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Vinay Sajip committed c2b3dee Merge

Merged upstream changes.

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 c860feaa348d663e598986894ee4680480577e15 v3.2.2rc1
 137e45f15c0bd262c9ad4c032d97425bc0589456 v3.2.2
 7085403daf439adb3f9e70ef13f6bedb1c447376 v3.2.3rc1
+f1a9a6505731714f0e157453ff850e3b71615c45 v3.3.0a1

Doc/c-api/memoryview.rst

    Create a memoryview object using *mem* as the underlying buffer.
    *flags* can be one of :c:macro:`PyBUF_READ` or :c:macro:`PyBUF_WRITE`.
 
+   .. versionadded:: 3.3
+
 .. c:function:: PyObject *PyMemoryView_FromBuffer(Py_buffer *view)
 
    Create a memoryview object wrapping the given buffer structure *view*.

Doc/library/copyreg.rst

    returned by *function* at pickling time.  :exc:`TypeError` will be raised if
    *object* is a class or *constructor* is not callable.
 
-   See the :mod:`pickle` module for more details on the interface expected of
-   *function* and *constructor*.
-
+   See the :mod:`pickle` module for more details on the interface
+   expected of *function* and *constructor*.  Note that the
+   :attr:`~pickle.Pickler.dispatch_table` attribute of a pickler
+   object or subclass of :class:`pickle.Pickler` can also be used for
+   declaring reduction functions.

Doc/library/pickle.rst

 
       See :ref:`pickle-persistent` for details and examples of uses.
 
+   .. attribute:: dispatch_table
+
+      A pickler object's dispatch table is a registry of *reduction
+      functions* of the kind which can be declared using
+      :func:`copyreg.pickle`.  It is a mapping whose keys are classes
+      and whose values are reduction functions.  A reduction function
+      takes a single argument of the associated class and should
+      conform to the same interface as a :meth:`~object.__reduce__`
+      method.
+
+      By default, a pickler object will not have a
+      :attr:`dispatch_table` attribute, and it will instead use the
+      global dispatch table managed by the :mod:`copyreg` module.
+      However, to customize the pickling for a specific pickler object
+      one can set the :attr:`dispatch_table` attribute to a dict-like
+      object.  Alternatively, if a subclass of :class:`Pickler` has a
+      :attr:`dispatch_table` attribute then this will be used as the
+      default dispatch table for instances of that class.
+
+      See :ref:`pickle-dispatch` for usage examples.
+
+      .. versionadded:: 3.3
+
    .. attribute:: fast
 
       Deprecated. Enable fast mode if set to a true value.  The fast mode
 
 .. literalinclude:: ../includes/dbpickle.py
 
+.. _pickle-dispatch:
+
+Dispatch Tables
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+If one wants to customize pickling of some classes without disturbing
+any other code which depends on pickling, then one can create a
+pickler with a private dispatch table.
+
+The global dispatch table managed by the :mod:`copyreg` module is
+available as :data:`copyreg.dispatch_table`.  Therefore, one may
+choose to use a modified copy of :data:`copyreg.dispatch_table` as a
+private dispatch table.
+
+For example ::
+
+   f = io.BytesIO()
+   p = pickle.Pickler(f)
+   p.dispatch_table = copyreg.dispatch_table.copy()
+   p.dispatch_table[SomeClass] = reduce_SomeClass
+
+creates an instance of :class:`pickle.Pickler` with a private dispatch
+table which handles the ``SomeClass`` class specially.  Alternatively,
+the code ::
+
+   class MyPickler(pickle.Pickler):
+       dispatch_table = copyreg.dispatch_table.copy()
+       dispatch_table[SomeClass] = reduce_SomeClass
+   f = io.BytesIO()
+   p = MyPickler(f)
+
+does the same, but all instances of ``MyPickler`` will by default
+share the same dispatch table.  The equivalent code using the
+:mod:`copyreg` module is ::
+
+   copyreg.pickle(SomeClass, reduce_SomeClass)
+   f = io.BytesIO()
+   p = pickle.Pickler(f)
 
 .. _pickle-state:
 

Doc/library/re.rst

 three digits in length.
 
 
-.. _matching-searching:
-
-Matching vs. Searching
-----------------------
-
-.. sectionauthor:: Fred L. Drake, Jr. <fdrake@acm.org>
-
-
-Python offers two different primitive operations based on regular expressions:
-**match** checks for a match only at the beginning of the string, while
-**search** checks for a match anywhere in the string (this is what Perl does
-by default).
-
-Note that match may differ from search even when using a regular expression
-beginning with ``'^'``: ``'^'`` matches only at the start of the string, or in
-:const:`MULTILINE` mode also immediately following a newline.  The "match"
-operation succeeds only if the pattern matches at the start of the string
-regardless of mode, or at the starting position given by the optional *pos*
-argument regardless of whether a newline precedes it.
-
-   >>> re.match("c", "abcdef")  # No match
-   >>> re.search("c", "abcdef") # Match
-   <_sre.SRE_Match object at ...>
-
-
 .. _contents-of-module-re:
 
 Module Contents
    <match-objects>`.  Return ``None`` if the string does not match the pattern;
    note that this is different from a zero-length match.
 
-   .. note::
+   Note that even in :const:`MULTILINE` mode, :func:`re.match` will only match
+   at the beginning of the string and not at the beginning of each line.
 
-      If you want to locate a match anywhere in *string*, use :func:`search`
-      instead.
+   If you want to locate a match anywhere in *string*, use :func:`search`
+   instead (see also :ref:`search-vs-match`).
 
 
 .. function:: split(pattern, string, maxsplit=0, flags=0)
    The optional *pos* and *endpos* parameters have the same meaning as for the
    :meth:`~regex.search` method.
 
-   .. note::
-
-      If you want to locate a match anywhere in *string*, use
-      :meth:`~regex.search` instead.
-
    >>> pattern = re.compile("o")
    >>> pattern.match("dog")      # No match as "o" is not at the start of "dog".
    >>> pattern.match("dog", 1)   # Match as "o" is the 2nd character of "dog".
    <_sre.SRE_Match object at ...>
 
+   If you want to locate a match anywhere in *string*, use
+   :meth:`~regex.search` instead (see also :ref:`search-vs-match`).
+
 
 .. method:: regex.split(string, maxsplit=0)
 
 [a-zA-Z0-9_ ]*?end``.  As a further benefit, such regular expressions will run
 faster than their recursive equivalents.
 
+.. _search-vs-match:
 
 search() vs. match()
 ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
 
-In a nutshell, :func:`match` only attempts to match a pattern at the beginning
-of a string where :func:`search` will match a pattern anywhere in a string.
-For example:
+.. sectionauthor:: Fred L. Drake, Jr. <fdrake@acm.org>
 
-   >>> re.match("o", "dog")  # No match as "o" is not the first letter of "dog".
-   >>> re.search("o", "dog") # Match as search() looks everywhere in the string.
+Python offers two different primitive operations based on regular expressions:
+:func:`re.match` checks for a match only at the beginning of the string, while
+:func:`re.search` checks for a match anywhere in the string (this is what Perl
+does by default).
+
+For example::
+
+   >>> re.match("c", "abcdef")  # No match
+   >>> re.search("c", "abcdef") # Match
    <_sre.SRE_Match object at ...>
 
-.. note::
+Regular expressions beginning with ``'^'`` can be used with :func:`search` to
+restrict the match at the beginning of the string::
 
-   The following applies only to regular expression objects like those created
-   with ``re.compile("pattern")``, not the primitives ``re.match(pattern,
-   string)`` or ``re.search(pattern, string)``.
+   >>> re.match("c", "abcdef")  # No match
+   >>> re.search("^c", "abcdef") # No match
+   >>> re.search("^a", "abcdef")  # Match
+   <_sre.SRE_Match object at ...>
 
-:func:`match` has an optional second parameter that gives an index in the string
-where the search is to start::
+Note however that in :const:`MULTILINE` mode :func:`match` only matches at the
+beginning of the string, whereas using :func:`search` with a regular expression
+beginning with ``'^'`` will match at the beginning of each line.
 
-   >>> pattern = re.compile("o")
-   >>> pattern.match("dog")      # No match as "o" is not at the start of "dog."
-
-   # Equivalent to the above expression as 0 is the default starting index:
-   >>> pattern.match("dog", 0)
-
-   # Match as "o" is the 2nd character of "dog" (index 0 is the first):
-   >>> pattern.match("dog", 1)
+   >>> re.match('X', 'A\nB\nX', re.MULTILINE)  # No match
+   >>> re.search('^X', 'A\nB\nX', re.MULTILINE)  # Match
    <_sre.SRE_Match object at ...>
-   >>> pattern.match("dog", 2)   # No match as "o" is not the 3rd character of "dog."
 
 
 Making a Phonebook

Doc/library/shlex.rst

       >>> command
       ['ls', '-l', 'somefile; rm -rf ~']
 
+   .. versionadded:: 3.3
 
 The :mod:`shlex` module defines the following class:
 

Doc/library/signal.rst

    .. versionadded:: 3.3
 
 
-.. function:: sigtimedwait(sigset, (timeout_sec, timeout_nsec))
+.. function:: sigtimedwait(sigset, timeout)
 
-   Like :func:`sigtimedwait`, but takes a tuple of ``(seconds, nanoseconds)``
-   as an additional argument specifying a timeout. If both *timeout_sec* and
-   *timeout_nsec* are specified as :const:`0`, a poll is performed. Returns
-   :const:`None` if a timeout occurs.
+   Like :func:`sigwaitinfo`, but takes an additional *timeout* argument
+   specifying a timeout. If *timeout* is specified as :const:`0`, a poll is
+   performed. Returns :const:`None` if a timeout occurs.
 
    Availability: Unix (see the man page :manpage:`sigtimedwait(2)` for further
    information).

Doc/library/socket.rst

    import struct
 
 
-   # CAN frame packing/unpacking (see `struct can_frame` in <linux/can.h>)
+   # CAN frame packing/unpacking (see 'struct can_frame' in <linux/can.h>)
 
    can_frame_fmt = "=IB3x8s"
    can_frame_size = struct.calcsize(can_frame_fmt)
        return (can_id, can_dlc, data[:can_dlc])
 
 
-   # create a raw socket and bind it to the `vcan0` interface
+   # create a raw socket and bind it to the 'vcan0' interface
    s = socket.socket(socket.AF_CAN, socket.SOCK_RAW, socket.CAN_RAW)
    s.bind(('vcan0',))
 

Doc/library/sqlite3.rst

 
 .. module:: sqlite3
    :synopsis: A DB-API 2.0 implementation using SQLite 3.x.
-.. sectionauthor:: Gerhard Häring <gh@ghaering.de>
+.. sectionauthor:: Gerhard Häring <gh@ghaering.de>
 
 
 SQLite is a C library that provides a lightweight disk-based database that
 represents the database.  Here the data will be stored in the
 :file:`/tmp/example` file::
 
+   import sqlite3
    conn = sqlite3.connect('/tmp/example')
 
 You can also supply the special name ``:memory:`` to create a database in RAM.
 
    # Never do this -- insecure!
    symbol = 'IBM'
-   c.execute("... where symbol = '%s'" % symbol)
+   c.execute("select * from stocks where symbol = '%s'" % symbol)
 
    # Do this instead
    t = (symbol,)
 
    # Larger example
    for t in [('2006-03-28', 'BUY', 'IBM', 1000, 45.00),
-             ('2006-04-05', 'BUY', 'MSOFT', 1000, 72.00),
+             ('2006-04-05', 'BUY', 'MSFT', 1000, 72.00),
              ('2006-04-06', 'SELL', 'IBM', 500, 53.00),
             ]:
        c.execute('insert into stocks values (?,?,?,?,?)', t)
    calling the cursor method, then calls the cursor's :meth:`executemany
    <Cursor.executemany>` method with the parameters given.
 
-
 .. method:: Connection.executescript(sql_script)
 
    This is a nonstandard shortcut that creates an intermediate cursor object by
    aggregates or whole new virtual table implementations.  One well-known
    extension is the fulltext-search extension distributed with SQLite.
 
+   Loadable extensions are disabled by default. See [#f1]_.
+
    .. versionadded:: 3.2
 
    .. literalinclude:: ../includes/sqlite3/load_extension.py
 
-   Loadable extensions are disabled by default. See [#f1]_.
-
 .. method:: Connection.load_extension(path)
 
    This routine loads a SQLite extension from a shared library.  You have to
    enable extension loading with :meth:`enable_load_extension` before you can
    use this routine.
 
+   Loadable extensions are disabled by default. See [#f1]_.
+
    .. versionadded:: 3.2
 
-   Loadable extensions are disabled by default. See [#f1]_.
-
 .. attribute:: Connection.row_factory
 
    You can change this attribute to a callable that accepts the cursor and the

Doc/library/sys.rst

    independent Python files are installed; by default, this is the string
    ``'/usr/local'``.  This can be set at build time with the ``--prefix``
    argument to the :program:`configure` script.  The main collection of Python
-   library modules is installed in the directory :file:`{prefix}/lib/python{X.Y}``
+   library modules is installed in the directory :file:`{prefix}/lib/python{X.Y}`
    while the platform independent header files (all except :file:`pyconfig.h`) are
    stored in :file:`{prefix}/include/python{X.Y}`, where *X.Y* is the version
    number of Python, for example ``3.2``.

Doc/library/xml.dom.minidom.rst

 Model interface.  It is intended to be simpler than the full DOM and also
 significantly smaller.
 
+.. note::
+
+   The :mod:`xml.dom.minidom` module provides an implementation of the W3C-DOM,
+   with an API similar to that in other programming languages.  Users who are
+   unfamiliar with the W3C-DOM interface or who would like to write less code
+   for processing XML files should consider using the
+   :mod:`xml.etree.ElementTree` module instead.
+
 DOM applications typically start by parsing some XML into a DOM.  With
 :mod:`xml.dom.minidom`, this is done through the parse functions::
 
 +----------------+--------------+------------+------------+-----------------+
 | 3.2.2          | 3.2.1        | 2011       | PSF        | yes             |
 +----------------+--------------+------------+------------+-----------------+
-| 3.3            | 3.2          | 2012       | PSF        | yes             |
+| 3.3.0          | 3.2          | 2012       | PSF        | yes             |
 +----------------+--------------+------------+------------+-----------------+
 
 .. note::

Doc/reference/lexical_analysis.rst

 
 .. productionlist::
    stringliteral: [`stringprefix`](`shortstring` | `longstring`)
-   stringprefix: "r" | "R"
+   stringprefix: "r" | "u" | "ur" | "R" | "U" | "UR" | "Ur" | "uR"
    shortstring: "'" `shortstringitem`* "'" | '"' `shortstringitem`* '"'
    longstring: "'''" `longstringitem`* "'''" | '"""' `longstringitem`* '"""'
    shortstringitem: `shortstringchar` | `stringescapeseq`
 may only contain ASCII characters; bytes with a numeric value of 128 or greater
 must be expressed with escapes.
 
+As of Python 3.3 it is possible again to prefix unicode strings with a
+``u`` prefix to simplify maintenance of dual 2.x and 3.x codebases.
+
 Both string and bytes literals may optionally be prefixed with a letter ``'r'``
 or ``'R'``; such strings are called :dfn:`raw strings` and treat backslashes as
 literal characters.  As a result, in string literals, ``'\U'`` and ``'\u'``
       The ``'rb'`` prefix of raw bytes literals has been added as a synonym
       of ``'br'``.
 
+   .. versionadded:: 3.3
+      Support for the unicode legacy literal (``u'value'``) and other
+      versions were reintroduced to simplify the maintenance of dual
+      Python 2.x and 3.x codebases.  See :pep:`414` for more information.
+
 In triple-quoted strings, unescaped newlines and quotes are allowed (and are
 retained), except that three unescaped quotes in a row terminate the string.  (A
 "quote" is the character used to open the string, i.e. either ``'`` or ``"``.)

Doc/tools/sphinxext/pyspecific.py

 
     Sphinx extension with Python doc-specific markup.
 
-    :copyright: 2008, 2009, 2010 by Georg Brandl.
+    :copyright: 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 by Georg Brandl.
     :license: Python license.
 """
 
             document.append(doctree.ids[labelid])
             destination = StringOutput(encoding='utf-8')
             writer.write(document, destination)
-            self.topics[label] = str(writer.output)
+            self.topics[label] = writer.output.encode('utf-8')
 
     def finish(self):
         f = open(path.join(self.outdir, 'topics.py'), 'w')
         try:
+            f.write('# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-\n')
             f.write('# Autogenerated by Sphinx on %s\n' % asctime())
             f.write('topics = ' + pformat(self.topics) + '\n')
         finally:

Doc/tools/sphinxext/susp-ignored.csv

 c-api/arg,,:ref,"PyArg_ParseTuple(args, ""O|O:ref"", &object, &callback)"
 c-api/list,,:high,list[low:high]
 c-api/list,,:high,list[low:high] = itemlist
+c-api/sequence,,:i2,del o[i1:i2]
 c-api/sequence,,:i2,o[i1:i2]
 c-api/sequence,,:i2,o[i1:i2] = v
-c-api/sequence,,:i2,del o[i1:i2]
 c-api/unicode,,:end,str[start:end]
+c-api/unicode,,:start,unicode[start:start+length]
+distutils/examples,267,`,This is the description of the ``foobar`` package.
 distutils/setupscript,,::,
 extending/embedding,,:numargs,"if(!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, "":numargs""))"
+extending/extending,,:myfunction,"PyArg_ParseTuple(args, ""D:myfunction"", &c);"
 extending/extending,,:set,"if (PyArg_ParseTuple(args, ""O:set_callback"", &temp)) {"
-extending/extending,,:myfunction,"PyArg_ParseTuple(args, ""D:myfunction"", &c);"
 extending/newtypes,,:call,"if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, ""sss:call"", &arg1, &arg2, &arg3)) {"
 extending/windows,,:initspam,/export:initspam
+faq/programming,,:chr,">=4.0) or 1+f(xc,yc,x*x-y*y+xc,2.0*x*y+yc,k-1,f):f(xc,yc,x,y,k,f):chr("
+faq/programming,,::,for x in sequence[::-1]:
+faq/programming,,:reduce,"print((lambda Ru,Ro,Iu,Io,IM,Sx,Sy:reduce(lambda x,y:x+y,map(lambda y,"
+faq/programming,,:reduce,"Sx=Sx,Sy=Sy:reduce(lambda x,y:x+y,map(lambda x,xc=Ru,yc=yc,Ru=Ru,Ro=Ro,"
+faq/windows,229,:EOF,@setlocal enableextensions & python -x %~f0 %* & goto :EOF
+faq/windows,393,:REG,.py :REG_SZ: c:\<path to python>\python.exe -u %s %s
 howto/cporting,,:add,"if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, ""ii:add_ints"", &one, &two))"
 howto/cporting,,:encode,"if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, ""O:encode_object"", &myobj))"
 howto/cporting,,:say,"if (!PyArg_ParseTuple(args, ""U:say_hello"", &name))"
 howto/curses,,:red,"They are: 0:black, 1:red, 2:green, 3:yellow, 4:blue, 5:magenta, 6:cyan, and"
 howto/curses,,:white,"7:white."
 howto/curses,,:yellow,"They are: 0:black, 1:red, 2:green, 3:yellow, 4:blue, 5:magenta, 6:cyan, and"
+howto/logging,,:And,"WARNING:And this, too"
+howto/logging,,:And,"WARNING:root:And this, too"
+howto/logging,,:Doing,INFO:root:Doing something
+howto/logging,,:Finished,INFO:root:Finished
+howto/logging,,:logger,severity:logger name:message
+howto/logging,,:Look,WARNING:root:Look before you leap!
+howto/logging,,:message,severity:logger name:message
+howto/logging,,:root,DEBUG:root:This message should go to the log file
+howto/logging,,:root,INFO:root:Doing something
+howto/logging,,:root,INFO:root:Finished
+howto/logging,,:root,INFO:root:So should this
+howto/logging,,:root,INFO:root:Started
+howto/logging,,:root,"WARNING:root:And this, too"
+howto/logging,,:root,WARNING:root:Look before you leap!
+howto/logging,,:root,WARNING:root:Watch out!
+howto/logging,,:So,INFO:root:So should this
+howto/logging,,:So,INFO:So should this
+howto/logging,,:Started,INFO:root:Started
+howto/logging,,:This,DEBUG:root:This message should go to the log file
+howto/logging,,:This,DEBUG:This message should appear on the console
+howto/logging,,:Watch,WARNING:root:Watch out!
+howto/pyporting,75,::,# make sure to use :: Python *and* :: Python :: 3 so
+howto/pyporting,75,::,"'Programming Language :: Python',"
+howto/pyporting,75,::,'Programming Language :: Python :: 3'
 howto/regex,,::,
 howto/regex,,:foo,(?:foo)
 howto/urllib2,,:example,"for example ""joe@password:example.com"""
 howto/webservers,,.. image:,.. image:: http.png
 library/audioop,,:ipos,"# factor = audioop.findfactor(in_test[ipos*2:ipos*2+len(out_test)],"
+library/bisect,32,:hi,all(val >= x for val in a[i:hi])
+library/bisect,42,:hi,all(val > x for val in a[i:hi])
+library/configparser,,:home,my_dir: ${Common:home_dir}/twosheds
+library/configparser,,:option,${section:option}
+library/configparser,,:path,python_dir: ${Frameworks:path}/Python/Versions/${Frameworks:Python}
+library/configparser,,:Python,python_dir: ${Frameworks:path}/Python/Versions/${Frameworks:Python}
+library/configparser,,`,# Set the optional `raw` argument of get() to True if you wish to disable
+library/configparser,,:system,path: ${Common:system_dir}/Library/Frameworks/
+library/configparser,,`,# The optional `fallback` argument can be used to provide a fallback value
+library/configparser,,`,# The optional `vars` argument is a dict with members that will take
 library/datetime,,:MM,
 library/datetime,,:SS,
 library/decimal,,:optional,"trailneg:optional trailing minus indicator"
 library/difflib,,:ahi,a[alo:ahi]
 library/difflib,,:bhi,b[blo:bhi]
+library/difflib,,:i1,
 library/difflib,,:i2,
 library/difflib,,:j2,
-library/difflib,,:i1,
 library/dis,,:TOS,
 library/dis,,`,TOS = `TOS`
 library/doctest,,`,``factorial`` from the ``example`` module:
 library/functions,,:stop,"a[start:stop, i]"
 library/functions,,:stop,a[start:stop:step]
 library/hotshot,,:lineno,"ncalls  tottime  percall  cumtime  percall filename:lineno(function)"
+library/http.client,52,:port,host:port
 library/httplib,,:port,host:port
 library/imaplib,,:MM,"""DD-Mmm-YYYY HH:MM:SS"
 library/imaplib,,:SS,"""DD-Mmm-YYYY HH:MM:SS"
+library/itertools,,:step,elements from seq[start:stop:step]
 library/itertools,,:stop,elements from seq[start:stop:step]
-library/itertools,,:step,elements from seq[start:stop:step]
 library/linecache,,:sys,"sys:x:3:3:sys:/dev:/bin/sh"
 library/logging,,:And,
+library/logging,,:Doing,INFO:root:Doing something
+library/logging,,:Finished,INFO:root:Finished
+library/logging,,:logger,severity:logger name:message
+library/logging,,:Look,WARNING:root:Look before you leap!
+library/logging,,:message,severity:logger name:message
 library/logging,,:package1,
 library/logging,,:package2,
+library/logging,,:port,host:port
 library/logging,,:root,
+library/logging,,:So,INFO:root:So should this
+library/logging,,:So,INFO:So should this
+library/logging,,:Started,INFO:root:Started
 library/logging,,:This,
-library/logging,,:port,host:port
+library/logging,,:Watch,WARNING:root:Watch out!
+library/logging.handlers,,:port,host:port
 library/mmap,,:i2,obj[i1:i2]
-library/multiprocessing,,:queue,">>> QueueManager.register('get_queue', callable=lambda:queue)"
+library/multiprocessing,,`,# Add more tasks using `put()`
+library/multiprocessing,,`,# A test file for the `multiprocessing` package
+library/multiprocessing,,`,# A test of `multiprocessing.Pool` class
+library/multiprocessing,,`,# `BaseManager`.
+library/multiprocessing,,`,`Cluster` is a subclass of `SyncManager` so it allows creation of
+library/multiprocessing,,`,# create server for a `HostManager` object
+library/multiprocessing,,`,# Depends on `multiprocessing` package -- tested with `processing-0.60`
+library/multiprocessing,,`,`hostname` gives the name of the host.  If hostname is not
+library/multiprocessing,,`,# in the original order then consider using `Pool.map()` or
 library/multiprocessing,,`,">>> l._callmethod('__getitem__', (20,))     # equiv to `l[20]`"
 library/multiprocessing,,`,">>> l._callmethod('__getslice__', (2, 7))   # equiv to `l[2:7]`"
-library/multiprocessing,,`,# `BaseManager`.
-library/multiprocessing,,`,# `Pool.imap()` (which will save on the amount of code needed anyway).
-library/multiprocessing,,`,# A test file for the `multiprocessing` package
-library/multiprocessing,,`,# A test of `multiprocessing.Pool` class
-library/multiprocessing,,`,# Add more tasks using `put()`
-library/multiprocessing,,`,# create server for a `HostManager` object
-library/multiprocessing,,`,# Depends on `multiprocessing` package -- tested with `processing-0.60`
-library/multiprocessing,,`,# in the original order then consider using `Pool.map()` or
 library/multiprocessing,,`,# Not sure if we should synchronize access to `socket.accept()` method by
 library/multiprocessing,,`,# object.  (We import `multiprocessing.reduction` to enable this pickling.)
+library/multiprocessing,,`,# `Pool.imap()` (which will save on the amount of code needed anyway).
+library/multiprocessing,,:queue,">>> QueueManager.register('get_queue', callable=lambda:queue)"
 library/multiprocessing,,`,# register the Foo class; make `f()` and `g()` accessible via proxy
 library/multiprocessing,,`,# register the Foo class; make `g()` and `_h()` accessible via proxy
 library/multiprocessing,,`,# register the generator function baz; use `GeneratorProxy` to make proxies
-library/multiprocessing,,`,`Cluster` is a subclass of `SyncManager` so it allows creation of
-library/multiprocessing,,`,`hostname` gives the name of the host.  If hostname is not
 library/multiprocessing,,`,`slots` is used to specify the number of slots for processes on
+library/nntplib,,:bytes,:bytes
+library/nntplib,,:bytes,"['xref', 'from', ':lines', ':bytes', 'references', 'date', 'message-id', 'subject']"
+library/nntplib,,:lines,:lines
+library/nntplib,,:lines,"['xref', 'from', ':lines', ':bytes', 'references', 'date', 'message-id', 'subject']"
 library/optparse,,:len,"del parser.rargs[:len(value)]"
 library/os.path,,:foo,c:foo
 library/parser,,`,"""Make a function that raises an argument to the exponent `exp`."""
+library/pdb,,:lineno,filename:lineno
+library/pdb,,:lineno,[filename:lineno | bpnumber [bpnumber ...]]
+library/pickle,,:memory,"conn = sqlite3.connect("":memory:"")"
 library/posix,,`,"CFLAGS=""`getconf LFS_CFLAGS`"" OPT=""-g -O2 $CFLAGS"""
+library/pprint,209,::,"'classifiers': ['Development Status :: 4 - Beta',"
+library/pprint,209,::,"'Intended Audience :: Developers',"
+library/pprint,209,::,"'License :: OSI Approved :: MIT License',"
+library/pprint,209,::,"'Natural Language :: English',"
+library/pprint,209,::,"'Operating System :: OS Independent',"
+library/pprint,209,::,"'Programming Language :: Python',"
+library/pprint,209,::,"'Programming Language :: Python :: 2',"
+library/pprint,209,::,"'Programming Language :: Python :: 2.6',"
+library/pprint,209,::,"'Programming Language :: Python :: 2.7',"
+library/pprint,209,::,"'Topic :: Software Development :: Libraries',"
+library/pprint,209,::,"'Topic :: Software Development :: Libraries :: Python Modules'],"
+library/profile,,:lineno,filename:lineno(function)
 library/profile,,:lineno,ncalls  tottime  percall  cumtime  percall filename:lineno(function)
-library/profile,,:lineno,filename:lineno(function)
+library/profile,,:lineno,"(sort by filename:lineno),"
 library/pyexpat,,:elem1,<py:elem1 />
 library/pyexpat,,:py,"xmlns:py = ""http://www.python.org/ns/"">"
 library/repr,,`,"return `obj`"
 library/smtplib,,:port,"as well as a regular host:port server."
+library/smtplib,,:port,method must support that as well as a regular host:port
+library/socket,,::,"(10, 1, 6, '', ('2001:888:2000:d::a2', 80, 0, 0))]"
 library/socket,,::,'5aef:2b::8'
+library/socket,,:can,"return (can_id, can_dlc, data[:can_dlc])"
+library/socket,,:len,fds.fromstring(cmsg_data[:len(cmsg_data) - (len(cmsg_data) % fds.itemsize)])
+library/sqlite3,,:age,"cur.execute(""select * from people where name_last=:who and age=:age"", {""who"": who, ""age"": age})"
+library/sqlite3,,:age,"select name_last, age from people where name_last=:who and age=:age"
 library/sqlite3,,:memory,
-library/sqlite3,,:age,"select name_last, age from people where name_last=:who and age=:age"
-library/sqlite3,,:who,"select name_last, age from people where name_last=:who and age=:age"
+library/sqlite3,,:who,"cur.execute(""select * from people where name_last=:who and age=:age"", {""who"": who, ""age"": age})"
+library/ssl,,:My,"Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:My Group"
 library/ssl,,:My,"Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:My Organization, Inc."
-library/ssl,,:My,"Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:My Group"
 library/ssl,,:myserver,"Common Name (eg, YOUR name) []:myserver.mygroup.myorganization.com"
 library/ssl,,:MyState,State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:MyState
 library/ssl,,:ops,Email Address []:ops@myserver.mygroup.myorganization.com
 library/ssl,,:Some,"Locality Name (eg, city) []:Some City"
 library/ssl,,:US,Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:US
+library/stdtypes,,::,>>> a[::-1].tolist()
+library/stdtypes,,::,>>> a[::2].tolist()
+library/stdtypes,,:end,s[start:end]
+library/stdtypes,,::,>>> hash(v[::-2]) == hash(b'abcefg'[::-2])
 library/stdtypes,,:len,s[len(s):len(s)]
-library/stdtypes,,:len,s[len(s):len(s)]
+library/stdtypes,,::,>>> y = m[::2]
 library/string,,:end,s[start:end]
-library/string,,:end,s[start:end]
+library/subprocess,,`,"output=`dmesg | grep hda`"
 library/subprocess,,`,"output=`mycmd myarg`"
-library/subprocess,,`,"output=`dmesg | grep hda`"
+library/tarfile,,:bz2,
 library/tarfile,,:compression,filemode[:compression]
 library/tarfile,,:gz,
-library/tarfile,,:bz2,
+library/tarfile,,:xz,'a:xz'
+library/tarfile,,:xz,'r:xz'
+library/tarfile,,:xz,'w:xz'
 library/time,,:mm,
 library/time,,:ss,
 library/turtle,,::,Example::
+library/urllib2,,:password,"""joe:password@python.org"""
 library/urllib,,:port,:port
-library/urllib2,,:password,"""joe:password@python.org"""
+library/urllib.request,,:close,Connection:close
+library/urllib.request,,:lang,"xmlns=""http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"" xml:lang=""en"" lang=""en"">\n\n<head>\n"
+library/urllib.request,,:password,"""joe:password@python.org"""
 library/uuid,,:uuid,urn:uuid:12345678-1234-5678-1234-567812345678
-library/xmlrpclib,,:pass,http://user:pass@host:port/path
-library/xmlrpclib,,:pass,user:pass
-library/xmlrpclib,,:port,http://user:pass@host:port/path
+library/xmlrpc.client,,:pass,http://user:pass@host:port/path
+library/xmlrpc.client,,:pass,user:pass
+library/xmlrpc.client,,:port,http://user:pass@host:port/path
+license,,`,"``Software''), to deal in the Software without restriction, including"
+license,,`,"THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS'', WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,"
+license,,`,* THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY ERIC YOUNG ``AS IS'' AND
+license,,`,THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+license,,`,* THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE OpenSSL PROJECT ``AS IS'' AND ANY
 license,,`,THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE PROJECT AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
 license,,:zooko,mailto:zooko@zooko.com
-license,,`,THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+packaging/examples,,`,This is the description of the ``foobar`` project.
+packaging/setupcfg,,::,Development Status :: 3 - Alpha
+packaging/setupcfg,,::,License :: OSI Approved :: Mozilla Public License 1.1 (MPL 1.1)
+packaging/setupscript,,::,"'Development Status :: 4 - Beta',"
+packaging/setupscript,,::,"'Environment :: Console',"
+packaging/setupscript,,::,"'Environment :: Web Environment',"
+packaging/setupscript,,::,"'Intended Audience :: Developers',"
+packaging/setupscript,,::,"'Intended Audience :: End Users/Desktop',"
+packaging/setupscript,,::,"'Intended Audience :: System Administrators',"
+packaging/setupscript,,::,"'License :: OSI Approved :: Python Software Foundation License',"
+packaging/setupscript,,::,"'Operating System :: MacOS :: MacOS X',"
+packaging/setupscript,,::,"'Operating System :: Microsoft :: Windows',"
+packaging/setupscript,,::,"'Operating System :: POSIX',"
+packaging/setupscript,,::,"'Programming Language :: Python',"
+packaging/setupscript,,::,"'Topic :: Communications :: Email',"
+packaging/setupscript,,::,"'Topic :: Office/Business',"
+packaging/setupscript,,::,"'Topic :: Software Development :: Bug Tracking',"
+packaging/tutorial,,::,1) License :: OSI Approved :: GNU General Public License (GPL)
+packaging/tutorial,,::,2) License :: OSI Approved :: GNU Library or Lesser General Public License (LGPL)
+packaging/tutorial,,::,classifier = Development Status :: 3 - Alpha
+packaging/tutorial,,::,License :: OSI Approved :: GNU General Public License (GPL)
+packaging/tutorial,,::,Type the number of the license you wish to use or ? to try again:: 1
+reference/datamodel,,:max,
 reference/datamodel,,:step,a[i:j:step]
-reference/datamodel,,:max,
-reference/expressions,,:index,x[index:index]
 reference/expressions,,:datum,{key:datum...}
 reference/expressions,,`,`expressions...`
+reference/expressions,,:index,x[index:index]
 reference/grammar,,:output,#diagram:output
 reference/grammar,,:rules,#diagram:rules
+reference/grammar,,`,'`' testlist1 '`'
 reference/grammar,,:token,#diagram:token
-reference/grammar,,`,'`' testlist1 '`'
+reference/lexical_analysis,,`,",       :       .       `       =       ;"
+reference/lexical_analysis,,`,$       ?       `
 reference/lexical_analysis,,:fileencoding,# vim:fileencoding=<encoding-name>
-reference/lexical_analysis,,`,",       :       .       `       =       ;"
+tutorial/datastructures,,:value,It is also possible to delete a key:value
 tutorial/datastructures,,:value,key:value pairs within the braces adds initial key:value pairs
-tutorial/datastructures,,:value,It is also possible to delete a key:value
-tutorial/stdlib2,,:start,"fields = struct.unpack('<IIIHH', data[start:start+16])"
-tutorial/stdlib2,,:start,extra = data[start:start+extra_size]
-tutorial/stdlib2,,:start,filename = data[start:start+filenamesize]
 tutorial/stdlib2,,:config,"logging.warning('Warning:config file %s not found', 'server.conf')"
 tutorial/stdlib2,,:config,WARNING:root:Warning:config file server.conf not found
 tutorial/stdlib2,,:Critical,CRITICAL:root:Critical error -- shutting down
 tutorial/stdlib2,,:root,CRITICAL:root:Critical error -- shutting down
 tutorial/stdlib2,,:root,ERROR:root:Error occurred
 tutorial/stdlib2,,:root,WARNING:root:Warning:config file server.conf not found
+tutorial/stdlib2,,:start,extra = data[start:start+extra_size]
+tutorial/stdlib2,,:start,"fields = struct.unpack('<IIIHH', data[start:start+16])"
+tutorial/stdlib2,,:start,filename = data[start:start+filenamesize]
 tutorial/stdlib2,,:Warning,WARNING:root:Warning:config file server.conf not found
+using/cmdline,,:category,action:message:category:module:line
+using/cmdline,,:errorhandler,:errorhandler
+using/cmdline,,:line,action:message:category:module:line
 using/cmdline,,:line,file:line: category: message
-using/cmdline,,:category,action:message:category:module:line
-using/cmdline,,:line,action:message:category:module:line
 using/cmdline,,:message,action:message:category:module:line
 using/cmdline,,:module,action:message:category:module:line
-using/cmdline,,:errorhandler,:errorhandler
-using/windows,162,`,`` this fixes syntax highlighting errors in some editors due to the \\\\ hackery
-using/windows,170,`,``
 whatsnew/2.0,418,:len,
 whatsnew/2.3,,::,
 whatsnew/2.3,,:config,
 whatsnew/2.5,,:memory,:memory:
 whatsnew/2.5,,:step,[start:stop:step]
 whatsnew/2.5,,:stop,[start:stop:step]
-distutils/examples,267,`,This is the description of the ``foobar`` package.
-faq/programming,,:reduce,"print((lambda Ru,Ro,Iu,Io,IM,Sx,Sy:reduce(lambda x,y:x+y,map(lambda y,"
-faq/programming,,:reduce,"Sx=Sx,Sy=Sy:reduce(lambda x,y:x+y,map(lambda x,xc=Ru,yc=yc,Ru=Ru,Ro=Ro,"
-faq/programming,,:chr,">=4.0) or 1+f(xc,yc,x*x-y*y+xc,2.0*x*y+yc,k-1,f):f(xc,yc,x,y,k,f):chr("
-faq/programming,,::,for x in sequence[::-1]:
-faq/windows,229,:EOF,@setlocal enableextensions & python -x %~f0 %* & goto :EOF
-faq/windows,393,:REG,.py :REG_SZ: c:\<path to python>\python.exe -u %s %s
-library/bisect,32,:hi,all(val >= x for val in a[i:hi])
-library/bisect,42,:hi,all(val > x for val in a[i:hi])
-library/http.client,52,:port,host:port
-library/nntplib,,:bytes,:bytes
-library/nntplib,,:lines,:lines
-library/nntplib,,:lines,"['xref', 'from', ':lines', ':bytes', 'references', 'date', 'message-id', 'subject']"
-library/nntplib,,:bytes,"['xref', 'from', ':lines', ':bytes', 'references', 'date', 'message-id', 'subject']"
-library/pickle,,:memory,"conn = sqlite3.connect("":memory:"")"
-library/profile,,:lineno,"(sort by filename:lineno),"
-library/socket,,::,"(10, 1, 6, '', ('2001:888:2000:d::a2', 80, 0, 0))]"
-library/stdtypes,,:end,s[start:end]
-library/stdtypes,,:end,s[start:end]
-library/urllib.request,,:close,Connection:close
-library/urllib.request,,:password,"""joe:password@python.org"""
-library/urllib.request,,:lang,"xmlns=""http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"" xml:lang=""en"" lang=""en"">\n\n<head>\n"
-library/xmlrpc.client,103,:pass,http://user:pass@host:port/path
-library/xmlrpc.client,103,:port,http://user:pass@host:port/path
-library/xmlrpc.client,103,:pass,user:pass
-license,,`,* THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE OpenSSL PROJECT ``AS IS'' AND ANY
-license,,`,* THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY ERIC YOUNG ``AS IS'' AND
-license,,`,"``Software''), to deal in the Software without restriction, including"
-license,,`,"THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS'', WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,"
-reference/lexical_analysis,704,`,$       ?       `
+whatsnew/2.7,1619,::,"ParseResult(scheme='http', netloc='[1080::8:800:200C:417A]',"
+whatsnew/2.7,1619,::,>>> urlparse.urlparse('http://[1080::8:800:200C:417A]/foo')
 whatsnew/2.7,735,:Sunday,'2009:4:Sunday'
+whatsnew/2.7,862,:Cookie,"export PYTHONWARNINGS=all,error:::Cookie:0"
 whatsnew/2.7,862,::,"export PYTHONWARNINGS=all,error:::Cookie:0"
-whatsnew/2.7,862,:Cookie,"export PYTHONWARNINGS=all,error:::Cookie:0"
-whatsnew/2.7,1619,::,>>> urlparse.urlparse('http://[1080::8:800:200C:417A]/foo')
-whatsnew/2.7,1619,::,"ParseResult(scheme='http', netloc='[1080::8:800:200C:417A]',"
-library/configparser,,`,# Set the optional `raw` argument of get() to True if you wish to disable
-library/configparser,,`,# The optional `vars` argument is a dict with members that will take
-library/configparser,,`,# The optional `fallback` argument can be used to provide a fallback value
-library/configparser,,:option,${section:option}
-library/configparser,,:system,path: ${Common:system_dir}/Library/Frameworks/
-library/configparser,,:home,my_dir: ${Common:home_dir}/twosheds
-library/configparser,,:path,python_dir: ${Frameworks:path}/Python/Versions/${Frameworks:Python}
-library/configparser,,:Python,python_dir: ${Frameworks:path}/Python/Versions/${Frameworks:Python}
-library/pdb,,:lineno,[filename:lineno | bpnumber [bpnumber ...]]
-library/pdb,,:lineno,filename:lineno
-library/logging,,:Watch,WARNING:root:Watch out!
-library/logging,,:So,INFO:root:So should this
-library/logging,,:Started,INFO:root:Started
-library/logging,,:Doing,INFO:root:Doing something
-library/logging,,:Finished,INFO:root:Finished
-library/logging,,:Look,WARNING:root:Look before you leap!
-library/logging,,:So,INFO:So should this
-library/logging,,:logger,severity:logger name:message
-library/logging,,:message,severity:logger name:message
+whatsnew/3.2,,:affe,"netloc='[dead:beef:cafe:5417:affe:8FA3:deaf:feed]',"
+whatsnew/3.2,,:affe,>>> urllib.parse.urlparse('http://[dead:beef:cafe:5417:affe:8FA3:deaf:feed]/foo/')
+whatsnew/3.2,,:beef,"netloc='[dead:beef:cafe:5417:affe:8FA3:deaf:feed]',"
+whatsnew/3.2,,:beef,>>> urllib.parse.urlparse('http://[dead:beef:cafe:5417:affe:8FA3:deaf:feed]/foo/')
+whatsnew/3.2,,:cafe,"netloc='[dead:beef:cafe:5417:affe:8FA3:deaf:feed]',"
+whatsnew/3.2,,:cafe,>>> urllib.parse.urlparse('http://[dead:beef:cafe:5417:affe:8FA3:deaf:feed]/foo/')
+whatsnew/3.2,,:deaf,"netloc='[dead:beef:cafe:5417:affe:8FA3:deaf:feed]',"
+whatsnew/3.2,,:deaf,>>> urllib.parse.urlparse('http://[dead:beef:cafe:5417:affe:8FA3:deaf:feed]/foo/')
 whatsnew/3.2,,:directory,...   ${buildout:directory}/downloads/dist
+whatsnew/3.2,,:directory,${buildout:directory}/downloads/dist
+whatsnew/3.2,,::,"$ export PYTHONWARNINGS='ignore::RuntimeWarning::,once::UnicodeWarning::'"
+whatsnew/3.2,,:feed,"netloc='[dead:beef:cafe:5417:affe:8FA3:deaf:feed]',"
+whatsnew/3.2,,:feed,>>> urllib.parse.urlparse('http://[dead:beef:cafe:5417:affe:8FA3:deaf:feed]/foo/')
+whatsnew/3.2,,:gz,">>> with tarfile.open(name='myarchive.tar.gz', mode='w:gz') as tf:"
 whatsnew/3.2,,:location,... zope9-location = ${zope9:location}
+whatsnew/3.2,,:location,zope9-location = ${zope9:location}
 whatsnew/3.2,,:prefix,... zope-conf = ${custom:prefix}/etc/zope.conf
-howto/logging,,:root,WARNING:root:Watch out!
-howto/logging,,:Watch,WARNING:root:Watch out!
-howto/logging,,:root,DEBUG:root:This message should go to the log file
-howto/logging,,:This,DEBUG:root:This message should go to the log file
-howto/logging,,:root,INFO:root:So should this
-howto/logging,,:So,INFO:root:So should this
-howto/logging,,:root,"WARNING:root:And this, too"
-howto/logging,,:And,"WARNING:root:And this, too"
-howto/logging,,:root,INFO:root:Started
-howto/logging,,:Started,INFO:root:Started
-howto/logging,,:root,INFO:root:Doing something
-howto/logging,,:Doing,INFO:root:Doing something
-howto/logging,,:root,INFO:root:Finished
-howto/logging,,:Finished,INFO:root:Finished
-howto/logging,,:root,WARNING:root:Look before you leap!
-howto/logging,,:Look,WARNING:root:Look before you leap!
-howto/logging,,:This,DEBUG:This message should appear on the console
-howto/logging,,:So,INFO:So should this
-howto/logging,,:And,"WARNING:And this, too"
-howto/logging,,:logger,severity:logger name:message
-howto/logging,,:message,severity:logger name:message
-library/logging.handlers,,:port,host:port
-library/imaplib,116,:MM,"""DD-Mmm-YYYY HH:MM:SS"
-library/imaplib,116,:SS,"""DD-Mmm-YYYY HH:MM:SS"
-whatsnew/3.2,,::,"$ export PYTHONWARNINGS='ignore::RuntimeWarning::,once::UnicodeWarning::'"
-howto/pyporting,75,::,# make sure to use :: Python *and* :: Python :: 3 so
-howto/pyporting,75,::,"'Programming Language :: Python',"
-howto/pyporting,75,::,'Programming Language :: Python :: 3'
-whatsnew/3.2,,:gz,">>> with tarfile.open(name='myarchive.tar.gz', mode='w:gz') as tf:"
-whatsnew/3.2,,:directory,${buildout:directory}/downloads/dist
-whatsnew/3.2,,:location,zope9-location = ${zope9:location}
 whatsnew/3.2,,:prefix,zope-conf = ${custom:prefix}/etc/zope.conf
-whatsnew/3.2,,:beef,>>> urllib.parse.urlparse('http://[dead:beef:cafe:5417:affe:8FA3:deaf:feed]/foo/')
-whatsnew/3.2,,:cafe,>>> urllib.parse.urlparse('http://[dead:beef:cafe:5417:affe:8FA3:deaf:feed]/foo/')
-whatsnew/3.2,,:affe,>>> urllib.parse.urlparse('http://[dead:beef:cafe:5417:affe:8FA3:deaf:feed]/foo/')
-whatsnew/3.2,,:deaf,>>> urllib.parse.urlparse('http://[dead:beef:cafe:5417:affe:8FA3:deaf:feed]/foo/')
-whatsnew/3.2,,:feed,>>> urllib.parse.urlparse('http://[dead:beef:cafe:5417:affe:8FA3:deaf:feed]/foo/')
-whatsnew/3.2,,:beef,"netloc='[dead:beef:cafe:5417:affe:8FA3:deaf:feed]',"
-whatsnew/3.2,,:cafe,"netloc='[dead:beef:cafe:5417:affe:8FA3:deaf:feed]',"
-whatsnew/3.2,,:affe,"netloc='[dead:beef:cafe:5417:affe:8FA3:deaf:feed]',"
-whatsnew/3.2,,:deaf,"netloc='[dead:beef:cafe:5417:affe:8FA3:deaf:feed]',"
-whatsnew/3.2,,:feed,"netloc='[dead:beef:cafe:5417:affe:8FA3:deaf:feed]',"
-library/pprint,209,::,"'classifiers': ['Development Status :: 4 - Beta',"
-library/pprint,209,::,"'Intended Audience :: Developers',"
-library/pprint,209,::,"'License :: OSI Approved :: MIT License',"
-library/pprint,209,::,"'Natural Language :: English',"
-library/pprint,209,::,"'Operating System :: OS Independent',"
-library/pprint,209,::,"'Programming Language :: Python',"
-library/pprint,209,::,"'Programming Language :: Python :: 2',"
-library/pprint,209,::,"'Programming Language :: Python :: 2.6',"
-library/pprint,209,::,"'Programming Language :: Python :: 2.7',"
-library/pprint,209,::,"'Topic :: Software Development :: Libraries',"
-library/pprint,209,::,"'Topic :: Software Development :: Libraries :: Python Modules'],"
-packaging/examples,,`,This is the description of the ``foobar`` project.
-packaging/setupcfg,,::,Development Status :: 3 - Alpha
-packaging/setupcfg,,::,License :: OSI Approved :: Mozilla Public License 1.1 (MPL 1.1)
-packaging/setupscript,,::,"'Development Status :: 4 - Beta',"
-packaging/setupscript,,::,"'Environment :: Console',"
-packaging/setupscript,,::,"'Environment :: Web Environment',"
-packaging/setupscript,,::,"'Intended Audience :: End Users/Desktop',"
-packaging/setupscript,,::,"'Intended Audience :: Developers',"
-packaging/setupscript,,::,"'Intended Audience :: System Administrators',"
-packaging/setupscript,,::,"'License :: OSI Approved :: Python Software Foundation License',"
-packaging/setupscript,,::,"'Operating System :: MacOS :: MacOS X',"
-packaging/setupscript,,::,"'Operating System :: Microsoft :: Windows',"
-packaging/setupscript,,::,"'Operating System :: POSIX',"
-packaging/setupscript,,::,"'Programming Language :: Python',"
-packaging/setupscript,,::,"'Topic :: Communications :: Email',"
-packaging/setupscript,,::,"'Topic :: Office/Business',"
-packaging/setupscript,,::,"'Topic :: Software Development :: Bug Tracking',"
-packaging/tutorial,,::,1) License :: OSI Approved :: GNU General Public License (GPL)
-packaging/tutorial,,::,2) License :: OSI Approved :: GNU Library or Lesser General Public License (LGPL)
-packaging/tutorial,,::,Type the number of the license you wish to use or ? to try again:: 1
-packaging/tutorial,,::,classifier = Development Status :: 3 - Alpha
-packaging/tutorial,,::,License :: OSI Approved :: GNU General Public License (GPL)

