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The Dieter Programming Language

Description

Dieter (that's Dieter as in the German masculine given name Dieter, not dieter as in "one who diets") is a little experimental programming language which conflates type qualifiers with modules. In this article, we'll first describe these mechanisms. Then we'll show how their interaction produces something that resembles object-oriented programming.

Type Qualifiers

A type qualifier is simply a keyword which may be placed before any type expression, further specializing it. Type qualifiers should be familiar to programmers of C, where storage classes, such as const and static, are examples of type qualifiers. The cardinal rule of type qualifiers in Dieter is this: during assignment (or parameter-passing), a variable (or parameter) whose type possesses some type qualifier only accepts values of the same type that possess at least that same qualifier.

Some basic properties of type qualifiers follow (but first, for concreteness, let's stipulate that Dieter has an assortment of primitive types: bool, int, rat, and string. And void denoting the type of the absence of any value.) The order that type qualifiers are given in a type expression doesn't matter: if beefy and gnarly are type qualifiers, then beefy gnarly int and gnarly beefy int are wholly equivalent types. Neither does the number of occurrences matter: beefy gnarly beefy int is equivalent to beefy gnarly int. Algebraically speaking, type qualifiers are commmutative and idempotent.

You can't assign an int to a beefy int (or pass it to a procedure expecting a beefy int,) but you can assign a beefy int to an int. This might sound counter-intuitive initially, but after you think about it a bit I'm sure you'll conclude it's appropriate: it's just like how you can assign a const int to an int in C, but not an int to a const int. int is more general, and will tolerate information being lost in the copy, whereas beefy int is more specific, and will not accept a value with insufficient information associated with it. Or, if you prefer, while all beefy ints are ints, there are ints that aren't beefy and thus can't be assigned to a variable which is restricted to beefy ints.

Type Operators

In order to make use of type qualifiers in user programs, Dieter provides type operators, similar to C's type-casting facilities, to manipulate type qualifiers.

In fact, Dieter has only one explicit type operator, called bestow. It can be used in an expression to endow its type with further type qualifiers. bestow takes a type qualifier q and a value of some type t and returns a new value of type q·t. (You can think of q·t as a kind of pseudo-product type that obeys the algebraic laws given in the previous section rather than those of conventional products.)

The complementary operation — stripping q·t back to t — is not explicitly denoted; it happens automatically as needed. (This is the underlying rule that was in effect, when we stated that a beefy int can be assigned to an int.)

Note that type operators in no way alter the value of the expression they are used in, only its type.

Type Variables

Dieter supports uniform polymorphic types. Type expressions can contain type variables (which I'll denote with ♥ for no good reason) which can unify with concrete types or other type variables during instantiation of a language construct. In practice, this means that procedures can have type variables in their parameter and return types; these variables are replaced by types specified at the call site whenever a procedure call is type-checked.

The scope of each type variable ranges over a single instance of a single procedure. So ♥x in the parameter list of grunt is the same type as every occurrence of ♥x anywhere in the definition of grunt during that same invokation of grunt, but may be different from ♥x in other invokations of grunt (calls to grunt from different call sites), and different from ♥x appearing in other procedures entirely.

A complication for polymorphism in Dieter is that type variables range not only over core type expressions, but also over type qualifiers. That is, the types beefy gnarly int and beefy ♥t unify, and their most general unifier is {♥tgnarly int}. This has a few implications for the unification algorithm; see Appendix A for a detailed discussion of these.

Modules

Dieter is a modular language, which has its usual meaning — a Dieter program consists of a set of modules, each of which exposes only its interface, not its implementation, to all other modules. In Dieter, however, there is a notable twist: every type qualifier is defined by some module which bears the same name. The key idea of Dieter is this: a type operator that affects a given qualifier may only be used in the module which defines that qualifier. The reasoning for this is similar to the argument against using casts in the C language: the goal of typing is to specify constraints on the program's structure and to automatically check that they are met. If programmers are allowed to muck with types willy-nilly, it defeats the purpose of having these constraints in the first place. So the power to bestow a particular type qualifier is only given out to the module "in charge" of that type qualifier. This is a form of encapsulation: the internal details of some thing (in this case, a type modifier) can only be manipulated by the implementation of that thing.

Procedures

Each Dieter module consists of a set of procedure declarations. Any procedure can be called from any procedure in any module; they are comparable to public static methods in Java in this respect. Procedures are polymorphic, as mentioned; each one's parameter and return types can contain type variables. At each call site, the type variables are unified with the types of the values being passed to them, and resolved ultimately to concrete types.

