1. canuckistani
  2. django-nonrel

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Al...@bcc190cf-cafb-0310-a4f2-bffc1f526a37  committed 0e3b9fd

Revert [15653], which was absolutely not ready to be committed.

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File tests/modeltests/model_forms/models.py

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     title = models.CharField(max_length=50, unique_for_date='posted', blank=True)
     slug = models.CharField(max_length=50, unique_for_year='posted', blank=True)
     subtitle = models.CharField(max_length=50, unique_for_month='posted', blank=True)
-    posted = models.DateField(blank=True, null=True)
+    posted = models.DateField(blank=True, null=True)
+
+__test__ = {'API_TESTS': """
+>>> from django import forms
+>>> from django.forms.models import ModelForm, model_to_dict
+>>> from django.core.files.uploadedfile import SimpleUploadedFile
+
+The bare bones, absolutely nothing custom, basic case.
+
+>>> class CategoryForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Category
+>>> CategoryForm.base_fields.keys()
+['name', 'slug', 'url']
+
+
+Extra fields.
+
+>>> class CategoryForm(ModelForm):
+...     some_extra_field = forms.BooleanField()
+...
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Category
+
+>>> CategoryForm.base_fields.keys()
+['name', 'slug', 'url', 'some_extra_field']
+
+Extra field that has a name collision with a related object accessor.
+
+>>> class WriterForm(ModelForm):
+...     book = forms.CharField(required=False)
+...
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Writer
+
+>>> wf = WriterForm({'name': 'Richard Lockridge'})
+>>> wf.is_valid()
+True
+
+Replacing a field.
+
+>>> class CategoryForm(ModelForm):
+...     url = forms.BooleanField()
+...
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Category
+
+>>> CategoryForm.base_fields['url'].__class__
+<class 'django.forms.fields.BooleanField'>
+
+
+Using 'fields'.
+
+>>> class CategoryForm(ModelForm):
+...
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Category
+...         fields = ['url']
+
+>>> CategoryForm.base_fields.keys()
+['url']
+
+
+Using 'exclude'
+
+>>> class CategoryForm(ModelForm):
+...
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Category
+...         exclude = ['url']
+
+>>> CategoryForm.base_fields.keys()
+['name', 'slug']
+
+
+Using 'fields' *and* 'exclude'. Not sure why you'd want to do this, but uh,
+"be liberal in what you accept" and all.
+
+>>> class CategoryForm(ModelForm):
+...
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Category
+...         fields = ['name', 'url']
+...         exclude = ['url']
+
+>>> CategoryForm.base_fields.keys()
+['name']
+
+Using 'widgets'
+
+>>> class CategoryForm(ModelForm):
+...
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Category
+...         fields = ['name', 'url', 'slug']
+...         widgets = {
+...             'name': forms.Textarea,
+...             'url': forms.TextInput(attrs={'class': 'url'})
+...         }
+
+>>> str(CategoryForm()['name'])
+'<textarea id="id_name" rows="10" cols="40" name="name"></textarea>'
+
+>>> str(CategoryForm()['url'])
+'<input id="id_url" type="text" class="url" name="url" maxlength="40" />'
+
+>>> str(CategoryForm()['slug'])
+'<input id="id_slug" type="text" name="slug" maxlength="20" />'
+
+Don't allow more than one 'model' definition in the inheritance hierarchy.
+Technically, it would generate a valid form, but the fact that the resulting
+save method won't deal with multiple objects is likely to trip up people not
+familiar with the mechanics.
+
+>>> class CategoryForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Category
+
+>>> class OddForm(CategoryForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Article
+
+OddForm is now an Article-related thing, because BadForm.Meta overrides
+CategoryForm.Meta.
+>>> OddForm.base_fields.keys()
+['headline', 'slug', 'pub_date', 'writer', 'article', 'status', 'categories']
+
+>>> class ArticleForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Article
+
+First class with a Meta class wins.
+
+>>> class BadForm(ArticleForm, CategoryForm):
+...     pass
+>>> OddForm.base_fields.keys()
+['headline', 'slug', 'pub_date', 'writer', 'article', 'status', 'categories']
+
+Subclassing without specifying a Meta on the class will use the parent's Meta
+(or the first parent in the MRO if there are multiple parent classes).
+
+>>> class CategoryForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Category
+>>> class SubCategoryForm(CategoryForm):
+...     pass
+>>> SubCategoryForm.base_fields.keys()
+['name', 'slug', 'url']
+
+We can also subclass the Meta inner class to change the fields list.
+
+>>> class CategoryForm(ModelForm):
+...     checkbox = forms.BooleanField()
+...
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Category
+>>> class SubCategoryForm(CategoryForm):
+...     class Meta(CategoryForm.Meta):
+...         exclude = ['url']
+
+>>> print SubCategoryForm()
+<tr><th><label for="id_name">Name:</label></th><td><input id="id_name" type="text" name="name" maxlength="20" /></td></tr>
+<tr><th><label for="id_slug">Slug:</label></th><td><input id="id_slug" type="text" name="slug" maxlength="20" /></td></tr>
+<tr><th><label for="id_checkbox">Checkbox:</label></th><td><input type="checkbox" name="checkbox" id="id_checkbox" /></td></tr>
+
+# test using fields to provide ordering to the fields
+>>> class CategoryForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Category
+...         fields = ['url', 'name']
+
+>>> CategoryForm.base_fields.keys()
+['url', 'name']
+
+
+>>> print CategoryForm()
+<tr><th><label for="id_url">The URL:</label></th><td><input id="id_url" type="text" name="url" maxlength="40" /></td></tr>
+<tr><th><label for="id_name">Name:</label></th><td><input id="id_name" type="text" name="name" maxlength="20" /></td></tr>
+
+>>> class CategoryForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Category
+...         fields = ['slug', 'url', 'name']
+...         exclude = ['url']
+
+>>> CategoryForm.base_fields.keys()
+['slug', 'name']
+
+# Old form_for_x tests #######################################################
+
+>>> from django.forms import ModelForm, CharField
+>>> import datetime
+
+>>> Category.objects.all()
+[]
+
+>>> class CategoryForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Category
+>>> f = CategoryForm()
+>>> print f
+<tr><th><label for="id_name">Name:</label></th><td><input id="id_name" type="text" name="name" maxlength="20" /></td></tr>
+<tr><th><label for="id_slug">Slug:</label></th><td><input id="id_slug" type="text" name="slug" maxlength="20" /></td></tr>
+<tr><th><label for="id_url">The URL:</label></th><td><input id="id_url" type="text" name="url" maxlength="40" /></td></tr>
+>>> print f.as_ul()
+<li><label for="id_name">Name:</label> <input id="id_name" type="text" name="name" maxlength="20" /></li>
+<li><label for="id_slug">Slug:</label> <input id="id_slug" type="text" name="slug" maxlength="20" /></li>
+<li><label for="id_url">The URL:</label> <input id="id_url" type="text" name="url" maxlength="40" /></li>
+>>> print f['name']
+<input id="id_name" type="text" name="name" maxlength="20" />
+
+>>> f = CategoryForm(auto_id=False)
+>>> print f.as_ul()
+<li>Name: <input type="text" name="name" maxlength="20" /></li>
+<li>Slug: <input type="text" name="slug" maxlength="20" /></li>
+<li>The URL: <input type="text" name="url" maxlength="40" /></li>
+
+>>> f = CategoryForm({'name': 'Entertainment', 'slug': 'entertainment', 'url': 'entertainment'})
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> f.cleaned_data['url']
+u'entertainment'
+>>> f.cleaned_data['name']
+u'Entertainment'
+>>> f.cleaned_data['slug']
+u'entertainment'
+>>> obj = f.save()
+>>> obj
+<Category: Entertainment>
+>>> Category.objects.all()
+[<Category: Entertainment>]
+
+>>> f = CategoryForm({'name': "It's a test", 'slug': 'its-test', 'url': 'test'})
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> f.cleaned_data['url']
+u'test'
+>>> f.cleaned_data['name']
+u"It's a test"
+>>> f.cleaned_data['slug']
+u'its-test'
+>>> obj = f.save()
+>>> obj
+<Category: It's a test>
+>>> Category.objects.order_by('name')
+[<Category: Entertainment>, <Category: It's a test>]
+
+If you call save() with commit=False, then it will return an object that
+hasn't yet been saved to the database. In this case, it's up to you to call
+save() on the resulting model instance.
+>>> f = CategoryForm({'name': 'Third test', 'slug': 'third-test', 'url': 'third'})
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> f.cleaned_data['url']
+u'third'
+>>> f.cleaned_data['name']
+u'Third test'
+>>> f.cleaned_data['slug']
+u'third-test'
+>>> obj = f.save(commit=False)
+>>> obj
+<Category: Third test>
+>>> Category.objects.order_by('name')
+[<Category: Entertainment>, <Category: It's a test>]
+>>> obj.save()
+>>> Category.objects.order_by('name')
+[<Category: Entertainment>, <Category: It's a test>, <Category: Third test>]
+
+If you call save() with invalid data, you'll get a ValueError.