Doc/whatsnew/3.3.rst

   now returns an integer (in accordance with the struct module syntax).
   For returning a bytes object the view must be cast to 'c' first.
 
+* For further changes see `Build and C API Changes`_ and `Porting C code`_ .
 
 .. _pep-393:
 
 
 Changes to Python's build process and to the C API include:
 
+* New :pep:`3118` related function:
+
+  * :c:func:`PyMemoryView_FromMemory`
+
 * The :pep:`393` added new Unicode types, macros and functions:
 
   * High-level API:
 Porting C code
 --------------
 
+* In the course of changes to the buffer API the undocumented
+  :c:member:`~Py_buffer.smalltable` member of the
+  :c:type:`Py_buffer` structure has been removed and the
+  layout of the :c:type:`PyMemoryViewObject` has changed.
+
+  All extensions relying on the relevant parts in ``memoryobject.h``
+  or ``object.h`` must be rebuilt.
+
 * Due to :ref:`PEP 393 <pep-393>`, the :c:type:`Py_UNICODE` type and all
   functions using this type are deprecated (but will stay available for
   at least five years).  If you were using low-level Unicode APIs to

Include/fileutils.h

 extern "C" {
 #endif
 
+PyAPI_FUNC(PyObject *) _Py_device_encoding(int);
+
 PyAPI_FUNC(wchar_t *) _Py_char2wchar(
     const char *arg,
     size_t *size);

Include/patchlevel.h

 #define PY_MINOR_VERSION	3
 #define PY_MICRO_VERSION	0
 #define PY_RELEASE_LEVEL	PY_RELEASE_LEVEL_ALPHA
-#define PY_RELEASE_SERIAL	0
+#define PY_RELEASE_SERIAL	1
 
 /* Version as a string */
-#define PY_VERSION      	"3.3.0a0"
+#define PY_VERSION      	"3.3.0a1"
 /*--end constants--*/
 
 /* Version as a single 4-byte hex number, e.g. 0x010502B2 == 1.5.2b2.
 #define Py_PYTIME_H
 
 #include "pyconfig.h" /* include for defines */
+#include "object.h"
 
 /**************************************************************************
 Symbols and macros to supply platform-independent interfaces to time related
     ((tv_end.tv_sec - tv_start.tv_sec) + \
      (tv_end.tv_usec - tv_start.tv_usec) * 0.000001)
 
+#ifndef Py_LIMITED_API
+/* Convert a number of seconds, int or float, to a timespec structure.
+   nsec is always in the range [0; 999999999]. For example, -1.2 is converted
+   to (-2, 800000000). */
+PyAPI_FUNC(int) _PyTime_ObjectToTimespec(
+    PyObject *obj,
+    time_t *sec,
+    long *nsec);
+#endif
+
 /* Dummy to force linking. */
 PyAPI_FUNC(void) _PyTime_Init(void);
 

Include/unicodeobject.h

     do { \
         switch ((kind)) { \
         case PyUnicode_1BYTE_KIND: { \
-            assert(value <= 0xff); \
             ((Py_UCS1 *)(data))[(index)] = (Py_UCS1)(value); \
             break; \
         } \
         case PyUnicode_2BYTE_KIND: { \
-            assert(value <= 0xffff); \
             ((Py_UCS2 *)(data))[(index)] = (Py_UCS2)(value); \
             break; \
         } \
         default: { \
-            assert(value <= 0x10ffff); \
             assert((kind) == PyUnicode_4BYTE_KIND); \
             ((Py_UCS4 *)(data))[(index)] = (Py_UCS4)(value); \
         } \
     3.2             3.1         2011        PSF         yes
     3.2.1           3.2         2011        PSF         yes
     3.2.2           3.2.1       2011        PSF         yes
-    3.3             3.2         2012        PSF         yes
+    3.3.0           3.2         2012        PSF         yes
 
 Footnotes:
 

Lib/_weakrefset.py

                     yield item
 
     def __len__(self):
-        return sum(x() is not None for x in self.data)
+        return len(self.data) - len(self._pending_removals)
 
     def __contains__(self, item):
         try:
     def update(self, other):
         if self._pending_removals:
             self._commit_removals()
-        if isinstance(other, self.__class__):
-            self.data.update(other.data)
-        else:
-            for element in other:
-                self.add(element)
+        for element in other:
+            self.add(element)
 
     def __ior__(self, other):
         self.update(other)
         return self
 
-    # Helper functions for simple delegating methods.
-    def _apply(self, other, method):
-        if not isinstance(other, self.__class__):
-            other = self.__class__(other)
-        newdata = method(other.data)
-        newset = self.__class__()
-        newset.data = newdata
+    def difference(self, other):
+        newset = self.copy()
+        newset.difference_update(other)
         return newset
-
-    def difference(self, other):
-        return self._apply(other, self.data.difference)
     __sub__ = difference
 
     def difference_update(self, other):
-        if self._pending_removals:
-            self._commit_removals()
-        if self is other:
-            self.data.clear()
-        else:
-            self.data.difference_update(ref(item) for item in other)
+        self.__isub__(other)
     def __isub__(self, other):
         if self._pending_removals:
             self._commit_removals()
         return self
 
     def intersection(self, other):
-        return self._apply(other, self.data.intersection)
+        return self.__class__(item for item in other if item in self)
     __and__ = intersection
 
     def intersection_update(self, other):
-        if self._pending_removals:
-            self._commit_removals()
-        self.data.intersection_update(ref(item) for item in other)
+        self.__iand__(other)
     def __iand__(self, other):
         if self._pending_removals:
             self._commit_removals()
         return self.data == set(ref(item) for item in other)
 
     def symmetric_difference(self, other):
-        return self._apply(other, self.data.symmetric_difference)
+        newset = self.copy()
+        newset.symmetric_difference_update(other)
+        return newset
     __xor__ = symmetric_difference
 
     def symmetric_difference_update(self, other):
-        if self._pending_removals:
-            self._commit_removals()
-        if self is other:
-            self.data.clear()
-        else:
-            self.data.symmetric_difference_update(ref(item) for item in other)
+        self.__ixor__(other)
     def __ixor__(self, other):
         if self._pending_removals:
             self._commit_removals()
         if self is other:
             self.data.clear()
         else:
-            self.data.symmetric_difference_update(ref(item) for item in other)
+            self.data.symmetric_difference_update(ref(item, self._remove) for item in other)
         return self
 
     def union(self, other):
-        return self._apply(other, self.data.union)
+        return self.__class__(e for s in (self, other) for e in s)
     __or__ = union
 
     def isdisjoint(self, other):

Lib/distutils/__init__.py

 # Updated automatically by the Python release process.
 #
 #--start constants--
-__version__ = "3.3a0"
+__version__ = "3.3.0a1"
 #--end constants--

Lib/idlelib/idlever.py

-IDLE_VERSION = "3.3a0"
+IDLE_VERSION = "3.3.0a1"
             f(self, obj) # Call unbound method with explicit self
             return
 
-        # Check copyreg.dispatch_table
-        reduce = dispatch_table.get(t)
+        # Check private dispatch table if any, or else copyreg.dispatch_table
+        reduce = getattr(self, 'dispatch_table', dispatch_table).get(t)
         if reduce:
             rv = reduce(obj)
         else:

