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CherryPy / cherrypy / lib / caching.py

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import datetime
import threading
import time

import cherrypy
from cherrypy.lib import cptools, httputil


class Cache(object):
    
    def get(self):
        raise NotImplemented
    
    def put(self, obj, size):
        raise NotImplemented
    
    def delete(self):
        raise NotImplemented
    
    def clear(self):
        raise NotImplemented



# ------------------------------- Memory Cache ------------------------------- #


class AntiStampedeCache(dict):
    
    def wait(self, key, timeout=5, debug=False):
        """Return the cached value for the given key, or None.
        
        If timeout is not None (the default), and the value is already
        being calculated by another thread, wait until the given timeout has
        elapsed. If the value is available before the timeout expires, it is
        returned. If not, None is returned, and a sentinel placed in the cache
        to signal other threads to wait.
        
        If timeout is None, no waiting is performed nor sentinels used.
        """
        value = self.get(key)
        if isinstance(value, threading._Event):
            if timeout is None:
                # Ignore the other thread and recalc it ourselves.
                if debug:
                    cherrypy.log('No timeout', 'TOOLS.CACHING')
                return None
            
            # Wait until it's done or times out.
            if debug:
                cherrypy.log('Waiting up to %s seconds' % timeout, 'TOOLS.CACHING')
            value.wait(timeout)
            if value.result is not None:
                # The other thread finished its calculation. Use it.
                if debug:
                    cherrypy.log('Result!', 'TOOLS.CACHING')
                return value.result
            # Timed out. Stick an Event in the slot so other threads wait
            # on this one to finish calculating the value.
            if debug:
                cherrypy.log('Timed out', 'TOOLS.CACHING')
            e = threading.Event()
            e.result = None
            dict.__setitem__(self, key, e)
            
            return None
        elif value is None:
            # Stick an Event in the slot so other threads wait
            # on this one to finish calculating the value.
            if debug:
                cherrypy.log('Timed out', 'TOOLS.CACHING')
            e = threading.Event()
            e.result = None
            dict.__setitem__(self, key, e)
        return value
    
    def __setitem__(self, key, value):
        """Set the cached value for the given key."""
        existing = self.get(key)
        dict.__setitem__(self, key, value)
        if isinstance(existing, threading._Event):
            # Set Event.result so other threads waiting on it have
            # immediate access without needing to poll the cache again.
            existing.result = value
            existing.set()


class MemoryCache(Cache):
    """An in-memory cache for varying response content.
    
    Each key in self.store is a URI, and each value is an AntiStampedeCache.
    The response for any given URI may vary based on the values of
    "selecting request headers"; that is, those named in the Vary
    response header. We assume the list of header names to be constant
    for each URI throughout the lifetime of the application, and store
    that list in self.store[uri].selecting_headers.
    
    The items contained in self.store[uri] have keys which are tuples of request
    header values (in the same order as the names in its selecting_headers),
    and values which are the actual responses.
    """
    
    maxobjects = 1000
    maxobj_size = 100000
    maxsize = 10000000
    delay = 600
    antistampede_timeout = 5
    expire_freq = 0.1
    debug = False
    
    def __init__(self):
        self.clear()
        
        # Run self.expire_cache in a separate daemon thread.
        t = threading.Thread(target=self.expire_cache, name='expire_cache')
        self.expiration_thread = t
        if hasattr(threading.Thread, "daemon"):
            # Python 2.6+
            t.daemon = True
        else:
            t.setDaemon(True)
        t.start()
    
    def clear(self):
        """Reset the cache to its initial, empty state."""
        self.store = {}
        self.expirations = {}
        self.tot_puts = 0
        self.tot_gets = 0
        self.tot_hist = 0
        self.tot_expires = 0
        self.tot_non_modified = 0
        self.cursize = 0
    
    def expire_cache(self):
        # expire_cache runs in a separate thread which the servers are
        # not aware of. It's possible that "time" will be set to None
        # arbitrarily, so we check "while time" to avoid exceptions.
        # See tickets #99 and #180 for more information.
        while time:
            now = time.time()
            # Must make a copy of expirations so it doesn't change size
            # during iteration
            for expiration_time, objects in self.expirations.items():
                if expiration_time <= now:
                    for obj_size, uri, sel_header_values in objects:
                        try:
                            del self.store[uri][sel_header_values]
                            self.tot_expires += 1
                            self.cursize -= obj_size
                        except KeyError:
                            # the key may have been deleted elsewhere
                            pass
                    del self.expirations[expiration_time]
            time.sleep(self.expire_freq)
    