+>>> f = CategoryForm({'name': '', 'slug': 'not a slug!', 'url': 'foo'})
+>>> f.errors['name']
+[u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.errors['slug']
+[u"Enter a valid 'slug' consisting of letters, numbers, underscores or hyphens."]
+>>> f.cleaned_data
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+AttributeError: 'CategoryForm' object has no attribute 'cleaned_data'
+>>> f.save()
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValueError: The Category could not be created because the data didn't validate.
+>>> f = CategoryForm({'name': '', 'slug': '', 'url': 'foo'})
+>>> f.save()
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValueError: The Category could not be created because the data didn't validate.
+
+Create a couple of Writers.
+>>> w_royko = Writer(name='Mike Royko')
+>>> w_royko.save()
+>>> w_woodward = Writer(name='Bob Woodward')
+>>> w_woodward.save()
+
+ManyToManyFields are represented by a MultipleChoiceField, ForeignKeys and any
+fields with the 'choices' attribute are represented by a ChoiceField.
+>>> class ArticleForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Article
+>>> f = ArticleForm(auto_id=False)
+>>> print f
+<tr><th>Headline:</th><td><input type="text" name="headline" maxlength="50" /></td></tr>
+<tr><th>Slug:</th><td><input type="text" name="slug" maxlength="50" /></td></tr>
+<tr><th>Pub date:</th><td><input type="text" name="pub_date" /></td></tr>
+<tr><th>Writer:</th><td><select name="writer">
+<option value="" selected="selected">---------</option>
+<option value="...">Mike Royko</option>
+<option value="...">Bob Woodward</option>
+</select></td></tr>
+<tr><th>Article:</th><td><textarea rows="10" cols="40" name="article"></textarea></td></tr>
+<tr><th>Status:</th><td><select name="status">
+<option value="" selected="selected">---------</option>
+<option value="1">Draft</option>
+<option value="2">Pending</option>
+<option value="3">Live</option>
+</select></td></tr>
+<tr><th>Categories:</th><td><select multiple="multiple" name="categories">
+<option value="1">Entertainment</option>
+<option value="2">It&#39;s a test</option>
+<option value="3">Third test</option>
+</select><br /><span class="helptext"> Hold down "Control", or "Command" on a Mac, to select more than one.</span></td></tr>
+
+You can restrict a form to a subset of the complete list of fields
+by providing a 'fields' argument. If you try to save a
+model created with such a form, you need to ensure that the fields
+that are _not_ on the form have default values, or are allowed to have
+a value of None. If a field isn't specified on a form, the object created
+from the form can't provide a value for that field!
+>>> class PartialArticleForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Article
+...         fields = ('headline','pub_date')
+>>> f = PartialArticleForm(auto_id=False)
+>>> print f
+<tr><th>Headline:</th><td><input type="text" name="headline" maxlength="50" /></td></tr>
+<tr><th>Pub date:</th><td><input type="text" name="pub_date" /></td></tr>
+
+When the ModelForm is passed an instance, that instance's current values are
+inserted as 'initial' data in each Field.
+>>> w = Writer.objects.get(name='Mike Royko')
+>>> class RoykoForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Writer
+>>> f = RoykoForm(auto_id=False, instance=w)
+>>> print f
+<tr><th>Name:</th><td><input type="text" name="name" value="Mike Royko" maxlength="50" /><br /><span class="helptext">Use both first and last names.</span></td></tr>
+
+>>> art = Article(headline='Test article', slug='test-article', pub_date=datetime.date(1988, 1, 4), writer=w, article='Hello.')
+>>> art.save()
+>>> art.id
+1
+>>> class TestArticleForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Article
+>>> f = TestArticleForm(auto_id=False, instance=art)
+>>> print f.as_ul()
+<li>Headline: <input type="text" name="headline" value="Test article" maxlength="50" /></li>
+<li>Slug: <input type="text" name="slug" value="test-article" maxlength="50" /></li>
+<li>Pub date: <input type="text" name="pub_date" value="1988-01-04" /></li>
+<li>Writer: <select name="writer">
+<option value="">---------</option>
+<option value="..." selected="selected">Mike Royko</option>
+<option value="...">Bob Woodward</option>
+</select></li>
+<li>Article: <textarea rows="10" cols="40" name="article">Hello.</textarea></li>
+<li>Status: <select name="status">
+<option value="" selected="selected">---------</option>
+<option value="1">Draft</option>
+<option value="2">Pending</option>
+<option value="3">Live</option>
+</select></li>
+<li>Categories: <select multiple="multiple" name="categories">
+<option value="1">Entertainment</option>
+<option value="2">It&#39;s a test</option>
+<option value="3">Third test</option>
+</select> <span class="helptext"> Hold down "Control", or "Command" on a Mac, to select more than one.</span></li>
+>>> f = TestArticleForm({'headline': u'Test headline', 'slug': 'test-headline', 'pub_date': u'1984-02-06', 'writer': unicode(w_royko.pk), 'article': 'Hello.'}, instance=art)
+>>> f.errors
+{}
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> test_art = f.save()
+>>> test_art.id
+1
+>>> test_art = Article.objects.get(id=1)
+>>> test_art.headline
+u'Test headline'
+
+You can create a form over a subset of the available fields
+by specifying a 'fields' argument to form_for_instance.
+>>> class PartialArticleForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Article
+...         fields=('headline', 'slug', 'pub_date')
+>>> f = PartialArticleForm({'headline': u'New headline', 'slug': 'new-headline', 'pub_date': u'1988-01-04'}, auto_id=False, instance=art)
+>>> print f.as_ul()
+<li>Headline: <input type="text" name="headline" value="New headline" maxlength="50" /></li>
+<li>Slug: <input type="text" name="slug" value="new-headline" maxlength="50" /></li>
+<li>Pub date: <input type="text" name="pub_date" value="1988-01-04" /></li>
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> new_art = f.save()
+>>> new_art.id
+1
+>>> new_art = Article.objects.get(id=1)
+>>> new_art.headline
+u'New headline'
+
+Add some categories and test the many-to-many form output.
+>>> new_art.categories.all()
+[]
+>>> new_art.categories.add(Category.objects.get(name='Entertainment'))
+>>> new_art.categories.all()
+[<Category: Entertainment>]
+>>> class TestArticleForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Article
+>>> f = TestArticleForm(auto_id=False, instance=new_art)
+>>> print f.as_ul()
+<li>Headline: <input type="text" name="headline" value="New headline" maxlength="50" /></li>
+<li>Slug: <input type="text" name="slug" value="new-headline" maxlength="50" /></li>
+<li>Pub date: <input type="text" name="pub_date" value="1988-01-04" /></li>
+<li>Writer: <select name="writer">
+<option value="">---------</option>
+<option value="..." selected="selected">Mike Royko</option>
+<option value="...">Bob Woodward</option>
+</select></li>
+<li>Article: <textarea rows="10" cols="40" name="article">Hello.</textarea></li>
+<li>Status: <select name="status">
+<option value="" selected="selected">---------</option>
+<option value="1">Draft</option>
+<option value="2">Pending</option>
+<option value="3">Live</option>
+</select></li>
+<li>Categories: <select multiple="multiple" name="categories">
+<option value="1" selected="selected">Entertainment</option>
+<option value="2">It&#39;s a test</option>
+<option value="3">Third test</option>
+</select> <span class="helptext"> Hold down "Control", or "Command" on a Mac, to select more than one.</span></li>
+
+Initial values can be provided for model forms
+>>> f = TestArticleForm(auto_id=False, initial={'headline': 'Your headline here', 'categories': ['1','2']})
+>>> print f.as_ul()
+<li>Headline: <input type="text" name="headline" value="Your headline here" maxlength="50" /></li>
+<li>Slug: <input type="text" name="slug" maxlength="50" /></li>
+<li>Pub date: <input type="text" name="pub_date" /></li>
+<li>Writer: <select name="writer">
+<option value="" selected="selected">---------</option>
+<option value="...">Mike Royko</option>
+<option value="...">Bob Woodward</option>
+</select></li>
+<li>Article: <textarea rows="10" cols="40" name="article"></textarea></li>
+<li>Status: <select name="status">
+<option value="" selected="selected">---------</option>
+<option value="1">Draft</option>
+<option value="2">Pending</option>
+<option value="3">Live</option>
+</select></li>
+<li>Categories: <select multiple="multiple" name="categories">
+<option value="1" selected="selected">Entertainment</option>
+<option value="2" selected="selected">It&#39;s a test</option>
+<option value="3">Third test</option>
+</select> <span class="helptext"> Hold down "Control", or "Command" on a Mac, to select more than one.</span></li>
+
+>>> f = TestArticleForm({'headline': u'New headline', 'slug': u'new-headline', 'pub_date': u'1988-01-04',
+...     'writer': unicode(w_royko.pk), 'article': u'Hello.', 'categories': [u'1', u'2']}, instance=new_art)
+>>> new_art = f.save()
+>>> new_art.id
+1
+>>> new_art = Article.objects.get(id=1)
+>>> new_art.categories.order_by('name')
+[<Category: Entertainment>, <Category: It's a test>]
+
+Now, submit form data with no categories. This deletes the existing categories.
