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Inês Almeida  committed da220f4

Motivation draft n1

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File document/commands.tex

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File document/lgp.bib

 }
 
 
-http://animationresources.org/?p=2091
 @book{animBlair,
   author={Preston Blair},
   title={Animation},
   year={},
-  publisher
+  publisher={},
   url={http://animationresources.org/?p=2091}
 }
 
 }
 
 
+@online{tg-subtitles,
+ url = {http://www.theguardian.com/film/filmblog/2008/nov/28/deaf-subtitles-sign-language-film},
+ urldate = {2014-03},
+ author = {Helen Schreibman-Smith},
+ date = {2008-11-28},
+ keywords = {testimonial}
+}
+
+
 http://www.sammobile.com/firmwares/1/?model=GT-P5110&pcode=TPH#firmware
 https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.a0soft.gphone.app2sd.pro&hl=en
 
 
 http://www.spreadthesign.com/pt/
 
+Census - Final results. Portugal - 2011
+Issue year: 2012
 
+https://fenix.tecnico.ulisboa.pt/publico/department/showCompetenceCourse.faces;jsessionid=4C842D0B54C9F6DBF5EF4ABE4A8C0B20.as3?action=ccm&competenceCourseID=2229088037758&selectedDepartmentUnitID=1911260507825&contentContextPath_PATH=/departamentos/demat/lateral/disciplinas&_request_checksum_=9dc92690cff408b7b6f25aee1c12daf40d816a58

File document/lgp.pdf

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File document/sections/intro.tex

 	
 % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % Motivation % % % % % % % % % % % % %
 \section{Motivation} \label{sec:mot}
-Sign Language is not international -> resources for portuguese are scarce. Small community and small attention (brazil does not count).
 
+Have you ever wanted or absolutely needed to communicate with a deaf person and couldn't?
+What about and hearing-impaired person's point of view? When they can't make themselves heard or are unable to understand someone or don't understand something.
+
+Testimonials from deaf's parents state occurrences like...
+The main conclusion is that a deaf person's autonomy, respect and safeguard of desires is very dependent of communication.
+
+The lack of a way to communicate outside of the deaf's usual environment/community leads to isolation and estrangement and all sorts of social problems derived from... If one pauses to think, all manners of possibly awkward situations rises to mind. Imagine having to take your mother along with you to a date! The privacy and development of a baby/child/teenager are important to protect.
+
+Autonomia: são relatadas situações em que uma pessoa deaf tem problemas, enquanto que estas situações deveriam ser resolvidas como uma questão de fundo (politica e socialmente), este trabalho poderá ajudar. Estas são situações de urgência (acidente - hospital), imprevistas ou não planeadas. Casos em que o surdo não se consegue fazer acompanhar de um interprete (profissional ou familiar), também situações de privacidade.
+As crianças ganham autonomia tarde "não deixei o meu filho ir sozinho para a escola até aos 15 anos porque imaginando que lhe acontece qualquer coisa no percurso, como é que ele pode comunicar?".
+
+
+\paragraph{So has no-one really thought of \problem{this}{haven't said what \emph{this} is yet} before?}
+
+Two very important notions/concepts to understand are that Sign Language is not universal and is a language.
+
+The first means that different countries have different sign languages and some are not even remotely related. There is the Portuguese Sign Language - "Língua Gestual Portuguesa" aka LGP, ASL, but also BSL. They are very different. For Portuguese speaking countries there is LGP (islands?), Brazilian, and some flavors of africaans.
+
+The second 'being a language' means that the to translate from PT to LGP is not (colada/agarrada) to replace every word by sign. While hearing people think of a concept in Portuguese, a word, and either vocalize it or write it down, LGP is like thinking in a different language, because that is what it is. LP and LGP do not have a 1-1 mapping, and do not have the same way of building sentences (syntax) or of matching genres number.. LGP $\Leftrightarrow$ LP is as much a translation process as PT $\Leftrightarrow$ EN , with the added difficulty of having to be expressed in signs after the conversion.
+
+This means that although work has been done for other languages / work on sign languages exists, the translation module (of concepts) needs to be done for every language pair, and a mapping of concepts to signs in the desired media support as well. Some parts are common ground/principles and can be reused.
+
+Also LGP community is comparably small, being composed of about 27 thousand individuals (in continental portugal), according to the last census, conducted in 2011. These people do not have the resources available in other countries, including Brazil. Resources (learning materials, support, human translators, researchers) are often scarce, of poor quality or adequation and expensive.
+
+Language barriers are always barriers, with this work I seek to provide technology and tools to help earing and deaf people communicate with each other and to enable any kind of person to learn LGP $\Leftrightarrow$ LP.\\
+And to provide a 3D character that can sign for use in television contents, internet, on a daily basis, and for learning[-> motivate here <-]
 Helps Earing impaired community by providing automatic translations and is a resource for learning.
 
 
-Why not subtitles?
-Most deaf learn to lip-read fairly well. "Although I lip-read well, it's still hard to pick up everything, particularly from group conversations or hidden faces."
-Age:
+\paragraph{To translate video and internet content? Aren't subtitles enough?}
+
+No.
+The first obvious reason are people who can not read, because they are illiterate or toddlers. An argument would be that it is a minority inside a minority, but this is not all.
 