    def get(self):
        """Return the current variant if in the cache, else None."""
        request = cherrypy.serving.request
        self.tot_gets += 1
        
        uri = cherrypy.url(qs=request.query_string)
        uricache = self.store.get(uri)
        if uricache is None:
            return None
        
        header_values = [request.headers.get(h, '')
                         for h in uricache.selecting_headers]
        header_values.sort()
        variant = uricache.wait(key=tuple(header_values),
                                timeout=self.antistampede_timeout,
                                debug=self.debug)
        if variant is not None:
            self.tot_hist += 1
        return variant
    
    def put(self, variant, size):
        """Store the current variant in the cache."""
        request = cherrypy.serving.request
        response = cherrypy.serving.response
        
        uri = cherrypy.url(qs=request.query_string)
        uricache = self.store.get(uri)
        if uricache is None:
            uricache = AntiStampedeCache()
            uricache.selecting_headers = [
                e.value for e in response.headers.elements('Vary')]
            self.store[uri] = uricache
        
        if len(self.store) < self.maxobjects:
            total_size = self.cursize + size
            
            # checks if there's space for the object
            if (size < self.maxobj_size and total_size < self.maxsize):
                # add to the expirations list
                expiration_time = response.time + self.delay
                bucket = self.expirations.setdefault(expiration_time, [])
                bucket.append((size, uri, uricache.selecting_headers))
                
                # add to the cache
                header_values = [request.headers.get(h, '')
                                 for h in uricache.selecting_headers]
                header_values.sort()
                uricache[tuple(header_values)] = variant
                self.tot_puts += 1
                self.cursize = total_size
    
    def delete(self):
        """Remove ALL cached variants of the current resource."""
        uri = cherrypy.url(qs=cherrypy.serving.request.query_string)
        self.store.pop(uri, None)


def get(invalid_methods=("POST", "PUT", "DELETE"), debug=False, **kwargs):
    """Try to obtain cached output. If fresh enough, raise HTTPError(304).
    
    If POST, PUT, or DELETE:
        * invalidates (deletes) any cached response for this resource
        * sets request.cached = False
        * sets request.cacheable = False
    
    else if a cached copy exists:
        * sets request.cached = True
        * sets request.cacheable = False
        * sets response.headers to the cached values
        * checks the cached Last-Modified response header against the
            current If-(Un)Modified-Since request headers; raises 304
            if necessary.
        * sets response.status and response.body to the cached values
        * returns True
    
    otherwise:
        * sets request.cached = False
        * sets request.cacheable = True
        * returns False
    """
    request = cherrypy.serving.request
    response = cherrypy.serving.response
    
    if not hasattr(cherrypy, "_cache"):
        # Make a process-wide Cache object.
        cherrypy._cache = kwargs.pop("cache_class", MemoryCache)()
        
        # Take all remaining kwargs and set them on the Cache object.
        for k, v in kwargs.items():
            setattr(cherrypy._cache, k, v)
        cherrypy._cache.debug = debug
    
    # POST, PUT, DELETE should invalidate (delete) the cached copy.
    # See http://www.w3.org/Protocols/rfc2616/rfc2616-sec13.html#sec13.10.
    if request.method in invalid_methods:
        if debug:
            cherrypy.log('request.method %r in invalid_methods %r' %
                         (request.method, invalid_methods), 'TOOLS.CACHING')
        cherrypy._cache.delete()
        request.cached = False
        request.cacheable = False
        return False
    
    if 'no-cache' in [e.value for e in request.headers.elements('Pragma')]:
        request.cached = False
        request.cacheable = True
        return False
    