A bit of administrivia that we should also mention is that Dieter requires procedures to be declared, though not necessarily defined, before they are called. Much like Pascal, it offers a forward declaration construct for this purpose. It can also be used to declare procedures intrinsic to the implementation, procedures external to some set of modules, or completely ficticious procedures for the purpose of demonstrating and testing the type system.

Example

We're now ready to give a very simple example of a Dieter module.

module beefy

  procedure beef_up(x: ♥t): beefyt
  begin
    return (bestow beefy x)
  end

end

The intent of this example is to get the general gist of the language across, not to demonstrate good programming practice. The procedure beef_up essentially behaves as bestow, except, being a procedure, it may be called from any procedure, including those in other modules. So, it breaks the abstraction we just presented; it implements something akin to a "generic setter method," providing direct access to a data member that is ordinarily private.

Object-oriented Programming

We'll now try to show that this interaction between type qualifiers and modules produces something resembling object-oriented programming by adding three language features to Dieter: a declaration form and two new types.

  • Module-level variables are variables that are instantiated on, well, the level of the module. (This is in contrast to local variables in procedures, which I haven't said anything about, but which I've nevertheless assumed exist in Dieter...) Module-level variables can't be accessed directly from outside the module; they're comparable to private static fields in Java.
  • ref is a built-in type. These aren't references to anything; each is just a unique value, much like values of ref type in the language Erlang. A program can obtain a new ref value by calling new_ref(); the value thus obtained is guaranteed to be different from all other ref values in the program.
  • map is a built-in type constructor, over range (key) and domain (value) types, that defines a data structure that acts like a dictionary. The usual square-bracket syntax x[y] is used to reference a location within a map.

We can now construct a class of objects like so:

module person

  var name_map: map from person ref to string
  var age_map: map from person ref to int

  procedure person_new(name: string, age: int): person ref
    var p: person ref
  begin
    p := bestow person new_ref()
    name_map[p] := name
    age_map[p] := age
    return p
  end

  procedure person_get_name(p: person ref): string
  begin
    return name_map[p]
  end

  procedure person_attend_birthday_party(p: person ref): void
  begin
    age_map[p] := succ(age_map[p])
  end

end

Because the type qualifier person is defined by the module person, which only uses bestow in one place, we know exactly what kind of expressions can result in a type qualified by person. More to the point, we know that no other procedure in any other module can create a person-qualified type without calling person_new.

Mixins

If we loosen the constraints on maps, and say that the range (key) type can be left unspecified and that values of all types can be used as keys in any given map, then we have have a way to make type qualifiers work like mixins:

module tagged

  var tag_map : map to string

  procedure make_tagged(x: ♥t): taggedt
  begin
    return (bestow tagged x)
  end

  procedure tag(x: taggedt, y: string): void
  begin
    tag_map[x] := y
  end

  procedure get_tag(x: taggedt): string
  begin
    return tag_map[x]
  end

end

I think this demonstrates an underrated principle of OO, namely identity. If I call tag(make_tagged(4), "mine"), do all occurrences of 4 have that tag, or just the ephemeral instance of 4 passed to tag? If there can't be seperate instances of 4, that might be a reason for OO languages to not treat it as an object. And if you believe seperate instances of 4 are silly, that's an argument against "everything is an object".

Inheritance

Since module-level variables are private to each module, they give Dieter something akin to traditional encapsulation. But what about inheritance?

Well, we can get something like inheritance if we give Dieter another feature. We haven't said much about scope of names so far; in particular, we haven't said what happens when one declares two different procedures with the same name and number of parameters, and what, if anything, should happen when client code tries to call such ambiguously declared procedures.

Hey, in the spirit of compromise, let's just say that when this happens, all those procedures are called! Specifically, all the procedures whose formal parameter types are compatible with the types of the actual parameters are called — procedures with parameters of completely different types, or of more highly qualified types, are not called.

And, to keep this interesting, let's say that the order in which these procedures are called depends on the generality of their parameter types. If grind(beefy ♥t):void and grind(beefy gnarly ♥t):void are both defined, and grind is called with a variable whose type is qualified with both beefy and gnarly, then grind(beefy ♥t):void (the more general) should be called first, then grind(beefy gnarly ♥t):void (the more specific) called second.

There are a few issues now that need to be dealt with.