Lib/pydoc_data/topics.py

-# Autogenerated by Sphinx on Thu Apr 28 07:53:12 2011
+# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
+# Autogenerated by Sphinx on Sun Mar  4 16:11:27 2012
 topics = {'assert': '\nThe ``assert`` statement\n************************\n\nAssert statements are a convenient way to insert debugging assertions\ninto a program:\n\n   assert_stmt ::= "assert" expression ["," expression]\n\nThe simple form, ``assert expression``, is equivalent to\n\n   if __debug__:\n      if not expression: raise AssertionError\n\nThe extended form, ``assert expression1, expression2``, is equivalent\nto\n\n   if __debug__:\n      if not expression1: raise AssertionError(expression2)\n\nThese equivalences assume that ``__debug__`` and ``AssertionError``\nrefer to the built-in variables with those names.  In the current\nimplementation, the built-in variable ``__debug__`` is ``True`` under\nnormal circumstances, ``False`` when optimization is requested\n(command line option -O).  The current code generator emits no code\nfor an assert statement when optimization is requested at compile\ntime.  Note that it is unnecessary to include the source code for the\nexpression that failed in the error message; it will be displayed as\npart of the stack trace.\n\nAssignments to ``__debug__`` are illegal.  The value for the built-in\nvariable is determined when the interpreter starts.\n',
  'assignment': '\nAssignment statements\n*********************\n\nAssignment statements are used to (re)bind names to values and to\nmodify attributes or items of mutable objects:\n\n   assignment_stmt ::= (target_list "=")+ (expression_list | yield_expression)\n   target_list     ::= target ("," target)* [","]\n   target          ::= identifier\n              | "(" target_list ")"\n              | "[" target_list "]"\n              | attributeref\n              | subscription\n              | slicing\n              | "*" target\n\n(See section *Primaries* for the syntax definitions for the last three\nsymbols.)\n\nAn assignment statement evaluates the expression list (remember that\nthis can be a single expression or a comma-separated list, the latter\nyielding a tuple) and assigns the single resulting object to each of\nthe target lists, from left to right.\n\nAssignment is defined recursively depending on the form of the target\n(list). When a target is part of a mutable object (an attribute\nreference, subscription or slicing), the mutable object must\nultimately perform the assignment and decide about its validity, and\nmay raise an exception if the assignment is unacceptable.  The rules\nobserved by various types and the exceptions raised are given with the\ndefinition of the object types (see section *The standard type\nhierarchy*).\n\nAssignment of an object to a target list, optionally enclosed in\nparentheses or square brackets, is recursively defined as follows.\n\n* If the target list is a single target: The object is assigned to\n  that target.\n\n* If the target list is a comma-separated list of targets: The object\n  must be an iterable with the same number of items as there are\n  targets in the target list, and the items are assigned, from left to\n  right, to the corresponding targets.\n\n  * If the target list contains one target prefixed with an asterisk,\n    called a "starred" target: The object must be a sequence with at\n    least as many items as there are targets in the target list, minus\n    one.  The first items of the sequence are assigned, from left to\n    right, to the targets before the starred target.  The final items\n    of the sequence are assigned to the targets after the starred\n    target.  A list of the remaining items in the sequence is then\n    assigned to the starred target (the list can be empty).\n\n  * Else: The object must be a sequence with the same number of items\n    as there are targets in the target list, and the items are\n    assigned, from left to right, to the corresponding targets.\n\nAssignment of an object to a single target is recursively defined as\nfollows.\n\n* If the target is an identifier (name):\n\n  * If the name does not occur in a ``global`` or ``nonlocal``\n    statement in the current code block: the name is bound to the\n    object in the current local namespace.\n\n  * Otherwise: the name is bound to the object in the global namespace\n    or the outer namespace determined by ``nonlocal``, respectively.\n\n  The name is rebound if it was already bound.  This may cause the\n  reference count for the object previously bound to the name to reach\n  zero, causing the object to be deallocated and its destructor (if it\n  has one) to be called.\n\n* If the target is a target list enclosed in parentheses or in square\n  brackets: The object must be an iterable with the same number of\n  items as there are targets in the target list, and its items are\n  assigned, from left to right, to the corresponding targets.\n\n* If the target is an attribute reference: The primary expression in\n  the reference is evaluated.  It should yield an object with\n  assignable attributes; if this is not the case, ``TypeError`` is\n  raised.  That object is then asked to assign the assigned object to\n  the given attribute; if it cannot perform the assignment, it raises\n  an exception (usually but not necessarily ``AttributeError``).\n\n  Note: If the object is a class instance and the attribute reference\n  occurs on both sides of the assignment operator, the RHS expression,\n  ``a.x`` can access either an instance attribute or (if no instance\n  attribute exists) a class attribute.  The LHS target ``a.x`` is\n  always set as an instance attribute, creating it if necessary.\n  Thus, the two occurrences of ``a.x`` do not necessarily refer to the\n  same attribute: if the RHS expression refers to a class attribute,\n  the LHS creates a new instance attribute as the target of the\n  assignment:\n\n     class Cls:\n         x = 3             # class variable\n     inst = Cls()\n     inst.x = inst.x + 1   # writes inst.x as 4 leaving Cls.x as 3\n\n  This description does not necessarily apply to descriptor\n  attributes, such as properties created with ``property()``.\n\n* If the target is a subscription: The primary expression in the\n  reference is evaluated.  It should yield either a mutable sequence\n  object (such as a list) or a mapping object (such as a dictionary).\n  Next, the subscript expression is evaluated.\n\n  If the primary is a mutable sequence object (such as a list), the\n  subscript must yield an integer.  If it is negative, the sequence\'s\n  length is added to it.  The resulting value must be a nonnegative\n  integer less than the sequence\'s length, and the sequence is asked\n  to assign the assigned object to its item with that index.  If the\n  index is out of range, ``IndexError`` is raised (assignment to a\n  subscripted sequence cannot add new items to a list).\n\n  If the primary is a mapping object (such as a dictionary), the\n  subscript must have a type compatible with the mapping\'s key type,\n  and the mapping is then asked to create a key/datum pair which maps\n  the subscript to the assigned object.  This can either replace an\n  existing key/value pair with the same key value, or insert a new\n  key/value pair (if no key with the same value existed).\n\n  For user-defined objects, the ``__setitem__()`` method is called\n  with appropriate arguments.\n\n* If the target is a slicing: The primary expression in the reference\n  is evaluated.  It should yield a mutable sequence object (such as a\n  list).  The assigned object should be a sequence object of the same\n  type.  Next, the lower and upper bound expressions are evaluated,\n  insofar they are present; defaults are zero and the sequence\'s\n  length.  The bounds should evaluate to integers. If either bound is\n  negative, the sequence\'s length is added to it.  The resulting\n  bounds are clipped to lie between zero and the sequence\'s length,\n  inclusive.  Finally, the sequence object is asked to replace the\n  slice with the items of the assigned sequence.  The length of the\n  slice may be different from the length of the assigned sequence,\n  thus changing the length of the target sequence, if the object\n  allows it.\n\n**CPython implementation detail:** In the current implementation, the\nsyntax for targets is taken to be the same as for expressions, and\ninvalid syntax is rejected during the code generation phase, causing\nless detailed error messages.\n\nWARNING: Although the definition of assignment implies that overlaps\nbetween the left-hand side and the right-hand side are \'safe\' (for\nexample ``a, b = b, a`` swaps two variables), overlaps *within* the\ncollection of assigned-to variables are not safe!  For instance, the\nfollowing program prints ``[0, 2]``:\n\n   x = [0, 1]\n   i = 0\n   i, x[i] = 1, 2\n   print(x)\n\nSee also:\n\n   **PEP 3132** - Extended Iterable Unpacking\n      The specification for the ``*target`` feature.\n\n\nAugmented assignment statements\n===============================\n\nAugmented assignment is the combination, in a single statement, of a\nbinary operation and an assignment statement:\n\n   augmented_assignment_stmt ::= augtarget augop (expression_list | yield_expression)\n   augtarget                 ::= identifier | attributeref | subscription | slicing\n   augop                     ::= "+=" | "-=" | "*=" | "/=" | "//=" | "%=" | "**="\n             | ">>=" | "<<=" | "&=" | "^=" | "|="\n\n(See section *Primaries* for the syntax definitions for the last three\nsymbols.)\n\nAn augmented assignment evaluates the target (which, unlike normal\nassignment statements, cannot be an unpacking) and the expression\nlist, performs the binary operation specific to the type of assignment\non the two operands, and assigns the result to the original target.\nThe target is only evaluated once.\n\nAn augmented assignment expression like ``x += 1`` can be rewritten as\n``x = x + 1`` to achieve a similar, but not exactly equal effect. In\nthe augmented version, ``x`` is only evaluated once. Also, when\npossible, the actual operation is performed *in-place*, meaning that\nrather than creating a new object and assigning that to the target,\nthe old object is modified instead.\n\nWith the exception of assigning to tuples and multiple targets in a\nsingle statement, the assignment done by augmented assignment\nstatements is handled the same way as normal assignments. Similarly,\nwith the exception of the possible *in-place* behavior, the binary\noperation performed by augmented assignment is the same as the normal\nbinary operations.\n\nFor targets which are attribute references, the same *caveat about\nclass and instance attributes* applies as for regular assignments.\n',
  'atom-identifiers': '\nIdentifiers (Names)\n*******************\n\nAn identifier occurring as an atom is a name.  See section\n*Identifiers and keywords* for lexical definition and section *Naming\nand binding* for documentation of naming and binding.\n\nWhen the name is bound to an object, evaluation of the atom yields\nthat object. When a name is not bound, an attempt to evaluate it\nraises a ``NameError`` exception.\n\n**Private name mangling:** When an identifier that textually occurs in\na class definition begins with two or more underscore characters and\ndoes not end in two or more underscores, it is considered a *private\nname* of that class. Private names are transformed to a longer form\nbefore code is generated for them.  The transformation inserts the\nclass name in front of the name, with leading underscores removed, and\na single underscore inserted in front of the class name.  For example,\nthe identifier ``__spam`` occurring in a class named ``Ham`` will be\ntransformed to ``_Ham__spam``.  This transformation is independent of\nthe syntactical context in which the identifier is used.  If the\ntransformed name is extremely long (longer than 255 characters),\nimplementation defined truncation may happen.  If the class name\nconsists only of underscores, no transformation is done.\n',
- 'atom-literals': "\nLiterals\n********\n\nPython supports string and bytes literals and various numeric\nliterals:\n\n   literal ::= stringliteral | bytesliteral\n               | integer | floatnumber | imagnumber\n\nEvaluation of a literal yields an object of the given type (string,\nbytes, integer, floating point number, complex number) with the given\nvalue.  The value may be approximated in the case of floating point\nand imaginary (complex) literals.  See section *Literals* for details.\n\nWith the exception of bytes literals, these all correspond to\nimmutable data types, and hence the object's identity is less\nimportant than its value. Multiple evaluations of literals with the\nsame value (either the same occurrence in the program text or a\ndifferent occurrence) may obtain the same object or a different object\nwith the same value.\n",
- 'attribute-access': '\nCustomizing attribute access\n****************************\n\nThe following methods can be defined to customize the meaning of\nattribute access (use of, assignment to, or deletion of ``x.name``)\nfor class instances.\n\nobject.__getattr__(self, name)\n\n   Called when an attribute lookup has not found the attribute in the\n   usual places (i.e. it is not an instance attribute nor is it found\n   in the class tree for ``self``).  ``name`` is the attribute name.\n   This method should return the (computed) attribute value or raise\n   an ``AttributeError`` exception.\n\n   Note that if the attribute is found through the normal mechanism,\n   ``__getattr__()`` is not called.  (This is an intentional asymmetry\n   between ``__getattr__()`` and ``__setattr__()``.) This is done both\n   for efficiency reasons and because otherwise ``__getattr__()``\n   would have no way to access other attributes of the instance.  Note\n   that at least for instance variables, you can fake total control by\n   not inserting any values in the instance attribute dictionary (but\n   instead inserting them in another object).  See the\n   ``__getattribute__()`` method below for a way to actually get total\n   control over attribute access.\n\nobject.__getattribute__(self, name)\n\n   Called unconditionally to implement attribute accesses for\n   instances of the class. If the class also defines\n   ``__getattr__()``, the latter will not be called unless\n   ``__getattribute__()`` either calls it explicitly or raises an\n   ``AttributeError``. This method should return the (computed)\n   attribute value or raise an ``AttributeError`` exception. In order\n   to avoid infinite recursion in this method, its implementation\n   should always call the base class method with the same name to\n   access any attributes it needs, for example,\n   ``object.__getattribute__(self, name)``.\n\n   Note: This method may still be bypassed when looking up special methods\n     as the result of implicit invocation via language syntax or\n     built-in functions. See *Special method lookup*.\n\nobject.__setattr__(self, name, value)\n\n   Called when an attribute assignment is attempted.  This is called\n   instead of the normal mechanism (i.e. store the value in the\n   instance dictionary). *name* is the attribute name, *value* is the\n   value to be assigned to it.\n\n   If ``__setattr__()`` wants to assign to an instance attribute, it\n   should call the base class method with the same name, for example,\n   ``object.__setattr__(self, name, value)``.\n\nobject.__delattr__(self, name)\n\n   Like ``__setattr__()`` but for attribute deletion instead of\n   assignment.  This should only be implemented if ``del obj.name`` is\n   meaningful for the object.\n\nobject.__dir__(self)\n\n   Called when ``dir()`` is called on the object.  A list must be\n   returned.\n\n\nImplementing Descriptors\n========================\n\nThe following methods only apply when an instance of the class\ncontaining the method (a so-called *descriptor* class) appears in an\n*owner* class (the descriptor must be in either the owner\'s class\ndictionary or in the class dictionary for one of its parents).  In the\nexamples below, "the attribute" refers to the attribute whose name is\nthe key of the property in the owner class\' ``__dict__``.\n\nobject.__get__(self, instance, owner)\n\n   Called to get the attribute of the owner class (class attribute\n   access) or of an instance of that class (instance attribute\n   access). *owner* is always the owner class, while *instance* is the\n   instance that the attribute was accessed through, or ``None`` when\n   the attribute is accessed through the *owner*.  This method should\n   return the (computed) attribute value or raise an\n   ``AttributeError`` exception.\n\nobject.__set__(self, instance, value)\n\n   Called to set the attribute on an instance *instance* of the owner\n   class to a new value, *value*.\n\nobject.__delete__(self, instance)\n\n   Called to delete the attribute on an instance *instance* of the\n   owner class.\n\n\nInvoking Descriptors\n====================\n\nIn general, a descriptor is an object attribute with "binding\nbehavior", one whose attribute access has been overridden by methods\nin the descriptor protocol:  ``__get__()``, ``__set__()``, and\n``__delete__()``. If any of those methods are defined for an object,\nit is said to be a descriptor.\n\nThe default behavior for attribute access is to get, set, or delete\nthe attribute from an object\'s dictionary. For instance, ``a.x`` has a\nlookup chain starting with ``a.__dict__[\'x\']``, then\n``type(a).__dict__[\'x\']``, and continuing through the base classes of\n``type(a)`` excluding metaclasses.\n\nHowever, if the looked-up value is an object defining one of the\ndescriptor methods, then Python may override the default behavior and\ninvoke the descriptor method instead.  Where this occurs in the\nprecedence chain depends on which descriptor methods were defined and\nhow they were called.\n\nThe starting point for descriptor invocation is a binding, ``a.x``.\nHow the arguments are assembled depends on ``a``:\n\nDirect Call\n   The simplest and least common call is when user code directly\n   invokes a descriptor method:    ``x.__get__(a)``.\n\nInstance Binding\n   If binding to an object instance, ``a.x`` is transformed into the\n   call: ``type(a).__dict__[\'x\'].__get__(a, type(a))``.\n\nClass Binding\n   If binding to a class, ``A.x`` is transformed into the call:\n   ``A.__dict__[\'x\'].__get__(None, A)``.\n\nSuper Binding\n   If ``a`` is an instance of ``super``, then the binding ``super(B,\n   obj).m()`` searches ``obj.__class__.__mro__`` for the base class\n   ``A`` immediately preceding ``B`` and then invokes the descriptor\n   with the call: ``A.__dict__[\'m\'].__get__(obj, obj.__class__)``.\n\nFor instance bindings, the precedence of descriptor invocation depends\non the which descriptor methods are defined.  A descriptor can define\nany combination of ``__get__()``, ``__set__()`` and ``__delete__()``.\nIf it does not define ``__get__()``, then accessing the attribute will\nreturn the descriptor object itself unless there is a value in the\nobject\'s instance dictionary.  If the descriptor defines ``__set__()``\nand/or ``__delete__()``, it is a data descriptor; if it defines\nneither, it is a non-data descriptor.  Normally, data descriptors\ndefine both ``__get__()`` and ``__set__()``, while non-data\ndescriptors have just the ``__get__()`` method.  Data descriptors with\n``__set__()`` and ``__get__()`` defined always override a redefinition\nin an instance dictionary.  In contrast, non-data descriptors can be\noverridden by instances.\n\nPython methods (including ``staticmethod()`` and ``classmethod()``)\nare implemented as non-data descriptors.  Accordingly, instances can\nredefine and override methods.  This allows individual instances to\nacquire behaviors that differ from other instances of the same class.\n\nThe ``property()`` function is implemented as a data descriptor.\nAccordingly, instances cannot override the behavior of a property.\n\n\n__slots__\n=========\n\nBy default, instances of classes have a dictionary for attribute\nstorage.  This wastes space for objects having very few instance\nvariables.  The space consumption can become acute when creating large\nnumbers of instances.\n\nThe default can be overridden by defining *__slots__* in a class\ndefinition. The *__slots__* declaration takes a sequence of instance\nvariables and reserves just enough space in each instance to hold a\nvalue for each variable.  Space is saved because *__dict__* is not\ncreated for each instance.\n\nobject.__slots__\n\n   This class variable can be assigned a string, iterable, or sequence\n   of strings with variable names used by instances.  If defined in a\n   class, *__slots__* reserves space for the declared variables and\n   prevents the automatic creation of *__dict__* and *__weakref__* for\n   each instance.\n\n\nNotes on using *__slots__*\n--------------------------\n\n* When inheriting from a class without *__slots__*, the *__dict__*\n  attribute of that class will always be accessible, so a *__slots__*\n  definition in the subclass is meaningless.\n\n* Without a *__dict__* variable, instances cannot be assigned new\n  variables not listed in the *__slots__* definition.  Attempts to\n  assign to an unlisted variable name raises ``AttributeError``. If\n  dynamic assignment of new variables is desired, then add\n  ``\'__dict__\'`` to the sequence of strings in the *__slots__*\n  declaration.\n\n* Without a *__weakref__* variable for each instance, classes defining\n  *__slots__* do not support weak references to its instances. If weak\n  reference support is needed, then add ``\'__weakref__\'`` to the\n  sequence of strings in the *__slots__* declaration.\n\n* *__slots__* are implemented at the class level by creating\n  descriptors (*Implementing Descriptors*) for each variable name.  As\n  a result, class attributes cannot be used to set default values for\n  instance variables defined by *__slots__*; otherwise, the class\n  attribute would overwrite the descriptor assignment.\n\n* The action of a *__slots__* declaration is limited to the class\n  where it is defined.  As a result, subclasses will have a *__dict__*\n  unless they also define *__slots__* (which must only contain names\n  of any *additional* slots).\n\n* If a class defines a slot also defined in a base class, the instance\n  variable defined by the base class slot is inaccessible (except by\n  retrieving its descriptor directly from the base class). This\n  renders the meaning of the program undefined.  In the future, a\n  check may be added to prevent this.\n\n* Nonempty *__slots__* does not work for classes derived from\n  "variable-length" built-in types such as ``int``, ``str`` and\n  ``tuple``.\n\n* Any non-string iterable may be assigned to *__slots__*. Mappings may\n  also be used; however, in the future, special meaning may be\n  assigned to the values corresponding to each key.\n\n* *__class__* assignment works only if both classes have the same\n  *__slots__*.\n',
+ 'atom-literals': "\nLiterals\n********\n\nPython supports string and bytes literals and various numeric\nliterals:\n\n   literal ::= stringliteral | bytesliteral\n               | integer | floatnumber | imagnumber\n\nEvaluation of a literal yields an object of the given type (string,\nbytes, integer, floating point number, complex number) with the given\nvalue.  The value may be approximated in the case of floating point\nand imaginary (complex) literals.  See section *Literals* for details.\n\nAll literals correspond to immutable data types, and hence the\nobject's identity is less important than its value.  Multiple\nevaluations of literals with the same value (either the same\noccurrence in the program text or a different occurrence) may obtain\nthe same object or a different object with the same value.\n",
+ 'attribute-access': '\nCustomizing attribute access\n****************************\n\nThe following methods can be defined to customize the meaning of\nattribute access (use of, assignment to, or deletion of ``x.name``)\nfor class instances.\n\nobject.__getattr__(self, name)\n\n   Called when an attribute lookup has not found the attribute in the\n   usual places (i.e. it is not an instance attribute nor is it found\n   in the class tree for ``self``).  ``name`` is the attribute name.\n   This method should return the (computed) attribute value or raise\n   an ``AttributeError`` exception.\n\n   Note that if the attribute is found through the normal mechanism,\n   ``__getattr__()`` is not called.  (This is an intentional asymmetry\n   between ``__getattr__()`` and ``__setattr__()``.) This is done both\n   for efficiency reasons and because otherwise ``__getattr__()``\n   would have no way to access other attributes of the instance.  Note\n   that at least for instance variables, you can fake total control by\n   not inserting any values in the instance attribute dictionary (but\n   instead inserting them in another object).  See the\n   ``__getattribute__()`` method below for a way to actually get total\n   control over attribute access.\n\nobject.__getattribute__(self, name)\n\n   Called unconditionally to implement attribute accesses for\n   instances of the class. If the class also defines\n   ``__getattr__()``, the latter will not be called unless\n   ``__getattribute__()`` either calls it explicitly or raises an\n   ``AttributeError``. This method should return the (computed)\n   attribute value or raise an ``AttributeError`` exception. In order\n   to avoid infinite recursion in this method, its implementation\n   should always call the base class method with the same name to\n   access any attributes it needs, for example,\n   ``object.__getattribute__(self, name)``.\n\n   Note: This method may still be bypassed when looking up special methods\n     as the result of implicit invocation via language syntax or\n     built-in functions. See *Special method lookup*.\n\nobject.__setattr__(self, name, value)\n\n   Called when an attribute assignment is attempted.  This is called\n   instead of the normal mechanism (i.e. store the value in the\n   instance dictionary). *name* is the attribute name, *value* is the\n   value to be assigned to it.\n\n   If ``__setattr__()`` wants to assign to an instance attribute, it\n   should call the base class method with the same name, for example,\n   ``object.__setattr__(self, name, value)``.\n\nobject.__delattr__(self, name)\n\n   Like ``__setattr__()`` but for attribute deletion instead of\n   assignment.  This should only be implemented if ``del obj.name`` is\n   meaningful for the object.\n\nobject.__dir__(self)\n\n   Called when ``dir()`` is called on the object. A sequence must be\n   returned. ``dir()`` converts the returned sequence to a list and\n   sorts it.\n\n\nImplementing Descriptors\n========================\n\nThe following methods only apply when an instance of the class\ncontaining the method (a so-called *descriptor* class) appears in an\n*owner* class (the descriptor must be in either the owner\'s class\ndictionary or in the class dictionary for one of its parents).  In the\nexamples below, "the attribute" refers to the attribute whose name is\nthe key of the property in the owner class\' ``__dict__``.\n\nobject.__get__(self, instance, owner)\n\n   Called to get the attribute of the owner class (class attribute\n   access) or of an instance of that class (instance attribute\n   access). *owner* is always the owner class, while *instance* is the\n   instance that the attribute was accessed through, or ``None`` when\n   the attribute is accessed through the *owner*.  This method should\n   return the (computed) attribute value or raise an\n   ``AttributeError`` exception.\n\nobject.__set__(self, instance, value)\n\n   Called to set the attribute on an instance *instance* of the owner\n   class to a new value, *value*.\n\nobject.__delete__(self, instance)\n\n   Called to delete the attribute on an instance *instance* of the\n   owner class.\n\n\nInvoking Descriptors\n====================\n\nIn general, a descriptor is an object attribute with "binding\nbehavior", one whose attribute access has been overridden by methods\nin the descriptor protocol:  ``__get__()``, ``__set__()``, and\n``__delete__()``. If any of those methods are defined for an object,\nit is said to be a descriptor.\n\nThe default behavior for attribute access is to get, set, or delete\nthe attribute from an object\'s dictionary. For instance, ``a.x`` has a\nlookup chain starting with ``a.__dict__[\'x\']``, then\n``type(a).__dict__[\'x\']``, and continuing through the base classes of\n``type(a)`` excluding metaclasses.\n\nHowever, if the looked-up value is an object defining one of the\ndescriptor methods, then Python may override the default behavior and\ninvoke the descriptor method instead.  Where this occurs in the\nprecedence chain depends on which descriptor methods were defined and\nhow they were called.\n\nThe starting point for descriptor invocation is a binding, ``a.x``.\nHow the arguments are assembled depends on ``a``:\n\nDirect Call\n   The simplest and least common call is when user code directly\n   invokes a descriptor method:    ``x.__get__(a)``.\n\nInstance Binding\n   If binding to an object instance, ``a.x`` is transformed into the\n   call: ``type(a).__dict__[\'x\'].__get__(a, type(a))``.\n\nClass Binding\n   If binding to a class, ``A.x`` is transformed into the call:\n   ``A.__dict__[\'x\'].__get__(None, A)``.\n\nSuper Binding\n   If ``a`` is an instance of ``super``, then the binding ``super(B,\n   obj).m()`` searches ``obj.__class__.__mro__`` for the base class\n   ``A`` immediately preceding ``B`` and then invokes the descriptor\n   with the call: ``A.__dict__[\'m\'].__get__(obj, obj.__class__)``.\n\nFor instance bindings, the precedence of descriptor invocation depends\non the which descriptor methods are defined.  A descriptor can define\nany combination of ``__get__()``, ``__set__()`` and ``__delete__()``.\nIf it does not define ``__get__()``, then accessing the attribute will\nreturn the descriptor object itself unless there is a value in the\nobject\'s instance dictionary.  If the descriptor defines ``__set__()``\nand/or ``__delete__()``, it is a data descriptor; if it defines\nneither, it is a non-data descriptor.  Normally, data descriptors\ndefine both ``__get__()`` and ``__set__()``, while non-data\ndescriptors have just the ``__get__()`` method.  Data descriptors with\n``__set__()`` and ``__get__()`` defined always override a redefinition\nin an instance dictionary.  In contrast, non-data descriptors can be\noverridden by instances.\n\nPython methods (including ``staticmethod()`` and ``classmethod()``)\nare implemented as non-data descriptors.  Accordingly, instances can\nredefine and override methods.  This allows individual instances to\nacquire behaviors that differ from other instances of the same class.\n\nThe ``property()`` function is implemented as a data descriptor.\nAccordingly, instances cannot override the behavior of a property.\n\n\n__slots__\n=========\n\nBy default, instances of classes have a dictionary for attribute\nstorage.  This wastes space for objects having very few instance\nvariables.  The space consumption can become acute when creating large\nnumbers of instances.\n\nThe default can be overridden by defining *__slots__* in a class\ndefinition. The *__slots__* declaration takes a sequence of instance\nvariables and reserves just enough space in each instance to hold a\nvalue for each variable.  Space is saved because *__dict__* is not\ncreated for each instance.\n\nobject.__slots__\n\n   This class variable can be assigned a string, iterable, or sequence\n   of strings with variable names used by instances.  If defined in a\n   class, *__slots__* reserves space for the declared variables and\n   prevents the automatic creation of *__dict__* and *__weakref__* for\n   each instance.\n\n\nNotes on using *__slots__*\n--------------------------\n\n* When inheriting from a class without *__slots__*, the *__dict__*\n  attribute of that class will always be accessible, so a *__slots__*\n  definition in the subclass is meaningless.\n\n* Without a *__dict__* variable, instances cannot be assigned new\n  variables not listed in the *__slots__* definition.  Attempts to\n  assign to an unlisted variable name raises ``AttributeError``. If\n  dynamic assignment of new variables is desired, then add\n  ``\'__dict__\'`` to the sequence of strings in the *__slots__*\n  declaration.\n\n* Without a *__weakref__* variable for each instance, classes defining\n  *__slots__* do not support weak references to its instances. If weak\n  reference support is needed, then add ``\'__weakref__\'`` to the\n  sequence of strings in the *__slots__* declaration.\n\n* *__slots__* are implemented at the class level by creating\n  descriptors (*Implementing Descriptors*) for each variable name.  As\n  a result, class attributes cannot be used to set default values for\n  instance variables defined by *__slots__*; otherwise, the class\n  attribute would overwrite the descriptor assignment.\n\n* The action of a *__slots__* declaration is limited to the class\n  where it is defined.  As a result, subclasses will have a *__dict__*\n  unless they also define *__slots__* (which must only contain names\n  of any *additional* slots).\n\n* If a class defines a slot also defined in a base class, the instance\n  variable defined by the base class slot is inaccessible (except by\n  retrieving its descriptor directly from the base class). This\n  renders the meaning of the program undefined.  In the future, a\n  check may be added to prevent this.\n\n* Nonempty *__slots__* does not work for classes derived from\n  "variable-length" built-in types such as ``int``, ``str`` and\n  ``tuple``.\n\n* Any non-string iterable may be assigned to *__slots__*. Mappings may\n  also be used; however, in the future, special meaning may be\n  assigned to the values corresponding to each key.\n\n* *__class__* assignment works only if both classes have the same\n  *__slots__*.\n',
  'attribute-references': '\nAttribute references\n********************\n\nAn attribute reference is a primary followed by a period and a name:\n\n   attributeref ::= primary "." identifier\n\nThe primary must evaluate to an object of a type that supports\nattribute references, which most objects do.  This object is then\nasked to produce the attribute whose name is the identifier (which can\nbe customized by overriding the ``__getattr__()`` method).  If this\nattribute is not available, the exception ``AttributeError`` is\nraised.  Otherwise, the type and value of the object produced is\ndetermined by the object.  Multiple evaluations of the same attribute\nreference may yield different objects.\n',
  'augassign': '\nAugmented assignment statements\n*******************************\n\nAugmented assignment is the combination, in a single statement, of a\nbinary operation and an assignment statement:\n\n   augmented_assignment_stmt ::= augtarget augop (expression_list | yield_expression)\n   augtarget                 ::= identifier | attributeref | subscription | slicing\n   augop                     ::= "+=" | "-=" | "*=" | "/=" | "//=" | "%=" | "**="\n             | ">>=" | "<<=" | "&=" | "^=" | "|="\n\n(See section *Primaries* for the syntax definitions for the last three\nsymbols.)\n\nAn augmented assignment evaluates the target (which, unlike normal\nassignment statements, cannot be an unpacking) and the expression\nlist, performs the binary operation specific to the type of assignment\non the two operands, and assigns the result to the original target.\nThe target is only evaluated once.\n\nAn augmented assignment expression like ``x += 1`` can be rewritten as\n``x = x + 1`` to achieve a similar, but not exactly equal effect. In\nthe augmented version, ``x`` is only evaluated once. Also, when\npossible, the actual operation is performed *in-place*, meaning that\nrather than creating a new object and assigning that to the target,\nthe old object is modified instead.\n\nWith the exception of assigning to tuples and multiple targets in a\nsingle statement, the assignment done by augmented assignment\nstatements is handled the same way as normal assignments. Similarly,\nwith the exception of the possible *in-place* behavior, the binary\noperation performed by augmented assignment is the same as the normal\nbinary operations.\n\nFor targets which are attribute references, the same *caveat about\nclass and instance attributes* applies as for regular assignments.\n',
  'binary': '\nBinary arithmetic operations\n****************************\n\nThe binary arithmetic operations have the conventional priority\nlevels.  Note that some of these operations also apply to certain non-\nnumeric types.  Apart from the power operator, there are only two\nlevels, one for multiplicative operators and one for additive\noperators:\n\n   m_expr ::= u_expr | m_expr "*" u_expr | m_expr "//" u_expr | m_expr "/" u_expr\n              | m_expr "%" u_expr\n   a_expr ::= m_expr | a_expr "+" m_expr | a_expr "-" m_expr\n\nThe ``*`` (multiplication) operator yields the product of its\narguments.  The arguments must either both be numbers, or one argument\nmust be an integer and the other must be a sequence. In the former\ncase, the numbers are converted to a common type and then multiplied\ntogether.  In the latter case, sequence repetition is performed; a\nnegative repetition factor yields an empty sequence.\n\nThe ``/`` (division) and ``//`` (floor division) operators yield the\nquotient of their arguments.  The numeric arguments are first\nconverted to a common type. Integer division yields a float, while\nfloor division of integers results in an integer; the result is that\nof mathematical division with the \'floor\' function applied to the\nresult.  Division by zero raises the ``ZeroDivisionError`` exception.\n\nThe ``%`` (modulo) operator yields the remainder from the division of\nthe first argument by the second.  The numeric arguments are first\nconverted to a common type.  A zero right argument raises the\n``ZeroDivisionError`` exception.  The arguments may be floating point\nnumbers, e.g., ``3.14%0.7`` equals ``0.34`` (since ``3.14`` equals\n``4*0.7 + 0.34``.)  The modulo operator always yields a result with\nthe same sign as its second operand (or zero); the absolute value of\nthe result is strictly smaller than the absolute value of the second\noperand [1].\n\nThe floor division and modulo operators are connected by the following\nidentity: ``x == (x//y)*y + (x%y)``.  Floor division and modulo are\nalso connected with the built-in function ``divmod()``: ``divmod(x, y)\n== (x//y, x%y)``. [2].\n\nIn addition to performing the modulo operation on numbers, the ``%``\noperator is also overloaded by string objects to perform old-style\nstring formatting (also known as interpolation).  The syntax for\nstring formatting is described in the Python Library Reference,\nsection *Old String Formatting Operations*.\n\nThe floor division operator, the modulo operator, and the ``divmod()``\nfunction are not defined for complex numbers.  Instead, convert to a\nfloating point number using the ``abs()`` function if appropriate.\n\nThe ``+`` (addition) operator yields the sum of its arguments.  The\narguments must either both be numbers or both sequences of the same\ntype.  In the former case, the numbers are converted to a common type\nand then added together.  In the latter case, the sequences are\nconcatenated.\n\nThe ``-`` (subtraction) operator yields the difference of its\narguments.  The numeric arguments are first converted to a common\ntype.\n',
  'bitwise': '\nBinary bitwise operations\n*************************\n\nEach of the three bitwise operations has a different priority level:\n\n   and_expr ::= shift_expr | and_expr "&" shift_expr\n   xor_expr ::= and_expr | xor_expr "^" and_expr\n   or_expr  ::= xor_expr | or_expr "|" xor_expr\n\nThe ``&`` operator yields the bitwise AND of its arguments, which must\nbe integers.\n\nThe ``^`` operator yields the bitwise XOR (exclusive OR) of its\narguments, which must be integers.\n\nThe ``|`` operator yields the bitwise (inclusive) OR of its arguments,\nwhich must be integers.\n',
  'bltin-code-objects': '\nCode Objects\n************\n\nCode objects are used by the implementation to represent "pseudo-\ncompiled" executable Python code such as a function body. They differ\nfrom function objects because they don\'t contain a reference to their\nglobal execution environment.  Code objects are returned by the built-\nin ``compile()`` function and can be extracted from function objects\nthrough their ``__code__`` attribute. See also the ``code`` module.\n\nA code object can be executed or evaluated by passing it (instead of a\nsource string) to the ``exec()`` or ``eval()``  built-in functions.\n\nSee *The standard type hierarchy* for more information.\n',
- 'bltin-ellipsis-object': '\nThe Ellipsis Object\n*******************\n\nThis object is commonly used by slicing (see *Slicings*).  It supports\nno special operations.  There is exactly one ellipsis object, named\n``Ellipsis`` (a built-in name).\n\nIt is written as ``Ellipsis`` or ``...``.\n',
- 'bltin-null-object': "\nThe Null Object\n***************\n\nThis object is returned by functions that don't explicitly return a\nvalue.  It supports no special operations.  There is exactly one null\nobject, named ``None`` (a built-in name).\n\nIt is written as ``None``.\n",
+ 'bltin-ellipsis-object': '\nThe Ellipsis Object\n*******************\n\nThis object is commonly used by slicing (see *Slicings*), but may also\nbe used in other situations where a sentinel value other than ``None``\nis needed.  It supports no special operations.  There is exactly one\nellipsis object, named ``Ellipsis`` (a built-in name).\n``type(Ellipsis)()`` produces the ``Ellipsis`` singleton.\n\nIt is written as ``Ellipsis`` or ``...``.\n',
+ 'bltin-null-object': "\nThe Null Object\n***************\n\nThis object is returned by functions that don't explicitly return a\nvalue.  It supports no special operations.  There is exactly one null\nobject, named ``None`` (a built-in name).  ``type(None)()`` produces\nthe same singleton.\n\nIt is written as ``None``.\n",
  'bltin-type-objects': "\nType Objects\n************\n\nType objects represent the various object types.  An object's type is\naccessed by the built-in function ``type()``.  There are no special\noperations on types.  The standard module ``types`` defines names for\nall standard built-in types.\n\nTypes are written like this: ``<class 'int'>``.\n",
  'booleans': '\nBoolean operations\n******************\n\n   or_test  ::= and_test | or_test "or" and_test\n   and_test ::= not_test | and_test "and" not_test\n   not_test ::= comparison | "not" not_test\n\nIn the context of Boolean operations, and also when expressions are\nused by control flow statements, the following values are interpreted\nas false: ``False``, ``None``, numeric zero of all types, and empty\nstrings and containers (including strings, tuples, lists,\ndictionaries, sets and frozensets).  All other values are interpreted\nas true.  User-defined objects can customize their truth value by\nproviding a ``__bool__()`` method.\n\nThe operator ``not`` yields ``True`` if its argument is false,\n``False`` otherwise.\n\nThe expression ``x and y`` first evaluates *x*; if *x* is false, its\nvalue is returned; otherwise, *y* is evaluated and the resulting value\nis returned.\n\nThe expression ``x or y`` first evaluates *x*; if *x* is true, its\nvalue is returned; otherwise, *y* is evaluated and the resulting value\nis returned.\n\n(Note that neither ``and`` nor ``or`` restrict the value and type they\nreturn to ``False`` and ``True``, but rather return the last evaluated\nargument.  This is sometimes useful, e.g., if ``s`` is a string that\nshould be replaced by a default value if it is empty, the expression\n``s or \'foo\'`` yields the desired value.  Because ``not`` has to\ninvent a value anyway, it does not bother to return a value of the\nsame type as its argument, so e.g., ``not \'foo\'`` yields ``False``,\nnot ``\'\'``.)\n',
  'break': '\nThe ``break`` statement\n***********************\n\n   break_stmt ::= "break"\n\n``break`` may only occur syntactically nested in a ``for`` or\n``while`` loop, but not nested in a function or class definition\nwithin that loop.\n\nIt terminates the nearest enclosing loop, skipping the optional\n``else`` clause if the loop has one.\n\nIf a ``for`` loop is terminated by ``break``, the loop control target\nkeeps its current value.\n\nWhen ``break`` passes control out of a ``try`` statement with a\n``finally`` clause, that ``finally`` clause is executed before really\nleaving the loop.\n',
  'callable-types': '\nEmulating callable objects\n**************************\n\nobject.__call__(self[, args...])\n\n   Called when the instance is "called" as a function; if this method\n   is defined, ``x(arg1, arg2, ...)`` is a shorthand for\n   ``x.__call__(arg1, arg2, ...)``.\n',
- 'calls': '\nCalls\n*****\n\nA call calls a callable object (e.g., a function) with a possibly\nempty series of arguments:\n\n   call                 ::= primary "(" [argument_list [","] | comprehension] ")"\n   argument_list        ::= positional_arguments ["," keyword_arguments]\n                       ["," "*" expression] ["," keyword_arguments]\n                       ["," "**" expression]\n                     | keyword_arguments ["," "*" expression]\n                       ["," keyword_arguments] ["," "**" expression]\n                     | "*" expression ["," keyword_arguments] ["," "**" expression]\n                     | "**" expression\n   positional_arguments ::= expression ("," expression)*\n   keyword_arguments    ::= keyword_item ("," keyword_item)*\n   keyword_item         ::= identifier "=" expression\n\nA trailing comma may be present after the positional and keyword\narguments but does not affect the semantics.\n\nThe primary must evaluate to a callable object (user-defined\nfunctions, built-in functions, methods of built-in objects, class\nobjects, methods of class instances, and all objects having a\n``__call__()`` method are callable).  All argument expressions are\nevaluated before the call is attempted.  Please refer to section\n*Function definitions* for the syntax of formal parameter lists.\n\nIf keyword arguments are present, they are first converted to\npositional arguments, as follows.  First, a list of unfilled slots is\ncreated for the formal parameters.  If there are N positional\narguments, they are placed in the first N slots.  Next, for each\nkeyword argument, the identifier is used to determine the\ncorresponding slot (if the identifier is the same as the first formal\nparameter name, the first slot is used, and so on).  If the slot is\nalready filled, a ``TypeError`` exception is raised. Otherwise, the\nvalue of the argument is placed in the slot, filling it (even if the\nexpression is ``None``, it fills the slot).  When all arguments have\nbeen processed, the slots that are still unfilled are filled with the\ncorresponding default value from the function definition.  (Default\nvalues are calculated, once, when the function is defined; thus, a\nmutable object such as a list or dictionary used as default value will\nbe shared by all calls that don\'t specify an argument value for the\ncorresponding slot; this should usually be avoided.)  If there are any\nunfilled slots for which no default value is specified, a\n``TypeError`` exception is raised.  Otherwise, the list of filled\nslots is used as the argument list for the call.\n\n**CPython implementation detail:** An implementation may provide\nbuilt-in functions whose positional parameters do not have names, even\nif they are \'named\' for the purpose of documentation, and which\ntherefore cannot be supplied by keyword.  In CPython, this is the case\nfor functions implemented in C that use ``PyArg_ParseTuple()`` to\nparse their arguments.\n\nIf there are more positional arguments than there are formal parameter\nslots, a ``TypeError`` exception is raised, unless a formal parameter\nusing the syntax ``*identifier`` is present; in this case, that formal\nparameter receives a tuple containing the excess positional arguments\n(or an empty tuple if there were no excess positional arguments).\n\nIf any keyword argument does not correspond to a formal parameter\nname, a ``TypeError`` exception is raised, unless a formal parameter\nusing the syntax ``**identifier`` is present; in this case, that\nformal parameter receives a dictionary containing the excess keyword\narguments (using the keywords as keys and the argument values as\ncorresponding values), or a (new) empty dictionary if there were no\nexcess keyword arguments.\n\nIf the syntax ``*expression`` appears in the function call,\n``expression`` must evaluate to a sequence.  Elements from this\nsequence are treated as if they were additional positional arguments;\nif there are positional arguments *x1*,..., *xN*, and ``expression``\nevaluates to a sequence *y1*, ..., *yM*, this is equivalent to a call\nwith M+N positional arguments *x1*, ..., *xN*, *y1*, ..., *yM*.\n\nA consequence of this is that although the ``*expression`` syntax may\nappear *after* some keyword arguments, it is processed *before* the\nkeyword arguments (and the ``**expression`` argument, if any -- see\nbelow).  So:\n\n   >>> def f(a, b):\n   ...  print(a, b)\n   ...\n   >>> f(b=1, *(2,))\n   2 1\n   >>> f(a=1, *(2,))\n   Traceback (most recent call last):\n     File "<stdin>", line 1, in ?\n   TypeError: f() got multiple values for keyword argument \'a\'\n   >>> f(1, *(2,))\n   1 2\n\nIt is unusual for both keyword arguments and the ``*expression``\nsyntax to be used in the same call, so in practice this confusion does\nnot arise.\n\nIf the syntax ``**expression`` appears in the function call,\n``expression`` must evaluate to a mapping, the contents of which are\ntreated as additional keyword arguments.  In the case of a keyword\nappearing in both ``expression`` and as an explicit keyword argument,\na ``TypeError`` exception is raised.\n\nFormal parameters using the syntax ``*identifier`` or ``**identifier``\ncannot be used as positional argument slots or as keyword argument\nnames.\n\nA call always returns some value, possibly ``None``, unless it raises\nan exception.  How this value is computed depends on the type of the\ncallable object.\n\nIf it is---\n\na user-defined function:\n   The code block for the function is executed, passing it the\n   argument list.  The first thing the code block will do is bind the\n   formal parameters to the arguments; this is described in section\n   *Function definitions*.  When the code block executes a ``return``\n   statement, this specifies the return value of the function call.\n\na built-in function or method:\n   The result is up to the interpreter; see *Built-in Functions* for\n   the descriptions of built-in functions and methods.\n\na class object:\n   A new instance of that class is returned.\n\na class instance method:\n   The corresponding user-defined function is called, with an argument\n   list that is one longer than the argument list of the call: the\n   instance becomes the first argument.\n\na class instance:\n   The class must define a ``__call__()`` method; the effect is then\n   the same as if that method was called.\n',
- 'class': '\nClass definitions\n*****************\n\nA class definition defines a class object (see section *The standard\ntype hierarchy*):\n\n   classdef    ::= [decorators] "class" classname [inheritance] ":" suite\n   inheritance ::= "(" [argument_list [","] | comprehension] ")"\n   classname   ::= identifier\n\nA class definition is an executable statement.  The inheritance list\nusually gives a list of base classes (see *Customizing class creation*\nfor more advanced uses), so each item in the list should evaluate to a\nclass object which allows subclassing.  Classes without an inheritance\nlist inherit, by default, from the base class ``object``; hence,\n\n   class Foo:\n       pass\n\nis equivalent to\n\n   class Foo(object):\n       pass\n\nThe class\'s suite is then executed in a new execution frame (see\n*Naming and binding*), using a newly created local namespace and the\noriginal global namespace. (Usually, the suite contains mostly\nfunction definitions.)  When the class\'s suite finishes execution, its\nexecution frame is discarded but its local namespace is saved. [4] A\nclass object is then created using the inheritance list for the base\nclasses and the saved local namespace for the attribute dictionary.\nThe class name is bound to this class object in the original local\nnamespace.\n\nClass creation can be customized heavily using *metaclasses*.\n\nClasses can also be decorated: just like when decorating functions,\n\n   @f1(arg)\n   @f2\n   class Foo: pass\n\nis equivalent to\n\n   class Foo: pass\n   Foo = f1(arg)(f2(Foo))\n\nThe evaluation rules for the decorator expressions are the same as for\nfunction decorators.  The result must be a class object, which is then\nbound to the class name.\n\n**Programmer\'s note:** Variables defined in the class definition are\nclass attributes; they are shared by instances.  Instance attributes\ncan be set in a method with ``self.name = value``.  Both class and\ninstance attributes are accessible through the notation\n"``self.name``", and an instance attribute hides a class attribute\nwith the same name when accessed in this way.  Class attributes can be\nused as defaults for instance attributes, but using mutable values\nthere can lead to unexpected results.  *Descriptors* can be used to\ncreate instance variables with different implementation details.\n\nSee also:\n\n   **PEP 3115** - Metaclasses in Python 3 **PEP 3129** - Class\n   Decorators\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] The exception is propagated to the invocation stack only if there\n    is no ``finally`` clause that negates the exception.\n\n[2] Currently, control "flows off the end" except in the case of an\n    exception or the execution of a ``return``, ``continue``, or\n    ``break`` statement.\n\n[3] A string literal appearing as the first statement in the function\n    body is transformed into the function\'s ``__doc__`` attribute and\n    therefore the function\'s *docstring*.\n\n[4] A string literal appearing as the first statement in the class\n    body is transformed into the namespace\'s ``__doc__`` item and\n    therefore the class\'s *docstring*.\n',