+>>> f = TestArticleForm({'headline': u'New headline', 'slug': u'new-headline', 'pub_date': u'1988-01-04',
+...     'writer': unicode(w_royko.pk), 'article': u'Hello.'}, instance=new_art)
+>>> new_art = f.save()
+>>> new_art.id
+1
+>>> new_art = Article.objects.get(id=1)
+>>> new_art.categories.all()
+[]
+
+Create a new article, with categories, via the form.
+>>> class ArticleForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Article
+>>> f = ArticleForm({'headline': u'The walrus was Paul', 'slug': u'walrus-was-paul', 'pub_date': u'1967-11-01',
+...     'writer': unicode(w_royko.pk), 'article': u'Test.', 'categories': [u'1', u'2']})
+>>> new_art = f.save()
+>>> new_art.id
+2
+>>> new_art = Article.objects.get(id=2)
+>>> new_art.categories.order_by('name')
+[<Category: Entertainment>, <Category: It's a test>]
+
+Create a new article, with no categories, via the form.
+>>> class ArticleForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Article
+>>> f = ArticleForm({'headline': u'The walrus was Paul', 'slug': u'walrus-was-paul', 'pub_date': u'1967-11-01',
+...     'writer': unicode(w_royko.pk), 'article': u'Test.'})
+>>> new_art = f.save()
+>>> new_art.id
+3
+>>> new_art = Article.objects.get(id=3)
+>>> new_art.categories.all()
+[]
+
+Create a new article, with categories, via the form, but use commit=False.
+The m2m data won't be saved until save_m2m() is invoked on the form.
+>>> class ArticleForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Article
+>>> f = ArticleForm({'headline': u'The walrus was Paul', 'slug': 'walrus-was-paul', 'pub_date': u'1967-11-01',
+...     'writer': unicode(w_royko.pk), 'article': u'Test.', 'categories': [u'1', u'2']})
+>>> new_art = f.save(commit=False)
+
+# Manually save the instance
+>>> new_art.save()
+>>> new_art.id
+4
+
+# The instance doesn't have m2m data yet
+>>> new_art = Article.objects.get(id=4)
+>>> new_art.categories.all()
+[]
+
+# Save the m2m data on the form
+>>> f.save_m2m()
+>>> new_art.categories.order_by('name')
+[<Category: Entertainment>, <Category: It's a test>]
+
+Here, we define a custom ModelForm. Because it happens to have the same fields as
+the Category model, we can just call the form's save() to apply its changes to an
+existing Category instance.
+>>> class ShortCategory(ModelForm):
+...     name = CharField(max_length=5)
+...     slug = CharField(max_length=5)
+...     url = CharField(max_length=3)
+>>> cat = Category.objects.get(name='Third test')
+>>> cat
+<Category: Third test>
+>>> cat.id
+3
+>>> form = ShortCategory({'name': 'Third', 'slug': 'third', 'url': '3rd'}, instance=cat)
+>>> form.save()
+<Category: Third>
+>>> Category.objects.get(id=3)
+<Category: Third>
+
+Here, we demonstrate that choices for a ForeignKey ChoiceField are determined
+at runtime, based on the data in the database when the form is displayed, not
+the data in the database when the form is instantiated.
+>>> class ArticleForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Article
+>>> f = ArticleForm(auto_id=False)
+>>> print f.as_ul()
+<li>Headline: <input type="text" name="headline" maxlength="50" /></li>
+<li>Slug: <input type="text" name="slug" maxlength="50" /></li>
+<li>Pub date: <input type="text" name="pub_date" /></li>
+<li>Writer: <select name="writer">
+<option value="" selected="selected">---------</option>
+<option value="...">Mike Royko</option>
+<option value="...">Bob Woodward</option>
+</select></li>
+<li>Article: <textarea rows="10" cols="40" name="article"></textarea></li>
+<li>Status: <select name="status">
+<option value="" selected="selected">---------</option>
+<option value="1">Draft</option>
+<option value="2">Pending</option>
+<option value="3">Live</option>
+</select></li>
+<li>Categories: <select multiple="multiple" name="categories">
+<option value="1">Entertainment</option>
+<option value="2">It&#39;s a test</option>
+<option value="3">Third</option>
+</select> <span class="helptext"> Hold down "Control", or "Command" on a Mac, to select more than one.</span></li>
+>>> Category.objects.create(name='Fourth', url='4th')
+<Category: Fourth>
+>>> Writer.objects.create(name='Carl Bernstein')
+<Writer: Carl Bernstein>
+>>> print f.as_ul()
+<li>Headline: <input type="text" name="headline" maxlength="50" /></li>
+<li>Slug: <input type="text" name="slug" maxlength="50" /></li>
+<li>Pub date: <input type="text" name="pub_date" /></li>
+<li>Writer: <select name="writer">
+<option value="" selected="selected">---------</option>
+<option value="...">Mike Royko</option>
+<option value="...">Bob Woodward</option>
+<option value="...">Carl Bernstein</option>
+</select></li>
+<li>Article: <textarea rows="10" cols="40" name="article"></textarea></li>
+<li>Status: <select name="status">
+<option value="" selected="selected">---------</option>
+<option value="1">Draft</option>
+<option value="2">Pending</option>
+<option value="3">Live</option>
+</select></li>
+<li>Categories: <select multiple="multiple" name="categories">
+<option value="1">Entertainment</option>
+<option value="2">It&#39;s a test</option>
+<option value="3">Third</option>
+<option value="4">Fourth</option>
+</select> <span class="helptext"> Hold down "Control", or "Command" on a Mac, to select more than one.</span></li>
+
+# ModelChoiceField ############################################################
+
+>>> from django.forms import ModelChoiceField, ModelMultipleChoiceField
+
+>>> f = ModelChoiceField(Category.objects.all())
+>>> list(f.choices)
+[(u'', u'---------'), (1, u'Entertainment'), (2, u"It's a test"), (3, u'Third'), (4, u'Fourth')]
+>>> f.clean('')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean(None)
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean(0)
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Select a valid choice. That choice is not one of the available choices.']
+>>> f.clean(3)
+<Category: Third>
+>>> f.clean(2)
+<Category: It's a test>
+
+# Add a Category object *after* the ModelChoiceField has already been
+# instantiated. This proves clean() checks the database during clean() rather
+# than caching it at time of instantiation.
+>>> Category.objects.create(name='Fifth', url='5th')
+<Category: Fifth>
+>>> f.clean(5)
+<Category: Fifth>
+
+# Delete a Category object *after* the ModelChoiceField has already been
+# instantiated. This proves clean() checks the database during clean() rather
+# than caching it at time of instantiation.
+>>> Category.objects.get(url='5th').delete()
+>>> f.clean(5)
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Select a valid choice. That choice is not one of the available choices.']
+
+>>> f = ModelChoiceField(Category.objects.filter(pk=1), required=False)
+>>> print f.clean('')
+None
+>>> f.clean('')
+>>> f.clean('1')
+<Category: Entertainment>
+>>> f.clean('100')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Select a valid choice. That choice is not one of the available choices.']
+
+# queryset can be changed after the field is created.
+>>> f.queryset = Category.objects.exclude(name='Fourth')
+>>> list(f.choices)
+[(u'', u'---------'), (1, u'Entertainment'), (2, u"It's a test"), (3, u'Third')]
+>>> f.clean(3)
+<Category: Third>
+>>> f.clean(4)
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Select a valid choice. That choice is not one of the available choices.']
+
+# check that we can safely iterate choices repeatedly
+>>> gen_one = list(f.choices)
+>>> gen_two = f.choices
+>>> gen_one[2]
+(2L, u"It's a test")
+>>> list(gen_two)
+[(u'', u'---------'), (1L, u'Entertainment'), (2L, u"It's a test"), (3L, u'Third')]
+
+# check that we can override the label_from_instance method to print custom labels (#4620)
+>>> f.queryset = Category.objects.all()
+>>> f.label_from_instance = lambda obj: "category " + str(obj)
+>>> list(f.choices)
+[(u'', u'---------'), (1L, 'category Entertainment'), (2L, "category It's a test"), (3L, 'category Third'), (4L, 'category Fourth')]
+
+# ModelMultipleChoiceField ####################################################
+
+>>> f = ModelMultipleChoiceField(Category.objects.all())
+>>> list(f.choices)
+[(1, u'Entertainment'), (2, u"It's a test"), (3, u'Third'), (4, u'Fourth')]
+>>> f.clean(None)
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean([])
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'This field is required.']
+>>> f.clean([1])
+[<Category: Entertainment>]
+>>> f.clean([2])
+[<Category: It's a test>]
+>>> f.clean(['1'])
+[<Category: Entertainment>]
+>>> f.clean(['1', '2'])
+[<Category: Entertainment>, <Category: It's a test>]
+>>> f.clean([1, '2'])
+[<Category: Entertainment>, <Category: It's a test>]
+>>> f.clean((1, '2'))
+[<Category: Entertainment>, <Category: It's a test>]
+>>> f.clean(['100'])
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Select a valid choice. 100 is not one of the available choices.']