  • We've discussed compatibility of parameter types of a procedure, but not its return type. For simplicity, let's just disallow differing return types on different procedures with the same name — it's a compile-time error.
  • It would be nice if procedures had a way to capture the results of a procedure that was called before them in this calling chain. So, let's say that every procedure has access to an implicit read-only variable that holds the result of the previous procedure (if any) that was executed along this chain. The type of this variable will always be the same as the return type of the current procedure (because by the previous bullet point, the previous procedure must have had the same return type as the current one.) If no previous procedure with this signature was executed, the value will be nil. For syntax, let's call this implicit variable super.
  • It would also be nice if a procedure could prevent any further procedures from being called in this chain. Let's give Dieter a special form of return for this purpose — say, return final.
  • Finally, what about incomparable signatures? Say that, in the above example, procedures grind(gnarly ♥t):void and grind(♥t):void are defined too. Then, when grind is called with a beefy gnarly variable, grind(♥t):void gets called first (it's the most general), but which gets called next: grind(gnarly ♥t):void or grind(beefy ♥t):void? We can let the programmer give some sort of disambiguating assertion, like order beefy < gnarly, to enforce a partial ordering between type qualifiers. Then we know that the more general procedure — in this case grind(gnarly ♥t):void — will be called before grind(beefy ♥t):void, because we just noted that, all other things being equal, we want gnarly to be treated as more general than beefy.

Now: do you think it's a coincidence that the last problem looks similar to the problems that come from multiple inheritance, where we don't quite know what we should be inheriting when two of our superclasses are descendants of the same class? Well, I can tell you this much: it's definately not a coincidence that I chose super and final for the names of the other two features!

This whole thing looks to me very much as if we were approaching object-oriented programming from another direction. Which might not be such a surprise, if one thinks of subclassing as a special form of type qualification.

Of course, it's not quite the same in Dieter as it is in most OO languages. For example, procedures in Dieter do not actually override those with more general (less qualified) signatures, they simply add to them. But, those more specific procedures could be written to ignore the results of, and undo the state changes of, the more general procedures in the chain that were called first, which would accomplish essentially the same thing.

Background

Why did I design this language, anyway?

Hungarian Notation

The origins of the central idea in Dieter — encapsulate type qualifiers in modules that define them — was an indirect result of reading Joel Spolsky's explanation of the value of Hungarian notation. He contrasts the original notion of Hungarian notation with the cargo-cultist convention that it somehow degenerated into. He explains how it helps make incorrect programs look incorrect.

I thought, why stop there? If the purpose of Hungarian notation is to make evident assignment errors between variables that have the same type but different roles, then why can't you have the compiler type-check the roles, too? Well, you can, and that's basically what Dieter is doing with type qualifiers — using them as a computer-checkable form of Hungarian notation.

Aliasing Prevention

What further spurred development of the idea was the problem of aliasing. Aliasing is where some part of a program is dealing with two references which might or might not point to the same thing — importantly, you can't make guarantees for the sake of safety (or optimization) that they don't point to the same thing. So you have to assume that they might.

The contribution of type qualifiers to this is that in some situations you might be able to give the two references two different type qualifiers, even though they are basically the same type, thus guaranteeing that they don't in fact refer to the same value.

There's a significant problem with this, though: it still doesn't give you a hard-and-fast guarantee that no aliasing is occurring, because the module that defines a modifier can still do whatever it likes with it internally. It gives you only a sort of "module-level guarantee"; only if you trust the individual modules involved to not be aliasing values of these types, can you be sure the values won't be aliased "in the large".

In addition, it's far from certain that there are lots of cases where this would in practice support some genuine non-trivial beneficial code pattern while preventing aliasing. It could be that all examples where this works are quite contrived. I suppose that if I were to do further work on Dieter, it would be to try to discover whether this is really the case or not.

Type qualifiers have been around informally for a long time, probably almost as long as there have been types. Here's Dennis Ritchie ranting against certain type qualifiers proposed for ANSI C. (One of which, coincidentally, was intended to deal with aliasing, albiet quite myopically.)

Mark P Jones has written a paper and a thesis-turned-book describing a theory of qualified types. Dieter can be seen as a concrete instance of Jones's theory (as can many other type systems — it's a very general theory), although I have not explicated it as such here, as the resulting article would likely have been much less accessible.

Haskell's type classes (another type system easily seen as a concrete instance of qualified types) are very similar to Dieter's type qualifiers. However, in Haskell, every type either belongs to or does not belong to some class: every Int is an Eq Ord, due to the mathematical properties of Ints. In Dieter, every type can potentially be modified with every qualifier: there can be ints, eq ints, ord ints, and eq ord ints, all slightly different.

On the other end of the spectrum, solidly in the domain of application rather than theory, CQUAL is an extension of C which adds user-defined type qualifiers. CQUAL is primarily concerned with inferring type qualifiers where there are none, and is not concerned with encapsulating qualifiers within modules.

Conclusion

I hope you found Dieter to be an entertaining little diversion through type-qualifier-land (and that you did not expect too much more, or I imagine you'll have been somewhat disappointed.)

Although there is no reference implementation of Dieter (and it's unlikely that there could be without some more specified semantics,) there is a reference parser and type-checker (not at all guaranteed to be bug-free) written in Python of all things.