+ 'calls': '\nCalls\n*****\n\nA call calls a callable object (e.g., a function) with a possibly\nempty series of arguments:\n\n   call                 ::= primary "(" [argument_list [","] | comprehension] ")"\n   argument_list        ::= positional_arguments ["," keyword_arguments]\n                       ["," "*" expression] ["," keyword_arguments]\n                       ["," "**" expression]\n                     | keyword_arguments ["," "*" expression]\n                       ["," keyword_arguments] ["," "**" expression]\n                     | "*" expression ["," keyword_arguments] ["," "**" expression]\n                     | "**" expression\n   positional_arguments ::= expression ("," expression)*\n   keyword_arguments    ::= keyword_item ("," keyword_item)*\n   keyword_item         ::= identifier "=" expression\n\nA trailing comma may be present after the positional and keyword\narguments but does not affect the semantics.\n\nThe primary must evaluate to a callable object (user-defined\nfunctions, built-in functions, methods of built-in objects, class\nobjects, methods of class instances, and all objects having a\n``__call__()`` method are callable).  All argument expressions are\nevaluated before the call is attempted.  Please refer to section\n*Function definitions* for the syntax of formal parameter lists.\n\nIf keyword arguments are present, they are first converted to\npositional arguments, as follows.  First, a list of unfilled slots is\ncreated for the formal parameters.  If there are N positional\narguments, they are placed in the first N slots.  Next, for each\nkeyword argument, the identifier is used to determine the\ncorresponding slot (if the identifier is the same as the first formal\nparameter name, the first slot is used, and so on).  If the slot is\nalready filled, a ``TypeError`` exception is raised. Otherwise, the\nvalue of the argument is placed in the slot, filling it (even if the\nexpression is ``None``, it fills the slot).  When all arguments have\nbeen processed, the slots that are still unfilled are filled with the\ncorresponding default value from the function definition.  (Default\nvalues are calculated, once, when the function is defined; thus, a\nmutable object such as a list or dictionary used as default value will\nbe shared by all calls that don\'t specify an argument value for the\ncorresponding slot; this should usually be avoided.)  If there are any\nunfilled slots for which no default value is specified, a\n``TypeError`` exception is raised.  Otherwise, the list of filled\nslots is used as the argument list for the call.\n\n**CPython implementation detail:** An implementation may provide\nbuilt-in functions whose positional parameters do not have names, even\nif they are \'named\' for the purpose of documentation, and which\ntherefore cannot be supplied by keyword.  In CPython, this is the case\nfor functions implemented in C that use ``PyArg_ParseTuple()`` to\nparse their arguments.\n\nIf there are more positional arguments than there are formal parameter\nslots, a ``TypeError`` exception is raised, unless a formal parameter\nusing the syntax ``*identifier`` is present; in this case, that formal\nparameter receives a tuple containing the excess positional arguments\n(or an empty tuple if there were no excess positional arguments).\n\nIf any keyword argument does not correspond to a formal parameter\nname, a ``TypeError`` exception is raised, unless a formal parameter\nusing the syntax ``**identifier`` is present; in this case, that\nformal parameter receives a dictionary containing the excess keyword\narguments (using the keywords as keys and the argument values as\ncorresponding values), or a (new) empty dictionary if there were no\nexcess keyword arguments.\n\nIf the syntax ``*expression`` appears in the function call,\n``expression`` must evaluate to an iterable.  Elements from this\niterable are treated as if they were additional positional arguments;\nif there are positional arguments *x1*, ..., *xN*, and ``expression``\nevaluates to a sequence *y1*, ..., *yM*, this is equivalent to a call\nwith M+N positional arguments *x1*, ..., *xN*, *y1*, ..., *yM*.\n\nA consequence of this is that although the ``*expression`` syntax may\nappear *after* some keyword arguments, it is processed *before* the\nkeyword arguments (and the ``**expression`` argument, if any -- see\nbelow).  So:\n\n   >>> def f(a, b):\n   ...  print(a, b)\n   ...\n   >>> f(b=1, *(2,))\n   2 1\n   >>> f(a=1, *(2,))\n   Traceback (most recent call last):\n     File "<stdin>", line 1, in ?\n   TypeError: f() got multiple values for keyword argument \'a\'\n   >>> f(1, *(2,))\n   1 2\n\nIt is unusual for both keyword arguments and the ``*expression``\nsyntax to be used in the same call, so in practice this confusion does\nnot arise.\n\nIf the syntax ``**expression`` appears in the function call,\n``expression`` must evaluate to a mapping, the contents of which are\ntreated as additional keyword arguments.  In the case of a keyword\nappearing in both ``expression`` and as an explicit keyword argument,\na ``TypeError`` exception is raised.\n\nFormal parameters using the syntax ``*identifier`` or ``**identifier``\ncannot be used as positional argument slots or as keyword argument\nnames.\n\nA call always returns some value, possibly ``None``, unless it raises\nan exception.  How this value is computed depends on the type of the\ncallable object.\n\nIf it is---\n\na user-defined function:\n   The code block for the function is executed, passing it the\n   argument list.  The first thing the code block will do is bind the\n   formal parameters to the arguments; this is described in section\n   *Function definitions*.  When the code block executes a ``return``\n   statement, this specifies the return value of the function call.\n\na built-in function or method:\n   The result is up to the interpreter; see *Built-in Functions* for\n   the descriptions of built-in functions and methods.\n\na class object:\n   A new instance of that class is returned.\n\na class instance method:\n   The corresponding user-defined function is called, with an argument\n   list that is one longer than the argument list of the call: the\n   instance becomes the first argument.\n\na class instance:\n   The class must define a ``__call__()`` method; the effect is then\n   the same as if that method was called.\n',
+ 'class': '\nClass definitions\n*****************\n\nA class definition defines a class object (see section *The standard\ntype hierarchy*):\n\n   classdef    ::= [decorators] "class" classname [inheritance] ":" suite\n   inheritance ::= "(" [parameter_list] ")"\n   classname   ::= identifier\n\nA class definition is an executable statement.  The inheritance list\nusually gives a list of base classes (see *Customizing class creation*\nfor more advanced uses), so each item in the list should evaluate to a\nclass object which allows subclassing.  Classes without an inheritance\nlist inherit, by default, from the base class ``object``; hence,\n\n   class Foo:\n       pass\n\nis equivalent to\n\n   class Foo(object):\n       pass\n\nThe class\'s suite is then executed in a new execution frame (see\n*Naming and binding*), using a newly created local namespace and the\noriginal global namespace. (Usually, the suite contains mostly\nfunction definitions.)  When the class\'s suite finishes execution, its\nexecution frame is discarded but its local namespace is saved. [4] A\nclass object is then created using the inheritance list for the base\nclasses and the saved local namespace for the attribute dictionary.\nThe class name is bound to this class object in the original local\nnamespace.\n\nClass creation can be customized heavily using *metaclasses*.\n\nClasses can also be decorated: just like when decorating functions,\n\n   @f1(arg)\n   @f2\n   class Foo: pass\n\nis equivalent to\n\n   class Foo: pass\n   Foo = f1(arg)(f2(Foo))\n\nThe evaluation rules for the decorator expressions are the same as for\nfunction decorators.  The result must be a class object, which is then\nbound to the class name.\n\n**Programmer\'s note:** Variables defined in the class definition are\nclass attributes; they are shared by instances.  Instance attributes\ncan be set in a method with ``self.name = value``.  Both class and\ninstance attributes are accessible through the notation\n"``self.name``", and an instance attribute hides a class attribute\nwith the same name when accessed in this way.  Class attributes can be\nused as defaults for instance attributes, but using mutable values\nthere can lead to unexpected results.  *Descriptors* can be used to\ncreate instance variables with different implementation details.\n\nSee also:\n\n   **PEP 3115** - Metaclasses in Python 3 **PEP 3129** - Class\n   Decorators\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] The exception is propagated to the invocation stack unless there\n    is a ``finally`` clause which happens to raise another exception.\n    That new exception causes the old one to be lost.\n\n[2] Currently, control "flows off the end" except in the case of an\n    exception or the execution of a ``return``, ``continue``, or\n    ``break`` statement.\n\n[3] A string literal appearing as the first statement in the function\n    body is transformed into the function\'s ``__doc__`` attribute and\n    therefore the function\'s *docstring*.\n\n[4] A string literal appearing as the first statement in the class\n    body is transformed into the namespace\'s ``__doc__`` item and\n    therefore the class\'s *docstring*.\n',
  'comparisons': '\nComparisons\n***********\n\nUnlike C, all comparison operations in Python have the same priority,\nwhich is lower than that of any arithmetic, shifting or bitwise\noperation.  Also unlike C, expressions like ``a < b < c`` have the\ninterpretation that is conventional in mathematics:\n\n   comparison    ::= or_expr ( comp_operator or_expr )*\n   comp_operator ::= "<" | ">" | "==" | ">=" | "<=" | "!="\n                     | "is" ["not"] | ["not"] "in"\n\nComparisons yield boolean values: ``True`` or ``False``.\n\nComparisons can be chained arbitrarily, e.g., ``x < y <= z`` is\nequivalent to ``x < y and y <= z``, except that ``y`` is evaluated\nonly once (but in both cases ``z`` is not evaluated at all when ``x <\ny`` is found to be false).\n\nFormally, if *a*, *b*, *c*, ..., *y*, *z* are expressions and *op1*,\n*op2*, ..., *opN* are comparison operators, then ``a op1 b op2 c ... y\nopN z`` is equivalent to ``a op1 b and b op2 c and ... y opN z``,\nexcept that each expression is evaluated at most once.\n\nNote that ``a op1 b op2 c`` doesn\'t imply any kind of comparison\nbetween *a* and *c*, so that, e.g., ``x < y > z`` is perfectly legal\n(though perhaps not pretty).\n\nThe operators ``<``, ``>``, ``==``, ``>=``, ``<=``, and ``!=`` compare\nthe values of two objects.  The objects need not have the same type.\nIf both are numbers, they are converted to a common type.  Otherwise,\nthe ``==`` and ``!=`` operators *always* consider objects of different\ntypes to be unequal, while the ``<``, ``>``, ``>=`` and ``<=``\noperators raise a ``TypeError`` when comparing objects of different\ntypes that do not implement these operators for the given pair of\ntypes.  You can control comparison behavior of objects of non-built-in\ntypes by defining rich comparison methods like ``__gt__()``, described\nin section *Basic customization*.\n\nComparison of objects of the same type depends on the type:\n\n* Numbers are compared arithmetically.\n\n* The values ``float(\'NaN\')`` and ``Decimal(\'NaN\')`` are special. The\n  are identical to themselves, ``x is x`` but are not equal to\n  themselves, ``x != x``.  Additionally, comparing any value to a\n  not-a-number value will return ``False``.  For example, both ``3 <\n  float(\'NaN\')`` and ``float(\'NaN\') < 3`` will return ``False``.\n\n* Bytes objects are compared lexicographically using the numeric\n  values of their elements.\n\n* Strings are compared lexicographically using the numeric equivalents\n  (the result of the built-in function ``ord()``) of their characters.\n  [3] String and bytes object can\'t be compared!\n\n* Tuples and lists are compared lexicographically using comparison of\n  corresponding elements.  This means that to compare equal, each\n  element must compare equal and the two sequences must be of the same\n  type and have the same length.\n\n  If not equal, the sequences are ordered the same as their first\n  differing elements.  For example, ``[1,2,x] <= [1,2,y]`` has the\n  same value as ``x <= y``.  If the corresponding element does not\n  exist, the shorter sequence is ordered first (for example, ``[1,2] <\n  [1,2,3]``).\n\n* Mappings (dictionaries) compare equal if and only if they have the\n  same ``(key, value)`` pairs. Order comparisons ``(\'<\', \'<=\', \'>=\',\n  \'>\')`` raise ``TypeError``.\n\n* Sets and frozensets define comparison operators to mean subset and\n  superset tests.  Those relations do not define total orderings (the\n  two sets ``{1,2}`` and {2,3} are not equal, nor subsets of one\n  another, nor supersets of one another).  Accordingly, sets are not\n  appropriate arguments for functions which depend on total ordering.\n  For example, ``min()``, ``max()``, and ``sorted()`` produce\n  undefined results given a list of sets as inputs.\n\n* Most other objects of built-in types compare unequal unless they are\n  the same object; the choice whether one object is considered smaller\n  or larger than another one is made arbitrarily but consistently\n  within one execution of a program.\n\nComparison of objects of the differing types depends on whether either\nof the types provide explicit support for the comparison.  Most\nnumeric types can be compared with one another, but comparisons of\n``float`` and ``Decimal`` are not supported to avoid the inevitable\nconfusion arising from representation issues such as ``float(\'1.1\')``\nbeing inexactly represented and therefore not exactly equal to\n``Decimal(\'1.1\')`` which is.  When cross-type comparison is not\nsupported, the comparison method returns ``NotImplemented``.  This can\ncreate the illusion of non-transitivity between supported cross-type\ncomparisons and unsupported comparisons.  For example, ``Decimal(2) ==\n2`` and ``2 == float(2)`` but ``Decimal(2) != float(2)``.\n\nThe operators ``in`` and ``not in`` test for membership.  ``x in s``\nevaluates to true if *x* is a member of *s*, and false otherwise.  ``x\nnot in s`` returns the negation of ``x in s``.  All built-in sequences\nand set types support this as well as dictionary, for which ``in``\ntests whether a the dictionary has a given key. For container types\nsuch as list, tuple, set, frozenset, dict, or collections.deque, the\nexpression ``x in y`` is equivalent to ``any(x is e or x == e for e in\ny)``.\n\nFor the string and bytes types, ``x in y`` is true if and only if *x*\nis a substring of *y*.  An equivalent test is ``y.find(x) != -1``.\nEmpty strings are always considered to be a substring of any other\nstring, so ``"" in "abc"`` will return ``True``.\n\nFor user-defined classes which define the ``__contains__()`` method,\n``x in y`` is true if and only if ``y.__contains__(x)`` is true.\n\nFor user-defined classes which do not define ``__contains__()`` but do\ndefine ``__iter__()``, ``x in y`` is true if some value ``z`` with ``x\n== z`` is produced while iterating over ``y``.  If an exception is\nraised during the iteration, it is as if ``in`` raised that exception.\n\nLastly, the old-style iteration protocol is tried: if a class defines\n``__getitem__()``, ``x in y`` is true if and only if there is a non-\nnegative integer index *i* such that ``x == y[i]``, and all lower\ninteger indices do not raise ``IndexError`` exception.  (If any other\nexception is raised, it is as if ``in`` raised that exception).\n\nThe operator ``not in`` is defined to have the inverse true value of\n``in``.\n\nThe operators ``is`` and ``is not`` test for object identity: ``x is\ny`` is true if and only if *x* and *y* are the same object.  ``x is\nnot y`` yields the inverse truth value. [4]\n',
- 'compound': '\nCompound statements\n*******************\n\nCompound statements contain (groups of) other statements; they affect\nor control the execution of those other statements in some way.  In\ngeneral, compound statements span multiple lines, although in simple\nincarnations a whole compound statement may be contained in one line.\n\nThe ``if``, ``while`` and ``for`` statements implement traditional\ncontrol flow constructs.  ``try`` specifies exception handlers and/or\ncleanup code for a group of statements, while the ``with`` statement\nallows the execution of initialization and finalization code around a\nblock of code.  Function and class definitions are also syntactically\ncompound statements.\n\nCompound statements consist of one or more \'clauses.\'  A clause\nconsists of a header and a \'suite.\'  The clause headers of a\nparticular compound statement are all at the same indentation level.\nEach clause header begins with a uniquely identifying keyword and ends\nwith a colon.  A suite is a group of statements controlled by a\nclause.  A suite can be one or more semicolon-separated simple\nstatements on the same line as the header, following the header\'s\ncolon, or it can be one or more indented statements on subsequent\nlines.  Only the latter form of suite can contain nested compound\nstatements; the following is illegal, mostly because it wouldn\'t be\nclear to which ``if`` clause a following ``else`` clause would belong:\n\n   if test1: if test2: print(x)\n\nAlso note that the semicolon binds tighter than the colon in this\ncontext, so that in the following example, either all or none of the\n``print()`` calls are executed:\n\n   if x < y < z: print(x); print(y); print(z)\n\nSummarizing:\n\n   compound_stmt ::= if_stmt\n                     | while_stmt\n                     | for_stmt\n                     | try_stmt\n                     | with_stmt\n                     | funcdef\n                     | classdef\n   suite         ::= stmt_list NEWLINE | NEWLINE INDENT statement+ DEDENT\n   statement     ::= stmt_list NEWLINE | compound_stmt\n   stmt_list     ::= simple_stmt (";" simple_stmt)* [";"]\n\nNote that statements always end in a ``NEWLINE`` possibly followed by\na ``DEDENT``.  Also note that optional continuation clauses always\nbegin with a keyword that cannot start a statement, thus there are no\nambiguities (the \'dangling ``else``\' problem is solved in Python by\nrequiring nested ``if`` statements to be indented).\n\nThe formatting of the grammar rules in the following sections places\neach clause on a separate line for clarity.\n\n\nThe ``if`` statement\n====================\n\nThe ``if`` statement is used for conditional execution:\n\n   if_stmt ::= "if" expression ":" suite\n               ( "elif" expression ":" suite )*\n               ["else" ":" suite]\n\nIt selects exactly one of the suites by evaluating the expressions one\nby one until one is found to be true (see section *Boolean operations*\nfor the definition of true and false); then that suite is executed\n(and no other part of the ``if`` statement is executed or evaluated).\nIf all expressions are false, the suite of the ``else`` clause, if\npresent, is executed.\n\n\nThe ``while`` statement\n=======================\n\nThe ``while`` statement is used for repeated execution as long as an\nexpression is true:\n\n   while_stmt ::= "while" expression ":" suite\n                  ["else" ":" suite]\n\nThis repeatedly tests the expression and, if it is true, executes the\nfirst suite; if the expression is false (which may be the first time\nit is tested) the suite of the ``else`` clause, if present, is\nexecuted and the loop terminates.\n\nA ``break`` statement executed in the first suite terminates the loop\nwithout executing the ``else`` clause\'s suite.  A ``continue``\nstatement executed in the first suite skips the rest of the suite and\ngoes back to testing the expression.\n\n\nThe ``for`` statement\n=====================\n\nThe ``for`` statement is used to iterate over the elements of a\nsequence (such as a string, tuple or list) or other iterable object:\n\n   for_stmt ::= "for" target_list "in" expression_list ":" suite\n                ["else" ":" suite]\n\nThe expression list is evaluated once; it should yield an iterable\nobject.  An iterator is created for the result of the\n``expression_list``.  The suite is then executed once for each item\nprovided by the iterator, in the order of ascending indices.  Each\nitem in turn is assigned to the target list using the standard rules\nfor assignments (see *Assignment statements*), and then the suite is\nexecuted.  When the items are exhausted (which is immediately when the\nsequence is empty or an iterator raises a ``StopIteration``\nexception), the suite in the ``else`` clause, if present, is executed,\nand the loop terminates.\n\nA ``break`` statement executed in the first suite terminates the loop\nwithout executing the ``else`` clause\'s suite.  A ``continue``\nstatement executed in the first suite skips the rest of the suite and\ncontinues with the next item, or with the ``else`` clause if there was\nno next item.\n\nThe suite may assign to the variable(s) in the target list; this does\nnot affect the next item assigned to it.\n\nNames in the target list are not deleted when the loop is finished,\nbut if the sequence is empty, it will not have been assigned to at all\nby the loop.  Hint: the built-in function ``range()`` returns an\niterator of integers suitable to emulate the effect of Pascal\'s ``for\ni := a to b do``; e.g., ``list(range(3))`` returns the list ``[0, 1,\n2]``.\n\nNote: There is a subtlety when the sequence is being modified by the loop\n  (this can only occur for mutable sequences, i.e. lists).  An\n  internal counter is used to keep track of which item is used next,\n  and this is incremented on each iteration.  When this counter has\n  reached the length of the sequence the loop terminates.  This means\n  that if the suite deletes the current (or a previous) item from the\n  sequence, the next item will be skipped (since it gets the index of\n  the current item which has already been treated).  Likewise, if the\n  suite inserts an item in the sequence before the current item, the\n  current item will be treated again the next time through the loop.\n  This can lead to nasty bugs that can be avoided by making a\n  temporary copy using a slice of the whole sequence, e.g.,\n\n     for x in a[:]:\n         if x < 0: a.remove(x)\n\n\nThe ``try`` statement\n=====================\n\nThe ``try`` statement specifies exception handlers and/or cleanup code\nfor a group of statements:\n\n   try_stmt  ::= try1_stmt | try2_stmt\n   try1_stmt ::= "try" ":" suite\n                 ("except" [expression ["as" target]] ":" suite)+\n                 ["else" ":" suite]\n                 ["finally" ":" suite]\n   try2_stmt ::= "try" ":" suite\n                 "finally" ":" suite\n\nThe ``except`` clause(s) specify one or more exception handlers. When\nno exception occurs in the ``try`` clause, no exception handler is\nexecuted. When an exception occurs in the ``try`` suite, a search for\nan exception handler is started.  This search inspects the except\nclauses in turn until one is found that matches the exception.  An\nexpression-less except clause, if present, must be last; it matches\nany exception.  For an except clause with an expression, that\nexpression is evaluated, and the clause matches the exception if the\nresulting object is "compatible" with the exception.  An object is\ncompatible with an exception if it is the class or a base class of the\nexception object or a tuple containing an item compatible with the\nexception.\n\nIf no except clause matches the exception, the search for an exception\nhandler continues in the surrounding code and on the invocation stack.\n[1]\n\nIf the evaluation of an expression in the header of an except clause\nraises an exception, the original search for a handler is canceled and\na search starts for the new exception in the surrounding code and on\nthe call stack (it is treated as if the entire ``try`` statement\nraised the exception).\n\nWhen a matching except clause is found, the exception is assigned to\nthe target specified after the ``as`` keyword in that except clause,\nif present, and the except clause\'s suite is executed.  All except\nclauses must have an executable block.  When the end of this block is\nreached, execution continues normally after the entire try statement.\n(This means that if two nested handlers exist for the same exception,\nand the exception occurs in the try clause of the inner handler, the\nouter handler will not handle the exception.)\n\nWhen an exception has been assigned using ``as target``, it is cleared\nat the end of the except clause.  This is as if\n\n   except E as N:\n       foo\n\nwas translated to\n\n   except E as N:\n       try:\n           foo\n       finally:\n           del N\n\nThis means the exception must be assigned to a different name to be\nable to refer to it after the except clause.  Exceptions are cleared\nbecause with the traceback attached to them, they form a reference\ncycle with the stack frame, keeping all locals in that frame alive\nuntil the next garbage collection occurs.\n\nBefore an except clause\'s suite is executed, details about the\nexception are stored in the ``sys`` module and can be access via\n``sys.exc_info()``. ``sys.exc_info()`` returns a 3-tuple consisting of\nthe exception class, the exception instance and a traceback object\n(see section *The standard type hierarchy*) identifying the point in\nthe program where the exception occurred.  ``sys.exc_info()`` values\nare restored to their previous values (before the call) when returning\nfrom a function that handled an exception.\n\nThe optional ``else`` clause is executed if and when control flows off\nthe end of the ``try`` clause. [2] Exceptions in the ``else`` clause\nare not handled by the preceding ``except`` clauses.\n\nIf ``finally`` is present, it specifies a \'cleanup\' handler.  The\n``try`` clause is executed, including any ``except`` and ``else``\nclauses.  If an exception occurs in any of the clauses and is not\nhandled, the exception is temporarily saved. The ``finally`` clause is\nexecuted.  If there is a saved exception, it is re-raised at the end\nof the ``finally`` clause. If the ``finally`` clause raises another\nexception or executes a ``return`` or ``break`` statement, the saved\nexception is lost.  The exception information is not available to the\nprogram during execution of the ``finally`` clause.\n\nWhen a ``return``, ``break`` or ``continue`` statement is executed in\nthe ``try`` suite of a ``try``...``finally`` statement, the\n``finally`` clause is also executed \'on the way out.\' A ``continue``\nstatement is illegal in the ``finally`` clause. (The reason is a\nproblem with the current implementation --- this restriction may be\nlifted in the future).\n\nAdditional information on exceptions can be found in section\n*Exceptions*, and information on using the ``raise`` statement to\ngenerate exceptions may be found in section *The raise statement*.\n\n\nThe ``with`` statement\n======================\n\nThe ``with`` statement is used to wrap the execution of a block with\nmethods defined by a context manager (see section *With Statement\nContext Managers*). This allows common\n``try``...``except``...``finally`` usage patterns to be encapsulated\nfor convenient reuse.\n\n   with_stmt ::= "with" with_item ("," with_item)* ":" suite\n   with_item ::= expression ["as" target]\n\nThe execution of the ``with`` statement with one "item" proceeds as\nfollows:\n\n1. The context expression (the expression given in the ``with_item``)\n   is evaluated to obtain a context manager.\n\n2. The context manager\'s ``__exit__()`` is loaded for later use.\n\n3. The context manager\'s ``__enter__()`` method is invoked.\n\n4. If a target was included in the ``with`` statement, the return\n   value from ``__enter__()`` is assigned to it.\n\n   Note: The ``with`` statement guarantees that if the ``__enter__()``\n     method returns without an error, then ``__exit__()`` will always\n     be called. Thus, if an error occurs during the assignment to the\n     target list, it will be treated the same as an error occurring\n     within the suite would be. See step 6 below.\n\n5. The suite is executed.\n\n6. The context manager\'s ``__exit__()`` method is invoked.  If an\n   exception caused the suite to be exited, its type, value, and\n   traceback are passed as arguments to ``__exit__()``. Otherwise,\n   three ``None`` arguments are supplied.\n\n   If the suite was exited due to an exception, and the return value\n   from the ``__exit__()`` method was false, the exception is\n   reraised.  If the return value was true, the exception is\n   suppressed, and execution continues with the statement following\n   the ``with`` statement.\n\n   If the suite was exited for any reason other than an exception, the\n   return value from ``__exit__()`` is ignored, and execution proceeds\n   at the normal location for the kind of exit that was taken.\n\nWith more than one item, the context managers are processed as if\nmultiple ``with`` statements were nested:\n\n   with A() as a, B() as b:\n       suite\n\nis equivalent to\n\n   with A() as a:\n       with B() as b:\n           suite\n\nChanged in version 3.1: Support for multiple context expressions.\n\nSee also:\n\n   **PEP 0343** - The "with" statement\n      The specification, background, and examples for the Python\n      ``with`` statement.\n\n\nFunction definitions\n====================\n\nA function definition defines a user-defined function object (see\nsection *The standard type hierarchy*):\n\n   funcdef        ::= [decorators] "def" funcname "(" [parameter_list] ")" ["->" expression] ":" suite\n   decorators     ::= decorator+\n   decorator      ::= "@" dotted_name ["(" [argument_list [","]] ")"] NEWLINE\n   dotted_name    ::= identifier ("." identifier)*\n   parameter_list ::= (defparameter ",")*\n                      (  "*" [parameter] ("," defparameter)*\n                      [, "**" parameter]\n                      | "**" parameter\n                      | defparameter [","] )\n   parameter      ::= identifier [":" expression]\n   defparameter   ::= parameter ["=" expression]\n   funcname       ::= identifier\n\nA function definition is an executable statement.  Its execution binds\nthe function name in the current local namespace to a function object\n(a wrapper around the executable code for the function).  This\nfunction object contains a reference to the current global namespace\nas the global namespace to be used when the function is called.\n\nThe function definition does not execute the function body; this gets\nexecuted only when the function is called. [3]\n\nA function definition may be wrapped by one or more *decorator*\nexpressions. Decorator expressions are evaluated when the function is\ndefined, in the scope that contains the function definition.  The\nresult must be a callable, which is invoked with the function object\nas the only argument. The returned value is bound to the function name\ninstead of the function object.  Multiple decorators are applied in\nnested fashion. For example, the following code\n\n   @f1(arg)\n   @f2\n   def func(): pass\n\nis equivalent to\n\n   def func(): pass\n   func = f1(arg)(f2(func))\n\nWhen one or more parameters have the form *parameter* ``=``\n*expression*, the function is said to have "default parameter values."\nFor a parameter with a default value, the corresponding argument may\nbe omitted from a call, in which case the parameter\'s default value is\nsubstituted.  If a parameter has a default value, all following\nparameters up until the "``*``" must also have a default value ---\nthis is a syntactic restriction that is not expressed by the grammar.\n\n**Default parameter values are evaluated when the function definition\nis executed.** This means that the expression is evaluated once, when\nthe function is defined, and that that same "pre-computed" value is\nused for each call.  This is especially important to understand when a\ndefault parameter is a mutable object, such as a list or a dictionary:\nif the function modifies the object (e.g. by appending an item to a\nlist), the default value is in effect modified. This is generally not\nwhat was intended.  A way around this is to use ``None`` as the\ndefault, and explicitly test for it in the body of the function, e.g.:\n\n   def whats_on_the_telly(penguin=None):\n       if penguin is None:\n           penguin = []\n       penguin.append("property of the zoo")\n       return penguin\n\nFunction call semantics are described in more detail in section\n*Calls*. A function call always assigns values to all parameters\nmentioned in the parameter list, either from position arguments, from\nkeyword arguments, or from default values.  If the form\n"``*identifier``" is present, it is initialized to a tuple receiving\nany excess positional parameters, defaulting to the empty tuple.  If\nthe form "``**identifier``" is present, it is initialized to a new\ndictionary receiving any excess keyword arguments, defaulting to a new\nempty dictionary. Parameters after "``*``" or "``*identifier``" are\nkeyword-only parameters and may only be passed used keyword arguments.\n\nParameters may have annotations of the form "``: expression``"\nfollowing the parameter name.  Any parameter may have an annotation\neven those of the form ``*identifier`` or ``**identifier``.  Functions\nmay have "return" annotation of the form "``-> expression``" after the\nparameter list.  These annotations can be any valid Python expression\nand are evaluated when the function definition is executed.\nAnnotations may be evaluated in a different order than they appear in\nthe source code.  The presence of annotations does not change the\nsemantics of a function.  The annotation values are available as\nvalues of a dictionary keyed by the parameters\' names in the\n``__annotations__`` attribute of the function object.\n\nIt is also possible to create anonymous functions (functions not bound\nto a name), for immediate use in expressions.  This uses lambda forms,\ndescribed in section *Lambdas*.  Note that the lambda form is merely a\nshorthand for a simplified function definition; a function defined in\na "``def``" statement can be passed around or assigned to another name\njust like a function defined by a lambda form.  The "``def``" form is\nactually more powerful since it allows the execution of multiple\nstatements and annotations.\n\n**Programmer\'s note:** Functions are first-class objects.  A "``def``"\nform executed inside a function definition defines a local function\nthat can be returned or passed around.  Free variables used in the\nnested function can access the local variables of the function\ncontaining the def.  See section *Naming and binding* for details.\n\n\nClass definitions\n=================\n\nA class definition defines a class object (see section *The standard\ntype hierarchy*):\n\n   classdef    ::= [decorators] "class" classname [inheritance] ":" suite\n   inheritance ::= "(" [argument_list [","] | comprehension] ")"\n   classname   ::= identifier\n\nA class definition is an executable statement.  The inheritance list\nusually gives a list of base classes (see *Customizing class creation*\nfor more advanced uses), so each item in the list should evaluate to a\nclass object which allows subclassing.  Classes without an inheritance\nlist inherit, by default, from the base class ``object``; hence,\n\n   class Foo:\n       pass\n\nis equivalent to\n\n   class Foo(object):\n       pass\n\nThe class\'s suite is then executed in a new execution frame (see\n*Naming and binding*), using a newly created local namespace and the\noriginal global namespace. (Usually, the suite contains mostly\nfunction definitions.)  When the class\'s suite finishes execution, its\nexecution frame is discarded but its local namespace is saved. [4] A\nclass object is then created using the inheritance list for the base\nclasses and the saved local namespace for the attribute dictionary.\nThe class name is bound to this class object in the original local\nnamespace.\n\nClass creation can be customized heavily using *metaclasses*.\n\nClasses can also be decorated: just like when decorating functions,\n\n   @f1(arg)\n   @f2\n   class Foo: pass\n\nis equivalent to\n\n   class Foo: pass\n   Foo = f1(arg)(f2(Foo))\n\nThe evaluation rules for the decorator expressions are the same as for\nfunction decorators.  The result must be a class object, which is then\nbound to the class name.\n\n**Programmer\'s note:** Variables defined in the class definition are\nclass attributes; they are shared by instances.  Instance attributes\ncan be set in a method with ``self.name = value``.  Both class and\ninstance attributes are accessible through the notation\n"``self.name``", and an instance attribute hides a class attribute\nwith the same name when accessed in this way.  Class attributes can be\nused as defaults for instance attributes, but using mutable values\nthere can lead to unexpected results.  *Descriptors* can be used to\ncreate instance variables with different implementation details.\n\nSee also:\n\n   **PEP 3115** - Metaclasses in Python 3 **PEP 3129** - Class\n   Decorators\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] The exception is propagated to the invocation stack only if there\n    is no ``finally`` clause that negates the exception.\n\n[2] Currently, control "flows off the end" except in the case of an\n    exception or the execution of a ``return``, ``continue``, or\n    ``break`` statement.\n\n[3] A string literal appearing as the first statement in the function\n    body is transformed into the function\'s ``__doc__`` attribute and\n    therefore the function\'s *docstring*.\n\n[4] A string literal appearing as the first statement in the class\n    body is transformed into the namespace\'s ``__doc__`` item and\n    therefore the class\'s *docstring*.\n',
+ 'compound': '\nCompound statements\n*******************\n\nCompound statements contain (groups of) other statements; they affect\nor control the execution of those other statements in some way.  In\ngeneral, compound statements span multiple lines, although in simple\nincarnations a whole compound statement may be contained in one line.\n\nThe ``if``, ``while`` and ``for`` statements implement traditional\ncontrol flow constructs.  ``try`` specifies exception handlers and/or\ncleanup code for a group of statements, while the ``with`` statement\nallows the execution of initialization and finalization code around a\nblock of code.  Function and class definitions are also syntactically\ncompound statements.\n\nCompound statements consist of one or more \'clauses.\'  A clause\nconsists of a header and a \'suite.\'  The clause headers of a\nparticular compound statement are all at the same indentation level.\nEach clause header begins with a uniquely identifying keyword and ends\nwith a colon.  A suite is a group of statements controlled by a\nclause.  A suite can be one or more semicolon-separated simple\nstatements on the same line as the header, following the header\'s\ncolon, or it can be one or more indented statements on subsequent\nlines.  Only the latter form of suite can contain nested compound\nstatements; the following is illegal, mostly because it wouldn\'t be\nclear to which ``if`` clause a following ``else`` clause would belong:\n\n   if test1: if test2: print(x)\n\nAlso note that the semicolon binds tighter than the colon in this\ncontext, so that in the following example, either all or none of the\n``print()`` calls are executed:\n\n   if x < y < z: print(x); print(y); print(z)\n\nSummarizing:\n\n   compound_stmt ::= if_stmt\n                     | while_stmt\n                     | for_stmt\n                     | try_stmt\n                     | with_stmt\n                     | funcdef\n                     | classdef\n   suite         ::= stmt_list NEWLINE | NEWLINE INDENT statement+ DEDENT\n   statement     ::= stmt_list NEWLINE | compound_stmt\n   stmt_list     ::= simple_stmt (";" simple_stmt)* [";"]\n\nNote that statements always end in a ``NEWLINE`` possibly followed by\na ``DEDENT``.  Also note that optional continuation clauses always\nbegin with a keyword that cannot start a statement, thus there are no\nambiguities (the \'dangling ``else``\' problem is solved in Python by\nrequiring nested ``if`` statements to be indented).\n\nThe formatting of the grammar rules in the following sections places\neach clause on a separate line for clarity.\n\n\nThe ``if`` statement\n====================\n\nThe ``if`` statement is used for conditional execution:\n\n   if_stmt ::= "if" expression ":" suite\n               ( "elif" expression ":" suite )*\n               ["else" ":" suite]\n\nIt selects exactly one of the suites by evaluating the expressions one\nby one until one is found to be true (see section *Boolean operations*\nfor the definition of true and false); then that suite is executed\n(and no other part of the ``if`` statement is executed or evaluated).\nIf all expressions are false, the suite of the ``else`` clause, if\npresent, is executed.\n\n\nThe ``while`` statement\n=======================\n\nThe ``while`` statement is used for repeated execution as long as an\nexpression is true:\n\n   while_stmt ::= "while" expression ":" suite\n                  ["else" ":" suite]\n\nThis repeatedly tests the expression and, if it is true, executes the\nfirst suite; if the expression is false (which may be the first time\nit is tested) the suite of the ``else`` clause, if present, is\nexecuted and the loop terminates.\n\nA ``break`` statement executed in the first suite terminates the loop\nwithout executing the ``else`` clause\'s suite.  A ``continue``\nstatement executed in the first suite skips the rest of the suite and\ngoes back to testing the expression.\n\n\nThe ``for`` statement\n=====================\n\nThe ``for`` statement is used to iterate over the elements of a\nsequence (such as a string, tuple or list) or other iterable object:\n\n   for_stmt ::= "for" target_list "in" expression_list ":" suite\n                ["else" ":" suite]\n\nThe expression list is evaluated once; it should yield an iterable\nobject.  An iterator is created for the result of the\n``expression_list``.  The suite is then executed once for each item\nprovided by the iterator, in the order of ascending indices.  Each\nitem in turn is assigned to the target list using the standard rules\nfor assignments (see *Assignment statements*), and then the suite is\nexecuted.  When the items are exhausted (which is immediately when the\nsequence is empty or an iterator raises a ``StopIteration``\nexception), the suite in the ``else`` clause, if present, is executed,\nand the loop terminates.\n\nA ``break`` statement executed in the first suite terminates the loop\nwithout executing the ``else`` clause\'s suite.  A ``continue``\nstatement executed in the first suite skips the rest of the suite and\ncontinues with the next item, or with the ``else`` clause if there was\nno next item.\n\nThe suite may assign to the variable(s) in the target list; this does\nnot affect the next item assigned to it.\n\nNames in the target list are not deleted when the loop is finished,\nbut if the sequence is empty, it will not have been assigned to at all\nby the loop.  Hint: the built-in function ``range()`` returns an\niterator of integers suitable to emulate the effect of Pascal\'s ``for\ni := a to b do``; e.g., ``list(range(3))`` returns the list ``[0, 1,\n2]``.\n\nNote: There is a subtlety when the sequence is being modified by the loop\n  (this can only occur for mutable sequences, i.e. lists).  An\n  internal counter is used to keep track of which item is used next,\n  and this is incremented on each iteration.  When this counter has\n  reached the length of the sequence the loop terminates.  This means\n  that if the suite deletes the current (or a previous) item from the\n  sequence, the next item will be skipped (since it gets the index of\n  the current item which has already been treated).  Likewise, if the\n  suite inserts an item in the sequence before the current item, the\n  current item will be treated again the next time through the loop.\n  This can lead to nasty bugs that can be avoided by making a\n  temporary copy using a slice of the whole sequence, e.g.,\n\n     for x in a[:]:\n         if x < 0: a.remove(x)\n\n\nThe ``try`` statement\n=====================\n\nThe ``try`` statement specifies exception handlers and/or cleanup code\nfor a group of statements:\n\n   try_stmt  ::= try1_stmt | try2_stmt\n   try1_stmt ::= "try" ":" suite\n                 ("except" [expression ["as" target]] ":" suite)+\n                 ["else" ":" suite]\n                 ["finally" ":" suite]\n   try2_stmt ::= "try" ":" suite\n                 "finally" ":" suite\n\nThe ``except`` clause(s) specify one or more exception handlers. When\nno exception occurs in the ``try`` clause, no exception handler is\nexecuted. When an exception occurs in the ``try`` suite, a search for\nan exception handler is started.  This search inspects the except\nclauses in turn until one is found that matches the exception.  An\nexpression-less except clause, if present, must be last; it matches\nany exception.  For an except clause with an expression, that\nexpression is evaluated, and the clause matches the exception if the\nresulting object is "compatible" with the exception.  An object is\ncompatible with an exception if it is the class or a base class of the\nexception object or a tuple containing an item compatible with the\nexception.\n\nIf no except clause matches the exception, the search for an exception\nhandler continues in the surrounding code and on the invocation stack.\n[1]\n\nIf the evaluation of an expression in the header of an except clause\nraises an exception, the original search for a handler is canceled and\na search starts for the new exception in the surrounding code and on\nthe call stack (it is treated as if the entire ``try`` statement\nraised the exception).\n\nWhen a matching except clause is found, the exception is assigned to\nthe target specified after the ``as`` keyword in that except clause,\nif present, and the except clause\'s suite is executed.  All except\nclauses must have an executable block.  When the end of this block is\nreached, execution continues normally after the entire try statement.\n(This means that if two nested handlers exist for the same exception,\nand the exception occurs in the try clause of the inner handler, the\nouter handler will not handle the exception.)\n\nWhen an exception has been assigned using ``as target``, it is cleared\nat the end of the except clause.  This is as if\n\n   except E as N:\n       foo\n\nwas translated to\n\n   except E as N:\n       try:\n           foo\n       finally:\n           del N\n\nThis means the exception must be assigned to a different name to be\nable to refer to it after the except clause.  Exceptions are cleared\nbecause with the traceback attached to them, they form a reference\ncycle with the stack frame, keeping all locals in that frame alive\nuntil the next garbage collection occurs.\n\nBefore an except clause\'s suite is executed, details about the\nexception are stored in the ``sys`` module and can be access via\n``sys.exc_info()``. ``sys.exc_info()`` returns a 3-tuple consisting of\nthe exception class, the exception instance and a traceback object\n(see section *The standard type hierarchy*) identifying the point in\nthe program where the exception occurred.  ``sys.exc_info()`` values\nare restored to their previous values (before the call) when returning\nfrom a function that handled an exception.\n\nThe optional ``else`` clause is executed if and when control flows off\nthe end of the ``try`` clause. [2] Exceptions in the ``else`` clause\nare not handled by the preceding ``except`` clauses.\n\nIf ``finally`` is present, it specifies a \'cleanup\' handler.  The\n``try`` clause is executed, including any ``except`` and ``else``\nclauses.  If an exception occurs in any of the clauses and is not\nhandled, the exception is temporarily saved. The ``finally`` clause is\nexecuted.  If there is a saved exception, it is re-raised at the end\nof the ``finally`` clause. If the ``finally`` clause raises another\nexception or executes a ``return`` or ``break`` statement, the saved\nexception is set as the context of the new exception.  The exception\ninformation is not available to the program during execution of the\n``finally`` clause.\n\nWhen a ``return``, ``break`` or ``continue`` statement is executed in\nthe ``try`` suite of a ``try``...``finally`` statement, the\n``finally`` clause is also executed \'on the way out.\' A ``continue``\nstatement is illegal in the ``finally`` clause. (The reason is a\nproblem with the current implementation --- this restriction may be\nlifted in the future).\n\nAdditional information on exceptions can be found in section\n*Exceptions*, and information on using the ``raise`` statement to\ngenerate exceptions may be found in section *The raise statement*.\n\n\nThe ``with`` statement\n======================\n\nThe ``with`` statement is used to wrap the execution of a block with\nmethods defined by a context manager (see section *With Statement\nContext Managers*). This allows common\n``try``...``except``...``finally`` usage patterns to be encapsulated\nfor convenient reuse.\n\n   with_stmt ::= "with" with_item ("," with_item)* ":" suite\n   with_item ::= expression ["as" target]\n\nThe execution of the ``with`` statement with one "item" proceeds as\nfollows:\n\n1. The context expression (the expression given in the ``with_item``)\n   is evaluated to obtain a context manager.\n\n2. The context manager\'s ``__exit__()`` is loaded for later use.\n\n3. The context manager\'s ``__enter__()`` method is invoked.\n\n4. If a target was included in the ``with`` statement, the return\n   value from ``__enter__()`` is assigned to it.\n\n   Note: The ``with`` statement guarantees that if the ``__enter__()``\n     method returns without an error, then ``__exit__()`` will always\n     be called. Thus, if an error occurs during the assignment to the\n     target list, it will be treated the same as an error occurring\n     within the suite would be. See step 6 below.\n\n5. The suite is executed.\n\n6. The context manager\'s ``__exit__()`` method is invoked.  If an\n   exception caused the suite to be exited, its type, value, and\n   traceback are passed as arguments to ``__exit__()``. Otherwise,\n   three ``None`` arguments are supplied.\n\n   If the suite was exited due to an exception, and the return value\n   from the ``__exit__()`` method was false, the exception is\n   reraised.  If the return value was true, the exception is\n   suppressed, and execution continues with the statement following\n   the ``with`` statement.\n\n   If the suite was exited for any reason other than an exception, the\n   return value from ``__exit__()`` is ignored, and execution proceeds\n   at the normal location for the kind of exit that was taken.\n\nWith more than one item, the context managers are processed as if\nmultiple ``with`` statements were nested:\n\n   with A() as a, B() as b:\n       suite\n\nis equivalent to\n\n   with A() as a:\n       with B() as b:\n           suite\n\nChanged in version 3.1: Support for multiple context expressions.