+>>> f.clean('hello')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Enter a list of values.']
+>>> f.clean(['fail'])
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'"fail" is not a valid value for a primary key.']
+
+# Add a Category object *after* the ModelMultipleChoiceField has already been
+# instantiated. This proves clean() checks the database during clean() rather
+# than caching it at time of instantiation.
+>>> Category.objects.create(id=6, name='Sixth', url='6th')
+<Category: Sixth>
+>>> f.clean([6])
+[<Category: Sixth>]
+
+# Delete a Category object *after* the ModelMultipleChoiceField has already been
+# instantiated. This proves clean() checks the database during clean() rather
+# than caching it at time of instantiation.
+>>> Category.objects.get(url='6th').delete()
+>>> f.clean([6])
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Select a valid choice. 6 is not one of the available choices.']
+
+>>> f = ModelMultipleChoiceField(Category.objects.all(), required=False)
+>>> f.clean([])
+[]
+>>> f.clean(())
+[]
+>>> f.clean(['10'])
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Select a valid choice. 10 is not one of the available choices.']
+>>> f.clean(['3', '10'])
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Select a valid choice. 10 is not one of the available choices.']
+>>> f.clean(['1', '10'])
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Select a valid choice. 10 is not one of the available choices.']
+
+# queryset can be changed after the field is created.
+>>> f.queryset = Category.objects.exclude(name='Fourth')
+>>> list(f.choices)
+[(1, u'Entertainment'), (2, u"It's a test"), (3, u'Third')]
+>>> f.clean([3])
+[<Category: Third>]
+>>> f.clean([4])
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Select a valid choice. 4 is not one of the available choices.']
+>>> f.clean(['3', '4'])
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Select a valid choice. 4 is not one of the available choices.']
+
+>>> f.queryset = Category.objects.all()
+>>> f.label_from_instance = lambda obj: "multicategory " + str(obj)
+>>> list(f.choices)
+[(1L, 'multicategory Entertainment'), (2L, "multicategory It's a test"), (3L, 'multicategory Third'), (4L, 'multicategory Fourth')]
+
+# OneToOneField ###############################################################
+
+>>> class ImprovedArticleForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = ImprovedArticle
+>>> ImprovedArticleForm.base_fields.keys()
+['article']
+
+>>> class ImprovedArticleWithParentLinkForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = ImprovedArticleWithParentLink
+>>> ImprovedArticleWithParentLinkForm.base_fields.keys()
+[]
+
+>>> bw = BetterWriter(name=u'Joe Better', score=10)
+>>> bw.save()
+>>> sorted(model_to_dict(bw).keys())
+['id', 'name', 'score', 'writer_ptr']
+
+>>> class BetterWriterForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = BetterWriter
+>>> form = BetterWriterForm({'name': 'Some Name', 'score': 12})
+>>> form.is_valid()
+True
+>>> bw2 = form.save()
+>>> bw2.delete()
+
+
+>>> class WriterProfileForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = WriterProfile
+>>> form = WriterProfileForm()
+>>> print form.as_p()
+<p><label for="id_writer">Writer:</label> <select name="writer" id="id_writer">
+<option value="" selected="selected">---------</option>
+<option value="...">Mike Royko</option>
+<option value="...">Bob Woodward</option>
+<option value="...">Carl Bernstein</option>
+<option value="...">Joe Better</option>
+</select></p>
+<p><label for="id_age">Age:</label> <input type="text" name="age" id="id_age" /></p>
+
+>>> data = {
+...     'writer': unicode(w_woodward.pk),
+...     'age': u'65',
+... }
+>>> form = WriterProfileForm(data)
+>>> instance = form.save()
+>>> instance
+<WriterProfile: Bob Woodward is 65>
+
+>>> form = WriterProfileForm(instance=instance)
+>>> print form.as_p()
+<p><label for="id_writer">Writer:</label> <select name="writer" id="id_writer">
+<option value="">---------</option>
+<option value="...">Mike Royko</option>
+<option value="..." selected="selected">Bob Woodward</option>
+<option value="...">Carl Bernstein</option>
+<option value="...">Joe Better</option>
+</select></p>
+<p><label for="id_age">Age:</label> <input type="text" name="age" value="65" id="id_age" /></p>
+
+# PhoneNumberField ############################################################
+
+>>> class PhoneNumberForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = PhoneNumber
+>>> f = PhoneNumberForm({'phone': '(312) 555-1212', 'description': 'Assistance'})
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> f.cleaned_data['phone']
+u'312-555-1212'
+>>> f.cleaned_data['description']
+u'Assistance'
+
+# FileField ###################################################################
+
+# File forms.
+
+>>> class TextFileForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = TextFile
+
+# Test conditions when files is either not given or empty.
+
+>>> f = TextFileForm(data={'description': u'Assistance'})
+>>> f.is_valid()
+False
+>>> f = TextFileForm(data={'description': u'Assistance'}, files={})
+>>> f.is_valid()
+False
+
+# Upload a file and ensure it all works as expected.
+
+>>> f = TextFileForm(data={'description': u'Assistance'}, files={'file': SimpleUploadedFile('test1.txt', 'hello world')})
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> type(f.cleaned_data['file'])
+<class 'django.core.files.uploadedfile.SimpleUploadedFile'>
+>>> instance = f.save()
+>>> instance.file
+<FieldFile: tests/test1.txt>
+
+>>> instance.file.delete()
+
+>>> f = TextFileForm(data={'description': u'Assistance'}, files={'file': SimpleUploadedFile('test1.txt', 'hello world')})
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> type(f.cleaned_data['file'])
+<class 'django.core.files.uploadedfile.SimpleUploadedFile'>
+>>> instance = f.save()
+>>> instance.file
+<FieldFile: tests/test1.txt>
+
+# Check if the max_length attribute has been inherited from the model.
+>>> f = TextFileForm(data={'description': u'Assistance'}, files={'file': SimpleUploadedFile('test-maxlength.txt', 'hello world')})
+>>> f.is_valid()
+False
+
+# Edit an instance that already has the file defined in the model. This will not
+# save the file again, but leave it exactly as it is.
+
+>>> f = TextFileForm(data={'description': u'Assistance'}, instance=instance)
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> f.cleaned_data['file']
+<FieldFile: tests/test1.txt>
+>>> instance = f.save()
+>>> instance.file
+<FieldFile: tests/test1.txt>
+
+# Delete the current file since this is not done by Django.
+>>> instance.file.delete()
+
+# Override the file by uploading a new one.
+
+>>> f = TextFileForm(data={'description': u'Assistance'}, files={'file': SimpleUploadedFile('test2.txt', 'hello world')}, instance=instance)
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> instance = f.save()
+>>> instance.file
+<FieldFile: tests/test2.txt>
+
+# Delete the current file since this is not done by Django.
+>>> instance.file.delete()
+
+>>> f = TextFileForm(data={'description': u'Assistance'}, files={'file': SimpleUploadedFile('test2.txt', 'hello world')})
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> instance = f.save()
+>>> instance.file
+<FieldFile: tests/test2.txt>
+
+# Delete the current file since this is not done by Django.
+>>> instance.file.delete()
+
+>>> instance.delete()
+
+# Test the non-required FileField
+>>> f = TextFileForm(data={'description': u'Assistance'})
+>>> f.fields['file'].required = False
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> instance = f.save()
+>>> instance.file
+<FieldFile: None>
+
+>>> f = TextFileForm(data={'description': u'Assistance'}, files={'file': SimpleUploadedFile('test3.txt', 'hello world')}, instance=instance)
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> instance = f.save()
+>>> instance.file
+<FieldFile: tests/test3.txt>
+
+# Instance can be edited w/out re-uploading the file and existing file should be preserved.
+
+>>> f = TextFileForm(data={'description': u'New Description'}, instance=instance)
+>>> f.fields['file'].required = False
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> instance = f.save()
+>>> instance.description
+u'New Description'
+>>> instance.file
+<FieldFile: tests/test3.txt>
+
+# Delete the current file since this is not done by Django.
+>>> instance.file.delete()
+>>> instance.delete()
+
+>>> f = TextFileForm(data={'description': u'Assistance'}, files={'file': SimpleUploadedFile('test3.txt', 'hello world')})
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> instance = f.save()
+>>> instance.file
+<FieldFile: tests/test3.txt>
+
+# Delete the current file since this is not done by Django.
+>>> instance.file.delete()
+>>> instance.delete()
+
+# BigIntegerField ################################################################
+>>> class BigIntForm(forms.ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = BigInt
+...