    cache_data = cherrypy._cache.get()
    request.cached = bool(cache_data)
    request.cacheable = not request.cached
    if request.cached:
        # Serve the cached copy.
        max_age = cherrypy._cache.delay
        for v in [e.value for e in request.headers.elements('Cache-Control')]:
            atoms = v.split('=', 1)
            directive = atoms.pop(0)
            if directive == 'max-age':
                if len(atoms) != 1 or not atoms[0].isdigit():
                    raise cherrypy.HTTPError(400, "Invalid Cache-Control header")
                max_age = int(atoms[0])
                break
            elif directive == 'no-cache':
                if debug:
                    cherrypy.log('Ignoring cache due to Cache-Control: no-cache',
                                 'TOOLS.CACHING')
                request.cached = False
                request.cacheable = True
                return False
        
        if debug:
            cherrypy.log('Reading response from cache', 'TOOLS.CACHING')
        s, h, b, create_time = cache_data
        age = int(response.time - create_time)
        if (age > max_age):
            if debug:
                cherrypy.log('Ignoring cache due to age > %d' % max_age,
                             'TOOLS.CACHING')
            request.cached = False
            request.cacheable = True
            return False
        
        # Copy the response headers. See http://www.cherrypy.org/ticket/721.
        response.headers = rh = httputil.HeaderMap()
        for k in h:
            dict.__setitem__(rh, k, dict.__getitem__(h, k))
        
        # Add the required Age header
        response.headers["Age"] = str(age)
        
        try:
            # Note that validate_since depends on a Last-Modified header;
            # this was put into the cached copy, and should have been
            # resurrected just above (response.headers = cache_data[1]).
            cptools.validate_since()
        except cherrypy.HTTPRedirect, x:
            if x.status == 304:
                cherrypy._cache.tot_non_modified += 1
            raise
        
        # serve it & get out from the request
        response.status = s
        response.body = b
    else:
        if debug:
            cherrypy.log('request is not cached', 'TOOLS.CACHING')
    return request.cached


def tee_output():
    request = cherrypy.serving.request
    if 'no-store' in request.headers.values('Cache-Control'):
        return
    
    def tee(body):
        """Tee response.body into a list."""
        if ('no-cache' in response.headers.values('Pragma') or
            'no-store' in response.headers.values('Cache-Control')):
            for chunk in body:
                yield chunk
            return
        
        output = []
        for chunk in body:
            output.append(chunk)
            yield chunk
        
        # save the cache data
        body = ''.join(output)
        cherrypy._cache.put((response.status, response.headers or {},
                             body, response.time), len(body))
    
    response = cherrypy.serving.response
    response.body = tee(response.body)


def expires(secs=0, force=False, debug=False):
    """Tool for influencing cache mechanisms using the 'Expires' header.
    
    'secs' must be either an int or a datetime.timedelta, and indicates the
    number of seconds between response.time and when the response should
    expire. The 'Expires' header will be set to (response.time + secs).
    
    If 'secs' is zero, the 'Expires' header is set one year in the past, and
    the following "cache prevention" headers are also set:
       'Pragma': 'no-cache'
       'Cache-Control': 'no-cache, must-revalidate'
    
    If 'force' is False (the default), the following headers are checked:
    'Etag', 'Last-Modified', 'Age', 'Expires'. If any are already present,
    none of the above response headers are set.
    """
    
    response = cherrypy.serving.response
    headers = response.headers
    
    cacheable = False
    if not force:
        # some header names that indicate that the response can be cached
        for indicator in ('Etag', 'Last-Modified', 'Age', 'Expires'):
            if indicator in headers:
                cacheable = True
                break
    
    if not cacheable and not force:
        if debug:
            cherrypy.log('request is not cacheable', 'TOOLS.EXPIRES')
    else:
        if debug:
            cherrypy.log('request is cacheable', 'TOOLS.EXPIRES')
        if isinstance(secs, datetime.timedelta):
            secs = (86400 * secs.days) + secs.seconds
        
        if secs == 0:
            if force or ("Pragma" not in headers):
                headers["Pragma"] = "no-cache"
            if cherrypy.serving.request.protocol >= (1, 1):
                if force or "Cache-Control" not in headers:
                    headers["Cache-Control"] = "no-cache, must-revalidate"
            # Set an explicit Expires date in the past.
            expiry = httputil.HTTPDate(1169942400.0)
        else:
            expiry = httputil.HTTPDate(response.time + secs)
        if force or "Expires" not in headers:
            headers["Expires"] = expiry