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Restructuring of the section on animation

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document/sections/animation.tex

 
 \section{Animation} \label{sec:anim}
-\toteacher{This section is on animation.}{Ainda não está decentemente escrito, só meio organizado}
-
-Animation is a series/sequence of images that give the illusion of motion/ continuous action - firstly 'drawings in time' and then computed generated images.
+Animation is defined as a series of images that, when played in sequence, give the illusion of motion.
 
 Animation as a sequence of drawings had its early beginning in 1896 and established its basis in the following years until, inclusive, the so called `Golden Age' of Animation in the 30s-40s. This age featured American giants such as \emph{Disney}, \emph{MGM} and \emph{Warner Bros} and their most successful classics. The use and experimenting of innovative techniques, color and sound in these works evolved the art and craft of animation.
 
-This success declined in the 50s due to the rising of Television and World War II to be retaken later. Progress in animation became mostly a matter of technology, with better equipment and the emerging of computing, followed by computer animation and early 3D in the 80s. Toy Story marked a turning point in 1995, being the first feature-length computed-animation film and also / being Pixar's first production.
-
-The foundations of animation as `drawings in time' were invented/developed and refined in Hollywood's `Golden Age' and most concepts are still relevant / still apply today, independently of the technology and medium used. Both classical and computer animation need to solve the problems of how to provide movement, weight, time and empathy.
+This success declined in the 50s due to the rising of Television and World War II to be retaken later. Progress in animation became mostly a matter of technology, with better equipment and the emerging of computing, followed by computer animation and early 3D in the 80s. Toy Story marked a turning point in 1995, being the first feature-length computed-animation film and also Pixar's first production.
 
-This section starts with the classical knowledge in \refn{sec:classAnim} and then covers the no less important current computer technology and terminology in \refn{sec:compAnim}.
+The foundations of animation as `drawings in time' were invented and refined in Hollywood's `Golden Age' and most concepts are still relevant today, independently of the technology and medium used. Both classical and computer animation need to solve the problems of how to provide movement, weight, time and empathy.
 
+This section describes important animation concepts that are relevant for this work. Some of these concepts come from classical animation and other are specific to computed generated images and the technology that makes 3D computer animation possible.
+The section completes with an overview of techniques used to convey believability to animation, taking characters into consideration.
 
 
 
 \subsection{Classical Animation} \label{sec:classAnim}
 Classic concepts and terminology \cite{animSK, animTM}
 
-Classical animation sets most of its roots in cartoons, exaggeration, departing from reality. impossible things and looks -> mickey does not look like a mouse at all and clichés. but we buy it because it is believable. all the exaggeration conveys ideas, motion, actions. And this drawn animation had the aim of doing things that a camera can not do.
-
-\begin{citequote}{animSK}
-We want to get the kind of reality that a camera \emph{can't} get. We want to accentuate and suppress aspects of the model's character to make it more vivid.
-\\\hskip1cm \ldots\\
-What we want to achieve isn't realism, it's \emph{believability}.
-\end{citequote}
+Classical or traditional animation sets its roots in cartoons, exaggeration, departing from reality. impossible things and looks -> mickey does not look like a mouse at all and clichés. but we buy it because it is believable. all the exaggeration conveys ideas, motion, actions. And this drawn animation had the aim of doing things that a camera can not do.
 
+time and spacing.
 
-Keys, Extremes, Frames, time and spacing.
 Ball example.
 The bouncing ball example is often used because it shows so many different aspects/concepts of animation.
 Timing - the moment (frame) when something happens - ball example hits the ground.
 Spacing - 
 Fig illustrates this, keep in mind that the ball is only moving vertically, the ball drawings are horizontally displaced for clarity, to represent different frames.
-Weight of the ball? Personality creeps in: deliberate, slow, erratic, etc.
 
-Line of Action. Arcs
-
-We're animating masses not lines
+Keys, Extremes, Frames
 
 X-sheet/dopesheet
 
+Weight of the ball? Personality creeps in: deliberate, slow, erratic, etc.
 
-\subsubsection{Believability}
-Distinct from reality.
-\paragraph{Noise}
-Breathing, moving, imperfection, asymmetry, eye movement.
-
-\paragraph{Blinking}
-Human eyes normally blink in Xs intervals, lasting X ms. For animation this means a blink approximately in every 5 frames, lasting 5. Another rule is to not start or end an animation strip to close to a blink.
-
-blink changes according to the person's psychological state, a more nervous person will blink more often, a frightened person less.
-
-Eyes tend to blink whenever changing focus with a normal-relaxed person. So if a person/character is looking at his hands, and is swinging the arms or, if the hands are apart and the character looks from one to the other, the person should blink.
+Line of Action. Arcs. We're animating masses not lines
 
-\paragraph{Emotion}
-Contributes to believability, but it is out of this thesis scope.
 
 
 
 Exaggeration is still okay and necessary even for non cartoon stuff. How our brains work.
 
 Frames, timing and spacing apply.
-The computer is the inbetweener. F-curves to adjust
+
+Keys vs Extremes and software terminology. The dopesheet.\\
+The computer is the inbetweener. F-curves to adjust\\
 Ball example.
 
-A Rig
-	Skeletons/Armatures and bones,
-		IK/FK %(3rd newton law)
-		Pose to Pose
-	Morph targets/blend shapes,
-	lattices
-Skinning
-	Non-standard bits: fat, floppy years, tails, hair and fur, cloaks. Non-standard hands and faces.
-	Why is this important? -> Because it probably won't work, and may be important for children. It is out of the scope of this work (see \refnt{sec:fw})
+A Rig\\
+	Skeletons/Armatures and bones,\\
+		IK/FK \\%(3rd newton law)
+		Pose to Pose\\
+	Morph targets/blend shapes,\\
+	lattices\\
+Skinning\\
+	Non-standard bits: fat, floppy years, tails, hair and fur, cloaks. Non-standard hands and faces.\\
+	Why is this important? -> Because it probably won't work, and may be important for children. It is out of the scope of this work (see \refnt{sec:fw})\\
 
 The Dopesheet
 NLA editor
 this is a bit implementation <- have care
 
 Motion Capture
+
+
+\subsection{Believability} \label{sec:believ}
+Distinct from reality.
+\begin{citequote}{animSK}
+We want to get the kind of reality that a camera \emph{can't} get. We want to accentuate and suppress aspects of the model's character to make it more vivid.
+\\\hskip1cm \ldots\\
+What we want to achieve isn't realism, it's \emph{believability}.
+\end{citequote}
+
+
+\subsubsection{Noise}
+Breathing, moving, imperfection, asymmetry, eye movement.
+
+\subsubsection{Blinking}
+Human eyes normally blink in Xs intervals, lasting X ms. For animation this means a blink approximately in every 5 frames, lasting 5. Another rule is to not start or end an animation strip to close to a blink.
+
+blink changes according to the person's psychological state, a more nervous person will blink more often, a frightened person less.
+
+Eyes tend to blink whenever changing focus with a normal-relaxed person. So if a person/character is looking at his hands, and is swinging the arms or, if the hands are apart and the character looks from one to the other, the person should blink.
+
+\subsubsection{Emotion}
+Contributes to believability, but it is out of this thesis scope.
+
+