\n\nSee also:\n\n   **PEP 0343** - The "with" statement\n      The specification, background, and examples for the Python\n      ``with`` statement.\n\n\nFunction definitions\n====================\n\nA function definition defines a user-defined function object (see\nsection *The standard type hierarchy*):\n\n   funcdef        ::= [decorators] "def" funcname "(" [parameter_list] ")" ["->" expression] ":" suite\n   decorators     ::= decorator+\n   decorator      ::= "@" dotted_name ["(" [parameter_list [","]] ")"] NEWLINE\n   dotted_name    ::= identifier ("." identifier)*\n   parameter_list ::= (defparameter ",")*\n                      (  "*" [parameter] ("," defparameter)*\n                      [, "**" parameter]\n                      | "**" parameter\n                      | defparameter [","] )\n   parameter      ::= identifier [":" expression]\n   defparameter   ::= parameter ["=" expression]\n   funcname       ::= identifier\n\nA function definition is an executable statement.  Its execution binds\nthe function name in the current local namespace to a function object\n(a wrapper around the executable code for the function).  This\nfunction object contains a reference to the current global namespace\nas the global namespace to be used when the function is called.\n\nThe function definition does not execute the function body; this gets\nexecuted only when the function is called. [3]\n\nA function definition may be wrapped by one or more *decorator*\nexpressions. Decorator expressions are evaluated when the function is\ndefined, in the scope that contains the function definition.  The\nresult must be a callable, which is invoked with the function object\nas the only argument. The returned value is bound to the function name\ninstead of the function object.  Multiple decorators are applied in\nnested fashion. For example, the following code\n\n   @f1(arg)\n   @f2\n   def func(): pass\n\nis equivalent to\n\n   def func(): pass\n   func = f1(arg)(f2(func))\n\nWhen one or more parameters have the form *parameter* ``=``\n*expression*, the function is said to have "default parameter values."\nFor a parameter with a default value, the corresponding argument may\nbe omitted from a call, in which case the parameter\'s default value is\nsubstituted.  If a parameter has a default value, all following\nparameters up until the "``*``" must also have a default value ---\nthis is a syntactic restriction that is not expressed by the grammar.\n\n**Default parameter values are evaluated when the function definition\nis executed.** This means that the expression is evaluated once, when\nthe function is defined, and that the same "pre-computed" value is\nused for each call.  This is especially important to understand when a\ndefault parameter is a mutable object, such as a list or a dictionary:\nif the function modifies the object (e.g. by appending an item to a\nlist), the default value is in effect modified. This is generally not\nwhat was intended.  A way around this is to use ``None`` as the\ndefault, and explicitly test for it in the body of the function, e.g.:\n\n   def whats_on_the_telly(penguin=None):\n       if penguin is None:\n           penguin = []\n       penguin.append("property of the zoo")\n       return penguin\n\nFunction call semantics are described in more detail in section\n*Calls*. A function call always assigns values to all parameters\nmentioned in the parameter list, either from position arguments, from\nkeyword arguments, or from default values.  If the form\n"``*identifier``" is present, it is initialized to a tuple receiving\nany excess positional parameters, defaulting to the empty tuple.  If\nthe form "``**identifier``" is present, it is initialized to a new\ndictionary receiving any excess keyword arguments, defaulting to a new\nempty dictionary. Parameters after "``*``" or "``*identifier``" are\nkeyword-only parameters and may only be passed used keyword arguments.\n\nParameters may have annotations of the form "``: expression``"\nfollowing the parameter name.  Any parameter may have an annotation\neven those of the form ``*identifier`` or ``**identifier``.  Functions\nmay have "return" annotation of the form "``-> expression``" after the\nparameter list.  These annotations can be any valid Python expression\nand are evaluated when the function definition is executed.\nAnnotations may be evaluated in a different order than they appear in\nthe source code.  The presence of annotations does not change the\nsemantics of a function.  The annotation values are available as\nvalues of a dictionary keyed by the parameters\' names in the\n``__annotations__`` attribute of the function object.\n\nIt is also possible to create anonymous functions (functions not bound\nto a name), for immediate use in expressions.  This uses lambda forms,\ndescribed in section *Lambdas*.  Note that the lambda form is merely a\nshorthand for a simplified function definition; a function defined in\na "``def``" statement can be passed around or assigned to another name\njust like a function defined by a lambda form.  The "``def``" form is\nactually more powerful since it allows the execution of multiple\nstatements and annotations.\n\n**Programmer\'s note:** Functions are first-class objects.  A "``def``"\nform executed inside a function definition defines a local function\nthat can be returned or passed around.  Free variables used in the\nnested function can access the local variables of the function\ncontaining the def.  See section *Naming and binding* for details.\n\n\nClass definitions\n=================\n\nA class definition defines a class object (see section *The standard\ntype hierarchy*):\n\n   classdef    ::= [decorators] "class" classname [inheritance] ":" suite\n   inheritance ::= "(" [parameter_list] ")"\n   classname   ::= identifier\n\nA class definition is an executable statement.  The inheritance list\nusually gives a list of base classes (see *Customizing class creation*\nfor more advanced uses), so each item in the list should evaluate to a\nclass object which allows subclassing.  Classes without an inheritance\nlist inherit, by default, from the base class ``object``; hence,\n\n   class Foo:\n       pass\n\nis equivalent to\n\n   class Foo(object):\n       pass\n\nThe class\'s suite is then executed in a new execution frame (see\n*Naming and binding*), using a newly created local namespace and the\noriginal global namespace. (Usually, the suite contains mostly\nfunction definitions.)  When the class\'s suite finishes execution, its\nexecution frame is discarded but its local namespace is saved. [4] A\nclass object is then created using the inheritance list for the base\nclasses and the saved local namespace for the attribute dictionary.\nThe class name is bound to this class object in the original local\nnamespace.\n\nClass creation can be customized heavily using *metaclasses*.\n\nClasses can also be decorated: just like when decorating functions,\n\n   @f1(arg)\n   @f2\n   class Foo: pass\n\nis equivalent to\n\n   class Foo: pass\n   Foo = f1(arg)(f2(Foo))\n\nThe evaluation rules for the decorator expressions are the same as for\nfunction decorators.  The result must be a class object, which is then\nbound to the class name.\n\n**Programmer\'s note:** Variables defined in the class definition are\nclass attributes; they are shared by instances.  Instance attributes\ncan be set in a method with ``self.name = value``.  Both class and\ninstance attributes are accessible through the notation\n"``self.name``", and an instance attribute hides a class attribute\nwith the same name when accessed in this way.  Class attributes can be\nused as defaults for instance attributes, but using mutable values\nthere can lead to unexpected results.  *Descriptors* can be used to\ncreate instance variables with different implementation details.\n\nSee also:\n\n   **PEP 3115** - Metaclasses in Python 3 **PEP 3129** - Class\n   Decorators\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] The exception is propagated to the invocation stack unless there\n    is a ``finally`` clause which happens to raise another exception.\n    That new exception causes the old one to be lost.\n\n[2] Currently, control "flows off the end" except in the case of an\n    exception or the execution of a ``return``, ``continue``, or\n    ``break`` statement.\n\n[3] A string literal appearing as the first statement in the function\n    body is transformed into the function\'s ``__doc__`` attribute and\n    therefore the function\'s *docstring*.\n\n[4] A string literal appearing as the first statement in the class\n    body is transformed into the namespace\'s ``__doc__`` item and\n    therefore the class\'s *docstring*.\n',
  'context-managers': '\nWith Statement Context Managers\n*******************************\n\nA *context manager* is an object that defines the runtime context to\nbe established when executing a ``with`` statement. The context\nmanager handles the entry into, and the exit from, the desired runtime\ncontext for the execution of the block of code.  Context managers are\nnormally invoked using the ``with`` statement (described in section\n*The with statement*), but can also be used by directly invoking their\nmethods.\n\nTypical uses of context managers include saving and restoring various\nkinds of global state, locking and unlocking resources, closing opened\nfiles, etc.\n\nFor more information on context managers, see *Context Manager Types*.\n\nobject.__enter__(self)\n\n   Enter the runtime context related to this object. The ``with``\n   statement will bind this method\'s return value to the target(s)\n   specified in the ``as`` clause of the statement, if any.\n\nobject.__exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, traceback)\n\n   Exit the runtime context related to this object. The parameters\n   describe the exception that caused the context to be exited. If the\n   context was exited without an exception, all three arguments will\n   be ``None``.\n\n   If an exception is supplied, and the method wishes to suppress the\n   exception (i.e., prevent it from being propagated), it should\n   return a true value. Otherwise, the exception will be processed\n   normally upon exit from this method.\n\n   Note that ``__exit__()`` methods should not reraise the passed-in\n   exception; this is the caller\'s responsibility.\n\nSee also:\n\n   **PEP 0343** - The "with" statement\n      The specification, background, and examples for the Python\n      ``with`` statement.\n',
  'continue': '\nThe ``continue`` statement\n**************************\n\n   continue_stmt ::= "continue"\n\n``continue`` may only occur syntactically nested in a ``for`` or\n``while`` loop, but not nested in a function or class definition or\n``finally`` clause within that loop.  It continues with the next cycle\nof the nearest enclosing loop.\n\nWhen ``continue`` passes control out of a ``try`` statement with a\n``finally`` clause, that ``finally`` clause is executed before really\nstarting the next loop cycle.\n',
  'conversions': '\nArithmetic conversions\n**********************\n\nWhen a description of an arithmetic operator below uses the phrase\n"the numeric arguments are converted to a common type," this means\nthat the operator implementation for built-in types works that way:\n\n* If either argument is a complex number, the other is converted to\n  complex;\n\n* otherwise, if either argument is a floating point number, the other\n  is converted to floating point;\n\n* otherwise, both must be integers and no conversion is necessary.\n\nSome additional rules apply for certain operators (e.g., a string left\nargument to the \'%\' operator).  Extensions must define their own\nconversion behavior.\n',
- 'customization': '\nBasic customization\n*******************\n\nobject.__new__(cls[, ...])\n\n   Called to create a new instance of class *cls*.  ``__new__()`` is a\n   static method (special-cased so you need not declare it as such)\n   that takes the class of which an instance was requested as its\n   first argument.  The remaining arguments are those passed to the\n   object constructor expression (the call to the class).  The return\n   value of ``__new__()`` should be the new object instance (usually\n   an instance of *cls*).\n\n   Typical implementations create a new instance of the class by\n   invoking the superclass\'s ``__new__()`` method using\n   ``super(currentclass, cls).__new__(cls[, ...])`` with appropriate\n   arguments and then modifying the newly-created instance as\n   necessary before returning it.\n\n   If ``__new__()`` returns an instance of *cls*, then the new\n   instance\'s ``__init__()`` method will be invoked like\n   ``__init__(self[, ...])``, where *self* is the new instance and the\n   remaining arguments are the same as were passed to ``__new__()``.\n\n   If ``__new__()`` does not return an instance of *cls*, then the new\n   instance\'s ``__init__()`` method will not be invoked.\n\n   ``__new__()`` is intended mainly to allow subclasses of immutable\n   types (like int, str, or tuple) to customize instance creation.  It\n   is also commonly overridden in custom metaclasses in order to\n   customize class creation.\n\nobject.__init__(self[, ...])\n\n   Called when the instance is created.  The arguments are those\n   passed to the class constructor expression.  If a base class has an\n   ``__init__()`` method, the derived class\'s ``__init__()`` method,\n   if any, must explicitly call it to ensure proper initialization of\n   the base class part of the instance; for example:\n   ``BaseClass.__init__(self, [args...])``.  As a special constraint\n   on constructors, no value may be returned; doing so will cause a\n   ``TypeError`` to be raised at runtime.\n\nobject.__del__(self)\n\n   Called when the instance is about to be destroyed.  This is also\n   called a destructor.  If a base class has a ``__del__()`` method,\n   the derived class\'s ``__del__()`` method, if any, must explicitly\n   call it to ensure proper deletion of the base class part of the\n   instance.  Note that it is possible (though not recommended!) for\n   the ``__del__()`` method to postpone destruction of the instance by\n   creating a new reference to it.  It may then be called at a later\n   time when this new reference is deleted.  It is not guaranteed that\n   ``__del__()`` methods are called for objects that still exist when\n   the interpreter exits.\n\n   Note: ``del x`` doesn\'t directly call ``x.__del__()`` --- the former\n     decrements the reference count for ``x`` by one, and the latter\n     is only called when ``x``\'s reference count reaches zero.  Some\n     common situations that may prevent the reference count of an\n     object from going to zero include: circular references between\n     objects (e.g., a doubly-linked list or a tree data structure with\n     parent and child pointers); a reference to the object on the\n     stack frame of a function that caught an exception (the traceback\n     stored in ``sys.exc_info()[2]`` keeps the stack frame alive); or\n     a reference to the object on the stack frame that raised an\n     unhandled exception in interactive mode (the traceback stored in\n     ``sys.last_traceback`` keeps the stack frame alive).  The first\n     situation can only be remedied by explicitly breaking the cycles;\n     the latter two situations can be resolved by storing ``None`` in\n     ``sys.last_traceback``. Circular references which are garbage are\n     detected when the option cycle detector is enabled (it\'s on by\n     default), but can only be cleaned up if there are no Python-\n     level ``__del__()`` methods involved. Refer to the documentation\n     for the ``gc`` module for more information about how\n     ``__del__()`` methods are handled by the cycle detector,\n     particularly the description of the ``garbage`` value.\n\n   Warning: Due to the precarious circumstances under which ``__del__()``\n     methods are invoked, exceptions that occur during their execution\n     are ignored, and a warning is printed to ``sys.stderr`` instead.\n     Also, when ``__del__()`` is invoked in response to a module being\n     deleted (e.g., when execution of the program is done), other\n     globals referenced by the ``__del__()`` method may already have\n     been deleted or in the process of being torn down (e.g. the\n     import machinery shutting down).  For this reason, ``__del__()``\n     methods should do the absolute minimum needed to maintain\n     external invariants.  Starting with version 1.5, Python\n     guarantees that globals whose name begins with a single\n     underscore are deleted from their module before other globals are\n     deleted; if no other references to such globals exist, this may\n     help in assuring that imported modules are still available at the\n     time when the ``__del__()`` method is called.\n\nobject.__repr__(self)\n\n   Called by the ``repr()`` built-in function to compute the\n   "official" string representation of an object.  If at all possible,\n   this should look like a valid Python expression that could be used\n   to recreate an object with the same value (given an appropriate\n   environment).  If this is not possible, a string of the form\n   ``<...some useful description...>`` should be returned. The return\n   value must be a string object. If a class defines ``__repr__()``\n   but not ``__str__()``, then ``__repr__()`` is also used when an\n   "informal" string representation of instances of that class is\n   required.\n\n   This is typically used for debugging, so it is important that the\n   representation is information-rich and unambiguous.\n\nobject.__str__(self)\n\n   Called by the ``str()`` built-in function and by the ``print()``\n   function to compute the "informal" string representation of an\n   object.  This differs from ``__repr__()`` in that it does not have\n   to be a valid Python expression: a more convenient or concise\n   representation may be used instead. The return value must be a\n   string object.\n\nobject.__format__(self, format_spec)\n\n   Called by the ``format()`` built-in function (and by extension, the\n   ``format()`` method of class ``str``) to produce a "formatted"\n   string representation of an object. The ``format_spec`` argument is\n   a string that contains a description of the formatting options\n   desired. The interpretation of the ``format_spec`` argument is up\n   to the type implementing ``__format__()``, however most classes\n   will either delegate formatting to one of the built-in types, or\n   use a similar formatting option syntax.\n\n   See *Format Specification Mini-Language* for a description of the\n   standard formatting syntax.\n\n   The return value must be a string object.\n\nobject.__lt__(self, other)\nobject.__le__(self, other)\nobject.__eq__(self, other)\nobject.__ne__(self, other)\nobject.__gt__(self, other)\nobject.__ge__(self, other)\n\n   These are the so-called "rich comparison" methods. The\n   correspondence between operator symbols and method names is as\n   follows: ``x<y`` calls ``x.__lt__(y)``, ``x<=y`` calls\n   ``x.__le__(y)``, ``x==y`` calls ``x.__eq__(y)``, ``x!=y`` calls\n   ``x.__ne__(y)``, ``x>y`` calls ``x.__gt__(y)``, and ``x>=y`` calls\n   ``x.__ge__(y)``.\n\n   A rich comparison method may return the singleton\n   ``NotImplemented`` if it does not implement the operation for a\n   given pair of arguments. By convention, ``False`` and ``True`` are\n   returned for a successful comparison. However, these methods can\n   return any value, so if the comparison operator is used in a\n   Boolean context (e.g., in the condition of an ``if`` statement),\n   Python will call ``bool()`` on the value to determine if the result\n   is true or false.\n\n   There are no implied relationships among the comparison operators.\n   The truth of ``x==y`` does not imply that ``x!=y`` is false.\n   Accordingly, when defining ``__eq__()``, one should also define\n   ``__ne__()`` so that the operators will behave as expected.  See\n   the paragraph on ``__hash__()`` for some important notes on\n   creating *hashable* objects which support custom comparison\n   operations and are usable as dictionary keys.\n\n   There are no swapped-argument versions of these methods (to be used\n   when the left argument does not support the operation but the right\n   argument does); rather, ``__lt__()`` and ``__gt__()`` are each\n   other\'s reflection, ``__le__()`` and ``__ge__()`` are each other\'s\n   reflection, and ``__eq__()`` and ``__ne__()`` are their own\n   reflection.\n\n   Arguments to rich comparison methods are never coerced.\n\n   To automatically generate ordering operations from a single root\n   operation, see ``functools.total_ordering()``.\n\nobject.__hash__(self)\n\n   Called by built-in function ``hash()`` and for operations on\n   members of hashed collections including ``set``, ``frozenset``, and\n   ``dict``.  ``__hash__()`` should return an integer.  The only\n   required property is that objects which compare equal have the same\n   hash value; it is advised to somehow mix together (e.g. using\n   exclusive or) the hash values for the components of the object that\n   also play a part in comparison of objects.\n\n   If a class does not define an ``__eq__()`` method it should not\n   define a ``__hash__()`` operation either; if it defines\n   ``__eq__()`` but not ``__hash__()``, its instances will not be\n   usable as items in hashable collections.  If a class defines\n   mutable objects and implements an ``__eq__()`` method, it should\n   not implement ``__hash__()``, since the implementation of hashable\n   collections requires that a key\'s hash value is immutable (if the\n   object\'s hash value changes, it will be in the wrong hash bucket).\n\n   User-defined classes have ``__eq__()`` and ``__hash__()`` methods\n   by default; with them, all objects compare unequal (except with\n   themselves) and ``x.__hash__()`` returns ``id(x)``.\n\n   Classes which inherit a ``__hash__()`` method from a parent class\n   but change the meaning of ``__eq__()`` such that the hash value\n   returned is no longer appropriate (e.g. by switching to a value-\n   based concept of equality instead of the default identity based\n   equality) can explicitly flag themselves as being unhashable by\n   setting ``__hash__ = None`` in the class definition. Doing so means\n   that not only will instances of the class raise an appropriate\n   ``TypeError`` when a program attempts to retrieve their hash value,\n   but they will also be correctly identified as unhashable when\n   checking ``isinstance(obj, collections.Hashable)`` (unlike classes\n   which define their own ``__hash__()`` to explicitly raise\n   ``TypeError``).\n\n   If a class that overrides ``__eq__()`` needs to retain the\n   implementation of ``__hash__()`` from a parent class, the\n   interpreter must be told this explicitly by setting ``__hash__ =\n   <ParentClass>.__hash__``. Otherwise the inheritance of\n   ``__hash__()`` will be blocked, just as if ``__hash__`` had been\n   explicitly set to ``None``.\n\nobject.__bool__(self)\n\n   Called to implement truth value testing and the built-in operation\n   ``bool()``; should return ``False`` or ``True``.  When this method\n   is not defined, ``__len__()`` is called, if it is defined, and the\n   object is considered true if its result is nonzero.  If a class\n   defines neither ``__len__()`` nor ``__bool__()``, all its instances\n   are considered true.\n',
+ 'customization': '\nBasic customization\n*******************\n\nobject.__new__(cls[, ...])\n\n   Called to create a new instance of class *cls*.  ``__new__()`` is a\n   static method (special-cased so you need not declare it as such)\n   that takes the class of which an instance was requested as its\n   first argument.  The remaining arguments are those passed to the\n   object constructor expression (the call to the class).  The return\n   value of ``__new__()`` should be the new object instance (usually\n   an instance of *cls*).\n\n   Typical implementations create a new instance of the class by\n   invoking the superclass\'s ``__new__()`` method using\n   ``super(currentclass, cls).__new__(cls[, ...])`` with appropriate\n   arguments and then modifying the newly-created instance as\n   necessary before returning it.\n\n   If ``__new__()`` returns an instance of *cls*, then the new\n   instance\'s ``__init__()`` method will be invoked like\n   ``__init__(self[, ...])``, where *self* is the new instance and the\n   remaining arguments are the same as were passed to ``__new__()``.\n\n   If ``__new__()`` does not return an instance of *cls*, then the new\n   instance\'s ``__init__()`` method will not be invoked.\n\n   ``__new__()`` is intended mainly to allow subclasses of immutable\n   types (like int, str, or tuple) to customize instance creation.  It\n   is also commonly overridden in custom metaclasses in order to\n   customize class creation.\n\nobject.__init__(self[, ...])\n\n   Called when the instance is created.  The arguments are those\n   passed to the class constructor expression.  If a base class has an\n   ``__init__()`` method, the derived class\'s ``__init__()`` method,\n   if any, must explicitly call it to ensure proper initialization of\n   the base class part of the instance; for example:\n   ``BaseClass.__init__(self, [args...])``.  As a special constraint\n   on constructors, no value may be returned; doing so will cause a\n   ``TypeError`` to be raised at runtime.\n\nobject.__del__(self)\n\n   Called when the instance is about to be destroyed.  This is also\n   called a destructor.  If a base class has a ``__del__()`` method,\n   the derived class\'s ``__del__()`` method, if any, must explicitly\n   call it to ensure proper deletion of the base class part of the\n   instance.  Note that it is possible (though not recommended!) for\n   the ``__del__()`` method to postpone destruction of the instance by\n   creating a new reference to it.  It may then be called at a later\n   time when this new reference is deleted.  It is not guaranteed that\n   ``__del__()`` methods are called for objects that still exist when\n   the interpreter exits.\n\n   Note: ``del x`` doesn\'t directly call ``x.__del__()`` --- the former\n     decrements the reference count for ``x`` by one, and the latter\n     is only called when ``x``\'s reference count reaches zero.  Some\n     common situations that may prevent the reference count of an\n     object from going to zero include: circular references between\n     objects (e.g., a doubly-linked list or a tree data structure with\n     parent and child pointers); a reference to the object on the\n     stack frame of a function that caught an exception (the traceback\n     stored in ``sys.exc_info()[2]`` keeps the stack frame alive); or\n     a reference to the object on the stack frame that raised an\n     unhandled exception in interactive mode (the traceback stored in\n     ``sys.last_traceback`` keeps the stack frame alive).  The first\n     situation can only be remedied by explicitly breaking the cycles;\n     the latter two situations can be resolved by storing ``None`` in\n     ``sys.last_traceback``. Circular references which are garbage are\n     detected when the option cycle detector is enabled (it\'s on by\n     default), but can only be cleaned up if there are no Python-\n     level ``__del__()`` methods involved. Refer to the documentation\n     for the ``gc`` module for more information about how\n     ``__del__()`` methods are handled by the cycle detector,\n     particularly the description of the ``garbage`` value.\n\n   Warning: Due to the precarious circumstances under which ``__del__()``\n     methods are invoked, exceptions that occur during their execution\n     are ignored, and a warning is printed to ``sys.stderr`` instead.\n     Also, when ``__del__()`` is invoked in response to a module being\n     deleted (e.g., when execution of the program is done), other\n     globals referenced by the ``__del__()`` method may already have\n     been deleted or in the process of being torn down (e.g. the\n     import machinery shutting down).  For this reason, ``__del__()``\n     methods should do the absolute minimum needed to maintain\n     external invariants.  Starting with version 1.5, Python\n     guarantees that globals whose name begins with a single\n     underscore are deleted from their module before other globals are\n     deleted; if no other references to such globals exist, this may\n     help in assuring that imported modules are still available at the\n     time when the ``__del__()`` method is called.\n\nobject.__repr__(self)\n\n   Called by the ``repr()`` built-in function to compute the\n   "official" string representation of an object.  If at all possible,\n   this should look like a valid Python expression that could be used\n   to recreate an object with the same value (given an appropriate\n   environment).  If this is not possible, a string of the form\n   ``<...some useful description...>`` should be returned. The return\n   value must be a string object. If a class defines ``__repr__()``\n   but not ``__str__()``, then ``__repr__()`` is also used when an\n   "informal" string representation of instances of that class is\n   required.\n\n   This is typically used for debugging, so it is important that the\n   representation is information-rich and unambiguous.\n\nobject.__str__(self)\n\n   Called by the ``str()`` built-in function and by the ``print()``\n   function to compute the "informal" string representation of an\n   object.  This differs from ``__repr__()`` in that it does not have\n   to be a valid Python expression: a more convenient or concise\n   representation may be used instead. The return value must be a\n   string object.\n\nobject.__bytes__(self)\n\n   Called by ``bytes()`` to compute a byte-string representation of an\n   object. This should return a ``bytes`` object.\n\nobject.__format__(self, format_spec)\n\n   Called by the ``format()`` built-in function (and by extension, the\n   ``format()`` method of class ``str``) to produce a "formatted"\n   string representation of an object. The ``format_spec`` argument is\n   a string that contains a description of the formatting options\n   desired. The interpretation of the ``format_spec`` argument is up\n   to the type implementing ``__format__()``, however most classes\n   will either delegate formatting to one of the built-in types, or\n   use a similar formatting option syntax.\n\n   See *Format Specification Mini-Language* for a description of the\n   standard formatting syntax.\n\n   The return value must be a string object.\n\nobject.__lt__(self, other)\nobject.__le__(self, other)\nobject.__eq__(self, other)\nobject.__ne__(self, other)\nobject.__gt__(self, other)\nobject.__ge__(self, other)\n\n   These are the so-called "rich comparison" methods. The\n   correspondence between operator symbols and method names is as\n   follows: ``x<y`` calls ``x.__lt__(y)``, ``x<=y`` calls\n   ``x.__le__(y)``, ``x==y`` calls ``x.__eq__(y)``, ``x!=y`` calls\n   ``x.__ne__(y)``, ``x>y`` calls ``x.__gt__(y)``, and ``x>=y`` calls\n   ``x.__ge__(y)``.\n\n   A rich comparison method may return the singleton\n   ``NotImplemented`` if it does not implement the operation for a\n   given pair of arguments. By convention, ``False`` and ``True`` are\n   returned for a successful comparison. However, these methods can\n   return any value, so if the comparison operator is used in a\n   Boolean context (e.g., in the condition of an ``if`` statement),\n   Python will call ``bool()`` on the value to determine if the result\n   is true or false.\n\n   There are no implied relationships among the comparison operators.\n   The truth of ``x==y`` does not imply that ``x!=y`` is false.\n   Accordingly, when defining ``__eq__()``, one should also define\n   ``__ne__()`` so that the operators will behave as expected.  See\n   the paragraph on ``__hash__()`` for some important notes on\n   creating *hashable* objects which support custom comparison\n   operations and are usable as dictionary keys.\n\n   There are no swapped-argument versions of these methods (to be used\n   when the left argument does not support the operation but the right\n   argument does); rather, ``__lt__()`` and ``__gt__()`` are each\n   other\'s reflection, ``__le__()`` and ``__ge__()`` are each other\'s\n   reflection, and ``__eq__()`` and ``__ne__()`` are their own\n   reflection.\n\n   Arguments to rich comparison methods are never coerced.\n\n   To automatically generate ordering operations from a single root\n   operation, see ``functools.total_ordering()``.\n\nobject.__hash__(self)\n\n   Called by built-in function ``hash()`` and for operations on\n   members of hashed collections including ``set``, ``frozenset``, and\n   ``dict``.  ``__hash__()`` should return an integer.  The only\n   required property is that objects which compare equal have the same\n   hash value; it is advised to somehow mix together (e.g. using\n   exclusive or) the hash values for the components of the object that\n   also play a part in comparison of objects.\n\n   If a class does not define an ``__eq__()`` method it should not\n   define a ``__hash__()`` operation either; if it defines\n   ``__eq__()`` but not ``__hash__()``, its instances will not be\n   usable as items in hashable collections.  If a class defines\n   mutable objects and implements an ``__eq__()`` method, it should\n   not implement ``__hash__()``, since the implementation of hashable\n   collections requires that a key\'s hash value is immutable (if the\n   object\'s hash value changes, it will be in the wrong hash bucket).\n\n   User-defined classes have ``__eq__()`` and ``__hash__()`` methods\n   by default; with them, all objects compare unequal (except with\n   themselves) and ``x.__hash__()`` returns ``id(x)``.\n\n   Classes which inherit a ``__hash__()`` method from a parent class\n   but change the meaning of ``__eq__()`` such that the hash value\n   returned is no longer appropriate (e.g. by switching to a value-\n   based concept of equality instead of the default identity based\n   equality) can explicitly flag themselves as being unhashable by\n   setting ``__hash__ = None`` in the class definition. Doing so means\n   that not only will instances of the class raise an appropriate\n   ``TypeError`` when a program attempts to retrieve their hash value,\n   but they will also be correctly identified as unhashable when\n   checking ``isinstance(obj, collections.Hashable)`` (unlike classes\n   which define their own ``__hash__()`` to explicitly raise\n   ``TypeError``).\n\n   If a class that overrides ``__eq__()`` needs to retain the\n   implementation of ``__hash__()`` from a parent class, the\n   interpreter must be told this explicitly by setting ``__hash__ =\n   <ParentClass>.__hash__``. Otherwise the inheritance of\n   ``__hash__()`` will be blocked, just as if ``__hash__`` had been\n   explicitly set to ``None``.\n\n   Note: Note by default the ``__hash__()`` values of str, bytes and\n     datetime objects are "salted" with an unpredictable random value.\n     Although they remain constant within an individual Python\n     process, they are not predictable between repeated invocations of\n     Python.This is intended to provide protection against a denial-\n     of-service caused by carefully-chosen inputs that exploit the\n     worst case performance of a dict insertion, O(n^2) complexity.\n     See http://www.ocert.org/advisories/ocert-2011-003.html for\n     details.Changing hash values affects the order in which keys are\n     retrieved from a dict.  Note Python has never made guarantees\n     about this ordering (and it typically varies between 32-bit and\n     64-bit builds).See also ``PYTHONHASHSEED``.\n\n   Changed in version 3.3: Hash randomization is enabled by default.\n\nobject.__bool__(self)\n\n   Called to implement truth value testing and the built-in operation\n   ``bool()``; should return ``False`` or ``True``.  When this method\n   is not defined, ``__len__()`` is called, if it is defined, and the\n   object is considered true if its result is nonzero.  If a class\n   defines neither ``__len__()`` nor ``__bool__()``, all its instances\n   are considered true.\n',
  'debugger': '\n``pdb`` --- The Python Debugger\n*******************************\n\nThe module ``pdb`` defines an interactive source code debugger for\nPython programs.  It supports setting (conditional) breakpoints and\nsingle stepping at the source line level, inspection of stack frames,\nsource code listing, and evaluation of arbitrary Python code in the\ncontext of any stack frame.  It also supports post-mortem debugging\nand can be called under program control.\n\nThe debugger is extensible -- it is actually defined as the class\n``Pdb``. This is currently undocumented but easily understood by\nreading the source.  The extension interface uses the modules ``bdb``\nand ``cmd``.\n\nThe debugger\'s prompt is ``(Pdb)``. Typical usage to run a program\nunder control of the debugger is:\n\n   >>> import pdb\n   >>> import mymodule\n   >>> pdb.run(\'mymodule.test()\')\n   > <string>(0)?()\n   (Pdb) continue\n   > <string>(1)?()\n   (Pdb) continue\n   NameError: \'spam\'\n   > <string>(1)?()\n   (Pdb)\n\n``pdb.py`` can also be invoked as a script to debug other scripts.\nFor example:\n\n   python3 -m pdb myscript.py\n\nWhen invoked as a script, pdb will automatically enter post-mortem\ndebugging if the program being debugged exits abnormally.  After post-\nmortem debugging (or after normal exit of the program), pdb will\nrestart the program.  Automatic restarting preserves pdb\'s state (such\nas breakpoints) and in most cases is more useful than quitting the\ndebugger upon program\'s exit.\n\nNew in version 3.2: ``pdb.py`` now accepts a ``-c`` option that\nexecutes commands as if given in a ``.pdbrc`` file, see *Debugger\nCommands*.\n\nThe typical usage to break into the debugger from a running program is\nto insert\n\n   import pdb; pdb.set_trace()\n\nat the location you want to break into the debugger.  You can then\nstep through the code following this statement, and continue running\nwithout the debugger using the ``continue`` command.\n\nThe typical usage to inspect a crashed program is:\n\n   >>> import pdb\n   >>> import mymodule\n   >>> mymodule.test()\n   Traceback (most recent call last):\n     File "<stdin>", line 1, in ?\n     File "./mymodule.py", line 4, in test\n       test2()\n     File "./mymodule.py", line 3, in test2\n       print(spam)\n   NameError: spam\n   >>> pdb.pm()\n   > ./mymodule.py(3)test2()\n   -> print(spam)\n   (Pdb)\n\nThe module defines the following functions; each enters the debugger\nin a slightly different way:\n\npdb.run(statement, globals=None, locals=None)\n\n   Execute the *statement* (given as a string or a code object) under\n   debugger control.  The debugger prompt appears before any code is\n   executed; you can set breakpoints and type ``continue``, or you can\n   step through the statement using ``step`` or ``next`` (all these\n   commands are explained below).  The optional *globals* and *locals*\n   arguments specify the environment in which the code is executed; by\n   default the dictionary of the module ``__main__`` is used.  (See\n   the explanation of the built-in ``exec()`` or ``eval()``\n   functions.)\n\npdb.runeval(expression, globals=None, locals=None)\n\n   Evaluate the *expression* (given as a string or a code object)\n   under debugger control.  When ``runeval()`` returns, it returns the\n   value of the expression.  Otherwise this function is similar to\n   ``run()``.\n\npdb.runcall(function, *args, **kwds)\n\n   Call the *function* (a function or method object, not a string)\n   with the given arguments.  When ``runcall()`` returns, it returns\n   whatever the function call returned.  The debugger prompt appears\n   as soon as the function is entered.\n\npdb.set_trace()\n\n   Enter the debugger at the calling stack frame.  This is useful to\n   hard-code a breakpoint at a given point in a program, even if the\n   code is not otherwise being debugged (e.g. when an assertion\n   fails).\n\npdb.post_mortem(traceback=None)\n\n   Enter post-mortem debugging of the given *traceback* object.  If no\n   *traceback* is given, it uses the one of the exception that is\n   currently being handled (an exception must be being handled if the\n   default is to be used).\n\npdb.pm()\n\n   Enter post-mortem debugging of the traceback found in\n   ``sys.last_traceback``.\n\nThe ``run*`` functions and ``set_trace()`` are aliases for\ninstantiating the ``Pdb`` class and calling the method of the same\nname.  If you want to access further features, you have to do this\nyourself:\n\nclass class pdb.Pdb(completekey=\'tab\', stdin=None, stdout=None, skip=None, nosigint=False)\n\n   ``Pdb`` is the debugger class.\n\n   The *completekey*, *stdin* and *stdout* arguments are passed to the\n   underlying ``cmd.Cmd`` class; see the description there.\n\n   The *skip* argument, if given, must be an iterable of glob-style\n   module name patterns.  The debugger will not step into frames that\n   originate in a module that matches one of these patterns. [1]\n\n   By default, Pdb sets a handler for the SIGINT signal (which is sent\n   when the user presses Ctrl-C on the console) when you give a\n   ``continue`` command. This allows you to break into the debugger\n   again by pressing Ctrl-C.  If you want Pdb not to touch the SIGINT\n   handler, set *nosigint* tot true.\n\n   Example call to enable tracing with *skip*:\n\n      import pdb; pdb.Pdb(skip=[\'django.*\']).set_trace()\n\n   New in version 3.1: The *skip* argument.\n\n   New in version 3.2: The *nosigint* argument.  Previously, a SIGINT\n   handler was never set by Pdb.\n\n   run(statement, globals=None, locals=None)\n   runeval(expression, globals=None, locals=None)\n   runcall(function, *args, **kwds)\n   set_trace()\n\n      See the documentation for the functions explained above.\n\n\nDebugger Commands\n=================\n\nThe commands recognized by the debugger are listed below.  Most\ncommands can be abbreviated to one or two letters as indicated; e.g.\n``h(elp)`` means that either ``h`` or ``help`` can be used to enter\nthe help command (but not ``he`` or ``hel``, nor ``H`` or ``Help`` or\n``HELP``).  Arguments to commands must be separated by whitespace\n(spaces or tabs).  Optional arguments are enclosed in square brackets\n(``[]``) in the command syntax; the square brackets must not be typed.\nAlternatives in the command syntax are separated by a vertical bar\n(``|``).\n\nEntering a blank line repeats the last command entered.  Exception: if\nthe last command was a ``list`` command, the next 11 lines are listed.\n\nCommands that the debugger doesn\'t recognize are assumed to be Python\nstatements and are executed in the context of the program being\ndebugged.  Python statements can also be prefixed with an exclamation\npoint (``!``).  This is a powerful way to inspect the program being\ndebugged; it is even possible to change a variable or call a function.\nWhen an exception occurs in such a statement, the exception name is\nprinted but the debugger\'s state is not changed.\n\nThe debugger supports *aliases*.  Aliases can have parameters which\nallows one a certain level of adaptability to the context under\nexamination.\n\nMultiple commands may be entered on a single line, separated by\n``;;``.  (A single ``;`` is not used as it is the separator for\nmultiple commands in a line that is passed to the Python parser.)  No\nintelligence is applied to separating the commands; the input is split\nat the first ``;;`` pair, even if it is in the middle of a quoted\nstring.\n\nIf a file ``.pdbrc`` exists in the user\'s home directory or in the\ncurrent directory, it is read in and executed as if it had been typed\nat the debugger prompt.  This is particularly useful for aliases.  If\nboth files exist, the one in the home directory is read first and\naliases defined there can be overridden by the local file.\n\nChanged in version 3.2: ``.pdbrc`` can now contain commands that\ncontinue debugging, such as ``continue`` or ``next``.  Previously,\nthese commands had no effect.\n\nh(elp) [command]\n\n   Without argument, print the list of available commands.  With a\n   *command* as argument, print help about that command.  ``help pdb``\n   displays the full documentation (the docstring of the ``pdb``\n   module).  Since the *command* argument must be an identifier,\n   ``help exec`` must be entered to get help on the ``!`` command.\n\nw(here)\n\n   Print a stack trace, with the most recent frame at the bottom.  An\n   arrow indicates the current frame, which determines the context of\n   most commands.\n\nd(own) [count]\n\n   Move the current frame *count* (default one) levels down in the\n   stack trace (to a newer frame).\n\nu(p) [count]\n\n   Move the current frame *count* (default one) levels up in the stack\n   trace (to an older frame).\n\nb(reak) [([filename:]lineno | function) [, condition]]\n\n   With a *lineno* argument, set a break there in the current file.\n   With a *function* argument, set a break at the first executable\n   statement within that function.  The line number may be prefixed\n   with a filename and a colon, to specify a breakpoint in another\n   file (probably one that hasn\'t been loaded yet).  The file is\n   searched on ``sys.path``.  Note that each breakpoint is assigned a\n   number to which all the other breakpoint commands refer.\n\n   If a second argument is present, it is an expression which must\n   evaluate to true before the breakpoint is honored.\n\n   Without argument, list all breaks, including for each breakpoint,\n   the number of times that breakpoint has been hit, the current\n   ignore count, and the associated condition if any.\n\ntbreak [([filename:]lineno | function) [, condition]]\n\n   Temporary breakpoint, which is removed automatically when it is\n   first hit. The arguments are the same as for ``break``.\n\ncl(ear) [filename:lineno | bpnumber [bpnumber ...]]\n\n   With a *filename:lineno* argument, clear all the breakpoints at\n   this line. With a space separated list of breakpoint numbers, clear\n   those breakpoints. Without argument, clear all breaks (but first\n   ask confirmation).\n\ndisable [bpnumber [bpnumber ...]]\n\n   Disable the breakpoints given as a space separated list of\n   breakpoint numbers.  Disabling a breakpoint means it cannot cause\n   the program to stop execution, but unlike clearing a breakpoint, it\n   remains in the list of breakpoints and can be (re-)enabled.\n\nenable [bpnumber [bpnumber ...]]\n\n   Enable the breakpoints specified.\n\nignore bpnumber [count]\n\n   Set the ignore count for the given breakpoint number.  If count is\n   omitted, the ignore count is set to 0.  A breakpoint becomes active\n   when the ignore count is zero.  When non-zero, the count is\n   decremented each time the breakpoint is reached and the breakpoint\n   is not disabled and any associated condition evaluates to true.\n\ncondition bpnumber [condition]\n\n   Set a new *condition* for the breakpoint, an expression which must\n   evaluate to true before the breakpoint is honored.  If *condition*\n   is absent, any existing condition is removed; i.e., the breakpoint\n   is made unconditional.\n\ncommands [bpnumber]\n\n   Specify a list of commands for breakpoint number *bpnumber*.  The\n   commands themselves appear on the following lines.  Type a line\n   containing just ``end`` to terminate the commands. An example:\n\n      (Pdb) commands 1\n      (com) print some_variable\n      (com) end\n      (Pdb)\n\n   To remove all commands from a breakpoint, type commands and follow\n   it immediately with ``end``; that is, give no commands.\n\n   With no *bpnumber* argument, commands refers to the last breakpoint\n   set.\n\n   You can use breakpoint commands to start your program up again.\n   Simply use the continue command, or step, or any other command that\n   resumes execution.\n\n   Specifying any command resuming execution (currently continue,\n   step, next, return, jump, quit and their abbreviations) terminates\n   the command list (as if that command was immediately followed by\n   end). This is because any time you resume execution (even with a\n   simple next or step), you may encounter another breakpoint--which\n   could have its own command list, leading to ambiguities about which\n   list to execute.\n\n   If you use the \'silent\' command in the command list, the usual\n   message about stopping at a breakpoint is not printed.  This may be\n   desirable for breakpoints that are to print a specific message and\n   then continue.  If none of the other commands print anything, you\n   see no sign that the breakpoint was reached.\n\ns(tep)\n\n   Execute the current line, stop at the first possible occasion\n   (either in a function that is called or on the next line in the\n   current function).\n\nn(ext)\n\n   Continue execution until the next line in the current function is\n   reached or it returns.  (The difference between ``next`` and\n   ``step`` is that ``step`` stops inside a called function, while\n   ``next`` executes called functions at (nearly) full speed, only\n   stopping at the next line in the current function.)\n\nunt(il) [lineno]\n\n   Without argument, continue execution until the line with a number\n   greater than the current one is reached.\n\n   With a line number, continue execution until a line with a number\n   greater or equal to that is reached.  In both cases, also stop when\n   the current frame returns.\n\n   Changed in version 3.2: Allow giving an explicit line number.\n\nr(eturn)\n\n   Continue execution until the current function returns.\n\nc(ont(inue))\n\n   Continue execution, only stop when a breakpoint is encountered.\n\nj(ump) lineno\n\n   Set the next line that will be executed.  Only available in the\n   bottom-most frame.  This lets you jump back and execute code again,\n   or jump forward to skip code that you don\'t want to run.\n\n   It should be noted that not all jumps are allowed -- for instance\n   it is not possible to jump into the middle of a ``for`` loop or out\n   of a ``finally`` clause.\n\nl(ist) [first[, last]]\n\n   List source code for the current file.  Without arguments, list 11\n   lines around the current line or continue the previous listing.\n   With ``.`` as argument, list 11 lines around the current line.\n   With one argument, list 11 lines around at that line.  With two\n   arguments, list the given range; if the second argument is less\n   than the first, it is interpreted as a count.\n\n   The current line in the current frame is indicated by ``->``.  If\n   an exception is being debugged, the line where the exception was\n   originally raised or propagated is indicated by ``>>``, if it\n   differs from the current line.\n\n   New in version 3.2: The ``>>`` marker.\n\nll | longlist\n\n   List all source code for the current function or frame.\n   Interesting lines are marked as for ``list``.\n\n   New in version 3.2.\n\na(rgs)\n\n   Print the argument list of the current function.\n\np(rint) expression\n\n   Evaluate the *expression* in the current context and print its\n   value.\n\npp expression\n\n   Like the ``print`` command, except the value of the expression is\n   pretty-printed using the ``pprint`` module.\n\nwhatis expression\n\n   Print the type of the *expression*.\n\nsource expression\n\n   Try to get source code for the given object and display it.\n\n   New in version 3.2.\n\ndisplay [expression]\n\n   Display the value of the expression if it changed, each time\n   execution stops in the current frame.\n\n   Without expression, list all display expressions for the current\n   frame.\n\n   New in version 3.2.\n\nundisplay [expression]\n\n   Do not display the expression any more in the current frame.\n   Without expression, clear all display expressions for the current\n   frame.\n\n   New in version 3.2.\n\ninteract\n\n   Start an interative interpreter (using the ``code`` module) whose\n   global namespace contains all the (global and local) names found in\n   the current scope.\n\n   New in version 3.2.\n\nalias [name [command]]\n\n   Create an alias called *name* that executes *command*.  The command\n   must *not* be enclosed in quotes.  Replaceable parameters can be\n   indicated by ``%1``, ``%2``, and so on, while ``%*`` is replaced by\n   all the parameters. If no command is given, the current alias for\n   *name* is shown. If no arguments are given, all aliases are listed.\n\n   Aliases may be nested and can contain anything that can be legally\n   typed at the pdb prompt.  Note that internal pdb commands *can* be\n   overridden by aliases.  Such a command is then hidden until the\n   alias is removed.  Aliasing is recursively applied to the first\n   word of the command line; all other words in the line are left\n   alone.\n\n   As an example, here are two useful aliases (especially when placed\n   in the ``.pdbrc`` file):\n\n      # Print instance variables (usage "pi classInst")\n      alias pi for k in %1.__dict__.keys(): print("%1.",k,"=",%1.__dict__[k])\n      # Print instance variables in self\n      alias ps pi self\n\nunalias name\n\n   Delete the specified alias.\n\n! statement\n\n   Execute the (one-line) *statement* in the context of the current\n   stack frame. The exclamation point can be omitted unless the first\n   word of the statement resembles a debugger command.  To set a\n   global variable, you can prefix the assignment command with a\n   ``global`` statement on the same line, e.g.:\n\n      (Pdb) global list_options; list_options = [\'-l\']\n      (Pdb)\n\nrun [args ...]\nrestart [args ...]\n\n   Restart the debugged Python program.  If an argument is supplied,\n   it is split with ``shlex`` and the result is used as the new\n   ``sys.argv``. History, breakpoints, actions and debugger options\n   are preserved. ``restart`` is an alias for ``run``.\n\nq(uit)\n\n   Quit from the debugger.  The program being executed is aborted.\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] Whether a frame is considered to originate in a certain module is\n    determined by the ``__name__`` in the frame globals.\n',