-Sign Language and Spoken Language are different languages. This goes behind a visual/oral support, it also affects the 
-Um surdo pode não dominar o portugues dependendo da sua educação. Comparar com a aprendizagem do ingles de acordo com a exposição. As pessoas podem não ter facilidade natural noutra lingua.
-However, many people in the deaf community weren't as lucky and struggle to follow English, which is basically the written version of our second language. It's like trying to follow Three Colours Red using long-forgotten GCSE French, or La Dolce Vita with tourist Italian.
-It's much easier for sign language users to keep track of who's speaking with a qualified interpreter, who'll take on aspects of the character that they're conveying. And unlike sign language interpretation, subtitles rarely indicate sound effects or music.
-The answer is that sign language uses more than just the hands. Seeing the whole face, especially the eyes and mouth, is crucial in being able to tell between similar-looking signs. The interpreter needs to be large enough to show these features of the language.
+Sign Language and Spoken Language are different languages. This goes behind a visual/oral support, it implies a context switching, like from Portuguese to English, that may take more or less time, according to the individual.
+Think of how old you were when you first could accompany subtitles. Studies show that the average age for this is...?. Now think of how old you were when you had full dominium of your second language and were able to read and understand it at subtitle speed. Think of people you know on this matter. Control of a second language is not trivial and depends on the person's natural skill, practice, exposition to the language, etc.. Many people struggle to follow, speak. read and comprehend a second language, even when they are literate, with full cognitive development and fluent in their native language.
 
-http://www.theguardian.com/film/filmblog/2008/nov/28/deaf-subtitles-sign-language-film
-Helen Schreibman-Smith
-Friday 28 November 2008 12.40 GMT
+To add to this, most adult PSLanguagers had problems with the education system, leading to a even bigger delay in age of following subtitles and, therefore, lack of practice in a more learnfull age. There are also cases where deaf persons were also incorrectly thought of being less smart or incapable of any form of speech and were never even thought of the spoken language in its written form.
 
-Educational reasons:
+Though there are no numbers for this, it is not likely to be a minority of people who can't (at least fully) just use subtitles. Also, it is much easier for sign language users to keep track of who is speaking with a qualified interpreter, who will take on aspects of the character that they are impersonating as well as indicate sound effects or music.\wcite{tg-subtitles}
 
+Educational reasons: Toddlers, children and teenagers should be exposed to their native language and be able to watch cartoons and other appropriate content just like the others. If a language and cognitive development is not present at the right timing, cognitive development is hindered.
 
-If a language and cognitive development is not present at the right timing, cognitive development is hindered.
 
-{\bfseries A disclaimer:}
+\paragraph{A disclaimer}
 It is important to note that this work, is \emph{not} and does not aim to be a replacement for real people.
 No virtual character can outperform a human signer in expressiveness and accuracy.
 Also, with or without the 3D character playing/performing animations of signs (good or bad), this work relies firstly on Natural Language modules used to translate (in concepts and syntax) Portuguese Language to Portuguese Sign Language and to convert spoken or written Portuguese to the translatable concepts form. Due to the very definition of 'Natural' Languages as being had-oc, having ambiguity, and linguistic variability these translation processes are error prone.
 This work seeks instead to help the hearing impaired community as an aid in communication and to establish common grounds for future works that will improve the current situation and have goals of their own.
 Software has the availability, portability (as in you can put it in your pocket), 'patience' and lack of judgment that a human does not have. With a 3D character, you can replay the same sign over and over again, from any spatial point of view, at any speed. You can automatically translate contents from the Internet or from the supermarket (??). People can use it to communicate with a deaf person.
 
-Autonomia: são relatadas situações em que uma pessoa deaf tem problemas, enquanto que estas situações deveriam ser resolvidas como uma questão de fundo (politica e socialmente), este trabalho poderá ajudar. Estas são situações de urgência (acidente - hospital), imprevistas ou não planeadas. Casos em que o surdo não se consegue fazer acompanhar de um interprete (profissional ou familiar), também situações de privacidade.
-As crianças ganham autonomia tarde "não deixei o meu filho ir sozinho para a escola até aos 15 anos porque imaginando que lhe acontece qualquer coisa no percurso, como é que ele pode comunicar?". One can easily think of a series of awkward situations.
 
 {\bfseries A second disclaimer:}
-This work does not aim to be a complete reference, but a solid basis of technology that people can extend in vocabulary and use cases and possibly adapt to other languages.
+This work does not aim to be a complete reference or a good final application for users, but a solid basis of technology that people can extend in vocabulary and use cases and possibly adapt to other languages.
+
 
 What this works actually aims for is:
+Aid in communication, for hearing and hear-impaired persons.
+
+
 
 
 % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % Goals % % % % % % % % % % % % % % %
 
 \begin{enumerate}
 
-\item Have a PT <-> LGP concept/semantic 'dictionary' and translation rule system. Also for full sentences, including syntax/grammar. Working both ways? or PT -> LGP only?
+\item Have a PT $\Leftrightarrow$ LGP concept/semantic 'dictionary' and translation rule system. Also for full sentences, including syntax/grammar. \todo{Working both ways? or PT -> LGP only?}{Decide later}
 
-\item Have a (comprehensive?) LGP concept -> Sign  mapping. 'Gestuário'. Sign representation? Video, 2D photographs/drawings, animation data for use in a 3D character.
+\item Have a \todo{(comprehensive?)}{Decide later} LGP concept $\Rightarrow$ Sign  mapping. 'Gestuário'. Sign representation? Video, 2D photographs/drawings, animation data for use in a 3D character. Have a universal concept language like english?
 
 \end{enumerate}