+>>> bif = BigIntForm({'biggie': '-9223372036854775808'})
+>>> bif.is_valid()
+True
+>>> bif = BigIntForm({'biggie': '-9223372036854775809'})
+>>> bif.is_valid()
+False
+>>> bif.errors
+{'biggie': [u'Ensure this value is greater than or equal to -9223372036854775808.']}
+>>> bif = BigIntForm({'biggie': '9223372036854775807'})
+>>> bif.is_valid()
+True
+>>> bif = BigIntForm({'biggie': '9223372036854775808'})
+>>> bif.is_valid()
+False
+>>> bif.errors
+{'biggie': [u'Ensure this value is less than or equal to 9223372036854775807.']}
+"""}
+
+if test_images:
+    __test__['API_TESTS'] += """
+# ImageField ###################################################################
+
+# ImageField and FileField are nearly identical, but they differ slighty when
+# it comes to validation. This specifically tests that #6302 is fixed for
+# both file fields and image fields.
+
+>>> class ImageFileForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = ImageFile
+
+>>> image_data = open(os.path.join(os.path.dirname(__file__), "test.png"), 'rb').read()
+>>> image_data2 = open(os.path.join(os.path.dirname(__file__), "test2.png"), 'rb').read()
+
+>>> f = ImageFileForm(data={'description': u'An image'}, files={'image': SimpleUploadedFile('test.png', image_data)})
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> type(f.cleaned_data['image'])
+<class 'django.core.files.uploadedfile.SimpleUploadedFile'>
+>>> instance = f.save()
+>>> instance.image
+<...FieldFile: tests/test.png>
+>>> instance.width
+16
+>>> instance.height
+16
+
+# Delete the current file since this is not done by Django, but don't save
+# because the dimension fields are not null=True.
+>>> instance.image.delete(save=False)
+
+>>> f = ImageFileForm(data={'description': u'An image'}, files={'image': SimpleUploadedFile('test.png', image_data)})
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> type(f.cleaned_data['image'])
+<class 'django.core.files.uploadedfile.SimpleUploadedFile'>
+>>> instance = f.save()
+>>> instance.image
+<...FieldFile: tests/test.png>
+>>> instance.width
+16
+>>> instance.height
+16
+
+# Edit an instance that already has the (required) image defined in the model. This will not
+# save the image again, but leave it exactly as it is.
+
+>>> f = ImageFileForm(data={'description': u'Look, it changed'}, instance=instance)
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> f.cleaned_data['image']
+<...FieldFile: tests/test.png>
+>>> instance = f.save()
+>>> instance.image
+<...FieldFile: tests/test.png>
+>>> instance.height
+16
+>>> instance.width
+16
+
+# Delete the current file since this is not done by Django, but don't save
+# because the dimension fields are not null=True.
+>>> instance.image.delete(save=False)
+
+# Override the file by uploading a new one.
+
+>>> f = ImageFileForm(data={'description': u'Changed it'}, files={'image': SimpleUploadedFile('test2.png', image_data2)}, instance=instance)
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> instance = f.save()
+>>> instance.image
+<...FieldFile: tests/test2.png>
+>>> instance.height
+32
+>>> instance.width
+48
+
+# Delete the current file since this is not done by Django, but don't save
+# because the dimension fields are not null=True.
+>>> instance.image.delete(save=False)
+>>> instance.delete()
+
+>>> f = ImageFileForm(data={'description': u'Changed it'}, files={'image': SimpleUploadedFile('test2.png', image_data2)})
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> instance = f.save()
+>>> instance.image
+<...FieldFile: tests/test2.png>
+>>> instance.height
+32
+>>> instance.width
+48
+
+# Delete the current file since this is not done by Django, but don't save
+# because the dimension fields are not null=True.
+>>> instance.image.delete(save=False)
+>>> instance.delete()
+
+# Test the non-required ImageField
+
+>>> class OptionalImageFileForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = OptionalImageFile
+
+>>> f = OptionalImageFileForm(data={'description': u'Test'})
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> instance = f.save()
+>>> instance.image
+<...FieldFile: None>
+>>> instance.width
+>>> instance.height
+
+>>> f = OptionalImageFileForm(data={'description': u'And a final one'}, files={'image': SimpleUploadedFile('test3.png', image_data)}, instance=instance)
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> instance = f.save()
+>>> instance.image
+<...FieldFile: tests/test3.png>
+>>> instance.width
+16
+>>> instance.height
+16
+
+# Editing the instance without re-uploading the image should not affect the image or its width/height properties
+>>> f = OptionalImageFileForm(data={'description': u'New Description'}, instance=instance)
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> instance = f.save()
+>>> instance.description
+u'New Description'
+>>> instance.image
+<...FieldFile: tests/test3.png>
+>>> instance.width
+16
+>>> instance.height
+16
+
+# Delete the current file since this is not done by Django.
+>>> instance.image.delete()
+>>> instance.delete()
+
+>>> f = OptionalImageFileForm(data={'description': u'And a final one'}, files={'image': SimpleUploadedFile('test4.png', image_data2)})
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> instance = f.save()
+>>> instance.image
+<...FieldFile: tests/test4.png>
+>>> instance.width
+48
+>>> instance.height
+32
+>>> instance.delete()
+
+# Test callable upload_to behavior that's dependent on the value of another field in the model
+>>> f = ImageFileForm(data={'description': u'And a final one', 'path': 'foo'}, files={'image': SimpleUploadedFile('test4.png', image_data)})
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> instance = f.save()
+>>> instance.image
+<...FieldFile: foo/test4.png>
+>>> instance.delete()
+"""
+
+__test__['API_TESTS'] += """
+
+# Media on a ModelForm ########################################################
+
+# Similar to a regular Form class you can define custom media to be used on
+# the ModelForm.
+
+>>> class ModelFormWithMedia(ModelForm):
+...     class Media:
+...         js = ('/some/form/javascript',)
+...         css = {
+...             'all': ('/some/form/css',)
+...         }
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = PhoneNumber
+>>> f = ModelFormWithMedia()
+>>> print f.media
+<link href="/some/form/css" type="text/css" media="all" rel="stylesheet" />
+<script type="text/javascript" src="/some/form/javascript"></script>
+
+>>> class CommaSeparatedIntegerForm(ModelForm):
+...    class Meta:
+...        model = CommaSeparatedInteger
+
+>>> f = CommaSeparatedIntegerForm({'field': '1,2,3'})
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> f.cleaned_data
+{'field': u'1,2,3'}
+>>> f = CommaSeparatedIntegerForm({'field': '1a,2'})
+>>> f.errors
+{'field': [u'Enter only digits separated by commas.']}
+>>> f = CommaSeparatedIntegerForm({'field': ',,,,'})
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> f.cleaned_data
+{'field': u',,,,'}
+>>> f = CommaSeparatedIntegerForm({'field': '1.2'})
+>>> f.errors
+{'field': [u'Enter only digits separated by commas.']}
+>>> f = CommaSeparatedIntegerForm({'field': '1,a,2'})
+>>> f.errors
+{'field': [u'Enter only digits separated by commas.']}
+>>> f = CommaSeparatedIntegerForm({'field': '1,,2'})
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> f.cleaned_data
+{'field': u'1,,2'}
+>>> f = CommaSeparatedIntegerForm({'field': '1'})
+>>> f.is_valid()
+True
+>>> f.cleaned_data
+{'field': u'1'}
+
+This Price instance generated by this form is not valid because the quantity
+field is required, but the form is valid because the field is excluded from
+the form. This is for backwards compatibility.
+
+>>> class PriceForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Price
+...         exclude = ('quantity',)
+>>> form = PriceForm({'price': '6.00'})
+>>> form.is_valid()
+True
+>>> price = form.save(commit=False)
+>>> price.full_clean()
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+  ...
+ValidationError: {'quantity': [u'This field cannot be null.']}
+
+The form should not validate fields that it doesn't contain even if they are
+specified using 'fields', not 'exclude'.
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Price
+...         fields = ('price',)
+>>> form = PriceForm({'price': '6.00'})
+>>> form.is_valid()
+True
+
+The form should still have an instance of a model that is not complete and
+not saved into a DB yet.
+
+>>> form.instance.price
+Decimal('6.00')
+>>> form.instance.quantity is None
+True
+>>> form.instance.pk is None
+True
+
+# Choices on CharField and IntegerField
+>>> class ArticleForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Article
+>>> f = ArticleForm()
+>>> f.fields['status'].clean('42')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Select a valid choice. 42 is not one of the available choices.']
+
+>>> class ArticleStatusForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = ArticleStatus
+>>> f = ArticleStatusForm()
+>>> f.fields['status'].clean('z')
+Traceback (most recent call last):
+...
+ValidationError: [u'Select a valid choice. z is not one of the available choices.']