- 'del': '\nThe ``del`` statement\n*********************\n\n   del_stmt ::= "del" target_list\n\nDeletion is recursively defined very similar to the way assignment is\ndefined. Rather that spelling it out in full details, here are some\nhints.\n\nDeletion of a target list recursively deletes each target, from left\nto right.\n\nDeletion of a name removes the binding of that name from the local or\nglobal namespace, depending on whether the name occurs in a ``global``\nstatement in the same code block.  If the name is unbound, a\n``NameError`` exception will be raised.\n\nDeletion of attribute references, subscriptions and slicings is passed\nto the primary object involved; deletion of a slicing is in general\nequivalent to assignment of an empty slice of the right type (but even\nthis is determined by the sliced object).\n\nChanged in version 3.2.\n',
+ 'del': '\nThe ``del`` statement\n*********************\n\n   del_stmt ::= "del" target_list\n\nDeletion is recursively defined very similar to the way assignment is\ndefined. Rather than spelling it out in full details, here are some\nhints.\n\nDeletion of a target list recursively deletes each target, from left\nto right.\n\nDeletion of a name removes the binding of that name from the local or\nglobal namespace, depending on whether the name occurs in a ``global``\nstatement in the same code block.  If the name is unbound, a\n``NameError`` exception will be raised.\n\nDeletion of attribute references, subscriptions and slicings is passed\nto the primary object involved; deletion of a slicing is in general\nequivalent to assignment of an empty slice of the right type (but even\nthis is determined by the sliced object).\n\nChanged in version 3.2.\n',
  'dict': '\nDictionary displays\n*******************\n\nA dictionary display is a possibly empty series of key/datum pairs\nenclosed in curly braces:\n\n   dict_display       ::= "{" [key_datum_list | dict_comprehension] "}"\n   key_datum_list     ::= key_datum ("," key_datum)* [","]\n   key_datum          ::= expression ":" expression\n   dict_comprehension ::= expression ":" expression comp_for\n\nA dictionary display yields a new dictionary object.\n\nIf a comma-separated sequence of key/datum pairs is given, they are\nevaluated from left to right to define the entries of the dictionary:\neach key object is used as a key into the dictionary to store the\ncorresponding datum.  This means that you can specify the same key\nmultiple times in the key/datum list, and the final dictionary\'s value\nfor that key will be the last one given.\n\nA dict comprehension, in contrast to list and set comprehensions,\nneeds two expressions separated with a colon followed by the usual\n"for" and "if" clauses. When the comprehension is run, the resulting\nkey and value elements are inserted in the new dictionary in the order\nthey are produced.\n\nRestrictions on the types of the key values are listed earlier in\nsection *The standard type hierarchy*.  (To summarize, the key type\nshould be *hashable*, which excludes all mutable objects.)  Clashes\nbetween duplicate keys are not detected; the last datum (textually\nrightmost in the display) stored for a given key value prevails.\n',
  'dynamic-features': '\nInteraction with dynamic features\n*********************************\n\nThere are several cases where Python statements are illegal when used\nin conjunction with nested scopes that contain free variables.\n\nIf a variable is referenced in an enclosing scope, it is illegal to\ndelete the name.  An error will be reported at compile time.\n\nIf the wild card form of import --- ``import *`` --- is used in a\nfunction and the function contains or is a nested block with free\nvariables, the compiler will raise a ``SyntaxError``.\n\nThe ``eval()`` and ``exec()`` functions do not have access to the full\nenvironment for resolving names.  Names may be resolved in the local\nand global namespaces of the caller.  Free variables are not resolved\nin the nearest enclosing namespace, but in the global namespace.  [1]\nThe ``exec()`` and ``eval()`` functions have optional arguments to\noverride the global and local namespace.  If only one namespace is\nspecified, it is used for both.\n',
  'else': '\nThe ``if`` statement\n********************\n\nThe ``if`` statement is used for conditional execution:\n\n   if_stmt ::= "if" expression ":" suite\n               ( "elif" expression ":" suite )*\n               ["else" ":" suite]\n\nIt selects exactly one of the suites by evaluating the expressions one\nby one until one is found to be true (see section *Boolean operations*\nfor the definition of true and false); then that suite is executed\n(and no other part of the ``if`` statement is executed or evaluated).\nIf all expressions are false, the suite of the ``else`` clause, if\npresent, is executed.\n',
  'exprlists': '\nExpression lists\n****************\n\n   expression_list ::= expression ( "," expression )* [","]\n\nAn expression list containing at least one comma yields a tuple.  The\nlength of the tuple is the number of expressions in the list.  The\nexpressions are evaluated from left to right.\n\nThe trailing comma is required only to create a single tuple (a.k.a. a\n*singleton*); it is optional in all other cases.  A single expression\nwithout a trailing comma doesn\'t create a tuple, but rather yields the\nvalue of that expression. (To create an empty tuple, use an empty pair\nof parentheses: ``()``.)\n',
  'floating': '\nFloating point literals\n***********************\n\nFloating point literals are described by the following lexical\ndefinitions:\n\n   floatnumber   ::= pointfloat | exponentfloat\n   pointfloat    ::= [intpart] fraction | intpart "."\n   exponentfloat ::= (intpart | pointfloat) exponent\n   intpart       ::= digit+\n   fraction      ::= "." digit+\n   exponent      ::= ("e" | "E") ["+" | "-"] digit+\n\nNote that the integer and exponent parts are always interpreted using\nradix 10. For example, ``077e010`` is legal, and denotes the same\nnumber as ``77e10``. The allowed range of floating point literals is\nimplementation-dependent. Some examples of floating point literals:\n\n   3.14    10.    .001    1e100    3.14e-10    0e0\n\nNote that numeric literals do not include a sign; a phrase like ``-1``\nis actually an expression composed of the unary operator ``-`` and the\nliteral ``1``.\n',
  'for': '\nThe ``for`` statement\n*********************\n\nThe ``for`` statement is used to iterate over the elements of a\nsequence (such as a string, tuple or list) or other iterable object:\n\n   for_stmt ::= "for" target_list "in" expression_list ":" suite\n                ["else" ":" suite]\n\nThe expression list is evaluated once; it should yield an iterable\nobject.  An iterator is created for the result of the\n``expression_list``.  The suite is then executed once for each item\nprovided by the iterator, in the order of ascending indices.  Each\nitem in turn is assigned to the target list using the standard rules\nfor assignments (see *Assignment statements*), and then the suite is\nexecuted.  When the items are exhausted (which is immediately when the\nsequence is empty or an iterator raises a ``StopIteration``\nexception), the suite in the ``else`` clause, if present, is executed,\nand the loop terminates.\n\nA ``break`` statement executed in the first suite terminates the loop\nwithout executing the ``else`` clause\'s suite.  A ``continue``\nstatement executed in the first suite skips the rest of the suite and\ncontinues with the next item, or with the ``else`` clause if there was\nno next item.\n\nThe suite may assign to the variable(s) in the target list; this does\nnot affect the next item assigned to it.\n\nNames in the target list are not deleted when the loop is finished,\nbut if the sequence is empty, it will not have been assigned to at all\nby the loop.  Hint: the built-in function ``range()`` returns an\niterator of integers suitable to emulate the effect of Pascal\'s ``for\ni := a to b do``; e.g., ``list(range(3))`` returns the list ``[0, 1,\n2]``.\n\nNote: There is a subtlety when the sequence is being modified by the loop\n  (this can only occur for mutable sequences, i.e. lists).  An\n  internal counter is used to keep track of which item is used next,\n  and this is incremented on each iteration.  When this counter has\n  reached the length of the sequence the loop terminates.  This means\n  that if the suite deletes the current (or a previous) item from the\n  sequence, the next item will be skipped (since it gets the index of\n  the current item which has already been treated).  Likewise, if the\n  suite inserts an item in the sequence before the current item, the\n  current item will be treated again the next time through the loop.\n  This can lead to nasty bugs that can be avoided by making a\n  temporary copy using a slice of the whole sequence, e.g.,\n\n     for x in a[:]:\n         if x < 0: a.remove(x)\n',
- 'formatstrings': '\nFormat String Syntax\n********************\n\nThe ``str.format()`` method and the ``Formatter`` class share the same\nsyntax for format strings (although in the case of ``Formatter``,\nsubclasses can define their own format string syntax).\n\nFormat strings contain "replacement fields" surrounded by curly braces\n``{}``. Anything that is not contained in braces is considered literal\ntext, which is copied unchanged to the output.  If you need to include\na brace character in the literal text, it can be escaped by doubling:\n``{{`` and ``}}``.\n\nThe grammar for a replacement field is as follows:\n\n      replacement_field ::= "{" [field_name] ["!" conversion] [":" format_spec] "}"\n      field_name        ::= arg_name ("." attribute_name | "[" element_index "]")*\n      arg_name          ::= [identifier | integer]\n      attribute_name    ::= identifier\n      element_index     ::= integer | index_string\n      index_string      ::= <any source character except "]"> +\n      conversion        ::= "r" | "s" | "a"\n      format_spec       ::= <described in the next section>\n\nIn less formal terms, the replacement field can start with a\n*field_name* that specifies the object whose value is to be formatted\nand inserted into the output instead of the replacement field. The\n*field_name* is optionally followed by a  *conversion* field, which is\npreceded by an exclamation point ``\'!\'``, and a *format_spec*, which\nis preceded by a colon ``\':\'``.  These specify a non-default format\nfor the replacement value.\n\nSee also the *Format Specification Mini-Language* section.\n\nThe *field_name* itself begins with an *arg_name* that is either\neither a number or a keyword.  If it\'s a number, it refers to a\npositional argument, and if it\'s a keyword, it refers to a named\nkeyword argument.  If the numerical arg_names in a format string are\n0, 1, 2, ... in sequence, they can all be omitted (not just some) and\nthe numbers 0, 1, 2, ... will be automatically inserted in that order.\nThe *arg_name* can be followed by any number of index or attribute\nexpressions. An expression of the form ``\'.name\'`` selects the named\nattribute using ``getattr()``, while an expression of the form\n``\'[index]\'`` does an index lookup using ``__getitem__()``.\n\nChanged in version 3.1: The positional argument specifiers can be\nomitted, so ``\'{} {}\'`` is equivalent to ``\'{0} {1}\'``.\n\nSome simple format string examples:\n\n   "First, thou shalt count to {0}" # References first positional argument\n   "Bring me a {}"                  # Implicitly references the first positional argument\n   "From {} to {}"                  # Same as "From {0} to {1}"\n   "My quest is {name}"             # References keyword argument \'name\'\n   "Weight in tons {0.weight}"      # \'weight\' attribute of first positional arg\n   "Units destroyed: {players[0]}"  # First element of keyword argument \'players\'.\n\nThe *conversion* field causes a type coercion before formatting.\nNormally, the job of formatting a value is done by the\n``__format__()`` method of the value itself.  However, in some cases\nit is desirable to force a type to be formatted as a string,\noverriding its own definition of formatting.  By converting the value\nto a string before calling ``__format__()``, the normal formatting\nlogic is bypassed.\n\nThree conversion flags are currently supported: ``\'!s\'`` which calls\n``str()`` on the value, ``\'!r\'`` which calls ``repr()`` and ``\'!a\'``\nwhich calls ``ascii()``.\n\nSome examples:\n\n   "Harold\'s a clever {0!s}"        # Calls str() on the argument first\n   "Bring out the holy {name!r}"    # Calls repr() on the argument first\n   "More {!a}"                      # Calls ascii() on the argument first\n\nThe *format_spec* field contains a specification of how the value\nshould be presented, including such details as field width, alignment,\npadding, decimal precision and so on.  Each value type can define its\nown "formatting mini-language" or interpretation of the *format_spec*.\n\nMost built-in types support a common formatting mini-language, which\nis described in the next section.\n\nA *format_spec* field can also include nested replacement fields\nwithin it. These nested replacement fields can contain only a field\nname; conversion flags and format specifications are not allowed.  The\nreplacement fields within the format_spec are substituted before the\n*format_spec* string is interpreted. This allows the formatting of a\nvalue to be dynamically specified.\n\nSee the *Format examples* section for some examples.\n\n\nFormat Specification Mini-Language\n==================================\n\n"Format specifications" are used within replacement fields contained\nwithin a format string to define how individual values are presented\n(see *Format String Syntax*).  They can also be passed directly to the\nbuilt-in ``format()`` function.  Each formattable type may define how\nthe format specification is to be interpreted.\n\nMost built-in types implement the following options for format\nspecifications, although some of the formatting options are only\nsupported by the numeric types.\n\nA general convention is that an empty format string (``""``) produces\nthe same result as if you had called ``str()`` on the value. A non-\nempty format string typically modifies the result.\n\nThe general form of a *standard format specifier* is:\n\n   format_spec ::= [[fill]align][sign][#][0][width][,][.precision][type]\n   fill        ::= <a character other than \'}\'>\n   align       ::= "<" | ">" | "=" | "^"\n   sign        ::= "+" | "-" | " "\n   width       ::= integer\n   precision   ::= integer\n   type        ::= "b" | "c" | "d" | "e" | "E" | "f" | "F" | "g" | "G" | "n" | "o" | "s" | "x" | "X" | "%"\n\nThe *fill* character can be any character other than \'{\' or \'}\'.  The\npresence of a fill character is signaled by the character following\nit, which must be one of the alignment options.  If the second\ncharacter of *format_spec* is not a valid alignment option, then it is\nassumed that both the fill character and the alignment option are\nabsent.\n\nThe meaning of the various alignment options is as follows:\n\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | Option    | Meaning                                                    |\n   +===========+============================================================+\n   | ``\'<\'``   | Forces the field to be left-aligned within the available   |\n   |           | space (this is the default for most objects).              |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'>\'``   | Forces the field to be right-aligned within the available  |\n   |           | space (this is the default for numbers).                   |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'=\'``   | Forces the padding to be placed after the sign (if any)    |\n   |           | but before the digits.  This is used for printing fields   |\n   |           | in the form \'+000000120\'. This alignment option is only    |\n   |           | valid for numeric types.                                   |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'^\'``   | Forces the field to be centered within the available       |\n   |           | space.                                                     |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n\nNote that unless a minimum field width is defined, the field width\nwill always be the same size as the data to fill it, so that the\nalignment option has no meaning in this case.\n\nThe *sign* option is only valid for number types, and can be one of\nthe following:\n\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | Option    | Meaning                                                    |\n   +===========+============================================================+\n   | ``\'+\'``   | indicates that a sign should be used for both positive as  |\n   |           | well as negative numbers.                                  |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'-\'``   | indicates that a sign should be used only for negative     |\n   |           | numbers (this is the default behavior).                    |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | space     | indicates that a leading space should be used on positive  |\n   |           | numbers, and a minus sign on negative numbers.             |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n\nThe ``\'#\'`` option causes the "alternate form" to be used for the\nconversion.  The alternate form is defined differently for different\ntypes.  This option is only valid for integer, float, complex and\nDecimal types. For integers, when binary, octal, or hexadecimal output\nis used, this option adds the prefix respective ``\'0b\'``, ``\'0o\'``, or\n``\'0x\'`` to the output value. For floats, complex and Decimal the\nalternate form causes the result of the conversion to always contain a\ndecimal-point character, even if no digits follow it. Normally, a\ndecimal-point character appears in the result of these conversions\nonly if a digit follows it. In addition, for ``\'g\'`` and ``\'G\'``\nconversions, trailing zeros are not removed from the result.\n\nThe ``\',\'`` option signals the use of a comma for a thousands\nseparator. For a locale aware separator, use the ``\'n\'`` integer\npresentation type instead.\n\nChanged in version 3.1: Added the ``\',\'`` option (see also **PEP\n378**).\n\n*width* is a decimal integer defining the minimum field width.  If not\nspecified, then the field width will be determined by the content.\n\nIf the *width* field is preceded by a zero (``\'0\'``) character, this\nenables zero-padding.  This is equivalent to an *alignment* type of\n``\'=\'`` and a *fill* character of ``\'0\'``.\n\nThe *precision* is a decimal number indicating how many digits should\nbe displayed after the decimal point for a floating point value\nformatted with ``\'f\'`` and ``\'F\'``, or before and after the decimal\npoint for a floating point value formatted with ``\'g\'`` or ``\'G\'``.\nFor non-number types the field indicates the maximum field size - in\nother words, how many characters will be used from the field content.\nThe *precision* is not allowed for integer values.\n\nFinally, the *type* determines how the data should be presented.\n\nThe available string presentation types are:\n\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | Type      | Meaning                                                    |\n   +===========+============================================================+\n   | ``\'s\'``   | String format. This is the default type for strings and    |\n   |           | may be omitted.                                            |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | None      | The same as ``\'s\'``.                                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n\nThe available integer presentation types are:\n\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | Type      | Meaning                                                    |\n   +===========+============================================================+\n   | ``\'b\'``   | Binary format. Outputs the number in base 2.               |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'c\'``   | Character. Converts the integer to the corresponding       |\n   |           | unicode character before printing.                         |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'d\'``   | Decimal Integer. Outputs the number in base 10.            |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'o\'``   | Octal format. Outputs the number in base 8.                |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'x\'``   | Hex format. Outputs the number in base 16, using lower-    |\n   |           | case letters for the digits above 9.                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'X\'``   | Hex format. Outputs the number in base 16, using upper-    |\n   |           | case letters for the digits above 9.                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'n\'``   | Number. This is the same as ``\'d\'``, except that it uses   |\n   |           | the current locale setting to insert the appropriate       |\n   |           | number separator characters.                               |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | None      | The same as ``\'d\'``.                                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n\nIn addition to the above presentation types, integers can be formatted\nwith the floating point presentation types listed below (except\n``\'n\'`` and None). When doing so, ``float()`` is used to convert the\ninteger to a floating point number before formatting.\n\nThe available presentation types for floating point and decimal values\nare:\n\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | Type      | Meaning                                                    |\n   +===========+============================================================+\n   | ``\'e\'``   | Exponent notation. Prints the number in scientific         |\n   |           | notation using the letter \'e\' to indicate the exponent.    |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'E\'``   | Exponent notation. Same as ``\'e\'`` except it uses an upper |\n   |           | case \'E\' as the separator character.                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'f\'``   | Fixed point. Displays the number as a fixed-point number.  |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'F\'``   | Fixed point. Same as ``\'f\'``, but converts ``nan`` to      |\n   |           | ``NAN`` and ``inf`` to ``INF``.                            |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'g\'``   | General format.  For a given precision ``p >= 1``, this    |\n   |           | rounds the number to ``p`` significant digits and then     |\n   |           | formats the result in either fixed-point format or in      |\n   |           | scientific notation, depending on its magnitude.  The      |\n   |           | precise rules are as follows: suppose that the result      |\n   |           | formatted with presentation type ``\'e\'`` and precision     |\n   |           | ``p-1`` would have exponent ``exp``.  Then if ``-4 <= exp  |\n   |           | < p``, the number is formatted with presentation type      |\n   |           | ``\'f\'`` and precision ``p-1-exp``. Otherwise, the number   |\n   |           | is formatted with presentation type ``\'e\'`` and precision  |\n   |           | ``p-1``. In both cases insignificant trailing zeros are    |\n   |           | removed from the significand, and the decimal point is     |\n   |           | also removed if there are no remaining digits following    |\n   |           | it.  Positive and negative infinity, positive and negative |\n   |           | zero, and nans, are formatted as ``inf``, ``-inf``, ``0``, |\n   |           | ``-0`` and ``nan`` respectively, regardless of the         |\n   |           | precision.  A precision of ``0`` is treated as equivalent  |\n   |           | to a precision of ``1``.                                   |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'G\'``   | General format. Same as ``\'g\'`` except switches to ``\'E\'`` |\n   |           | if the number gets too large. The representations of       |\n   |           | infinity and NaN are uppercased, too.                      |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'n\'``   | Number. This is the same as ``\'g\'``, except that it uses   |\n   |           | the current locale setting to insert the appropriate       |\n   |           | number separator characters.                               |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'%\'``   | Percentage. Multiplies the number by 100 and displays in   |\n   |           | fixed (``\'f\'``) format, followed by a percent sign.        |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | None      | Similar to ``\'g\'``, except with at least one digit past    |\n   |           | the decimal point and a default precision of 12. This is   |\n   |           | intended to match ``str()``, except you can add the other  |\n   |           | format modifiers.                                          |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n\n\nFormat examples\n===============\n\nThis section contains examples of the new format syntax and comparison\nwith the old ``%``-formatting.\n\nIn most of the cases the syntax is similar to the old\n``%``-formatting, with the addition of the ``{}`` and with ``:`` used\ninstead of ``%``. For example, ``\'%03.2f\'`` can be translated to\n``\'{:03.2f}\'``.\n\nThe new format syntax also supports new and different options, shown\nin the follow examples.\n\nAccessing arguments by position:\n\n   >>> \'{0}, {1}, {2}\'.format(\'a\', \'b\', \'c\')\n   \'a, b, c\'\n   >>> \'{}, {}, {}\'.format(\'a\', \'b\', \'c\')  # 3.1+ only\n   \'a, b, c\'\n   >>> \'{2}, {1}, {0}\'.format(\'a\', \'b\', \'c\')\n   \'c, b, a\'\n   >>> \'{2}, {1}, {0}\'.format(*\'abc\')      # unpacking argument sequence\n   \'c, b, a\'\n   >>> \'{0}{1}{0}\'.format(\'abra\', \'cad\')   # arguments\' indices can be repeated\n   \'abracadabra\'\n\nAccessing arguments by name:\n\n   >>> \'Coordinates: {latitude}, {longitude}\'.format(latitude=\'37.24N\', longitude=\'-115.81W\')\n   \'Coordinates: 37.24N, -115.81W\'\n   >>> coord = {\'latitude\': \'37.24N\', \'longitude\': \'-115.81W\'}\n   >>> \'Coordinates: {latitude}, {longitude}\'.format(**coord)\n   \'Coordinates: 37.24N, -115.81W\'\n\nAccessing arguments\' attributes:\n\n   >>> c = 3-5j\n   >>> (\'The complex number {0} is formed from the real part {0.real} \'\n   ...  \'and the imaginary part {0.imag}.\').format(c)\n   \'The complex number (3-5j) is formed from the real part 3.0 and the imaginary part -5.0.\'\n   >>> class Point:\n   ...     def __init__(self, x, y):\n   ...         self.x, self.y = x, y\n   ...     def __str__(self):\n   ...         return \'Point({self.x}, {self.y})\'.format(self=self)\n   ...\n   >>> str(Point(4, 2))\n   \'Point(4, 2)\'\n\nAccessing arguments\' items:\n\n   >>> coord = (3, 5)\n   >>> \'X: {0[0]};  Y: {0[1]}\'.format(coord)\n   \'X: 3;  Y: 5\'\n\nReplacing ``%s`` and ``%r``:\n\n   >>> "repr() shows quotes: {!r}; str() doesn\'t: {!s}".format(\'test1\', \'test2\')\n   "repr() shows quotes: \'test1\'; str() doesn\'t: test2"\n\nAligning the text and specifying a width:\n\n   >>> \'{:<30}\'.format(\'left aligned\')\n   \'left aligned                  \'\n   >>> \'{:>30}\'.format(\'right aligned\')\n   \'                 right aligned\'\n   >>> \'{:^30}\'.format(\'centered\')\n   \'           centered           \'\n   >>> \'{:*^30}\'.format(\'centered\')  # use \'*\' as a fill char\n   \'***********centered***********\'\n\nReplacing ``%+f``, ``%-f``, and ``% f`` and specifying a sign:\n\n   >>> \'{:+f}; {:+f}\'.format(3.14, -3.14)  # show it always\n   \'+3.140000; -3.140000\'\n   >>> \'{: f}; {: f}\'.format(3.14, -3.14)  # show a space for positive numbers\n   \' 3.140000; -3.140000\'\n   >>> \'{:-f}; {:-f}\'.format(3.14, -3.14)  # show only the minus -- same as \'{:f}; {:f}\'\n   \'3.140000; -3.140000\'\n\nReplacing ``%x`` and ``%o`` and converting the value to different\nbases:\n\n   >>> # format also supports binary numbers\n   >>> "int: {0:d};  hex: {0:x};  oct: {0:o};  bin: {0:b}".format(42)\n   \'int: 42;  hex: 2a;  oct: 52;  bin: 101010\'\n   >>> # with 0x, 0o, or 0b as prefix:\n   >>> "int: {0:d};  hex: {0:#x};  oct: {0:#o};  bin: {0:#b}".format(42)\n   \'int: 42;  hex: 0x2a;  oct: 0o52;  bin: 0b101010\'\n\nUsing the comma as a thousands separator:\n\n   >>> \'{:,}\'.format(1234567890)\n   \'1,234,567,890\'\n\nExpressing a percentage:\n\n   >>> points = 19\n   >>> total = 22\n   >>> \'Correct answers: {:.2%}.\'.format(points/total)\n   \'Correct answers: 86.36%\'\n\nUsing type-specific formatting:\n\n   >>> import datetime\n   >>> d = datetime.datetime(2010, 7, 4, 12, 15, 58)\n   >>> \'{:%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S}\'.format(d)\n   \'2010-07-04 12:15:58\'\n\nNesting arguments and more complex examples:\n\n   >>> for align, text in zip(\'<^>\', [\'left\', \'center\', \'right\']):\n   ...     \'{0:{fill}{align}16}\'.format(text, fill=align, align=align)\n   ...\n   \'left<<<<<<<<<<<<\'\n   \'^^^^^center^^^^^\'\n   \'>>>>>>>>>>>right\'\n   >>>\n   >>> octets = [192, 168, 0, 1]\n   >>> \'{:02X}{:02X}{:02X}{:02X}\'.format(*octets)\n   \'C0A80001\'\n   >>> int(_, 16)\n   3232235521\n   >>>\n   >>> width = 5\n   >>> for num in range(5,12):\n   ...     for base in \'dXob\':\n   ...         print(\'{0:{width}{base}}\'.format(num, base=base, width=width), end=\' \')\n   ...     print()\n   ...\n       5     5     5   101\n       6     6     6   110\n       7     7     7   111\n       8     8    10  1000\n       9     9    11  1001\n      10     A    12  1010\n      11     B    13  1011\n',
- 'function': '\nFunction definitions\n********************\n\nA function definition defines a user-defined function object (see\nsection *The standard type hierarchy*):\n\n   funcdef        ::= [decorators] "def" funcname "(" [parameter_list] ")" ["->" expression] ":" suite\n   decorators     ::= decorator+\n   decorator      ::= "@" dotted_name ["(" [argument_list [","]] ")"] NEWLINE\n   dotted_name    ::= identifier ("." identifier)*\n   parameter_list ::= (defparameter ",")*\n                      (  "*" [parameter] ("," defparameter)*\n                      [, "**" parameter]\n                      | "**" parameter\n                      | defparameter [","] )\n   parameter      ::= identifier [":" expression]\n   defparameter   ::= parameter ["=" expression]\n   funcname       ::= identifier\n\nA function definition is an executable statement.  Its execution binds\nthe function name in the current local namespace to a function object\n(a wrapper around the executable code for the function).  This\nfunction object contains a reference to the current global namespace\nas the global namespace to be used when the function is called.\n\nThe function definition does not execute the function body; this gets\nexecuted only when the function is called. [3]\n\nA function definition may be wrapped by one or more *decorator*\nexpressions. Decorator expressions are evaluated when the function is\ndefined, in the scope that contains the function definition.  The\nresult must be a callable, which is invoked with the function object\nas the only argument. The returned value is bound to the function name\ninstead of the function object.  Multiple decorators are applied in\nnested fashion. For example, the following code\n\n   @f1(arg)\n   @f2\n   def func(): pass\n\nis equivalent to\n\n   def func(): pass\n   func = f1(arg)(f2(func))\n\nWhen one or more parameters have the form *parameter* ``=``\n*expression*, the function is said to have "default parameter values."\nFor a parameter with a default value, the corresponding argument may\nbe omitted from a call, in which case the parameter\'s default value is\nsubstituted.  If a parameter has a default value, all following\nparameters up until the "``*``" must also have a default value ---\nthis is a syntactic restriction that is not expressed by the grammar.\n\n**Default parameter values are evaluated when the function definition\nis executed.** This means that the expression is evaluated once, when\nthe function is defined, and that that same "pre-computed" value is\nused for each call.  This is especially important to understand when a\ndefault parameter is a mutable object, such as a list or a dictionary:\nif the function modifies the object (e.g. by appending an item to a\nlist), the default value is in effect modified. This is generally not\nwhat was intended.  A way around this is to use ``None`` as the\ndefault, and explicitly test for it in the body of the function, e.g.:\n\n   def whats_on_the_telly(penguin=None):\n       if penguin is None:\n           penguin = []\n       penguin.append("property of the zoo")\n       return penguin\n\nFunction call semantics are described in more detail in section\n*Calls*. A function call always assigns values to all parameters\nmentioned in the parameter list, either from position arguments, from\nkeyword arguments, or from default values.  If the form\n"``*identifier``" is present, it is initialized to a tuple receiving\nany excess positional parameters, defaulting to the empty tuple.  If\nthe form "``**identifier``" is present, it is initialized to a new\ndictionary receiving any excess keyword arguments, defaulting to a new\nempty dictionary. Parameters after "``*``" or "``*identifier``" are\nkeyword-only parameters and may only be passed used keyword arguments.\n\nParameters may have annotations of the form "``: expression``"\nfollowing the parameter name.  Any parameter may have an annotation\neven those of the form ``*identifier`` or ``**identifier``.  Functions\nmay have "return" annotation of the form "``-> expression``" after the\nparameter list.  These annotations can be any valid Python expression\nand are evaluated when the function definition is executed.\nAnnotations may be evaluated in a different order than they appear in\nthe source code.  The presence of annotations does not change the\nsemantics of a function.  The annotation values are available as\nvalues of a dictionary keyed by the parameters\' names in the\n``__annotations__`` attribute of the function object.\n\nIt is also possible to create anonymous functions (functions not bound\nto a name), for immediate use in expressions.  This uses lambda forms,\ndescribed in section *Lambdas*.  Note that the lambda form is merely a\nshorthand for a simplified function definition; a function defined in\na "``def``" statement can be passed around or assigned to another name\njust like a function defined by a lambda form.  The "``def``" form is\nactually more powerful since it allows the execution of multiple\nstatements and annotations.\n\n**Programmer\'s note:** Functions are first-class objects.  A "``def``"\nform executed inside a function definition defines a local function\nthat can be returned or passed around.  Free variables used in the\nnested function can access the local variables of the function\ncontaining the def.  See section *Naming and binding* for details.\n',
+ 'formatstrings': '\nFormat String Syntax\n********************\n\nThe ``str.format()`` method and the ``Formatter`` class share the same\nsyntax for format strings (although in the case of ``Formatter``,\nsubclasses can define their own format string syntax).\n\nFormat strings contain "replacement fields" surrounded by curly braces\n``{}``. Anything that is not contained in braces is considered literal\ntext, which is copied unchanged to the output.  If you need to include\na brace character in the literal text, it can be escaped by doubling:\n``{{`` and ``}}``.\n\nThe grammar for a replacement field is as follows:\n\n      replacement_field ::= "{" [field_name] ["!" conversion] [":" format_spec] "}"\n      field_name        ::= arg_name ("." attribute_name | "[" element_index "]")*\n      arg_name          ::= [identifier | integer]\n      attribute_name    ::= identifier\n      element_index     ::= integer | index_string\n      index_string      ::= <any source character except "]"> +\n      conversion        ::= "r" | "s" | "a"\n      format_spec       ::= <described in the next section>\n\nIn less formal terms, the replacement field can start with a\n*field_name* that specifies the object whose value is to be formatted\nand inserted into the output instead of the replacement field. The\n*field_name* is optionally followed by a  *conversion* field, which is\npreceded by an exclamation point ``\'!\'``, and a *format_spec*, which\nis preceded by a colon ``\':\'``.  These specify a non-default format\nfor the replacement value.\n\nSee also the *Format Specification Mini-Language* section.\n\nThe *field_name* itself begins with an *arg_name* that is either a\nnumber or a keyword.  If it\'s a number, it refers to a positional\nargument, and if it\'s a keyword, it refers to a named keyword\nargument.  If the numerical arg_names in a format string are 0, 1, 2,\n... in sequence, they can all be omitted (not just some) and the\nnumbers 0, 1, 2, ... will be automatically inserted in that order.\nBecause *arg_name* is not quote-delimited, it is not possible to\nspecify arbitrary dictionary keys (e.g., the strings ``\'10\'`` or\n``\':-]\'``) within a format string. The *arg_name* can be followed by\nany number of index or attribute expressions. An expression of the\nform ``\'.name\'`` selects the named attribute using ``getattr()``,\nwhile an expression of the form ``\'[index]\'`` does an index lookup\nusing ``__getitem__()``.\n\nChanged in version 3.1: The positional argument specifiers can be\nomitted, so ``\'{} {}\'`` is equivalent to ``\'{0} {1}\'``.\n\nSome simple format string examples:\n\n   "First, thou shalt count to {0}" # References first positional argument\n   "Bring me a {}"                  # Implicitly references the first positional argument\n   "From {} to {}"                  # Same as "From {0} to {1}"\n   "My quest is {name}"             # References keyword argument \'name\'\n   "Weight in tons {0.weight}"      # \'weight\' attribute of first positional arg\n   "Units destroyed: {players[0]}"  # First element of keyword argument \'players\'.\n\nThe *conversion* field causes a type coercion before formatting.\nNormally, the job of formatting a value is done by the\n``__format__()`` method of the value itself.  However, in some cases\nit is desirable to force a type to be formatted as a string,\noverriding its own definition of formatting.  By converting the value\nto a string before calling ``__format__()``, the normal formatting\nlogic is bypassed.\n\nThree conversion flags are currently supported: ``\'!s\'`` which calls\n``str()`` on the value, ``\'!r\'`` which calls ``repr()`` and ``\'!a\'``\nwhich calls ``ascii()``.\n\nSome examples:\n\n   "Harold\'s a clever {0!s}"        # Calls str() on the argument first\n   "Bring out the holy {name!r}"    # Calls repr() on the argument first\n   "More {!a}"                      # Calls ascii() on the argument first\n\nThe *format_spec* field contains a specification of how the value\nshould be presented, including such details as field width, alignment,\npadding, decimal precision and so on.  Each value type can define its\nown "formatting mini-language" or interpretation of the *format_spec*.\n\nMost built-in types support a common formatting mini-language, which\nis described in the next section.\n\nA *format_spec* field can also include nested replacement fields\nwithin it. These nested replacement fields can contain only a field\nname; conversion flags and format specifications are not allowed.  The\nreplacement fields within the format_spec are substituted before the\n*format_spec* string is interpreted. This allows the formatting of a\nvalue to be dynamically specified.\n\nSee the *Format examples* section for some examples.\n\n\nFormat Specification Mini-Language\n==================================\n\n"Format specifications" are used within replacement fields contained\nwithin a format string to define how individual values are presented\n(see *Format String Syntax*).  They can also be passed directly to the\nbuilt-in ``format()`` function.  Each formattable type may define how\nthe format specification is to be interpreted.\n\nMost built-in types implement the following options for format\nspecifications, although some of the formatting options are only\nsupported by the numeric types.\n\nA general convention is that an empty format string (``""``) produces\nthe same result as if you had called ``str()`` on the value. A non-\nempty format string typically modifies the result.\n\nThe general form of a *standard format specifier* is:\n\n   format_spec ::= [[fill]align][sign][#][0][width][,][.precision][type]\n   fill        ::= <a character other than \'}\'>\n   align       ::= "<" | ">" | "=" | "^"\n   sign        ::= "+" | "-" | " "\n   width       ::= integer\n   precision   ::= integer\n   type        ::= "b" | "c" | "d" | "e" | "E" | "f" | "F" | "g" | "G" | "n" | "o" | "s" | "x" | "X" | "%"\n\nThe *fill* character can be any character other than \'{\' or \'}\'.  The\npresence of a fill character is signaled by the character following\nit, which must be one of the alignment options.  If the second\ncharacter of *format_spec* is not a valid alignment option, then it is\nassumed that both the fill character and the alignment option are\nabsent.\n\nThe meaning of the various alignment options is as follows:\n\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | Option    | Meaning                                                    |\n   +===========+============================================================+\n   | ``\'<\'``   | Forces the field to be left-aligned within the available   |\n   |           | space (this is the default for most objects).              |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'>\'``   | Forces the field to be right-aligned within the available  |\n   |           | space (this is the default for numbers).                   |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'=\'``   | Forces the padding to be placed after the sign (if any)    |\n   |           | but before the digits.  This is used for printing fields   |\n   |           | in the form \'+000000120\'. This alignment option is only    |\n   |           | valid for numeric types.                                   |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'^\'``   | Forces the field to be centered within the available       |\n   |           | space.                                                     |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n\nNote that unless a minimum field width is defined, the field width\nwill always be the same size as the data to fill it, so that the\nalignment option has no meaning in this case.\n\nThe *sign* option is only valid for number types, and can be one of\nthe following:\n\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | Option    | Meaning                                                    |\n   +===========+============================================================+\n   | ``\'+\'``   | indicates that a sign should be used for both positive as  |\n   |           | well as negative numbers.                                  |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'-\'``   | indicates that a sign should be used only for negative     |\n   |           | numbers (this is the default behavior).                    |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | space     | indicates that a leading space should be used on positive  |\n   |           | numbers, and a minus sign on negative numbers.             |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n\nThe ``\'#\'`` option causes the "alternate form" to be used for the\nconversion.  The alternate form is defined differently for different\ntypes.  This option is only valid for integer, float, complex and\nDecimal types. For integers, when binary, octal, or hexadecimal output\nis used, this option adds the prefix respective ``\'0b\'``, ``\'0o\'``, or\n``\'0x\'`` to the output value. For floats, complex and Decimal the\nalternate form causes the result of the conversion to always contain a\ndecimal-point character, even if no digits follow it. Normally, a\ndecimal-point character appears in the result of these conversions\nonly if a digit follows it. In addition, for ``\'g\'`` and ``\'G\'``\nconversions, trailing zeros are not removed from the result.\n\nThe ``\',\'`` option signals the use of a comma for a thousands\nseparator. For a locale aware separator, use the ``\'n\'`` integer\npresentation type instead.\n\nChanged in version 3.1: Added the ``\',\'`` option (see also **PEP\n378**).\n\n*width* is a decimal integer defining the minimum field width.  If not\nspecified, then the field width will be determined by the content.\n\nIf the *width* field is preceded by a zero (``\'0\'``) character, this\nenables zero-padding.  This is equivalent to an *alignment* type of\n``\'=\'`` and a *fill* character of ``\'0\'``.\n\nThe *precision* is a decimal number indicating how many digits should\nbe displayed after the decimal point for a floating point value\nformatted with ``\'f\'`` and ``\'F\'``, or before and after the decimal\npoint for a floating point value formatted with ``\'g\'`` or ``\'G\'``.\nFor non-number types the field indicates the maximum field size - in\nother words, how many characters will be used from the field content.\nThe *precision* is not allowed for integer values.\n\nFinally, the *type* determines how the data should be presented.\n\nThe available string presentation types are:\n\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | Type      | Meaning                                                    |\n   +===========+============================================================+\n   | ``\'s\'``   | String format. This is the default type for strings and    |\n   |           | may be omitted.                                            |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | None      | The same as ``\'s\'``.                                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n\nThe available integer presentation types are:\n\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | Type      | Meaning                                                    |\n   +===========+============================================================+\n   | ``\'b\'``   | Binary format. Outputs the number in base 2.               |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'c\'``   | Character. Converts the integer to the corresponding       |\n   |           | unicode character before printing.                         |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'d\'``   | Decimal Integer. Outputs the number in base 10.            |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'o\'``   | Octal format. Outputs the number in base 8.                |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'x\'``   | Hex format. Outputs the number in base 16, using lower-    |\n   |           | case letters for the digits above 9.                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'X\'``   | Hex format. Outputs the number in base 16, using upper-    |\n   |           | case letters for the digits above 9.                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'n\'``   | Number. This is the same as ``\'d\'``, except that it uses   |\n   |           | the current locale setting to insert the appropriate       |\n   |           | number separator characters.                               |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | None      | The same as ``\'d\'``.                                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n\nIn addition to the above presentation types, integers can be formatted\nwith the floating point presentation types listed below (except\n``\'n\'`` and None). When doing so, ``float()`` is used to convert the\ninteger to a floating point number before formatting.\n\nThe available presentation types for floating point and decimal values\nare:\n\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | Type      | Meaning                                                    |\n   +===========+============================================================+\n   | ``\'e\'``   | Exponent notation. Prints the number in scientific         |\n   |           | notation using the letter \'e\' to indicate the exponent.    |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'E\'``   | Exponent notation. Same as ``\'e\'`` except it uses an upper |\n   |           | case \'E\' as the separator character.                       |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'f\'``   | Fixed point. Displays the number as a fixed-point number.  |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'F\'``   | Fixed point. Same as ``\'f\'``, but converts ``nan`` to      |\n   |           | ``NAN`` and ``inf`` to ``INF``.                            |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'g\'``   | General format.  For a given precision ``p >= 1``, this    |\n   |           | rounds the number to ``p`` significant digits and then     |\n   |           | formats the result in either fixed-point format or in      |\n   |           | scientific notation, depending on its magnitude.  The      |\n   |           | precise rules are as follows: suppose that the result      |\n   |           | formatted with presentation type ``\'e\'`` and precision     |\n   |           | ``p-1`` would have exponent ``exp``.  Then if ``-4 <= exp  |\n   |           | < p``, the number is formatted with presentation type      |\n   |           | ``\'f\'`` and precision ``p-1-exp``. Otherwise, the number   |\n   |           | is formatted with presentation type ``\'e\'`` and precision  |\n   |           | ``p-1``. In both cases insignificant trailing zeros are    |\n   |           | removed from the significand, and the decimal point is     |\n   |           | also removed if there are no remaining digits following    |\n   |           | it.  Positive and negative infinity, positive and negative |\n   |           | zero, and nans, are formatted as ``inf``, ``-inf``, ``0``, |\n   |           | ``-0`` and ``nan`` respectively, regardless of the         |\n   |           | precision.  A precision of ``0`` is treated as equivalent  |\n   |           | to a precision of ``1``.                                   |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'G\'``   | General format. Same as ``\'g\'`` except switches to ``\'E\'`` |\n   |           | if the number gets too large. The representations of       |\n   |           | infinity and NaN are uppercased, too.                      |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'n\'``   | Number. This is the same as ``\'g\'``, except that it uses   |\n   |           | the current locale setting to insert the appropriate       |\n   |           | number separator characters.                               |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | ``\'%\'``   | Percentage. Multiplies the number by 100 and displays in   |\n   |           | fixed (``\'f\'``) format, followed by a percent sign.        |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n   | None      | Similar to ``\'g\'``, except with at least one digit past    |\n   |           | the decimal point and a default precision of 12. This is   |\n   |           | intended to match ``str()``, except you can add the other  |\n   |           | format modifiers.                                          |\n   +-----------+------------------------------------------------------------+\n\n\nFormat examples\n===============\n\nThis section contains examples of the new format syntax and comparison\nwith the old ``%``-formatting.\n\nIn most of the cases the syntax is similar to the old\n``%``-formatting, with the addition of the ``{}`` and with ``:`` used\ninstead of ``%``. For example, ``\'%03.2f\'`` can be translated to\n``\'{:03.2f}\'``.\n\nThe new format syntax also supports new and different options, shown\nin the follow examples.\n\nAccessing arguments by position:\n\n   >>> \'{0}, {1}, {2}\'.format(\'a\', \'b\', \'c\')\n   \'a, b, c\'\n   >>> \'{}, {}, {}\'.format(\'a\', \'b\', \'c\')  # 3.1+ only\n   \'a, b, c\'\n   >>> \'{2}, {1}, {0}\'.format(\'a\', \'b\', \'c\')\n   \'c, b, a\'\n   >>> \'{2}, {1}, {0}\'.format(*\'abc\')      # unpacking argument sequence\n   \'c, b, a\'\n   >>> \'{0}{1}{0}\'.format(\'abra\', \'cad\')   # arguments\' indices can be repeated\n   \'abracadabra\'\n\nAccessing arguments by name:\n\n   >>> \'Coordinates: {latitude}, {longitude}\'.format(latitude=\'37.24N\', longitude=\'-115.81W\')\n   \'Coordinates: 37.24N, -115.81W\'\n   >>> coord = {\'latitude\': \'37.24N\', \'longitude\': \'-115.81W\'}\n   >>> \'Coordinates: {latitude}, {longitude}\'.format(**coord)\n   \'Coordinates: 37.24N, -115.81W\'\n\nAccessing arguments\' attributes:\n\n   >>> c = 3-5j\n   >>> (\'The complex number {0} is formed from the real part {0.real} \'\n   ...  \'and the imaginary part {0.imag}.\').format(c)\n   \'The complex number (3-5j) is formed from the real part 3.0 and the imaginary part -5.0.\'\n   >>> class Point:\n   ...     def __init__(self, x, y):\n   ...         self.x, self.y = x, y\n   ...     def __str__(self):\n   ...         return \'Point({self.x}, {self.y})\'.format(self=self)\n   ...\n   >>> str(Point(4, 2))\n   \'Point(4, 2)\'\n\nAccessing arguments\' items:\n\n   >>> coord = (3, 5)\n   >>> \'X: {0[0]};  Y: {0[1]}\'.format(coord)\n   \'X: 3;  Y: 5\'\n\nReplacing ``%s`` and ``%r``:\n\n   >>> "repr() shows quotes: {!r}; str() doesn\'t: {!s}".format(\'test1\', \'test2\')\n   "repr() shows quotes: \'test1\'; str() doesn\'t: test2"\n\nAligning the text and specifying a width:\n\n   >>> \'{:<30}\'.format(\'left aligned\')\n   \'left aligned                  \'\n   >>> \'{:>30}\'.format(\'right aligned\')\n   \'                 right aligned\'\n   >>> \'{:^30}\'.format(\'centered\')\n   \'           centered           \'\n   >>> \'{:*^30}\'.format(\'centered\')  # use \'*\' as a fill char\n   \'***********centered***********\'\n\nReplacing ``%+f``, ``%-f``, and ``% f`` and specifying a sign:\n\n   >>> \'{:+f}; {:+f}\'.format(3.14, -3.14)  # show it always\n   \'+3.140000; -3.140000\'\n   >>> \'{: f}; {: f}\'.format(3.14, -3.14)  # show a space for positive numbers\n   \' 3.140000; -3.140000\'\n   >>> \'{:-f}; {:-f}\'.format(3.14, -3.14)  # show only the minus -- same as \'{:f}; {:f}\'\n   \'3.140000; -3.140000\'\n\nReplacing ``%x`` and ``%o`` and converting the value to different\nbases:\n\n   >>> # format also supports binary numbers\n   >>> "int: {0:d};  hex: {0:x};  oct: {0:o};  bin: {0:b}".format(42)\n   \'int: 42;  hex: 2a;  oct: 52;  bin: 101010\'\n   >>> # with 0x, 0o, or 0b as prefix:\n   >>> "int: {0:d};  hex: {0:#x};  oct: {0:#o};  bin: {0:#b}".format(42)\n   \'int: 42;  hex: 0x2a;  oct: 0o52;  bin: 0b101010\'\n\nUsing the comma as a thousands separator:\n\n   >>> \'{:,}\'.format(1234567890)\n   \'1,234,567,890\'\n\nExpressing a percentage:\n\n   >>> points = 19\n   >>> total = 22\n   >>> \'Correct answers: {:.2%}\'.format(points/total)\n   \'Correct answers: 86.36%\'\n\nUsing type-specific formatting:\n\n   >>> import datetime\n   >>> d = datetime.datetime(2010, 7, 4, 12, 15, 58)\n   >>> \'{:%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S}\'.format(d)\n   \'2010-07-04 12:15:58\'\n\nNesting arguments and more complex examples:\n\n   >>> for align, text in zip(\'<^>\', [\'left\', \'center\', \'right\']):\n   ...     \'{0:{fill}{align}16}\'.format(text, fill=align, align=align)\n   ...\n   \'left<<<<<<<<<<<<\'\n   \'^^^^^center^^^^^\'\n   \'>>>>>>>>>>>right\'\n   >>>\n   >>> octets = [192, 168, 0, 1]\n   >>> \'{:02X}{:02X}{:02X}{:02X}\'.format(*octets)\n   \'C0A80001\'\n   >>> int(_, 16)\n   3232235521\n   >>>\n   >>> width = 5\n   >>> for num in range(5,12):\n   ...     for base in \'dXob\':\n   ...         print(\'{0:{width}{base}}\'.format(num, base=base, width=width), end=\' \')\n   ...     print()\n   ...\n       5     5     5   101\n       6     6     6   110\n       7     7     7   111\n       8     8    10  1000\n       9     9    11  1001\n      10     A    12  1010\n      11     B    13  1011\n',
