Inês Almeida committed dfea68d

Introduction and history of Animation

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 %shorts to refer things in a consistent format eg 'ref number title'
+\newcommand{\refn}[1]{\emph{``\nameref{#1}''}} 				 %  “Future Work”k
 \newcommand{\refnt}[1]{\ref{#1} -- \emph{``\nameref{#1}''}}  %  6.1 – Future Work
 \newcommand{\refntq}[1]{\ref{#1} -- \emph{``\nameref{#1}''}} %  6.1 – “Future Work”
 \newcommand{\refntt}[1]{\emph{\ref{#1} \nameref{#1} --}}	 %  6.1 Future Work –
 % \reminder[optionalcolor]{bla}
 \newcommand{\reminder}[3][istcolor]{ {\color{#1}\marginpar{\textcolor{#1}{\mbox{$\bigotimes$}\scriptsize#3}}\underline{\textcolor{black}{#2}}\color{black}} }
+\renewenvironment{quote} %[1]
+	{{\rightmargin\leftmargin}
+	 \relax
+     \textbf{``}}
+	{\textbf{''}} % \\ \raggedright\citeauthor{#1} \cite{#1}}
+  author={Preston Blair},
+  title={Animation},
+  year={},
+  publisher
+  url={}
   author={Richard Williams},
  publisher = {John Wiley \& Sons Inc},
+ author = {Berry, Daniel M.},
+ title = {Requirements for Maintaining Web Access for Hearing-Impaired Individuals},
+ journal = {Software Quality Control},
+ issue_date = {March 2004},
+ volume = {12},
+ number = {1},
+ month = mar,
+ year = {2004},
+ issn = {0963-9314},
+ pages = {9--28},
+ numpages = {20},
+ url = {},
+ doi = {10.1023/B:SQJO.0000013356.15791.3d},
+ acmid = {966614},
+ publisher = {Kluwer Academic Publishers},
+ address = {Hingham, MA, USA},
+ keywords = {TTY, TV, access, closed captioning, e-mail, fax, hearing impaired, lipreading, lipsynching, movies, sight impaired, talking head, telephone, textual and graphical interfaces, video telephone, voice and audio interfaces, voice synthesis},
+ author = {Cameron, Gordon and Bustanoby, Andre and Cope, Ken and Greenberg, Steph and Hayes, Craig and Ozoux, Olivier},
+ title = {Motion Capture and CG Character Animation (Panel)},
+ booktitle = {Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques},
+ series = {SIGGRAPH '97},
+ year = {1997},
+ isbn = {0-89791-896-7},
+ pages = {442--445},
+ numpages = {4},
+ url = {},
+ doi = {10.1145/258734.258902},
+ acmid = {258902},
+ publisher = {ACM Press/Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.},
+ address = {New York, NY, USA},
  author = {Ana Bela Baltazar},
  title = {Dicionário de Língua Gestual Portuguesa},


Binary file modified.


 August 2013, by Alexander Gessler, reviewed by Campbell Barton. Published by Blender Foundation, as public domain information.
 \subsection{Software Packages for Modeling and Animation} \label{sec:3dsoftware}
-Blender \scite{blender}, Maya, 3D Max, Zbrush, Modo \scite{modo}
+\toteacher{}{Reset footnote count every page?}Blender \scite{blender}, Maya, 3D Max, Zbrush, Modo \scite{modo}
 \subsection{Pipeline} \label{sec:pipe}


 \section{Animation} \label{sec:anim}
-This section is on animation.
+\toteacher{This section is on animation.}{Ainda não está decentemente escrito, só meio organizado}
+Animation is a series/sequence of images that give the illusion of motion/ continuous action - firstly 'drawings in time' and then computed generated images.
+Animation as a sequence of drawings had its early beginning in 1896 and established its basis in the following years until, inclusive, the so called `Golden Age' of Animation in the 30s-40s. This age featured American giants such as \emph{Disney}, \emph{MGM} and \emph{Warner Bros} and their most successful classics. The use and experimenting of innovative techniques, color and sound in these animations evolved the art and craft of animation.
+This success declined in the 50s due to the rising of Television and World War II to be retaken later. Progress in animation became mostly a matter of technology, with better equipment and the emerging of computing, followed by computer animation and early 3D in the 80s. Toy Story marked a turning point in 1995, being the first feature-length computed-animation film and also Pixar's first production.
+The foundations of animation as `drawings in time' were invented/developed and refined in Hollywood's `Golden Age' and most of concepts are still relevant / still apply today, independently of the technology and medium used. Both classical and computer animation need to solve the problems of how to provide movement, weight, time and empathy.
+This section starts with the classical knowledge in \refn{sec:classAnim} and then covers the no less important current computer technology and terminology in \refn{sec:compAnim}.
+but always used..  a more \toteacher{organised}{UK spelling?} form
+Some/most concepts foundations are still relevant today and also for computer animation, because the problems of how to give a performance . (knowledge developed and refined in the Hollywood animation studios between 40-30)
 \subsubsection{Classical Animation} \label{sec:classAnim}
 Classic concepts and terminology \cite{animSK, animTM}
+Classical animation sets most of its roots in cartoons, exaggeration, departing from reality. impossible things and looks -> mickey does not look like a mouse at all and clichés. but we buy it because it is believable. all the exaggeration conveys ideas, motion, actions. And this drawn animation had the aim of doing things that a camera can not do.
+\textbf{\large``} We want to get the kind of reality that a camera \emph{can't} get. We want to accentuate and suppress aspects of the model's character to make it more vivid.
+\hskip1cm \ldots
+What we want to achieve isn't realism, it's \emph{believability}. \textbf{\large''}
+\hfill Richard Williams \cite{animSK}
 Keys, Extremes, Frames, time and spacing.
 Ball example.
 Line of Action.
+We're animating masses not lines
 \subsubsection{Computer Animation} \label{sec:compAnim}
 Computer concepts and terminology \cite{animTM}
+Aim reality? Does not matter, even if it is realistic it can still be worth it for things that otherwise would be too expensive or technically impossible. This applies to digital scenarios and to digital costumes for actors. See motion capture.
+Exaggeration is still okay and necessary even for non cartoon stuff. How our brains work.
 Frames, timing and spacing apply.
 The computer is the inbetweener. F-curves to adjust
 Ball example.
 A Rig
 	Skeletons/Armatures and bones,
-		IK/FK (3rd newton law)
+		IK/FK %(3rd newton law)
 		Pose to Pose
 	Morph targets/blend shapes,
 Automating everything (rig is done, animation toolkit to generate and skin characters. animations are done, scripting everything)
 this is a bit implementation <- have care
-Motion Capture
+Motion Capture


 Where to learn. \wcite{cognos}\cite{diclgp}
-\todo{Protection}{better word}
+\todo{Protection/Regulation}{better word}
 Is this official? Does it evolve? Who is responsible, associations, etc.