderr
>>> output = StringIO()
>>> with redirect_stderr(output):
...     sys.stderr.write('this will be redirected\n')


Everything that would get into the standard output will be written to this file:

>>> output.getvalue()
'this will be redirected\n'


Once the context is exited, the previous standard output is restored:

>>> sys.stderr.write('this will not be redirected')


The context manager returns the object to which it will write the redirected content:

>>> with redirect_stderr(StringIO()) as o:
...     sys.stderr.write('new file-like object\n')
>>> o.getvalue()
'new file-like object\n'


If no argument is given to the context manager, it will create and return a StringIO object:

>>> with redirect_stderr() as o:
...     sys.stderr.write('automatically created file-like object\n')
>>> o.getvalue()
'automatically created file-like object\n'


If you only need to suppress the output of anything that got written into the standard output, you can use the suppress_stdout() context manager:

>>> from inelegant.io import suppress_stdout
>>> with suppress_stdout():
...     print 'this will not appear anywhere.'


It also behaves as a decorator if you need. In the example below, the message written to the standard output is lost:

>>> @suppress_stdout
... def f(a, b):
...     print 'values of args are', a, b
...     return a+b
>>> f(1, 2)
3


suppress_stderr() is very much like suppress_stdout(), with the difference that it will discard anything written to the standard error instead:

>>> from inelegant.io import suppress_stderr
>>> with redirect_stderr() as output:
...     sys.stderr.write('redirected\n')
...     with suppress_stderr():
...         sys.stderr.write('this will not appear anywhere.')
...     sys.stderr.write('redirected, too\n')
>>> output.getvalue()
'redirected\nredirected, too\n'


Unsurprisingly, suppress_stderr() is also a decorator:

>>> @suppress_stderr
... def f(a, b):
...     sys.stderr.write('values of args are {0} {1}'.format(a, b))
...     return a+b
>>> with redirect_stderr() as output:
...     sys.stderr.write('redirected\n')
...     with suppress_stderr():
...         f(1, 2)
...     sys.stderr.write('redirected, too\n')
3
>>> output.getvalue()
'redirected\nredirected, too\n'


Licensing

Inelegant is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

Inelegant is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Lesser General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License along with Inelegant. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.