+ 'function': '\nFunction definitions\n********************\n\nA function definition defines a user-defined function object (see\nsection *The standard type hierarchy*):\n\n   funcdef        ::= [decorators] "def" funcname "(" [parameter_list] ")" ["->" expression] ":" suite\n   decorators     ::= decorator+\n   decorator      ::= "@" dotted_name ["(" [parameter_list [","]] ")"] NEWLINE\n   dotted_name    ::= identifier ("." identifier)*\n   parameter_list ::= (defparameter ",")*\n                      (  "*" [parameter] ("," defparameter)*\n                      [, "**" parameter]\n                      | "**" parameter\n                      | defparameter [","] )\n   parameter      ::= identifier [":" expression]\n   defparameter   ::= parameter ["=" expression]\n   funcname       ::= identifier\n\nA function definition is an executable statement.  Its execution binds\nthe function name in the current local namespace to a function object\n(a wrapper around the executable code for the function).  This\nfunction object contains a reference to the current global namespace\nas the global namespace to be used when the function is called.\n\nThe function definition does not execute the function body; this gets\nexecuted only when the function is called. [3]\n\nA function definition may be wrapped by one or more *decorator*\nexpressions. Decorator expressions are evaluated when the function is\ndefined, in the scope that contains the function definition.  The\nresult must be a callable, which is invoked with the function object\nas the only argument. The returned value is bound to the function name\ninstead of the function object.  Multiple decorators are applied in\nnested fashion. For example, the following code\n\n   @f1(arg)\n   @f2\n   def func(): pass\n\nis equivalent to\n\n   def func(): pass\n   func = f1(arg)(f2(func))\n\nWhen one or more parameters have the form *parameter* ``=``\n*expression*, the function is said to have "default parameter values."\nFor a parameter with a default value, the corresponding argument may\nbe omitted from a call, in which case the parameter\'s default value is\nsubstituted.  If a parameter has a default value, all following\nparameters up until the "``*``" must also have a default value ---\nthis is a syntactic restriction that is not expressed by the grammar.\n\n**Default parameter values are evaluated when the function definition\nis executed.** This means that the expression is evaluated once, when\nthe function is defined, and that the same "pre-computed" value is\nused for each call.  This is especially important to understand when a\ndefault parameter is a mutable object, such as a list or a dictionary:\nif the function modifies the object (e.g. by appending an item to a\nlist), the default value is in effect modified. This is generally not\nwhat was intended.  A way around this is to use ``None`` as the\ndefault, and explicitly test for it in the body of the function, e.g.:\n\n   def whats_on_the_telly(penguin=None):\n       if penguin is None:\n           penguin = []\n       penguin.append("property of the zoo")\n       return penguin\n\nFunction call semantics are described in more detail in section\n*Calls*. A function call always assigns values to all parameters\nmentioned in the parameter list, either from position arguments, from\nkeyword arguments, or from default values.  If the form\n"``*identifier``" is present, it is initialized to a tuple receiving\nany excess positional parameters, defaulting to the empty tuple.  If\nthe form "``**identifier``" is present, it is initialized to a new\ndictionary receiving any excess keyword arguments, defaulting to a new\nempty dictionary. Parameters after "``*``" or "``*identifier``" are\nkeyword-only parameters and may only be passed used keyword arguments.\n\nParameters may have annotations of the form "``: expression``"\nfollowing the parameter name.  Any parameter may have an annotation\neven those of the form ``*identifier`` or ``**identifier``.  Functions\nmay have "return" annotation of the form "``-> expression``" after the\nparameter list.  These annotations can be any valid Python expression\nand are evaluated when the function definition is executed.\nAnnotations may be evaluated in a different order than they appear in\nthe source code.  The presence of annotations does not change the\nsemantics of a function.  The annotation values are available as\nvalues of a dictionary keyed by the parameters\' names in the\n``__annotations__`` attribute of the function object.\n\nIt is also possible to create anonymous functions (functions not bound\nto a name), for immediate use in expressions.  This uses lambda forms,\ndescribed in section *Lambdas*.  Note that the lambda form is merely a\nshorthand for a simplified function definition; a function defined in\na "``def``" statement can be passed around or assigned to another name\njust like a function defined by a lambda form.  The "``def``" form is\nactually more powerful since it allows the execution of multiple\nstatements and annotations.\n\n**Programmer\'s note:** Functions are first-class objects.  A "``def``"\nform executed inside a function definition defines a local function\nthat can be returned or passed around.  Free variables used in the\nnested function can access the local variables of the function\ncontaining the def.  See section *Naming and binding* for details.\n',
  'global': '\nThe ``global`` statement\n************************\n\n   global_stmt ::= "global" identifier ("," identifier)*\n\nThe ``global`` statement is a declaration which holds for the entire\ncurrent code block.  It means that the listed identifiers are to be\ninterpreted as globals.  It would be impossible to assign to a global\nvariable without ``global``, although free variables may refer to\nglobals without being declared global.\n\nNames listed in a ``global`` statement must not be used in the same\ncode block textually preceding that ``global`` statement.\n\nNames listed in a ``global`` statement must not be defined as formal\nparameters or in a ``for`` loop control target, ``class`` definition,\nfunction definition, or ``import`` statement.\n\n**CPython implementation detail:** The current implementation does not\nenforce the latter two restrictions, but programs should not abuse\nthis freedom, as future implementations may enforce them or silently\nchange the meaning of the program.\n\n**Programmer\'s note:** the ``global`` is a directive to the parser.\nIt applies only to code parsed at the same time as the ``global``\nstatement. In particular, a ``global`` statement contained in a string\nor code object supplied to the built-in ``exec()`` function does not\naffect the code block *containing* the function call, and code\ncontained in such a string is unaffected by ``global`` statements in\nthe code containing the function call.  The same applies to the\n``eval()`` and ``compile()`` functions.\n',
  'id-classes': '\nReserved classes of identifiers\n*******************************\n\nCertain classes of identifiers (besides keywords) have special\nmeanings.  These classes are identified by the patterns of leading and\ntrailing underscore characters:\n\n``_*``\n   Not imported by ``from module import *``.  The special identifier\n   ``_`` is used in the interactive interpreter to store the result of\n   the last evaluation; it is stored in the ``builtins`` module.  When\n   not in interactive mode, ``_`` has no special meaning and is not\n   defined. See section *The import statement*.\n\n   Note: The name ``_`` is often used in conjunction with\n     internationalization; refer to the documentation for the\n     ``gettext`` module for more information on this convention.\n\n``__*__``\n   System-defined names. These names are defined by the interpreter\n   and its implementation (including the standard library).  Current\n   system names are discussed in the *Special method names* section\n   and elsewhere.  More will likely be defined in future versions of\n   Python.  *Any* use of ``__*__`` names, in any context, that does\n   not follow explicitly documented use, is subject to breakage\n   without warning.\n\n``__*``\n   Class-private names.  Names in this category, when used within the\n   context of a class definition, are re-written to use a mangled form\n   to help avoid name clashes between "private" attributes of base and\n   derived classes. See section *Identifiers (Names)*.\n',
  'identifiers': '\nIdentifiers and keywords\n************************\n\nIdentifiers (also referred to as *names*) are described by the\nfollowing lexical definitions.\n\nThe syntax of identifiers in Python is based on the Unicode standard\nannex UAX-31, with elaboration and changes as defined below; see also\n**PEP 3131** for further details.\n\nWithin the ASCII range (U+0001..U+007F), the valid characters for\nidentifiers are the same as in Python 2.x: the uppercase and lowercase\nletters ``A`` through ``Z``, the underscore ``_`` and, except for the\nfirst character, the digits ``0`` through ``9``.\n\nPython 3.0 introduces additional characters from outside the ASCII\nrange (see **PEP 3131**).  For these characters, the classification\nuses the version of the Unicode Character Database as included in the\n``unicodedata`` module.\n\nIdentifiers are unlimited in length.  Case is significant.\n\n   identifier   ::= xid_start xid_continue*\n   id_start     ::= <all characters in general categories Lu, Ll, Lt, Lm, Lo, Nl, the underscore, and characters with the Other_ID_Start property>\n   id_continue  ::= <all characters in id_start, plus characters in the categories Mn, Mc, Nd, Pc and others with the Other_ID_Continue property>\n   xid_start    ::= <all characters in id_start whose NFKC normalization is in "id_start xid_continue*">\n   xid_continue ::= <all characters in id_continue whose NFKC normalization is in "id_continue*">\n\nThe Unicode category codes mentioned above stand for:\n\n* *Lu* - uppercase letters\n\n* *Ll* - lowercase letters\n\n* *Lt* - titlecase letters\n\n* *Lm* - modifier letters\n\n* *Lo* - other letters\n\n* *Nl* - letter numbers\n\n* *Mn* - nonspacing marks\n\n* *Mc* - spacing combining marks\n\n* *Nd* - decimal numbers\n\n* *Pc* - connector punctuations\n\n* *Other_ID_Start* - explicit list of characters in PropList.txt to\n  support backwards compatibility\n\n* *Other_ID_Continue* - likewise\n\nAll identifiers are converted into the normal form NFKC while parsing;\ncomparison of identifiers is based on NFKC.\n\nA non-normative HTML file listing all valid identifier characters for\nUnicode 4.1 can be found at http://www.dcl.hpi.uni-\npotsdam.de/home/loewis/table-3131.html.\n\n\nKeywords\n========\n\nThe following identifiers are used as reserved words, or *keywords* of\nthe language, and cannot be used as ordinary identifiers.  They must\nbe spelled exactly as written here:\n\n   False      class      finally    is         return\n   None       continue   for        lambda     try\n   True       def        from       nonlocal   while\n   and        del        global     not        with\n   as         elif       if         or         yield\n   assert     else       import     pass\n   break      except     in         raise\n\n\nReserved classes of identifiers\n===============================\n\nCertain classes of identifiers (besides keywords) have special\nmeanings.  These classes are identified by the patterns of leading and\ntrailing underscore characters:\n\n``_*``\n   Not imported by ``from module import *``.  The special identifier\n   ``_`` is used in the interactive interpreter to store the result of\n   the last evaluation; it is stored in the ``builtins`` module.  When\n   not in interactive mode, ``_`` has no special meaning and is not\n   defined. See section *The import statement*.\n\n   Note: The name ``_`` is often used in conjunction with\n     internationalization; refer to the documentation for the\n     ``gettext`` module for more information on this convention.\n\n``__*__``\n   System-defined names. These names are defined by the interpreter\n   and its implementation (including the standard library).  Current\n   system names are discussed in the *Special method names* section\n   and elsewhere.  More will likely be defined in future versions of\n   Python.  *Any* use of ``__*__`` names, in any context, that does\n   not follow explicitly documented use, is subject to breakage\n   without warning.\n\n``__*``\n   Class-private names.  Names in this category, when used within the\n   context of a class definition, are re-written to use a mangled form\n   to help avoid name clashes between "private" attributes of base and\n   derived classes. See section *Identifiers (Names)*.\n',
  'operator-summary': '\nSummary\n*******\n\nThe following table summarizes the operator precedences in Python,\nfrom lowest precedence (least binding) to highest precedence (most\nbinding).  Operators in the same box have the same precedence.  Unless\nthe syntax is explicitly given, operators are binary.  Operators in\nthe same box group left to right (except for comparisons, including\ntests, which all have the same precedence and chain from left to right\n--- see section *Comparisons* --- and exponentiation, which groups\nfrom right to left).\n\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| Operator                                        | Description                           |\n+=================================================+=======================================+\n| ``lambda``                                      | Lambda expression                     |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``if`` -- ``else``                              | Conditional expression                |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``or``                                          | Boolean OR                            |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``and``                                         | Boolean AND                           |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``not`` *x*                                     | Boolean NOT                           |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``in``, ``not`` ``in``, ``is``, ``is not``,     | Comparisons, including membership     |\n| ``<``, ``<=``, ``>``, ``>=``, ``!=``, ``==``    | tests and identity tests,             |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``|``                                           | Bitwise OR                            |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``^``                                           | Bitwise XOR                           |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``&``                                           | Bitwise AND                           |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``<<``, ``>>``                                  | Shifts                                |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``+``, ``-``                                    | Addition and subtraction              |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``*``, ``/``, ``//``, ``%``                     | Multiplication, division, remainder   |\n|                                                 | [5]                                   |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``+x``, ``-x``, ``~x``                          | Positive, negative, bitwise NOT       |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``**``                                          | Exponentiation [6]                    |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``x[index]``, ``x[index:index]``,               | Subscription, slicing, call,          |\n| ``x(arguments...)``, ``x.attribute``            | attribute reference                   |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n| ``(expressions...)``, ``[expressions...]``,     | Binding or tuple display, list        |\n| ``{key:datum...}``, ``{expressions...}``        | display, dictionary display, set      |\n|                                                 | display                               |\n+-------------------------------------------------+---------------------------------------+\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] While ``abs(x%y) < abs(y)`` is true mathematically, for floats it\n    may not be true numerically due to roundoff.  For example, and\n    assuming a platform on which a Python float is an IEEE 754 double-\n    precision number, in order that ``-1e-100 % 1e100`` have the same\n    sign as ``1e100``, the computed result is ``-1e-100 + 1e100``,\n    which is numerically exactly equal to ``1e100``.  The function\n    ``math.fmod()`` returns a result whose sign matches the sign of\n    the first argument instead, and so returns ``-1e-100`` in this\n    case. Which approach is more appropriate depends on the\n    application.\n\n[2] If x is very close to an exact integer multiple of y, it\'s\n    possible for ``x//y`` to be one larger than ``(x-x%y)//y`` due to\n    rounding.  In such cases, Python returns the latter result, in\n    order to preserve that ``divmod(x,y)[0] * y + x % y`` be very\n    close to ``x``.\n\n[3] While comparisons between strings make sense at the byte level,\n    they may be counter-intuitive to users.  For example, the strings\n    ``"\\u00C7"`` and ``"\\u0327\\u0043"`` compare differently, even\n    though they both represent the same unicode character (LATIN\n    CAPITAL LETTER C WITH CEDILLA).  To compare strings in a human\n    recognizable way, compare using ``unicodedata.normalize()``.\n\n[4] Due to automatic garbage-collection, free lists, and the dynamic\n    nature of descriptors, you may notice seemingly unusual behaviour\n    in certain uses of the ``is`` operator, like those involving\n    comparisons between instance methods, or constants.  Check their\n    documentation for more info.\n\n[5] The ``%`` operator is also used for string formatting; the same\n    precedence applies.\n\n[6] The power operator ``**`` binds less tightly than an arithmetic or\n    bitwise unary operator on its right, that is, ``2**-1`` is\n    ``0.5``.\n',
  'pass': '\nThe ``pass`` statement\n**********************\n\n   pass_stmt ::= "pass"\n\n``pass`` is a null operation --- when it is executed, nothing happens.\nIt is useful as a placeholder when a statement is required\nsyntactically, but no code needs to be executed, for example:\n\n   def f(arg): pass    # a function that does nothing (yet)\n\n   class C: pass       # a class with no methods (yet)\n',
  'power': '\nThe power operator\n******************\n\nThe power operator binds more tightly than unary operators on its\nleft; it binds less tightly than unary operators on its right.  The\nsyntax is:\n\n   power ::= primary ["**" u_expr]\n\nThus, in an unparenthesized sequence of power and unary operators, the\noperators are evaluated from right to left (this does not constrain\nthe evaluation order for the operands): ``-1**2`` results in ``-1``.\n\nThe power operator has the same semantics as the built-in ``pow()``\nfunction, when called with two arguments: it yields its left argument\nraised to the power of its right argument.  The numeric arguments are\nfirst converted to a common type, and the result is of that type.\n\nFor int operands, the result has the same type as the operands unless\nthe second argument is negative; in that case, all arguments are\nconverted to float and a float result is delivered. For example,\n``10**2`` returns ``100``, but ``10**-2`` returns ``0.01``.\n\nRaising ``0.0`` to a negative power results in a\n``ZeroDivisionError``. Raising a negative number to a fractional power\nresults in a ``complex`` number. (In earlier versions it raised a\n``ValueError``.)\n',
- 'raise': '\nThe ``raise`` statement\n***********************\n\n   raise_stmt ::= "raise" [expression ["from" expression]]\n\nIf no expressions are present, ``raise`` re-raises the last exception\nthat was active in the current scope.  If no exception is active in\nthe current scope, a ``TypeError`` exception is raised indicating that\nthis is an error (if running under IDLE, a ``queue.Empty`` exception\nis raised instead).\n\nOtherwise, ``raise`` evaluates the first expression as the exception\nobject.  It must be either a subclass or an instance of\n``BaseException``. If it is a class, the exception instance will be\nobtained when needed by instantiating the class with no arguments.\n\nThe *type* of the exception is the exception instance\'s class, the\n*value* is the instance itself.\n\nA traceback object is normally created automatically when an exception\nis raised and attached to it as the ``__traceback__`` attribute, which\nis writable. You can create an exception and set your own traceback in\none step using the ``with_traceback()`` exception method (which\nreturns the same exception instance, with its traceback set to its\nargument), like so:\n\n   raise Exception("foo occurred").with_traceback(tracebackobj)\n\nThe ``from`` clause is used for exception chaining: if given, the\nsecond *expression* must be another exception class or instance, which\nwill then be attached to the raised exception as the ``__cause__``\nattribute (which is writable).  If the raised exception is not\nhandled, both exceptions will be printed:\n\n   >>> try:\n   ...     print(1 / 0)\n   ... except Exception as exc:\n   ...     raise RuntimeError("Something bad happened") from exc\n   ...\n   Traceback (most recent call last):\n     File "<stdin>", line 2, in <module>\n   ZeroDivisionError: int division or modulo by zero\n\n   The above exception was the direct cause of the following exception:\n\n   Traceback (most recent call last):\n     File "<stdin>", line 4, in <module>\n   RuntimeError: Something bad happened\n\nA similar mechanism works implicitly if an exception is raised inside\nan exception handler: the previous exception is then attached as the\nnew exception\'s ``__context__`` attribute:\n\n   >>> try:\n   ...     print(1 / 0)\n   ... except:\n   ...     raise RuntimeError("Something bad happened")\n   ...\n   Traceback (most recent call last):\n     File "<stdin>", line 2, in <module>\n   ZeroDivisionError: int division or modulo by zero\n\n   During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:\n\n   Traceback (most recent call last):\n     File "<stdin>", line 4, in <module>\n   RuntimeError: Something bad happened\n\nAdditional information on exceptions can be found in section\n*Exceptions*, and information about handling exceptions is in section\n*The try statement*.\n',
- 'return': '\nThe ``return`` statement\n************************\n\n   return_stmt ::= "return" [expression_list]\n\n``return`` may only occur syntactically nested in a function\ndefinition, not within a nested class definition.\n\nIf an expression list is present, it is evaluated, else ``None`` is\nsubstituted.\n\n``return`` leaves the current function call with the expression list\n(or ``None``) as return value.\n\nWhen ``return`` passes control out of a ``try`` statement with a\n``finally`` clause, that ``finally`` clause is executed before really\nleaving the function.\n\nIn a generator function, the ``return`` statement is not allowed to\ninclude an ``expression_list``.  In that context, a bare ``return``\nindicates that the generator is done and will cause ``StopIteration``\nto be raised.\n',
+ 'raise': '\nThe ``raise`` statement\n***********************\n\n   raise_stmt ::= "raise" [expression ["from" expression]]\n\nIf no expressions are present, ``raise`` re-raises the last exception\nthat was active in the current scope.  If no exception is active in\nthe current scope, a ``RuntimeError`` exception is raised indicating\nthat this is an error.\n\nOtherwise, ``raise`` evaluates the first expression as the exception\nobject.  It must be either a subclass or an instance of\n``BaseException``. If it is a class, the exception instance will be\nobtained when needed by instantiating the class with no arguments.\n\nThe *type* of the exception is the exception instance\'s class, the\n*value* is the instance itself.\n\nA traceback object is normally created automatically when an exception\nis raised and attached to it as the ``__traceback__`` attribute, which\nis writable. You can create an exception and set your own traceback in\none step using the ``with_traceback()`` exception method (which\nreturns the same exception instance, with its traceback set to its\nargument), like so:\n\n   raise Exception("foo occurred").with_traceback(tracebackobj)\n\nThe ``from`` clause is used for exception chaining: if given, the\nsecond *expression* must be another exception class or instance, which\nwill then be attached to the raised exception as the ``__cause__``\nattribute (which is writable).  If the raised exception is not\nhandled, both exceptions will be printed:\n\n   >>> try:\n   ...     print(1 / 0)\n   ... except Exception as exc:\n   ...     raise RuntimeError("Something bad happened") from exc\n   ...\n   Traceback (most recent call last):\n     File "<stdin>", line 2, in <module>\n   ZeroDivisionError: int division or modulo by zero\n\n   The above exception was the direct cause of the following exception:\n\n   Traceback (most recent call last):\n     File "<stdin>", line 4, in <module>\n   RuntimeError: Something bad happened\n\nA similar mechanism works implicitly if an exception is raised inside\nan exception handler: the previous exception is then attached as the\nnew exception\'s ``__context__`` attribute:\n\n   >>> try:\n   ...     print(1 / 0)\n   ... except:\n   ...     raise RuntimeError("Something bad happened")\n   ...\n   Traceback (most recent call last):\n     File "<stdin>", line 2, in <module>\n   ZeroDivisionError: int division or modulo by zero\n\n   During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:\n\n   Traceback (most recent call last):\n     File "<stdin>", line 4, in <module>\n   RuntimeError: Something bad happened\n\nAdditional information on exceptions can be found in section\n*Exceptions*, and information about handling exceptions is in section\n*The try statement*.\n',
+ 'return': '\nThe ``return`` statement\n************************\n\n   return_stmt ::= "return" [expression_list]\n\n``return`` may only occur syntactically nested in a function\ndefinition, not within a nested class definition.\n\nIf an expression list is present, it is evaluated, else ``None`` is\nsubstituted.\n\n``return`` leaves the current function call with the expression list\n(or ``None``) as return value.\n\nWhen ``return`` passes control out of a ``try`` statement with a\n``finally`` clause, that ``finally`` clause is executed before really\nleaving the function.\n\nIn a generator function, the ``return`` statement indicates that the\ngenerator is done and will cause ``StopIteration`` to be raised. The\nreturned value (if any) is used as an argument to construct\n``StopIteration`` and becomes the ``StopIteration.value`` attribute.\n',
  'sequence-types': "\nEmulating container types\n*************************\n\nThe following methods can be defined to implement container objects.\nContainers usually are sequences (such as lists or tuples) or mappings\n(like dictionaries), but can represent other containers as well.  The\nfirst set of methods is used either to emulate a sequence or to\nemulate a mapping; the difference is that for a sequence, the\nallowable keys should be the integers *k* for which ``0 <= k < N``\nwhere *N* is the length of the sequence, or slice objects, which\ndefine a range of items.  It is also recommended that mappings provide\nthe methods ``keys()``, ``values()``, ``items()``, ``get()``,\n``clear()``, ``setdefault()``, ``pop()``, ``popitem()``, ``copy()``,\nand ``update()`` behaving similar to those for Python's standard\ndictionary objects.  The ``collections`` module provides a\n``MutableMapping`` abstract base class to help create those methods\nfrom a base set of ``__getitem__()``, ``__setitem__()``,\n``__delitem__()``, and ``keys()``. Mutable sequences should provide\nmethods ``append()``, ``count()``, ``index()``, ``extend()``,\n``insert()``, ``pop()``, ``remove()``, ``reverse()`` and ``sort()``,\nlike Python standard list objects.  Finally, sequence types should\nimplement addition (meaning concatenation) and multiplication (meaning\nrepetition) by defining the methods ``__add__()``, ``__radd__()``,\n``__iadd__()``, ``__mul__()``, ``__rmul__()`` and ``__imul__()``\ndescribed below; they should not define other numerical operators.  It\nis recommended that both mappings and sequences implement the\n``__contains__()`` method to allow efficient use of the ``in``\noperator; for mappings, ``in`` should search the mapping's keys; for\nsequences, it should search through the values.  It is further\nrecommended that both mappings and sequences implement the\n``__iter__()`` method to allow efficient iteration through the\ncontainer; for mappings, ``__iter__()`` should be the same as\n``keys()``; for sequences, it should iterate through the values.\n\nobject.__len__(self)\n\n   Called to implement the built-in function ``len()``.  Should return\n   the length of the object, an integer ``>=`` 0.  Also, an object\n   that doesn't define a ``__bool__()`` method and whose ``__len__()``\n   method returns zero is considered to be false in a Boolean context.\n\nNote: Slicing is done exclusively with the following three methods.  A\n  call like\n\n     a[1:2] = b\n\n  is translated to\n\n     a[slice(1, 2, None)] = b\n\n  and so forth.  Missing slice items are always filled in with\n  ``None``.\n\nobject.__getitem__(self, key)\n\n   Called to implement evaluation of ``self[key]``. For sequence\n   types, the accepted keys should be integers and slice objects.\n   Note that the special interpretation of negative indexes (if the\n   class wishes to emulate a sequence type) is up to the\n   ``__getitem__()`` method. If *key* is of an inappropriate type,\n   ``TypeError`` may be raised; if of a value outside the set of\n   indexes for the sequence (after any special interpretation of\n   negative values), ``IndexError`` should be raised. For mapping\n   types, if *key* is missing (not in the container), ``KeyError``\n   should be raised.\n\n   Note: ``for`` loops expect that an ``IndexError`` will be raised for\n     illegal indexes to allow proper detection of the end of the\n     sequence.\n\nobject.__setitem__(self, key, value)\n\n   Called to implement assignment to ``self[key]``.  Same note as for\n   ``__getitem__()``.  This should only be implemented for mappings if\n   the objects support changes to the values for keys, or if new keys\n   can be added, or for sequences if elements can be replaced.  The\n   same exceptions should be raised for improper *key* values as for\n   the ``__getitem__()`` method.\n\nobject.__delitem__(self, key)\n\n   Called to implement deletion of ``self[key]``.  Same note as for\n   ``__getitem__()``.  This should only be implemented for mappings if\n   the objects support removal of keys, or for sequences if elements\n   can be removed from the sequence.  The same exceptions should be\n   raised for improper *key* values as for the ``__getitem__()``\n   method.\n\nobject.__iter__(self)\n\n   This method is called when an iterator is required for a container.\n   This method should return a new iterator object that can iterate\n   over all the objects in the container.  For mappings, it should\n   iterate over the keys of the container, and should also be made\n   available as the method ``keys()``.\n\n   Iterator objects also need to implement this method; they are\n   required to return themselves.  For more information on iterator\n   objects, see *Iterator Types*.\n\nobject.__reversed__(self)\n\n   Called (if present) by the ``reversed()`` built-in to implement\n   reverse iteration.  It should return a new iterator object that\n   iterates over all the objects in the container in reverse order.\n\n   If the ``__reversed__()`` method is not provided, the\n   ``reversed()`` built-in will fall back to using the sequence\n   protocol (``__len__()`` and ``__getitem__()``).  Objects that\n   support the sequence protocol should only provide\n   ``__reversed__()`` if they can provide an implementation that is\n   more efficient than the one provided by ``reversed()``.\n\nThe membership test operators (``in`` and ``not in``) are normally\nimplemented as an iteration through a sequence.  However, container\nobjects can supply the following special method with a more efficient\nimplementation, which also does not require the object be a sequence.\n\nobject.__contains__(self, item)\n\n   Called to implement membership test operators.  Should return true\n   if *item* is in *self*, false otherwise.  For mapping objects, this\n   should consider the keys of the mapping rather than the values or\n   the key-item pairs.\n\n   For objects that don't define ``__contains__()``, the membership\n   test first tries iteration via ``__iter__()``, then the old\n   sequence iteration protocol via ``__getitem__()``, see *this\n   section in the language reference*.\n",
  'shifting': '\nShifting operations\n*******************\n\nThe shifting operations have lower priority than the arithmetic\noperations:\n\n   shift_expr ::= a_expr | shift_expr ( "<<" | ">>" ) a_expr\n\nThese operators accept integers as arguments.  They shift the first\nargument to the left or right by the number of bits given by the\nsecond argument.\n\nA right shift by *n* bits is defined as division by ``pow(2,n)``.  A\nleft shift by *n* bits is defined as multiplication with ``pow(2,n)``.\n\nNote: In the current implementation, the right-hand operand is required to\n  be at most ``sys.maxsize``.  If the right-hand operand is larger\n  than ``sys.maxsize`` an ``OverflowError`` exception is raised.\n',
  'slicings': '\nSlicings\n********\n\nA slicing selects a range of items in a sequence object (e.g., a\nstring, tuple or list).  Slicings may be used as expressions or as\ntargets in assignment or ``del`` statements.  The syntax for a\nslicing:\n\n   slicing      ::= primary "[" slice_list "]"\n   slice_list   ::= slice_item ("," slice_item)* [","]\n   slice_item   ::= expression | proper_slice\n   proper_slice ::= [lower_bound] ":" [upper_bound] [ ":" [stride] ]\n   lower_bound  ::= expression\n   upper_bound  ::= expression\n   stride       ::= expression\n\nThere is ambiguity in the formal syntax here: anything that looks like\nan expression list also looks like a slice list, so any subscription\ncan be interpreted as a slicing.  Rather than further complicating the\nsyntax, this is disambiguated by defining that in this case the\ninterpretation as a subscription takes priority over the\ninterpretation as a slicing (this is the case if the slice list\ncontains no proper slice).\n\nThe semantics for a slicing are as follows.  The primary must evaluate\nto a mapping object, and it is indexed (using the same\n``__getitem__()`` method as normal subscription) with a key that is\nconstructed from the slice list, as follows.  If the slice list\ncontains at least one comma, the key is a tuple containing the\nconversion of the slice items; otherwise, the conversion of the lone\nslice item is the key.  The conversion of a slice item that is an\nexpression is that expression.  The conversion of a proper slice is a\nslice object (see section *The standard type hierarchy*) whose\n``start``, ``stop`` and ``step`` attributes are the values of the\nexpressions given as lower bound, upper bound and stride,\nrespectively, substituting ``None`` for missing expressions.\n',
- 'specialattrs': "\nSpecial Attributes\n******************\n\nThe implementation adds a few special read-only attributes to several\nobject types, where they are relevant.  Some of these are not reported\nby the ``dir()`` built-in function.\n\nobject.__dict__\n\n   A dictionary or other mapping object used to store an object's\n   (writable) attributes.\n\ninstance.__class__\n\n   The class to which a class instance belongs.\n\nclass.__bases__\n\n   The tuple of base classes of a class object.\n\nclass.__name__\n\n   The name of the class or type.\n\nThe following attributes are only supported by *new-style class*es.\n\nclass.__mro__\n\n   This attribute is a tuple of classes that are considered when\n   looking for base classes during method resolution.\n\nclass.mro()\n\n   This method can be overridden by a metaclass to customize the\n   method resolution order for its instances.  It is called at class\n   instantiation, and its result is stored in ``__mro__``.\n\nclass.__subclasses__()\n\n   Each new-style class keeps a list of weak references to its\n   immediate subclasses.  This method returns a list of all those\n   references still alive. Example:\n\n      >>> int.__subclasses__()\n      [<type 'bool'>]\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] Additional information on these special methods may be found in\n    the Python Reference Manual (*Basic customization*).\n\n[2] As a consequence, the list ``[1, 2]`` is considered equal to\n    ``[1.0, 2.0]``, and similarly for tuples.\n\n[3] They must have since the parser can't tell the type of the\n    operands.\n\n[4] To format only a tuple you should therefore provide a singleton\n    tuple whose only element is the tuple to be formatted.\n",
- 'specialnames': '\nSpecial method names\n********************\n\nA class can implement certain operations that are invoked by special\nsyntax (such as arithmetic operations or subscripting and slicing) by\ndefining methods with special names. This is Python\'s approach to\n*operator overloading*, allowing classes to define their own behavior\nwith respect to language operators.  For instance, if a class defines\na method named ``__getitem__()``, and ``x`` is an instance of this\nclass, then ``x[i]`` is roughly equivalent to ``type(x).__getitem__(x,\ni)``.  Except where mentioned, attempts to execute an operation raise\nan exception when no appropriate method is defined (typically\n``AttributeError`` or ``TypeError``).\n\nWhen implementing a class that emulates any built-in type, it is\nimportant that the emulation only be implemented to the degree that it\nmakes sense for the object being modelled.  For example, some\nsequences may work well with retrieval of individual elements, but\nextracting a slice may not make sense.  (One example of this is the\n``NodeList`` interface in the W3C\'s Document Object Model.)\n\n\nBasic customization\n===================\n\nobject.__new__(cls[, ...])\n\n   Called to create a new instance of class *cls*.  ``__new__()`` is a\n   static method (special-cased so you need not declare it as such)\n   that takes the class of which an instance was requested as its\n   first argument.  The remaining arguments are those passed to the\n   object constructor expression (the call to the class).  The return\n   value of ``__new__()`` should be the new object instance (usually\n   an instance of *cls*).\n\n   Typical implementations create a new instance of the class by\n   invoking the superclass\'s ``__new__()`` method using\n   ``super(currentclass, cls).__new__(cls[, ...])`` with appropriate\n   arguments and then modifying the newly-created instance as\n   necessary before returning it.\n\n   If ``__new__()`` returns an instance of *cls*, then the new\n   instance\'s ``__init__()`` method will be invoked like\n   ``__init__(self[, ...])``, where *self* is the new instance and the\n   remaining arguments are the same as were passed to ``__new__()``.\n\n   If ``__new__()`` does not return an instance of *cls*, then the new\n   instance\'s ``__init__()`` method will not be invoked.\n\n   ``__new__()`` is intended mainly to allow subclasses of immutable\n   types (like int, str, or tuple) to customize instance creation.  It\n   is also commonly overridden in custom metaclasses in order to\n   customize class creation.\n\nobject.__init__(self[, ...])\n\n   Called when the instance is created.  The arguments are those\n   passed to the class constructor expression.  If a base class has an\n   ``__init__()`` method, the derived class\'s ``__init__()`` method,\n   if any, must explicitly call it to ensure proper initialization of\n   the base class part of the instance; for example:\n   ``BaseClass.__init__(self, [args...])``.  As a special constraint\n   on constructors, no value may be returned; doing so will cause a\n   ``TypeError`` to be raised at runtime.\n\nobject.__del__(self)\n\n   Called when the instance is about to be destroyed.  This is also\n   called a destructor.  If a base class has a ``__del__()`` method,\n   the derived class\'s ``__del__()`` method, if any, must explicitly\n   call it to ensure proper deletion of the base class part of the\n   instance.  Note that it is possible (though not recommended!) for\n   the ``__del__()`` method to postpone destruction of the instance by\n   creating a new reference to it.  It may then be called at a later\n   time when this new reference is deleted.  It is not guaranteed that\n   ``__del__()`` methods are called for objects that still exist when\n   the interpreter exits.\n\n   Note: ``del x`` doesn\'t directly call ``x.__del__()`` --- the former\n     decrements the reference count for ``x`` by one, and the latter\n     is only called when ``x``\'s reference count reaches zero.  Some\n     common situations that may prevent the reference count of an\n     object from going to zero include: circular references between\n     objects (e.g., a doubly-linked list or a tree data structure with\n     parent and child pointers); a reference to the object on the\n     stack frame of a function that caught an exception (the traceback\n     stored in ``sys.exc_info()[2]`` keeps the stack frame alive); or\n     a reference to the object on the stack frame that raised an\n     unhandled exception in interactive mode (the traceback stored in\n     ``sys.last_traceback`` keeps the stack frame alive).  The first\n     situation can only be remedied by explicitly breaking the cycles;\n     the latter two situations can be resolved by storing ``None`` in\n     ``sys.last_traceback``. Circular references which are garbage are\n     detected when the option cycle detector is enabled (it\'s on by\n     default), but can only be cleaned up if there are no Python-\n     level ``__del__()`` methods involved. Refer to the documentation\n     for the ``gc`` module for more information about how\n     ``__del__()`` methods are handled by the cycle detector,\n     particularly the description of the ``garbage`` value.\n\n   Warning: Due to the precarious circumstances under which ``__del__()``\n     methods are invoked, exceptions that occur during their execution\n     are ignored, and a warning is printed to ``sys.stderr`` instead.\n     Also, when ``__del__()`` is invoked in response to a module being\n     deleted (e.g., when execution of the program is done), other\n     globals referenced by the ``__del__()`` method may already have\n     been deleted or in the process of being torn down (e.g. the\n     import machinery shutting down).  For this reason, ``__del__()``\n     methods should do the absolute minimum needed to maintain\n     external invariants.  Starting with version 1.5, Python\n     guarantees that globals whose name begins with a single\n     underscore are deleted from their module before other globals are\n     deleted; if no other references to such globals exist, this may\n     help in assuring that imported modules are still available at the\n     time when the ``__del__()`` method is called.\n\nobject.__repr__(self)\n\n   Called by the ``repr()`` built-in function to compute the\n   "official" string representation of an object.  If at all possible,\n   this should look like a valid Python expression that could be used\n   to recreate an object with the same value (given an appropriate\n   environment).  If this is not possible, a string of the form\n   ``<...some useful description...>`` should be returned. The return\n   value must be a string object. If a class defines ``__repr__()``\n   but not ``__str__()``, then ``__repr__()`` is also used when an\n   "informal" string representation of instances of that class is\n   required.\n\n   This is typically used for debugging, so it is important that the\n   representation is information-rich and unambiguous.\n\nobject.__str__(self)\n\n   Called by the ``str()`` built-in function and by the ``print()``\n   function to compute the "informal" string representation of an\n   object.  This differs from ``__repr__()`` in that it does not have\n   to be a valid Python expression: a more convenient or concise\n   representation may be used instead. The return value must be a\n   string object.\n\nobject.__format__(self, format_spec)\n\n   Called by the ``format()`` built-in function (and by extension, the\n   ``format()`` method of class ``str``) to produce a "formatted"\n   string representation of an object. The ``format_spec`` argument is\n   a string that contains a description of the formatting options\n   desired. The interpretation of the ``format_spec`` argument is up\n   to the type implementing ``__format__()``, however most classes\n   will either delegate formatting to one of the built-in types, or\n   use a similar formatting option syntax.\n\n   See *Format Specification Mini-Language* for a description of the\n   standard formatting syntax.\n\n   The return value must be a string object.\n\nobject.__lt__(self, other)\nobject.__le__(self, other)\nobject.__eq__(self, other)\nobject.__ne__(self, other)\nobject.__gt__(self, other)\nobject.__ge__(self, other)\n\n   These are the so-called "rich comparison" methods. The\n   correspondence between operator symbols and method names is as\n   follows: ``x<y`` calls ``x.__lt__(y)``, ``x<=y`` calls\n   ``x.__le__(y)``, ``x==y`` calls ``x.__eq__(y)``, ``x!=y`` calls\n   ``x.__ne__(y)``, ``x>y`` calls ``x.__gt__(y)``, and ``x>=y`` calls\n   ``x.__ge__(y)``.\n\n   A rich comparison method may return the singleton\n   ``NotImplemented`` if it does not implement the operation for a\n   given pair of arguments. By convention, ``False`` and ``True`` are\n   returned for a successful comparison. However, these methods can\n   return any value, so if the comparison operator is used in a\n   Boolean context (e.g., in the condition of an ``if`` statement),\n   Python will call ``bool()`` on the value to determine if the result\n   is true or false.\n\n   There are no implied relationships among the comparison operators.\n   The truth of ``x==y`` does not imply that ``x!=y`` is false.\n   Accordingly, when defining ``__eq__()``, one should also define\n   ``__ne__()`` so that the operators will behave as expected.  See\n   the paragraph on ``__hash__()`` for some important notes on\n   creating *hashable* objects which support custom comparison\n   operations and are usable as dictionary keys.\n\n   There are no swapped-argument versions of these methods (to be used\n   when the left argument does not support the operation but the right\n   argument does); rather, ``__lt__()`` and ``__gt__()`` are each\n   other\'s reflection, ``__le__()`` and ``__ge__()`` are each other\'s\n   reflection, and ``__eq__()`` and ``__ne__()`` are their own\n   reflection.\n\n   Arguments to rich comparison methods are never coerced.\n\n   To automatically generate ordering operations from a single root\n   operation, see ``functools.total_ordering()``.\n\nobject.__hash__(self)\n\n   Called by built-in function ``hash()`` and for operations on\n   members of hashed collections including ``set``, ``frozenset``, and\n   ``dict``.  ``__hash__()`` should return an integer.  The only\n   required property is that objects which compare equal have the same\n   hash value; it is advised to somehow mix together (e.g. using\n   exclusive or) the hash values for the components of the object that\n   also play a part in comparison of objects.\n\n   If a class does not define an ``__eq__()`` method it should not\n   define a ``__hash__()`` operation either; if it defines\n   ``__eq__()`` but not ``__hash__()``, its instances will not be\n   usable as items in hashable collections.  