+
+# Foreign keys which use to_field #############################################
+
+>>> apple = Inventory.objects.create(barcode=86, name='Apple')
+>>> pear = Inventory.objects.create(barcode=22, name='Pear')
+>>> core = Inventory.objects.create(barcode=87, name='Core', parent=apple)
+
+>>> field = ModelChoiceField(Inventory.objects.all(), to_field_name='barcode')
+>>> for choice in field.choices:
+...     print choice
+(u'', u'---------')
+(86, u'Apple')
+(22, u'Pear')
+(87, u'Core')
+
+>>> class InventoryForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Inventory
+>>> form = InventoryForm(instance=core)
+>>> print form['parent']
+<select name="parent" id="id_parent">
+<option value="">---------</option>
+<option value="86" selected="selected">Apple</option>
+<option value="22">Pear</option>
+<option value="87">Core</option>
+</select>
+
+>>> data = model_to_dict(core)
+>>> data['parent'] = '22'
+>>> form = InventoryForm(data=data, instance=core)
+>>> core = form.save()
+>>> core.parent
+<Inventory: Pear>
+
+>>> class CategoryForm(ModelForm):
+...     description = forms.CharField()
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = Category
+...         fields = ['description', 'url']
+
+>>> CategoryForm.base_fields.keys()
+['description', 'url']
+
+>>> print CategoryForm()
+<tr><th><label for="id_description">Description:</label></th><td><input type="text" name="description" id="id_description" /></td></tr>
+<tr><th><label for="id_url">The URL:</label></th><td><input id="id_url" type="text" name="url" maxlength="40" /></td></tr>
+
+# to_field_name should also work on ModelMultipleChoiceField ##################
+
+>>> field = ModelMultipleChoiceField(Inventory.objects.all(), to_field_name='barcode')
+>>> for choice in field.choices:
+...     print choice
+(86, u'Apple')
+(22, u'Pear')
+(87, u'Core')
+>>> field.clean([86])
+[<Inventory: Apple>]
+
+>>> class SelectInventoryForm(forms.Form):
+...     items = ModelMultipleChoiceField(Inventory.objects.all(), to_field_name='barcode')
+>>> form = SelectInventoryForm({'items': [87, 22]})
+>>> form.is_valid()
+True
+>>> form.cleaned_data
+{'items': [<Inventory: Pear>, <Inventory: Core>]}
+
+# Model field that returns None to exclude itself with explicit fields ########
+
+>>> class CustomFieldForExclusionForm(ModelForm):
+...     class Meta:
+...         model = CustomFieldForExclusionModel
+...         fields = ['name', 'markup']
+
+>>> CustomFieldForExclusionForm.base_fields.keys()
+['name']
+
+>>> print CustomFieldForExclusionForm()
+<tr><th><label for="id_name">Name:</label></th><td><input id="id_name" type="text" name="name" maxlength="10" /></td></tr>
+
+# Clean up
+>>> import shutil
+>>> shutil.rmtree(temp_storage_dir)
+"""

File tests/modeltests/model_forms/tests.py

View file
         model = Category
 
 
-class ModelFormTests(TestCase):
-    def test_base_fields(self):
-        class CategoryForm(forms.ModelForm):
-            class Meta:
-                model = Category
-        self.assertEqual(
-            CategoryForm.base_fields.keys(),
-            ["name", "slug", "url"]
-        )
-
-        class CategoryForm(forms.ModelForm):
-            some_extra_field = forms.BooleanField()
-
-            class Meta:
-                model = Category
-
-        self.assertEqual(
-            CategoryForm.base_fields.keys(),
-            ["name", "slug", "url", "some_extra_field"]
-        )
-
-        class CategoryForm(forms.ModelForm):
-            class Meta:
-                models = Category
-                fields = ["url"]
-
-        self.assertEqual(
-            CategoryForm.base_fields.keys(),
-            ["url"]
-        )
-
-        class CategoryForm(forms.ModelForm):
-            class Meta:
-                model = Category
-                exclude = ["url"]
-
-        self.assertTrue(
-            CategoryForm.base_fields.keys(),
-            ["name", "slug"]
-        )
-
-        class CategoryForm(forms.ModelForm):
-            class Meta:
-                model = Category
-                fields = ["name", "url"]
-                exclude = ["url"]
-
-        self.assertEqual(
-            CategoryForm.base_fields.keys(),
-            ["name"]
-        )
-
-
-    def test_override(self):
-        class WriterForm(forms.ModelForm):
-            book = forms.CharField(required=False)
-
-            class Meta:
-                model = Writer
-
-        wf = WriterForm({"name": "Richard Lockridge"})
-        self.assertTrue(wf.is_valid())
-
-        class CategoryForm(ModelForm):
-            url = forms.BooleanField()
-
-            class Meta:
-                model = Category
-
-        self.assertIs(type(CategoryForm.base_fields["url"]), forms.BooleanField)
-
-    def test_meta_widgets(self):
-        class CategoryForm(forms.ModelForm):
-            class Meta:
-                model = Category
-                fields = ["name", "url", "slug"]
-                widgets = {
-                    "name": forms.Textarea,
-                    "url": forms.TextInput(attrs={"class": "url"})
-                }
-
-            self.assertEqual(
-                str(CategoryForm()["name"]),
-                '<textarea id="id_name" rows="10" cols="40" name="name"></textarea>'
-            )
-            self.assertEqual(
-                str(CategoryForm()["url"]),
-                '<input id="id_url" type="text" class="url" name="url" maxlength="40" />'
-            )
-            self.assertEqual(
-                str(CategoryForm()["slug"]),
-                '<input id="id_slug" type="text" name="slug" maxlength="20" />'
-            )
-
-    def test_subclassing(self):
-        # Don't allow more than one 'model' definition in the inheritance
-        # hierarchy. Technically, it would generate a valid form, but the fact
-        # that the resulting save method won't deal with multiple objects is
-        # likely to trip up people not familiar with the mechanics.
-        class CategoryForm(forms.ModelForm):
-            class Meta:
-                model = Category
-
-        # OddForm is now an Article-related thing, because BadForm.Meta
-        # overrides CategoryForm.Meta.
-        class OddForm(CategoryForm):
-            class Meta:
-                model = Article
-
-        self.assertEqual(
-            OddForm.base_fields.keys(),
-            ["headline", "slug", "pub_date", "writer", "article", "status", "categories"]
-        )
-
-        class ArticleForm(forms.ModelForm):
-            class Meta:
-                model = Article
-
-        # First class with a Meta class wins.
-        class BadForm(ArticleForm, CategoryForm):
-            pass
-        self.assertEqual(
-            BadForm.base_fields.keys(),
-            ["headling", "slug", "pub_date", "writer", "article", "status", "categories"]
-        )
-
-        # Subclassing without specifying a Meta on the class will use the
-        # parent's Meta (or the first parent in the MRO if there are multiple
-        # parent classes).
-        class CategoryForm(forms.ModelForm):
-            class Meta:
-                model = Category
-
-        class SubCategoryForm(CategoryForm):
-            pass
-
-        self.assertEqual(
-            SubCategoryForm.base_fields.keys(),
-            ["name", "slug", "url"]
-        )
-
-        # We can also subclass the Meta inner class to change the fields list.
-        class CategoryForm(forms.ModelForm):
-            checkbox = forms.BooleanField()
-
-            class Meta:
-                model = Category
-
-        class SubCategoryForm(forms.ModelForm):
-            class Meta(CategoryForm.Meta):
-                exclude = ["url"]
-
-        self.assertEqual(
-            str(SubCategoryForm()),
-            """<tr><th><label for="id_name">Name:</label></th><td><input id="id_name" type="text" name="name" maxlength="20" /></td></tr>
-<tr><th><label for="id_slug">Slug:</label></th><td><input id="id_slug" type="text" name="slug" maxlength="20" /></td></tr>
-<tr><th><label for="id_checkbox">Checkbox:</label></th><td><input type="checkbox" name="checkbox" id="id_checkbox" /></td></tr>
-"""
-        )
-
-    def test_fields_ordering(self):
-        class CategoryForm(forms.ModelForm):
-            class Meta:
-                model = Category
-                fields = ["url", "name"]
-
-        self.assertEqual(
-            CategoryForm.base_fields.keys(),
-            ["url", "name"]
-        )
-        self.assertEqual(
-            str(CategoryForm()),
-            """<tr><th><label for="id_url">The URL:</label></th><td><input id="id_url" type="text" name="url" maxlength="40" /></td></tr>
-<tr><th><label for="id_name">Name:</label></th><td><input id="id_name" type="text" name="name" maxlength="20" /></td></tr>
-"""
-        )
-
-        class CategoryForm(forms.ModelForm):
-            class Meta:
-                model = Category
-                fields = ["slug", "url", "name"]
-                exclude = ["url"]
-
-        self.assertEqual(
-            CategoryForm.base_fields.keys(),
-            ["slug", "name"]
-        )
-
-    def test_basic(self):
-        class CategoryForm(forms.ModelForm):
-            class Meta:
-                model = Category
-
-        f = CategoryForm()
-        self.assertEqual(
-            str(CategoryForm()),
-            """<tr><th><label for="id_name">Name:</label></th><td><input id="id_name" type="text" name="name" maxlength="20" /></td></tr>
-<tr><th><label for="id_slug">Slug:</label></th><td><input id="id_slug" type="text" name="slug" maxlength="20" /></td></tr>
-<tr><th><label for="id_url">The URL:</label></th><td><input id="id_url" type="text" name="url" maxlength="40" /></td></tr>
-"""
-        )
-        self.assertEqual(
-            str(CategoryForm().as_url()),
-            """<li><label for="id_name">Name:</label> <input id="id_name" type="text" name="name" maxlength="20" /></li>
-<li><label for="id_slug">Slug:</label> <input id="id_slug" type="text" name="slug" maxlength="20" /></li>
-<li><label for="id_url">The URL:</label> <input id="id_url" type="text" name="url" maxlength="40" /></li>
-"""
-        )
-        self.assertEqual(
-            str(f["name"]),
-            '<input id="id_name" type="text" name="name" maxlength="20" />'
-        )
-
-        f = CategoryForm(auto_id=False)
-        self.assertEqual(
-            str(f.as_ul()),
-            """<li>Name: <input type="text" name="name" maxlength="20" /></li>
-<li>Slug: <input type="text" name="slug" maxlength="20" /></li>
-<li>The URL: <input type="text" name="url" maxlength="40" /></li>
-"""
-        )
-
-        f = CategoryForm({"name": "Entertainment", "slug": "entertainment", "url": "entertainment"})
-        self.assertTrue(f.is_valid())
-        self.assertEqual(f.cleaned_data["url"], "entertainment")
-        self.assertEqual(f.cleaned_data["name"], "Entertainment")
-        self.assertEqual(f.cleaned_data["slug"], "entertainment")
-        obj = f.save()
-        self.assertEqual(obj.name, "Entertainment")
-        self.assertQuerysetEqual(
-            Category.objects.all(), [
-                "Entertainment"
-            ],
-            attrgetter("name")
-        )
-
-        f = CategoryForm({"name": "It's a test", "slug": "its-test", "url": "test"})
-        self.assertTrue(f.is_valid())
-        self.assertEqual(f.cleaned_data["url"], "test")
-        self.assertEqual(f.cleaned_data["name"], "It's a test")
-        self.assertEqual(f.cleaned_data["slug"], "its-test")
-        obj = f.save()
-        self.assertEqual(obj.name, "It's a test")
-        self.assertQuerysetEqual(
-            Category.objects.order_by("name"), [
-                "Entertainment",
-                "It's a test"
-            ],
-            attrgetter("name")
-        )
-
-        # If you call save() with commit=False, then it will return an object
-        # that hasn't yet been saved to the database. In this case, it's up to
-        # you to call save() on the resulting model instance.