Appendix A

Polymorphic Typing with Type Qualifiers

While Dieter does not support full-blown type inference — all variables must be explicitly notated with their type — it does support uniform polymorphic typing using type variables, and it uses the core mechanism of type inference, namely unification, to give those variables concrete types at each usage instance.

In place of a concrete type, a type variable may be given. Like a concrete type, this type variable can possess any number of type qualifiers. During each instance of the thing being typed (for example, each call to a procedure,) the type variables are resolved into concrete types by unification.

The presence of type qualifiers makes this process more complicated.

The first thing to note is that unification during inference is no longer commutative — it is no longer the case that, if A unifies with B, then B necessarily unifies with A. As mentioned, a procedure with a formal parameter of type gnarly int will not accept (i.e. is not compatible with) an actual parameter with type simply int. But the reverse situation is acceptable — we think of the gnarly modifier being 'dropped'. The convention we will use when describing this non-commutative unification is to call the formal parameter (or variable being assigned to) the receptor and write it on the left, and call the actual parameter (or expression being assigned) the provider and write it on the right.

The cardinal rule, which applies to every primitive type expression, including those with variables, is that the qualifiers on the provider must be a superset of the qualifiers on the receptor.

As during the conventional algorithm, an unbound type variable in either type expression will unify with (take on the binding of) the type subexpression that corresponds with it in the other type expression. In addition, here it will also take on the type qualifiers of that subexpresion, if it can. This leaves us with the question of which ones, and when.

If the variable is in the receptor position, it might as well unify with all of the type qualifiers on the provider, because those must be a superset of the receptor's in order to unify at all, and because down the road, they can always be 'dropped' from the variable, should it be used as a provider.

If the variable is in the provider position, the type in receptor position can't possibly have any more qualifiers than the variable — or it wouldn't be able to unify in the first place. So the variable might as well unify with the whole expression in the receptor position.

If both positions contain variables, the provider's variable should be bound to the receptor's type expression, because it will be the one that is more general.

The other thing to note that differs from conventional type inference is that a type variable, once bound to a qualified type, may be re-bound to a less qualified type.

Examples

Module names aren't really important for this, so they're omitted. We'll assume the following intrinsics are available:

forward and(bool, bool): bool
forward equal(t, t): bool
forward print(string): void

Example 1

procedure thing(): void
  var i, j: int
  var s, t: string
begin
  if and(equal(i, j), equal(s, t)) then print("yes") else print("no")
end

Should typecheck successfully, because the two calls to equal are two seperate instances of the type ♥t, but the two parameters inside the type signature of equal are the same instance.

Example 2

forward glunt(beefy gnarly t): gnarly t
...
procedure thing(): void
  var i: beefy gnarly int
begin
  if equal(glunt(i), 4) then print("yes") else print("no")
end

Should typecheck successfully. The call to glunt returns a gnarly int. Midway through typechecking the call to equal, we obtain {♥t → gnarly int}. But when we typecheck the second argument we see that it's simply an int. We re-bind the variable to obtain {♥t → int}. This is OK with respect to the first argument — we just consider the gnarly to be dropped.

Example 3

forward traub(beefy gnarly t): bool
...
procedure thing(p: beefy s): s
begin
  if traub(p) then print("yes") else print("no")
  return p
end

Should not typecheck. The call to traub needs something qualified with both beefy and gnarly. beefy ♥s will fail to unify with it.

Grammar

Dieter    ::= {Module | Ordering | Forward} ".".
Ordering  ::= "order" Name/qual "<" Name/qual.
Module    ::= "module" Name/qual {"var" VarDecl} {ProcDecl} "end".
Forward   ::= "forward" Name/proc "(" [Type {"," Type}] ")" ":" Type.
VarDecl   ::= Name/var ":" Type.
ProcDecl  ::= "procedure" Name/proc "(" [VarDecl {"," VarDecl}] ")" ":" Type {"var" VarDecl} Statement.
Statement ::= "begin" {Statement} "end"
            | "if" Expr "then" Statement ["else" Statement]
            | "while" Expr "do" Statement
            | Name/var ["[" Expr "]"] ":=" Expr
            | Name/proc "(" [Expr {"," Expr}] ")"
            | "return" ["final"] Expr
            .
Expr      ::= Name/var ["[" Expr "]"]
            | Name/proc "(" [Expr {"," Expr}] ")"
            | "(" Expr ")"
            | "bestow" Qualifier Expr
            | "super"
            .
Type      ::= {Name/qual} BareType.
BareType  ::= "map" ["from" Type] "to" Type
            | "♥" Name/tvar
            | "bool" | "int" | "rat" | "string" | "ref"
            .

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