If a class defines\n   mutable objects and implements an ``__eq__()`` method, it should\n   not implement ``__hash__()``, since the implementation of hashable\n   collections requires that a key\'s hash value is immutable (if the\n   object\'s hash value changes, it will be in the wrong hash bucket).\n\n   User-defined classes have ``__eq__()`` and ``__hash__()`` methods\n   by default; with them, all objects compare unequal (except with\n   themselves) and ``x.__hash__()`` returns ``id(x)``.\n\n   Classes which inherit a ``__hash__()`` method from a parent class\n   but change the meaning of ``__eq__()`` such that the hash value\n   returned is no longer appropriate (e.g. by switching to a value-\n   based concept of equality instead of the default identity based\n   equality) can explicitly flag themselves as being unhashable by\n   setting ``__hash__ = None`` in the class definition. Doing so means\n   that not only will instances of the class raise an appropriate\n   ``TypeError`` when a program attempts to retrieve their hash value,\n   but they will also be correctly identified as unhashable when\n   checking ``isinstance(obj, collections.Hashable)`` (unlike classes\n   which define their own ``__hash__()`` to explicitly raise\n   ``TypeError``).\n\n   If a class that overrides ``__eq__()`` needs to retain the\n   implementation of ``__hash__()`` from a parent class, the\n   interpreter must be told this explicitly by setting ``__hash__ =\n   <ParentClass>.__hash__``. Otherwise the inheritance of\n   ``__hash__()`` will be blocked, just as if ``__hash__`` had been\n   explicitly set to ``None``.\n\nobject.__bool__(self)\n\n   Called to implement truth value testing and the built-in operation\n   ``bool()``; should return ``False`` or ``True``.  When this method\n   is not defined, ``__len__()`` is called, if it is defined, and the\n   object is considered true if its result is nonzero.  If a class\n   defines neither ``__len__()`` nor ``__bool__()``, all its instances\n   are considered true.\n\n\nCustomizing attribute access\n============================\n\nThe following methods can be defined to customize the meaning of\nattribute access (use of, assignment to, or deletion of ``x.name``)\nfor class instances.\n\nobject.__getattr__(self, name)\n\n   Called when an attribute lookup has not found the attribute in the\n   usual places (i.e. it is not an instance attribute nor is it found\n   in the class tree for ``self``).  ``name`` is the attribute name.\n   This method should return the (computed) attribute value or raise\n   an ``AttributeError`` exception.\n\n   Note that if the attribute is found through the normal mechanism,\n   ``__getattr__()`` is not called.  (This is an intentional asymmetry\n   between ``__getattr__()`` and ``__setattr__()``.) This is done both\n   for efficiency reasons and because otherwise ``__getattr__()``\n   would have no way to access other attributes of the instance.  Note\n   that at least for instance variables, you can fake total control by\n   not inserting any values in the instance attribute dictionary (but\n   instead inserting them in another object).  See the\n   ``__getattribute__()`` method below for a way to actually get total\n   control over attribute access.\n\nobject.__getattribute__(self, name)\n\n   Called unconditionally to implement attribute accesses for\n   instances of the class. If the class also defines\n   ``__getattr__()``, the latter will not be called unless\n   ``__getattribute__()`` either calls it explicitly or raises an\n   ``AttributeError``. This method should return the (computed)\n   attribute value or raise an ``AttributeError`` exception. In order\n   to avoid infinite recursion in this method, its implementation\n   should always call the base class method with the same name to\n   access any attributes it needs, for example,\n   ``object.__getattribute__(self, name)``.\n\n   Note: This method may still be bypassed when looking up special methods\n     as the result of implicit invocation via language syntax or\n     built-in functions. See *Special method lookup*.\n\nobject.__setattr__(self, name, value)\n\n   Called when an attribute assignment is attempted.  This is called\n   instead of the normal mechanism (i.e. store the value in the\n   instance dictionary). *name* is the attribute name, *value* is the\n   value to be assigned to it.\n\n   If ``__setattr__()`` wants to assign to an instance attribute, it\n   should call the base class method with the same name, for example,\n   ``object.__setattr__(self, name, value)``.\n\nobject.__delattr__(self, name)\n\n   Like ``__setattr__()`` but for attribute deletion instead of\n   assignment.  This should only be implemented if ``del obj.name`` is\n   meaningful for the object.\n\nobject.__dir__(self)\n\n   Called when ``dir()`` is called on the object.  A list must be\n   returned.\n\n\nImplementing Descriptors\n------------------------\n\nThe following methods only apply when an instance of the class\ncontaining the method (a so-called *descriptor* class) appears in an\n*owner* class (the descriptor must be in either the owner\'s class\ndictionary or in the class dictionary for one of its parents).  In the\nexamples below, "the attribute" refers to the attribute whose name is\nthe key of the property in the owner class\' ``__dict__``.\n\nobject.__get__(self, instance, owner)\n\n   Called to get the attribute of the owner class (class attribute\n   access) or of an instance of that class (instance attribute\n   access). *owner* is always the owner class, while *instance* is the\n   instance that the attribute was accessed through, or ``None`` when\n   the attribute is accessed through the *owner*.  This method should\n   return the (computed) attribute value or raise an\n   ``AttributeError`` exception.\n\nobject.__set__(self, instance, value)\n\n   Called to set the attribute on an instance *instance* of the owner\n   class to a new value, *value*.\n\nobject.__delete__(self, instance)\n\n   Called to delete the attribute on an instance *instance* of the\n   owner class.\n\n\nInvoking Descriptors\n--------------------\n\nIn general, a descriptor is an object attribute with "binding\nbehavior", one whose attribute access has been overridden by methods\nin the descriptor protocol:  ``__get__()``, ``__set__()``, and\n``__delete__()``. If any of those methods are defined for an object,\nit is said to be a descriptor.\n\nThe default behavior for attribute access is to get, set, or delete\nthe attribute from an object\'s dictionary. For instance, ``a.x`` has a\nlookup chain starting with ``a.__dict__[\'x\']``, then\n``type(a).__dict__[\'x\']``, and continuing through the base classes of\n``type(a)`` excluding metaclasses.\n\nHowever, if the looked-up value is an object defining one of the\ndescriptor methods, then Python may override the default behavior and\ninvoke the descriptor method instead.  Where this occurs in the\nprecedence chain depends on which descriptor methods were defined and\nhow they were called.\n\nThe starting point for descriptor invocation is a binding, ``a.x``.\nHow the arguments are assembled depends on ``a``:\n\nDirect Call\n   The simplest and least common call is when user code directly\n   invokes a descriptor method:    ``x.__get__(a)``.\n\nInstance Binding\n   If binding to an object instance, ``a.x`` is transformed into the\n   call: ``type(a).__dict__[\'x\'].__get__(a, type(a))``.\n\nClass Binding\n   If binding to a class, ``A.x`` is transformed into the call:\n   ``A.__dict__[\'x\'].__get__(None, A)``.\n\nSuper Binding\n   If ``a`` is an instance of ``super``, then the binding ``super(B,\n   obj).m()`` searches ``obj.__class__.__mro__`` for the base class\n   ``A`` immediately preceding ``B`` and then invokes the descriptor\n   with the call: ``A.__dict__[\'m\'].__get__(obj, obj.__class__)``.\n\nFor instance bindings, the precedence of descriptor invocation depends\non the which descriptor methods are defined.  A descriptor can define\nany combination of ``__get__()``, ``__set__()`` and ``__delete__()``.\nIf it does not define ``__get__()``, then accessing the attribute will\nreturn the descriptor object itself unless there is a value in the\nobject\'s instance dictionary.  If the descriptor defines ``__set__()``\nand/or ``__delete__()``, it is a data descriptor; if it defines\nneither, it is a non-data descriptor.  Normally, data descriptors\ndefine both ``__get__()`` and ``__set__()``, while non-data\ndescriptors have just the ``__get__()`` method.  Data descriptors with\n``__set__()`` and ``__get__()`` defined always override a redefinition\nin an instance dictionary.  In contrast, non-data descriptors can be\noverridden by instances.\n\nPython methods (including ``staticmethod()`` and ``classmethod()``)\nare implemented as non-data descriptors.  Accordingly, instances can\nredefine and override methods.  This allows individual instances to\nacquire behaviors that differ from other instances of the same class.\n\nThe ``property()`` function is implemented as a data descriptor.\nAccordingly, instances cannot override the behavior of a property.\n\n\n__slots__\n---------\n\nBy default, instances of classes have a dictionary for attribute\nstorage.  This wastes space for objects having very few instance\nvariables.  The space consumption can become acute when creating large\nnumbers of instances.\n\nThe default can be overridden by defining *__slots__* in a class\ndefinition. The *__slots__* declaration takes a sequence of instance\nvariables and reserves just enough space in each instance to hold a\nvalue for each variable.  Space is saved because *__dict__* is not\ncreated for each instance.\n\nobject.__slots__\n\n   This class variable can be assigned a string, iterable, or sequence\n   of strings with variable names used by instances.  If defined in a\n   class, *__slots__* reserves space for the declared variables and\n   prevents the automatic creation of *__dict__* and *__weakref__* for\n   each instance.\n\n\nNotes on using *__slots__*\n~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~\n\n* When inheriting from a class without *__slots__*, the *__dict__*\n  attribute of that class will always be accessible, so a *__slots__*\n  definition in the subclass is meaningless.\n\n* Without a *__dict__* variable, instances cannot be assigned new\n  variables not listed in the *__slots__* definition.  Attempts to\n  assign to an unlisted variable name raises ``AttributeError``. If\n  dynamic assignment of new variables is desired, then add\n  ``\'__dict__\'`` to the sequence of strings in the *__slots__*\n  declaration.\n\n* Without a *__weakref__* variable for each instance, classes defining\n  *__slots__* do not support weak references to its instances. If weak\n  reference support is needed, then add ``\'__weakref__\'`` to the\n  sequence of strings in the *__slots__* declaration.\n\n* *__slots__* are implemented at the class level by creating\n  descriptors (*Implementing Descriptors*) for each variable name.  As\n  a result, class attributes cannot be used to set default values for\n  instance variables defined by *__slots__*; otherwise, the class\n  attribute would overwrite the descriptor assignment.\n\n* The action of a *__slots__* declaration is limited to the class\n  where it is defined.  As a result, subclasses will have a *__dict__*\n  unless they also define *__slots__* (which must only contain names\n  of any *additional* slots).\n\n* If a class defines a slot also defined in a base class, the instance\n  variable defined by the base class slot is inaccessible (except by\n  retrieving its descriptor directly from the base class). This\n  renders the meaning of the program undefined.  In the future, a\n  check may be added to prevent this.\n\n* Nonempty *__slots__* does not work for classes derived from\n  "variable-length" built-in types such as ``int``, ``str`` and\n  ``tuple``.\n\n* Any non-string iterable may be assigned to *__slots__*. Mappings may\n  also be used; however, in the future, special meaning may be\n  assigned to the values corresponding to each key.\n\n* *__class__* assignment works only if both classes have the same\n  *__slots__*.\n\n\nCustomizing class creation\n==========================\n\nBy default, classes are constructed using ``type()``. A class\ndefinition is read into a separate namespace and the value of class\nname is bound to the result of ``type(name, bases, dict)``.\n\nWhen the class definition is read, if a callable ``metaclass`` keyword\nargument is passed after the bases in the class definition, the\ncallable given will be called instead of ``type()``.  If other keyword\narguments are passed, they will also be passed to the metaclass.  This\nallows classes or functions to be written which monitor or alter the\nclass creation process:\n\n* Modifying the class dictionary prior to the class being created.\n\n* Returning an instance of another class -- essentially performing the\n  role of a factory function.\n\nThese steps will have to be performed in the metaclass\'s ``__new__()``\nmethod -- ``type.__new__()`` can then be called from this method to\ncreate a class with different properties.  This example adds a new\nelement to the class dictionary before creating the class:\n\n   class metacls(type):\n       def __new__(mcs, name, bases, dict):\n           dict[\'foo\'] = \'metacls was here\'\n           return type.__new__(mcs, name, bases, dict)\n\nYou can of course also override other class methods (or add new\nmethods); for example defining a custom ``__call__()`` method in the\nmetaclass allows custom behavior when the class is called, e.g. not\nalways creating a new instance.\n\nIf the metaclass has a ``__prepare__()`` attribute (usually\nimplemented as a class or static method), it is called before the\nclass body is evaluated with the name of the class and a tuple of its\nbases for arguments.  It should return an object that supports the\nmapping interface that will be used to store the namespace of the\nclass.  The default is a plain dictionary.  This could be used, for\nexample, to keep track of the order that class attributes are declared\nin by returning an ordered dictionary.\n\nThe appropriate metaclass is determined by the following precedence\nrules:\n\n* If the ``metaclass`` keyword argument is passed with the bases, it\n  is used.\n\n* Otherwise, if there is at least one base class, its metaclass is\n  used.\n\n* Otherwise, the default metaclass (``type``) is used.\n\nThe potential uses for metaclasses are boundless. Some ideas that have\nbeen explored including logging, interface checking, automatic\ndelegation, automatic property creation, proxies, frameworks, and\nautomatic resource locking/synchronization.\n\nHere is an example of a metaclass that uses an\n``collections.OrderedDict`` to remember the order that class members\nwere defined:\n\n   class OrderedClass(type):\n\n        @classmethod\n        def __prepare__(metacls, name, bases, **kwds):\n           return collections.OrderedDict()\n\n        def __new__(cls, name, bases, classdict):\n           result = type.__new__(cls, name, bases, dict(classdict))\n           result.members = tuple(classdict)\n           return result\n\n   class A(metaclass=OrderedClass):\n       def one(self): pass\n       def two(self): pass\n       def three(self): pass\n       def four(self): pass\n\n   >>> A.members\n   (\'__module__\', \'one\', \'two\', \'three\', \'four\')\n\nWhen the class definition for *A* gets executed, the process begins\nwith calling the metaclass\'s ``__prepare__()`` method which returns an\nempty ``collections.OrderedDict``.  That mapping records the methods\nand attributes of *A* as they are defined within the body of the class\nstatement. Once those definitions are executed, the ordered dictionary\nis fully populated and the metaclass\'s ``__new__()`` method gets\ninvoked.  That method builds the new type and it saves the ordered\ndictionary keys in an attribute called ``members``.\n\n\nCustomizing instance and subclass checks\n========================================\n\nThe following methods are used to override the default behavior of the\n``isinstance()`` and ``issubclass()`` built-in functions.\n\nIn particular, the metaclass ``abc.ABCMeta`` implements these methods\nin order to allow the addition of Abstract Base Classes (ABCs) as\n"virtual base classes" to any class or type (including built-in\ntypes), including other ABCs.\n\nclass.__instancecheck__(self, instance)\n\n   Return true if *instance* should be considered a (direct or\n   indirect) instance of *class*. If defined, called to implement\n   ``isinstance(instance, class)``.\n\nclass.__subclasscheck__(self, subclass)\n\n   Return true if *subclass* should be considered a (direct or\n   indirect) subclass of *class*.  If defined, called to implement\n   ``issubclass(subclass, class)``.\n\nNote that these methods are looked up on the type (metaclass) of a\nclass.  They cannot be defined as class methods in the actual class.\nThis is consistent with the lookup of special methods that are called\non instances, only in this case the instance is itself a class.\n\nSee also:\n\n   **PEP 3119** - Introducing Abstract Base Classes\n      Includes the specification for customizing ``isinstance()`` and\n      ``issubclass()`` behavior through ``__instancecheck__()`` and\n      ``__subclasscheck__()``, with motivation for this functionality\n      in the context of adding Abstract Base Classes (see the ``abc``\n      module) to the language.\n\n\nEmulating callable objects\n==========================\n\nobject.__call__(self[, args...])\n\n   Called when the instance is "called" as a function; if this method\n   is defined, ``x(arg1, arg2, ...)`` is a shorthand for\n   ``x.__call__(arg1, arg2, ...)``.\n\n\nEmulating container types\n=========================\n\nThe following methods can be defined to implement container objects.\nContainers usually are sequences (such as lists or tuples) or mappings\n(like dictionaries), but can represent other containers as well.  The\nfirst set of methods is used either to emulate a sequence or to\nemulate a mapping; the difference is that for a sequence, the\nallowable keys should be the integers *k* for which ``0 <= k < N``\nwhere *N* is the length of the sequence, or slice objects, which\ndefine a range of items.  It is also recommended that mappings provide\nthe methods ``keys()``, ``values()``, ``items()``, ``get()``,\n``clear()``, ``setdefault()``, ``pop()``, ``popitem()``, ``copy()``,\nand ``update()`` behaving similar to those for Python\'s standard\ndictionary objects.  The ``collections`` module provides a\n``MutableMapping`` abstract base class to help create those methods\nfrom a base set of ``__getitem__()``, ``__setitem__()``,\n``__delitem__()``, and ``keys()``. Mutable sequences should provide\nmethods ``append()``, ``count()``, ``index()``, ``extend()``,\n``insert()``, ``pop()``, ``remove()``, ``reverse()`` and ``sort()``,\nlike Python standard list objects.  Finally, sequence types should\nimplement addition (meaning concatenation) and multiplication (meaning\nrepetition) by defining the methods ``__add__()``, ``__radd__()``,\n``__iadd__()``, ``__mul__()``, ``__rmul__()`` and ``__imul__()``\ndescribed below; they should not define other numerical operators.  It\nis recommended that both mappings and sequences implement the\n``__contains__()`` method to allow efficient use of the ``in``\noperator; for mappings, ``in`` should search the mapping\'s keys; for\nsequences, it should search through the values.  It is further\nrecommended that both mappings and sequences implement the\n``__iter__()`` method to allow efficient iteration through the\ncontainer; for mappings, ``__iter__()`` should be the same as\n``keys()``; for sequences, it should iterate through the values.\n\nobject.__len__(self)\n\n   Called to implement the built-in function ``len()``.  Should return\n   the length of the object, an integer ``>=`` 0.  Also, an object\n   that doesn\'t define a ``__bool__()`` method and whose ``__len__()``\n   method returns zero is considered to be false in a Boolean context.\n\nNote: Slicing is done exclusively with the following three methods.  A\n  call like\n\n     a[1:2] = b\n\n  is translated to\n\n     a[slice(1, 2, None)] = b\n\n  and so forth.  Missing slice items are always filled in with\n  ``None``.\n\nobject.__getitem__(self, key)\n\n   Called to implement evaluation of ``self[key]``. For sequence\n   types, the accepted keys should be integers and slice objects.\n   Note that the special interpretation of negative indexes (if the\n   class wishes to emulate a sequence type) is up to the\n   ``__getitem__()`` method. If *key* is of an inappropriate type,\n   ``TypeError`` may be raised; if of a value outside the set of\n   indexes for the sequence (after any special interpretation of\n   negative values), ``IndexError`` should be raised. For mapping\n   types, if *key* is missing (not in the container), ``KeyError``\n   should be raised.\n\n   Note: ``for`` loops expect that an ``IndexError`` will be raised for\n     illegal indexes to allow proper detection of the end of the\n     sequence.\n\nobject.__setitem__(self, key, value)\n\n   Called to implement assignment to ``self[key]``.  Same note as for\n   ``__getitem__()``.  This should only be implemented for mappings if\n   the objects support changes to the values for keys, or if new keys\n   can be added, or for sequences if elements can be replaced.  The\n   same exceptions should be raised for improper *key* values as for\n   the ``__getitem__()`` method.\n\nobject.__delitem__(self, key)\n\n   Called to implement deletion of ``self[key]``.  Same note as for\n   ``__getitem__()``.  This should only be implemented for mappings if\n   the objects support removal of keys, or for sequences if elements\n   can be removed from the sequence.  The same exceptions should be\n   raised for improper *key* values as for the ``__getitem__()``\n   method.\n\nobject.__iter__(self)\n\n   This method is called when an iterator is required for a container.\n   This method should return a new iterator object that can iterate\n   over all the objects in the container.  For mappings, it should\n   iterate over the keys of the container, and should also be made\n   available as the method ``keys()``.\n\n   Iterator objects also need to implement this method; they are\n   required to return themselves.  For more information on iterator\n   objects, see *Iterator Types*.\n\nobject.__reversed__(self)\n\n   Called (if present) by the ``reversed()`` built-in to implement\n   reverse iteration.  It should return a new iterator object that\n   iterates over all the objects in the container in reverse order.\n\n   If the ``__reversed__()`` method is not provided, the\n   ``reversed()`` built-in will fall back to using the sequence\n   protocol (``__len__()`` and ``__getitem__()``).  Objects that\n   support the sequence protocol should only provide\n   ``__reversed__()`` if they can provide an implementation that is\n   more efficient than the one provided by ``reversed()``.\n\nThe membership test operators (``in`` and ``not in``) are normally\nimplemented as an iteration through a sequence.  However, container\nobjects can supply the following special method with a more efficient\nimplementation, which also does not require the object be a sequence.\n\nobject.__contains__(self, item)\n\n   Called to implement membership test operators.  Should return true\n   if *item* is in *self*, false otherwise.  For mapping objects, this\n   should consider the keys of the mapping rather than the values or\n   the key-item pairs.\n\n   For objects that don\'t define ``__contains__()``, the membership\n   test first tries iteration via ``__iter__()``, then the old\n   sequence iteration protocol via ``__getitem__()``, see *this\n   section in the language reference*.\n\n\nEmulating numeric types\n=======================\n\nThe following methods can be defined to emulate numeric objects.\nMethods corresponding to operations that are not supported by the\nparticular kind of number implemented (e.g., bitwise operations for\nnon-integral numbers) should be left undefined.\n\nobject.__add__(self, other)\nobject.__sub__(self, other)\nobject.__mul__(self, other)\nobject.__truediv__(self, other)\nobject.__floordiv__(self, other)\nobject.__mod__(self, other)\nobject.__divmod__(self, other)\nobject.__pow__(self, other[, modulo])\nobject.__lshift__(self, other)\nobject.__rshift__(self, other)\nobject.__and__(self, other)\nobject.__xor__(self, other)\nobject.__or__(self, other)\n\n   These methods are called to implement the binary arithmetic\n   operations (``+``, ``-``, ``*``, ``/``, ``//``, ``%``,\n   ``divmod()``, ``pow()``, ``**``, ``<<``, ``>>``, ``&``, ``^``,\n   ``|``).  For instance, to evaluate the expression ``x + y``, where\n   *x* is an instance of a class that has an ``__add__()`` method,\n   ``x.__add__(y)`` is called.  The ``__divmod__()`` method should be\n   the equivalent to using ``__floordiv__()`` and ``__mod__()``; it\n   should not be related to ``__truediv__()``.  Note that\n   ``__pow__()`` should be defined to accept an optional third\n   argument if the ternary version of the built-in ``pow()`` function\n   is to be supported.\n\n   If one of those methods does not support the operation with the\n   supplied arguments, it should return ``NotImplemented``.\n\nobject.__radd__(self, other)\nobject.__rsub__(self, other)\nobject.__rmul__(self, other)\nobject.__rtruediv__(self, other)\nobject.__rfloordiv__(self, other)\nobject.__rmod__(self, other)\nobject.__rdivmod__(self, other)\nobject.__rpow__(self, other)\nobject.__rlshift__(self, other)\nobject.__rrshift__(self, other)\nobject.__rand__(self, other)\nobject.__rxor__(self, other)\nobject.__ror__(self, other)\n\n   These methods are called to implement the binary arithmetic\n   operations (``+``, ``-``, ``*``, ``/``, ``//``, ``%``,\n   ``divmod()``, ``pow()``, ``**``, ``<<``, ``>>``, ``&``, ``^``,\n   ``|``) with reflected (swapped) operands. These functions are only\n   called if the left operand does not support the corresponding\n   operation and the operands are of different types. [2]  For\n   instance, to evaluate the expression ``x - y``, where *y* is an\n   instance of a class that has an ``__rsub__()`` method,\n   ``y.__rsub__(x)`` is called if ``x.__sub__(y)`` returns\n   *NotImplemented*.\n\n   Note that ternary ``pow()`` will not try calling ``__rpow__()``\n   (the coercion rules would become too complicated).\n\n   Note: If the right operand\'s type is a subclass of the left operand\'s\n     type and that subclass provides the reflected method for the\n     operation, this method will be called before the left operand\'s\n     non-reflected method.  This behavior allows subclasses to\n     override their ancestors\' operations.\n\nobject.__iadd__(self, other)\nobject.__isub__(self, other)\nobject.__imul__(self, other)\nobject.__itruediv__(self, other)\nobject.__ifloordiv__(self, other)\nobject.__imod__(self, other)\nobject.__ipow__(self, other[, modulo])\nobject.__ilshift__(self, other)\nobject.__irshift__(self, other)\nobject.__iand__(self, other)\nobject.__ixor__(self, other)\nobject.__ior__(self, other)\n\n   These methods are called to implement the augmented arithmetic\n   assignments (``+=``, ``-=``, ``*=``, ``/=``, ``//=``, ``%=``,\n   ``**=``, ``<<=``, ``>>=``, ``&=``, ``^=``, ``|=``).  These methods\n   should attempt to do the operation in-place (modifying *self*) and\n   return the result (which could be, but does not have to be,\n   *self*).  If a specific method is not defined, the augmented\n   assignment falls back to the normal methods.  For instance, to\n   execute the statement ``x += y``, where *x* is an instance of a\n   class that has an ``__iadd__()`` method, ``x.__iadd__(y)`` is\n   called.  If *x* is an instance of a class that does not define a\n   ``__iadd__()`` method, ``x.__add__(y)`` and ``y.__radd__(x)`` are\n   considered, as with the evaluation of ``x + y``.\n\nobject.__neg__(self)\nobject.__pos__(self)\nobject.__abs__(self)\nobject.__invert__(self)\n\n   Called to implement the unary arithmetic operations (``-``, ``+``,\n   ``abs()`` and ``~``).\n\nobject.__complex__(self)\nobject.__int__(self)\nobject.__float__(self)\nobject.__round__(self[, n])\n\n   Called to implement the built-in functions ``complex()``,\n   ``int()``, ``float()`` and ``round()``.  Should return a value of\n   the appropriate type.\n\nobject.__index__(self)\n\n   Called to implement ``operator.index()``.  Also called whenever\n   Python needs an integer object (such as in slicing, or in the\n   built-in ``bin()``, ``hex()`` and ``oct()`` functions). Must return\n   an integer.\n\n\nWith Statement Context Managers\n===============================\n\nA *context manager* is an object that defines the runtime context to\nbe established when executing a ``with`` statement. The context\nmanager handles the entry into, and the exit from, the desired runtime\ncontext for the execution of the block of code.  Context managers are\nnormally invoked using the ``with`` statement (described in section\n*The with statement*), but can also be used by directly invoking their\nmethods.\n\nTypical uses of context managers include saving and restoring various\nkinds of global state, locking and unlocking resources, closing opened\nfiles, etc.\n\nFor more information on context managers, see *Context Manager Types*.\n\nobject.__enter__(self)\n\n   Enter the runtime context related to this object. The ``with``\n   statement will bind this method\'s return value to the target(s)\n   specified in the ``as`` clause of the statement, if any.\n\nobject.__exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, traceback)\n\n   Exit the runtime context related to this object. The parameters\n   describe the exception that caused the context to be exited. If the\n   context was exited without an exception, all three arguments will\n   be ``None``.\n\n   If an exception is supplied, and the method wishes to suppress the\n   exception (i.e., prevent it from being propagated), it should\n   return a true value. Otherwise, the exception will be processed\n   normally upon exit from this method.\n\n   Note that ``__exit__()`` methods should not reraise the passed-in\n   exception; this is the caller\'s responsibility.\n\nSee also:\n\n   **PEP 0343** - The "with" statement\n      The specification, background, and examples for the Python\n      ``with`` statement.\n\n\nSpecial method lookup\n=====================\n\nFor custom classes, implicit invocations of special methods are only\nguaranteed to work correctly if defined on an object\'s type, not in\nthe object\'s instance dictionary.  That behaviour is the reason why\nthe following code raises an exception:\n\n   >>> class C:\n   ...     pass\n   ...\n   >>> c = C()\n   >>> c.__len__ = lambda: 5\n   >>> len(c)\n   Traceback (most recent call last):\n     File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>\n   TypeError: object of type \'C\' has no len()\n\nThe rationale behind this behaviour lies with a number of special\nmethods such as ``__hash__()`` and ``__repr__()`` that are implemented\nby all objects, including type objects. If the implicit lookup of\nthese methods used the conventional lookup process, they would fail\nwhen invoked on the type object itself:\n\n   >>> 1 .__hash__() == hash(1)\n   True\n   >>> int.__hash__() == hash(int)\n   Traceback (most recent call last):\n     File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>\n   TypeError: descriptor \'__hash__\' of \'int\' object needs an argument\n\nIncorrectly attempting to invoke an unbound method of a class in this\nway is sometimes referred to as \'metaclass confusion\', and is avoided\nby bypassing the instance when looking up special methods:\n\n   >>> type(1).__hash__(1) == hash(1)\n   True\n   >>> type(int).__hash__(int) == hash(int)\n   True\n\nIn addition to bypassing any instance attributes in the interest of\ncorrectness, implicit special method lookup generally also bypasses\nthe ``__getattribute__()`` method even of the object\'s metaclass:\n\n   >>> class Meta(type):\n   ...    def __getattribute__(*args):\n   ...       print("Metaclass getattribute invoked")\n   ...       return type.__getattribute__(*args)\n   ...\n   >>> class C(object, metaclass=Meta):\n   ...     def __len__(self):\n   ...         return 10\n   ...     def __getattribute__(*args):\n   ...         print("Class getattribute invoked")\n   ...         return object.__getattribute__(*args)\n   ...\n   >>> c = C()\n   >>> c.__len__()                 # Explicit lookup via instance\n   Class getattribute invoked\n   10\n   >>> type(c).__len__(c)          # Explicit lookup via type\n   Metaclass getattribute invoked\n   10\n   >>> len(c)                      # Implicit lookup\n   10\n\nBypassing the ``__getattribute__()`` machinery in this fashion\nprovides significant scope for speed optimisations within the\ninterpreter, at the cost of some flexibility in the handling of\nspecial methods (the special method *must* be set on the class object\nitself in order to be consistently invoked by the interpreter).\n\n-[ Footnotes ]-\n\n[1] It *is* possible in some cases to change an object\'s type, under\n    certain controlled conditions. It generally isn\'t a good idea\n    though, since it can lead to some very strange behaviour if it is\n    handled incorrectly.\n\n[2] For operands of the same type, it is assumed that if the non-\n    reflected method (such as ``__add__()``) fails the operation is\n    not supported, which is why the reflected method is not called.\n',
- 'string-methods': '\nString Methods\n**************\n\nString objects support the methods listed below.\n\nIn addition, Python\'s strings support the sequence type methods\ndescribed in the *Sequence Types --- str, bytes, bytearray, list,\ntuple, range* section. To output formatted strings, see the *String\nFormatting* section. Also, see the ``re`` module for string functions\nbased on regular expressions.\n\nstr.capitalize()\n\n   Return a copy of the string with its first character capitalized\n   and the rest lowercased.\n\nstr.center(width[, fillchar])\n\n   Return centered in a string of length *width*. Padding is done\n   using the specified *fillchar* (default is a space).\n\nstr.count(sub[, start[, end]])\n\n   Return the number of non-overlapping occurrences of substring *sub*\n   in the range [*start*, *end*].  Optional arguments *start* and\n   *end* are interpreted as in slice notation.\n\nstr.encode(encoding="utf-8", errors="strict")\n\n   Return an encoded version of the string as a bytes object. Default\n   encoding is ``\'utf-8\'``. *errors* may be given to set a different\n   error handling scheme. The default for *errors* is ``\'strict\'``,\n   meaning that encoding errors raise a ``UnicodeError``. Other\n   possible values are ``\'ignore\'``, ``\'replace\'``,\n   ``\'xmlcharrefreplace\'``, ``\'backslashreplace\'`` and any other name\n   registered via ``codecs.register_error()``, see section *Codec Base\n   Classes*. For a list of possible encodings, see section *Standard\n   Encodings*.\n\n   Changed in version 3.1: Support for keyword arguments added.\n\nstr.endswith(suffix[, start[, end]])\n\n   Return ``True`` if the string ends with the specified *suffix*,\n   otherwise return ``False``.  *suffix* can also be a tuple of\n   suffixes to look for.  With optional *start*, test beginning at\n   that position.  With optional *end*, stop comparing at that\n   position.\n\nstr.expandtabs([tabsize])\n\n   Return a copy of the string where all tab characters are replaced\n   by one or more spaces, depending on the current column and the\n   given tab size.  The column number is reset to zero after each\n   newline occurring in the string. If *tabsize* is not given, a tab\n   size of ``8`` characters is assumed.  This doesn\'t understand other\n   non-printing characters or escape sequences.\n\nstr.find(sub[, start[, end]])\n\n   Return the lowest index in the string where substring *sub* is\n   found, such that *sub* is contained in the slice ``s[start:end]``.\n   Optional arguments *start* and *end* are interpreted as in slice\n   notation.  Return ``-1`` if *sub* is not found.\n\nstr.format(*args, **kwargs)\n\n   Perform a string formatting operation.  The string on which this\n   method is called can contain literal text or replacement fields\n   delimited by braces ``{}``.  Each replacement field contains either\n   the numeric index of a positional argument, or the name of a\n   keyword argument.  Returns a copy of the string where each\n   replacement field is replaced with the string value of the\n   corresponding argument.\n\n   >>> "The sum of 1 + 2 is {0}".format(1+2)\n   \'The sum of 1 + 2 is 3\'\n\n   See *Format String Syntax* for a description of the various\n   formatting options that can be specified in format strings.\n\nstr.format_map(mapping)\n\n   Similar to ``str.format(**mapping)``, except that ``mapping`` is\n   used directly and not copied to a ``dict`` .  This is useful if for\n   example ``mapping`` is a dict subclass:\n\n   >>> class Default(dict):\n   ...     def __missing__(self, key):\n   ...         return key\n   ...\n   >>> \'{name} was born in {country}\'.format_map(Default(name=\'Guido\'))\n   \'Guido was born in country\'\n\n   New in version 3.2.\n\nstr.index(sub[, start[, end]])\n\n   Like ``find()``, but raise ``ValueError`` when the substring is not\n   found.\n\nstr.isalnum()\n\n   Return true if all characters in the string are alphanumeric and\n   there is at least one character, false otherwise.  A character\n   ``c`` is alphanumeric if one of the following returns ``True``:\n   ``c.isalpha()``, ``c.isdecimal()``, ``c.isdigit()``, or\n   ``c.isnumeric()``.\n\nstr.isalpha()\n\n   Return true if all characters in the string are alphabetic and\n   there is at least one character, false otherwise.  Alphabetic\n   characters are those characters defined in the Unicode character\n   database as "Letter", i.e., those with general category property\n   being one of "Lm", "Lt", "Lu", "Ll", or "Lo".  Note that this is\n   different from the "Alphabetic" property defined in the Unicode\n   Standard.\n\nstr.isdecimal()\n\n   Return true if all characters in the string are decimal characters\n   and there is at least one character, false otherwise. Decimal\n   characters are those from general category "Nd". This category\n   includes digit characters, and all characters that that can be used\n   to form decimal-radix numbers, e.g. U+0660, ARABIC-INDIC DIGIT\n   ZERO.\n\nstr.isdigit()\n\n   Return true if all characters in the string are digits and there is\n   at least one character, false otherwise.  Digits include decimal\n   characters and digits that need special handling, such as the\n   compatibility superscript digits.  Formally, a digit is a character\n   that has the property value Numeric_Type=Digit or\n   Numeric_Type=Decimal.\n\nstr.isidentifier()\n\n   Return true if the string is a valid identifier according to the\n   language definition, section *Identifiers and keywords*.\n\nstr.islower()\n\n   Return true if all cased characters in the string are lowercase and\n   there is at least one cased character, false otherwise.  Cased\n   characters are those with general category property being one of\n   "Lu", "Ll", or "Lt" and lowercase characters are those with general\n   category property "Ll".\n\nstr.isnumeric()\n\n   Return true if all characters in the string are numeric characters,\n   and there is at least one character, false otherwise. Numeric\n   characters include digit characters, and all characters that have\n   the Unicode numeric value property, e.g. U+2155, VULGAR FRACTION\n   ONE FIFTH.  Formally, numeric characters are those with the\n   property value Numeric_Type=Digit, Numeric_Type=Decimal or\n   Numeric_Type=Numeric.\n\nstr.isprintable()\n\n   Return true if all characters in the string are printable or the\n   string is empty, false otherwise.  Nonprintable characters are\n   those characters defined in the Unicode character database as\n   "Other" or "Separator", excepting the ASCII space (0x20) which is\n   considered printable.  (Note that printable characters in this\n   context are those which should not be escaped when ``repr()`` is\n   invoked on a string.  It has no bearing on the handling of strings\n   written to ``sys.stdout`` or ``sys.stderr``.)\n\nstr.isspace()\n\n   Return true if there are only whitespace characters in the string\n   and there is at least one character, false otherwise.  Whitespace\n   characters  are those characters defined in the Unicode character\n   database as "Other" or "Separator" and those with bidirectional\n   property being one of "WS", "B", or "S".\n\nstr.istitle()\n\n   Return true if the string is a titlecased string and there is at\n   least one character, for example uppercase characters may only\n   follow uncased characters and lowercase characters only cased ones.\n   Return false otherwise.\n\nstr.isupper()\n\n   Return true if all cased characters in the string are uppercase and\n   there is at least one cased character, false otherwise. Cased\n   characters are those with general category property being one of\n   "Lu", "Ll", or "Lt" and uppercase characters are those with general\n   category property "Lu".\n\nstr.join(iterable)\n\n   Return a string which is the concatenation of the strings in the\n   *iterable* *iterable*.  A ``TypeError`` will be raised if there are\n   any non-string values in *seq*, including ``bytes`` objects.  The\n   separator between elements is the string providing this method.\n\nstr.ljust(width[, fillchar])\n\n   Return the string left justified in a string of length *width*.\n   Padding is done using the specified *fillchar* (default is a\n   space).  The original string is returned if *width* is less than\n   ``len(s)``.\n\nstr.lower()\n\n   Return a copy of the string converted to lowercase.\n\nstr.lstrip([chars])\n\n   Return a copy of the string with leading characters removed.  The\n   *chars* argument is a string specifying the set of characters to be\n   removed.  If omitted or ``None``, the *chars* argument defaults to\n   removing whitespace.  The *chars* argument is not a prefix; rather,\n   all combinations of its values are stripped:\n\n   >>> \'   spacious   \'.lstrip()\n   \'spacious   \'\n   >>> \'www.example.com\'.lstrip(\'cmowz.\')\n   \'example.com\'\n\nstatic str.maketrans(x[, y[, z]])\n\n   This static method returns a translation table usable for\n   ``str.translate()``.\n\n   If there is only one argument, it must be a dictionary mapping\n   Unicode ordinals (integers) or characters (strings of length 1) to\n   Unicode ordinals, strings (of arbitrary lengths) or None.\n   Character keys will then be converted to ordinals.\n\n   If there are two arguments, they must be strings of equal length,\n   and in the resulting dictionary, each character in x will be mapped\n   to the character at the same position in y.  If there is a third\n   argument, it must be a string, whose characters will be mapped to\n   None in the result.\n\nstr.partition(sep)\n\n   Split the string at the first occurrence of *sep*, and return a\n   3-tuple containing the part before the separator, the separator\n   itself, and the part after the separator.  If the separator is not\n   found, return a 3-tuple containing the string itself, followed by\n   two empty strings.\n\nstr.replace(old, new[, count])\n\n   Return a copy of the string with all occurrences of substring *old*\n   replaced by *new*.  If the optional argument *count* is given, only\n   the first *count* occurrences are replaced.\n\nstr.rfind(sub[, start[, end]])\n\n   Return the highest index in the string where substring *sub* is\n   found, such that *sub* is contained within ``s[start:end]``.\n   Optional arguments *start* and *end* are interpreted as in slice\n   notation.  Return ``-1`` on failure.\n\nstr.rindex(sub[, start[, end]])\n\n   Like ``rfind()`` but raises ``ValueError`` when the substring *sub*\n   is not found.\n\nstr.rjust(width[, fillchar])\n\n   Return the string right justified in a string of length *width*.\n   Padding is done using the specified *fillchar* (default is a\n   space). The original string is returned if *width* is less than\n   ``len(s)``.\n\nstr.rpartition(sep)\n\n   Split the string at the last occurrence of *sep*, and return a\n   3-tuple containing the part before the separator, the separator\n   itself, and the part after the separator.  If the separator is not\n   found, return a 3-tuple containing two empty strings, followed by\n   the string itself.\n\nstr.rsplit([sep[, maxsplit]])\n\n   Return a list of the words in the string, using *sep* as the\n   delimiter string. If *maxsplit* is given, at most *maxsplit* splits\n   are done, the *rightmost* ones.  If *sep* is not specified or\n   ``None``, any whitespace string is a separator.  Except for\n   splitting from the right, ``rsplit()`` behaves like ``split()``\n   which is described in detail below.\n\nstr.rstrip([chars])\n\n   Return a copy of the string with trailing characters removed.  The\n   *chars* argument is a string specifying the set of characters to be\n   removed.  If omitted or ``None``, the *chars* argument defaults to\n   removing whitespace.  The *chars* argument is not a suffix; rather,\n   all combinations of its values are stripped:\n\n   >>> \'   spacious   \'.rstrip()\n   \'   spacious\'\n   >>> \'mississippi\'.rstrip(\'ipz\')\n   \'mississ\'\n\nstr.split([sep[, maxsplit]])\n\n   Return a list of the words in the string, using *sep* as the\n   delimiter string.  If *maxsplit* is given, at most *maxsplit*\n   splits are done (thus, the list will have at most ``maxsplit+1``\n   elements).  If *maxsplit* is not specified, then there is no limit\n   on the number of splits (all possible splits are made).\n\n   If *sep* is given, consecutive delimiters are not grouped together\n   and are deemed to delimit empty strings (for example,\n   ``\'1,,2\'.split(\',\')`` returns ``[\'1\', \'\', \'2\']``).  The *sep*\n   argument may consist of multiple characters (for example,\n   ``\'1<>2<>3\'.split(\'<>\')`` returns ``[\'1\', \'2\', \'3\']``). Splitting\n   an empty string with a specified separator returns ``[\'\']``.\n\n   If *sep* is not specified or is ``None``, a different splitting\n   algorithm is applied: runs of consecutive whitespace are regarded\n   as a single separator, and the result will contain no empty strings\n   at the start or end if the string has leading or trailing\n   whitespace.  Consequently, splitting an empty string or a string\n   consisting of just whitespace with a ``None`` separator returns\n   ``[]``.\n\n   For example, ``\' 1  2   3  \'.split()`` returns ``[\'1\', \'2\', \'3\']``,\n   and ``\'  1  2   3  \'.split(None, 1)`` returns ``[\'1\', \'2   3  \']``.\n\nstr.splitlines([keepends])\n\n   Return a list of the lines in the string, breaking at line\n   boundaries.  Line breaks are not included in the resulting list\n   unless *keepends* is given and true.\n\nstr.startswith(prefix[, start[, end]])\n\n   Return ``True`` if string starts with the *prefix*, otherwise\n   return ``False``. *prefix* can also be a tuple of prefixes to look\n   for.  With optional *start*, test string beginning at that\n   position.  With optional *end*, stop comparing string at that\n   position.\n\nstr.strip([chars])\n\n   Return a copy of the string with the leading and trailing\n   characters removed. The *chars* argument is a string specifying the\n   set of characters to be removed. If omitted or ``None``, the\n   *chars* argument defaults to removing whitespace. The *chars*\n   argument is not a prefix or suffix; rather, all combinations of its\n   values are stripped:\n\n   >>> \'   spacious   \'.strip()\n   \'spacious\'\n   >>> \'www.example.com\'.strip(\'cmowz.\')\n   \'example\'\n\nstr.swapcase()\n\n   Return a copy of the string with uppercase characters converted to\n   lowercase and vice versa.\n\nstr.title()\n\n   Return a titlecased version of the string where words start with an\n   uppercase character and the remaining characters are lowercase.\n\n   The algorithm uses a simple language-independent definition of a\n   word as groups of consecutive letters.  The definition works in\n   many contexts but it means that apostrophes in contractions and\n   possessives form word boundaries, which may not be the desired\n   result:\n\n      >>> "they\'re bill\'s friends from the UK".title()\n      "They\'Re Bill\'S Friends From The Uk"\n\n   A workaround for apostrophes can be constructed using regular\n   expressions:\n\n      >>> import re\n      >>> def titlecase(s):\n              return re.sub(r"[A-Za-z]+(\'[A-Za-z]+)?",\n                            lambda mo: mo.group(0)[0].upper() +\n                                       mo.group(0)[1:].lower(),\n                            s)\n\n      >>> titlecase("they\'re bill\'s friends.")\n      "They\'re Bill\'s Friends."\n\nstr.translate(map)\n\n   Return a copy of the *s* where all characters have been mapped\n   through the *map* which must be a dictionary of Unicode ordinals\n   (integers) to Unicode ordinals, strings or ``None``.  Unmapped\n   characters are left untouched. Characters mapped to ``None`` are\n   deleted.\n\n   You can use ``str.maketrans()`` to create a translation map from\n   character-to-character mappings in different formats.\n\n   Note: An even more flexible approach is to create a custom character\n     mapping codec using the ``codecs`` module (see\n     ``encodings.cp1251`` for an example).\n\nstr.upper()\n\n   Return a copy of the string converted to uppercase.\n\nstr.zfill(width)\n\n   Return the numeric string left filled with zeros in a string of\n   length *width*.  A sign prefix is handled correctly.  The original\n   string is returned if *width* is less than ``len(s)``.\n',
- 'strings': '\nString and Bytes literals\n*************************\n\nString literals are described by the following lexical definitions:\n\n   stringliteral   ::= [stringprefix](shortstring | longstring)\n   stringprefix    ::= "r" | "R"\n   shortstring     ::= "\'" shortstringitem* "\'" | \'"\' shortstringitem* \'"\'\n   longstring      ::= "\'\'\'" longstringitem* "\'\'\'" | \'"""\' longstringitem* \'"""\'\n   shortstringitem ::= shortstringchar | stringescapeseq\n   longstringitem  ::= longstringchar | stringescapeseq\n   shortstringchar ::= <any source character except "\\" or newline or the quote>\n   longstringchar  ::= <any source character except "\\">\n   stringescapeseq ::= "\\" <any source character>\n\n   bytesliteral   ::= bytesprefix(shortbytes | longbytes)\n   bytesprefix    ::= "b" | "B" | "br" | "Br" | "bR" | "BR"\n   shortbytes     ::= "\'" shortbytesitem* "\'" | \'"\' shortbytesitem* \'"\'\n   longbytes      ::= "\'\'\'" longbytesitem* "\'\'\'" | \'"""\' longbytesitem* \'"""\'\n   shortbytesitem ::= shortbyteschar | bytesescapeseq\n   longbytesitem  ::= longbyteschar | bytesescapeseq\n   shortbyteschar ::= <any ASCII character except "\\" or newline or the quote>\n   longbyteschar  ::= <any ASCII character except "\\">\n   bytesescapeseq ::= "\\" <any ASCII character>\n\nOne syntactic restriction not indicated by these productions is that\nwhitespace is not allowed between the ``stringprefix`` or\n``bytesprefix`` and the rest of the literal. The source character set\nis defined by the encoding declaration; it is UTF-8 if no encoding\ndeclaration is given in the source file; see section *Encoding\ndeclarations*.\n\nIn plain English: Both types of literals can be enclosed in matching\nsingle quotes (``\'``) or double quotes (``"``).  They can also be\nenclosed in matching groups of three single or double quotes (these\nare generally referred to as *triple-quoted strings*).  The backslash\n(``\\``) character is used to escape characters that otherwise have a\nspecial meaning, such as newline, backslash itself, or the quote\ncharacter.\n\nBytes literals are always prefixed with ``\'b\'`` or ``\'B\'``; they\nproduce an instance of the ``bytes`` type instead of the ``str`` type.\nThey may only contain ASCII characters; bytes with a numeric value of\n128 or greater must be expressed with escapes.\n\nBoth string and bytes literals may optionally be prefixed with a\nletter ``\'r\'`` or ``\'R\'``; such strings are called *raw strings* and\ntreat backslashes as literal characters.  As a result, in string\nliterals, ``\'\\U\'`` and ``\'\\u\'`` escapes in raw strings are not treated\nspecially.\n\nIn triple-quoted strings, unescaped newlines and quotes are allowed\n(and are retained), except that three unescaped quotes in a row\nterminate the string.  (A "quote" is the character used to open the\nstring, i.e. either ``\'`` or ``"``.)\n\nUnless an ``\'r\'`` or ``\'R\'`` prefix is present, escape sequences in\nstrings are interpreted according to rules similar to those used by\nStandard C.  The recognized escape sequences are:\n\n+-------------------+---------------------------------