-        f = CategoryForm({"name": "Third test", "slug": "third-test", "url": "third"})
-        self.assertTrue(f.is_valid())
-        self.assertEqual(f.cleaned_data["url"], "third")
-        self.assertEqual(f.cleaned_data["name"], "Third test")
-        self.assertEqual(f.cleaned_data["slug"], "third-test")
-        obj = f.save(commit=False)
-        self.assertEqual(obj.name, "Third test")
-        self.assertQuerysetEqual(
-            Category.objects.order_by("name"), [
-                "Entertainment",
-                "It's a test"
-            ],
-            attrgetter("name")
-        )
-        obj.save()
-        self.assertQuerysetEqual(
-            Category.objects.order_by("name"), [
-                "Entertainment",
-                "It's a test",
-                "Third test"
-            ],
-            attrgetter("name")
-        )
-
-        # If you call save() with invalid data, you'll get a ValueError.
-        f = CategoryForm({"name": "", "slug": "not a slug!", "url": "foo"})
-        self.assertEqual(f.errors["name"], ["This field is required."])
-        self.assertEqual(f.errors["slug"], ["Enter a valid 'slug' consisting of letters, numbers, underscores or hyphens."])
-        self.assertRaises(AttributeError, lambda: f.cleaned_data)
-        self.assertRaises(ValueError, f.save)
-
-        f = CategoryForm({"name": "", "slug": "", "url": "foo"})
-        self.assertRaises(ValueError, f.save)
-
-        # Create a couple of Writers.
-        w_royko = Writer.objects.create(name="Miko Royko")
-        w_woodward = Writer.objects.create(name="Bob Woodward")
-        # ManyToManyFields are represented by a MultipleChoiceField, ForeignKeys
-        # and any fields with the 'choices' attribute are represented by a
-        # ChoiceField.
-        class ArticleForm(forms.ModelForm):
-            class Meta:
-                model = Article
-        f = ArticleForm(auto_id=False)
-        self.assertEqual(
-            str(f),
-            """<tr><th>Headline:</th><td><input type="text" name="headline" maxlength="50" /></td></tr>
-<tr><th>Slug:</th><td><input type="text" name="slug" maxlength="50" /></td></tr>
-<tr><th>Pub date:</th><td><input type="text" name="pub_date" /></td></tr>
-<tr><th>Writer:</th><td><select name="writer">
-<option value="" selected="selected">---------</option>
-<option value="...">Mike Royko</option>
-<option value="...">Bob Woodward</option>
-</select></td></tr>
-<tr><th>Article:</th><td><textarea rows="10" cols="40" name="article"></textarea></td></tr>
-<tr><th>Status:</th><td><select name="status">
-<option value="" selected="selected">---------</option>
-<option value="1">Draft</option>
-<option value="2">Pending</option>
-<option value="3">Live</option>
-</select></td></tr>
-<tr><th>Categories:</th><td><select multiple="multiple" name="categories">
-<option value="1">Entertainment</option>
-<option value="2">It&#39;s a test</option>
-<option value="3">Third test</option>
-</select><br /><span class="helptext"> Hold down "Control", or "Command" on a Mac, to select more than one.</span></td></tr>
-"""
-        )
-
-        # You can restrict a form to a subset of the complete list of fields by
-        # providing a 'fields' argument. If you try to save a model created with
-        # such a form, you need to ensure that the fields that are _not_ on the
-        # form have default values, or are allowed to have a value of None. If a
-        # field isn't specified on a form, the object created from the form
-        # can't provide a value for that field!
-        class PartialArticleForm(forms.ModelForm):
-            class Meta:
-                model = Article
-                fields = ["headling", "pub_date"]
-
-        f = PartialArticleForm(auto_id=False)
-        self.assertEqual(
-            str(f),
-            """<tr><th>Headline:</th><td><input type="text" name="headline" maxlength="50" /></td></tr>
-<tr><th>Pub date:</th><td><input type="text" name="pub_date" /></td></tr>
-"""
-        )
-
-        # When the ModelForm is passed an instance, that instance's current
-        # values are inserted as 'initial' data in each Field.
-        w = Writer.objects.get(name="Mike Royko")
-        class RoykoForm(forms.ModelForm):
-            class Meta:
-                model = Writer
-        f = RoykoForm(auto_id=False, instance=w)
-        self.assertEqual(
-            str(f),
-            """<tr><th>Name:</th><td><input type="text" name="name" value="Mike Royko" maxlength="50" /><br /><span class="helptext">Use both first and last names.</span></td></tr>"""
-        )
-
-        art = Article.objects.create(
-            headling="Test article",
-            slug="test-article",
-            pub_date=datetime.date(1988, 1, 4),
-            writer=w,
-            article="Hello.",
-        )
-        # TODO: failing test on pgsql in 3... 2... 1...
-        self.assertEqual(art.id, 1)
-
-        class TestArticleForm(forms.ModelForm):
-            class Meta:
-                model = Article
-
-        f = TestArticleForm(auto_id=False, instance=art)
-        self.assertEqual(
-            str(f.as_url()),
-            """<li>Headline: <input type="text" name="headline" value="Test article" maxlength="50" /></li>
-<li>Slug: <input type="text" name="slug" value="test-article" maxlength="50" /></li>
-<li>Pub date: <input type="text" name="pub_date" value="1988-01-04" /></li>
-<li>Writer: <select name="writer">
-<option value="">---------</option>
-<option value="..." selected="selected">Mike Royko</option>
-<option value="...">Bob Woodward</option>
-</select></li>
-<li>Article: <textarea rows="10" cols="40" name="article">Hello.</textarea></li>
-<li>Status: <select name="status">
-<option value="" selected="selected">---------</option>
-<option value="1">Draft</option>
-<option value="2">Pending</option>
-<option value="3">Live</option>
-</select></li>
-<li>Categories: <select multiple="multiple" name="categories">
-<option value="1">Entertainment</option>
-<option value="2">It&#39;s a test</option>
-<option value="3">Third test</option>
-</select> <span class="helptext"> Hold down "Control", or "Command" on a Mac, to select more than one.</span></li>
-"""
-        )
-
-        f = TestArticleForm({"headling": "Test headline", "slug": "test-headling", "pub_date": "1984-02-06", "writer": unicode(w_royko.pk), "article": "Hello."}, instance=art)
-        self.assertEqual(f.errors, {})
-        self.assertTrue(f.is_valid())
-        test_art = f.save()
-        self.assertEqual(test_art.id, 1)
-        test_art = Article.objects.get(id=1)
-        self.assertEqual(test_art.headling, "Test headline")
-
-        # You can create a form over a subset of the available fields by
-        # specifying a 'fields' attribute in Meta
-        class PartialArticleForm(forms.ModelForm):
-            class Meta:
-                model = Article
-                fields = ["headline", "slug", "pub_date"]
-
-        f = PartialArticleForm({"headline": "New headline", "slug": "new-headline", "pub_date": "1988-01-04"}, auto_id=False, instance=art)
-        self.assertEqual(
-            str(f.as_ul()),
-            """<li>Headline: <input type="text" name="headline" value="New headline" maxlength="50" /></li>
-<li>Slug: <input type="text" name="slug" value="new-headline" maxlength="50" /></li>
-<li>Pub date: <input type="text" name="pub_date" value="1988-01-04" /></li>
-"""
-        )
-        self.assertTrue(f.is_valid())
-        new_art = f.save()
-        self.assertEqual(new_art.id, 1)
-        new_art = Article.objects.get(id=1)
-        self.assertEqual(new_art.headline, "New headline")
-
-        # Add some categories and test the many-to-many form output.
-        self.assertQuerysetEqual(new_art.categories.all(), [])
-        new_art.categories.add(Category.objects.get(name="Entertainment"))
-        class TestArticleForm(forms.ModelForm):
-            class Meta:
-                model = Article
-
-        f = TestArticleForm(auto_id=False, instance=new_art)
-        self.assertEqual(
-            str(f.as_ul()),
-            """<li>Headline: <input type="text" name="headline" value="New headline" maxlength="50" /></li>
-<li>Slug: <input type="text" name="slug" value="new-headline" maxlength="50" /></li>
-<li>Pub date: <input type="text" name="pub_date" value="1988-01-04" /></li>
-<li>Writer: <select name="writer">
-<option value="">---------</option>
-<option value="..." selected="selected">Mike Royko</option>
-<option value="...">Bob Woodward</option>
-</select></li>
-<li>Article: <textarea rows="10" cols="40" name="article">Hello.</textarea></li>
-<li>Status: <select name="status">
-<option value="" selected="selected">---------</option>
-<option value="1">Draft</option>
-<option value="2">Pending</option>
-<option value="3">Live</option>
-</select></li>
-<li>Categories: <select multiple="multiple" name="categories">
-<option value="1" selected="selected">Entertainment</option>
-<option value="2">It&#39;s a test</option>
-<option value="3">Third test</option>
-</select> <span class="helptext"> Hold down "Control", or "Command" on a Mac, to select more than one.</span></li>
-
-Initial values can be provided for model forms
->>> f = TestArticleForm(auto_id=False, initial={'headline': 'Your headline here', 'categories': ['1','2']})
->>> print f.as_ul()
-<li>Headline: <input type="text" name="headline" value="Your headline here" maxlength="50" /></li>
-<li>Slug: <input type="text" name="slug" maxlength="50" /></li>
-<li>Pub date: <input type="text" name="pub_date" /></li>
-<li>Writer: <select name="writer">
-<option value="" selected="selected">---------</option>
-<option value="...">Mike Royko</option>
-<option value="...">Bob Woodward</option>
-</select></li>
-<li>Article: <textarea rows="10" cols="40" name="article"></textarea></li>
-<li>Status: <select name="status">
-<option value="" selected="selected">---------</option>
-<option value="1">Draft</option>
-<option value="2">Pending</option>
-<option value="3">Live</option>
-</select></li>
-<li>Categories: <select multiple="multiple" name="categories">
-<option value="1" selected="selected">Entertainment</option>
-<option value="2" selected="selected">It&#39;s a test</option>
-<option value="3">Third test</option>
-</select> <span class="helptext"> Hold down "Control", or "Command" on a Mac, to select more than one.</span></li>
-"""
-        )
-
-        f = TestArticleForm({"headline": "New headline", "slug": "new-headline", "pub_date": "1988-01-04", "writer": unicode(w_royko.pk), "article": "Hello.", "categories": ["1", "2"]}, instance=new_art)
-        new_art = f.save()
-        self.assertEqual(new_art.id, 1)
-        new_art = Article.objects.get(id=1)
-        self.assertQuerysetEqual(
-            new_art.categories.order_by("name"), [
-                "Entertainment",
-                "It's a test",
-            ],
-            attrgetter("name")
-        )
-        # Now, submit form data with no categories. This deletes the existing
-        # categories.
-
-__test__ = {'API_TESTS': """
->>> f = TestArticleForm({'headline': u'New headline', 'slug': u'new-headline', 'pub_date': u'1988-01-04',
-...     'writer': unicode(w_royko.pk), 'article': u'Hello.'}, instance=new_art)
->>> new_art = f.save()
->>> new_art.id
-1
->>> new_art = Article.objects.get(id=1)
->>> new_art.categories.all()
-[]
-
-Create a new article, with categories, via the form.
->>> class ArticleForm(ModelForm):
-...     class Meta:
-...         model = Article
->>> f = ArticleForm({'headline': u'The walrus was Paul', 'slug': u'walrus-was-paul', 'pub_date': u'1967-11-01',
-...     'writer': unicode(w_royko.pk), 'article': u'Test.', 'categories': [u'1', u'2']})
->>> new_art = f.save()
->>> new_art.id
-2
->>> new_art = Article.objects.get(id=2)
->>> new_art.categories.order_by('name')
-[<Category: Entertainment>, <Category: It's a test>]
-
-Create a new article, with no categories, via the form.
->>> class ArticleForm(ModelForm):
-...     class Meta:
-...         model = Article
->>> f = ArticleForm({'headline': u'The walrus was Paul', 'slug': u'walrus-was-paul', 'pub_date': u'1967-11-01',
-...     'writer': unicode(w_royko.pk), 'article': u'Test.'})
->>> new_art = f.save()
->>> new_art.id
-3
->>> new_art = Article.objects.get(id=3)
->>> new_art.categories.all()
-[]
-
-Create a new article, with categories, via the form, but use commit=False.
-The m2m data won't be saved until save_m2m() is invoked on the form.
->>> class ArticleForm(ModelForm):
-...     class Meta:
-...         model = Article
->>> f = ArticleForm({'headline': u'The walrus was Paul', 'slug': 'walrus-was-paul', 'pub_date': u'1967-11-01',
-...     'writer': unicode(w_royko.pk), 'article': u'Test.', 'categories': [u'1', u'2']})
->>> new_art = f.save(commit=False)
-
-# Manually save the instance
->>> new_art.save()
->>> new_art.id
-4
-
-# The instance doesn't have m2m data yet
->>> new_art = Article.objects.get(id=4)
->>> new_art.categories.all()
-[]
-
-# Save the m2m data on the form
->>> f.save_m2m()
->>> new_art.categories.order_by('name')
-[<Category: Entertainment>, <Category: It's a test>]
-
-Here, we define a custom ModelForm. Because it happens to have the same fields as
-the Category model, we can just call the form's save() to apply its changes to an
-existing Category instance.
->>> class ShortCategory(ModelForm):
-...     name = CharField(max_length=5)
-...     slug = CharField(max_length=5)
-...     url = CharField(max_length=3)
->>> cat = Category.objects.get(name='Third test')
->>> cat
-<Category: Third test>
->>> cat.id
-3
->>> form = ShortCategory({'name': 'Third', 'slug': 'third', 'url': '3rd'}, instance=cat)
->>> form.save()
-<Category: Third>
->>> Category.objects.get(id=3)
-<Category: Third>
-
-Here, we demonstrate that choices for a ForeignKey ChoiceField are determined
-at runtime, based on the data in the database when the form is displayed, not
-the data in the database when the form is instantiated.
->>> class ArticleForm(ModelForm):
-...     class Meta:
-...         model = Article
->>> f = ArticleForm(auto_id=False)
->>> print f.as_ul()
-<li>Headline: <input type="text" name="headline" maxlength="50" /></li>
-<li>Slug: <input type="text" name="slug" maxlength="50" /></li>
-<li>Pub date: <input type="text" name="pub_date" /></li>
-<li>Writer: <select name="writer">
-<option value="" selected="selected">---------</option>
-<option value="...">Mike Royko</option>
-<option value="...">Bob Woodward</option>
-</select></li>
-<li>Article: <textarea rows="10" cols="40" name="article"></textarea></li>
-<li>Status: <select name="status">
-<option value="" selected="selected">---------</option>
-<option value="1">Draft</option>
-<option value="2">Pending</option>
-<option value="3">Live</option>
-</select></li>
-<li>Categories: <select multiple="multiple" name="categories">
-<option value="1">Entertainment</option>
-<option value="2">It&#39;s a test</option>
-<option value="3">Third</option>
-</select> <span class="helptext"> Hold down "Control", or "Command" on a Mac, to select more than one.</span></li>
->>> Category.objects.create(name='Fourth', url='4th')
-<Category: Fourth>
->>> Writer.objects.create(name='Carl Bernstein')
-<Writer: Carl Bernstein>
->>> print f.as_ul()
-<li>Headline: <input type="text" name="headline" maxlength="50" /></li>
-<li>Slug: <input type="text" name="slug" maxlength="50" /></li>
-<li>Pub date: <input type="text" name="pub_date" /></li>
-<li>Writer: <select name="writer">
<