hgbook-zh_TW / po / zh-TW.po

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# Traditional Chinese translation for hgbook
# This file is distributed under the same license as the hgbook.
#
# Translators:
#
# Check translation:
# msgfmt --statistics -c -o zh-TW.mo zh-TW.po
#
# Please format your translation before commit:
# msgcat --sort-by-file --width=80 -o zh-TW_new.po zh-TW.po
# mv -f zh-TW_new.po zh-TW.po
#
# Dictionary:
# blame             追溯
# branch            分支
# changes           變更
# changeset         變更集
# checkout          簽出
# remove            移除(從儲存庫刪除)
# delete            删除(只刪除工作目錄中的檔案)
# filelog           檔案記錄
# patchset
# pushing to        推播到
# pulling from      從...拉取
# rename            改名
# repository        儲存庫
# revert
# revision          版次
# revlog            版次記錄
# tag               標籤
# tip               頂點
# undo              復原
# unversioned       未受版本控制
# updated           更新到,同步到
# versioned         受版本控制
# working copy      工作複本
# identifiers	    識別碼
# ...
# Kenneth Lo <closer.tw@gmail.com>, 2011.
#
msgid ""
msgstr ""
"Project-Id-Version: hgbook 1.2\n"
"POT-Creation-Date: 2011-11-01 20:40+0800\n"
"PO-Revision-Date: 2011-11-04 18:44+0800\n"
"Last-Translator: Kenneth Lo <closer.tw@gmail.com>\n"
"Language-Team: 漢語 <closer.tw@gmail.com>\n"
"Language: zh_TW\n"
"MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\n"
"Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
"Plural-Forms: nplurals=1; plural=0;\n"

#. type: Content of: <book><title>
#: ../en/00book.xml:42
msgid "Mercurial: The Definitive Guide"
msgstr "Mercurial 權威指南"

#. type: Content of: <book><subtitle>
#: ../en/00book.xml:47
msgid "Compiled from $rev_id$"
msgstr "編譯自 $rev_id$"

#. type: Content of: <book><bookinfo>
#: ../en/00book.xml:49
msgid "<edition>1</edition> <isbn>9780596800673</isbn>"
msgstr "<edition>1</edition> <isbn>9780596800673</isbn>"

#. type: Content of: <book><bookinfo><authorgroup><author><firstname>
#: ../en/00book.xml:53
msgid "Bryan"
msgstr "Bryan"

#. type: Content of: <book><bookinfo><authorgroup><author><surname>
#: ../en/00book.xml:54
msgid "O'Sullivan"
msgstr "O'Sullivan"

#. type: Content of: <book><bookinfo>
#: ../en/00book.xml:58
msgid ""
"<editor> <firstname>Mike</firstname> <surname>Loukides</surname> </editor> "
"<copyright> <year>2006</year> <year>2007</year> <year>2008</year> <year>2009</"
"year> <holder>Bryan O'Sullivan</holder> </copyright>"
msgstr ""
"<editor> <firstname>Mike</firstname> <surname>Loukides</surname> </editor> "
"<copyright> <year>2006</year> <year>2007</year> <year>2008</year> <year>2009</"
"year> <holder>Bryan O'Sullivan</holder> </copyright>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:5
msgid "Migrating to Mercurial"
msgstr "移轉至 Mercurial"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:7
msgid ""
"A common way to test the waters with a new revision control tool is to "
"experiment with switching an existing project, rather than starting a new "
"project from scratch."
msgstr ""
"想要試用一套新的版本控制系統,最常見的方法,是把現有的專案轉移過去,在上面做實"
"驗;而不是從頭開啟一個新的專案。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:11
msgid ""
"In this appendix, we discuss how to import a project's history into "
"Mercurial, and what to look out for if you are used to a different revision "
"control system."
msgstr ""
"這節附錄要討論的內容有二:一是如何將現有專案的歷程轉移到 Mercurial 上來;二是"
"如果你慣用其他的版本控制系統的話,你要注意些什麼。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:16
msgid "Importing history from another system"
msgstr "從其他的版本控制系統匯入歷程"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:18
msgid ""
"Mercurial ships with an extension named <literal>convert</literal>, which can "
"import project history from most popular revision control systems.  At the "
"time this book was written, it could import history from the following "
"systems:"
msgstr ""
"Mercurial 內建一個叫做 <literal>convert</literal> 的擴充元件。這個附加元件可以"
"把幾種常見的版本控制系統的專案歷程匯入 Mercurial。在這本書撰寫的時候,它能處理"
"下列幾種系統的歷程:"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><thead><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:25 ../en/appA-svn.xml:369 ../en/ch01-intro.xml:416
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:627
msgid "Subversion"
msgstr "Subversion"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:28 ../en/ch01-intro.xml:532 ../en/ch01-intro.xml:628
msgid "CVS"
msgstr "CVS"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:31
msgid "git"
msgstr "git"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:34 ../en/ch01-intro.xml:630
msgid "Darcs"
msgstr "Darcs"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:37
msgid "Bazaar"
msgstr "Bazaar"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:40
msgid "Monotone"
msgstr "Monotone"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:43
msgid "GNU Arch"
msgstr "GNU Arch"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><thead><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:46 ../en/appA-svn.xml:370
msgid "Mercurial"
msgstr "Mercurial"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:50
msgid ""
"(To see why Mercurial itself is supported as a source, see <xref linkend="
"\"svn.filemap\"/>.)"
msgstr ""
"(想知道為什麼 Mercurial 要匯入自已的歷程,請參考<xref linkend=\"svn.filemap"
"\"/>。)"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:53
msgid ""
"You can enable the extension in the usual way, by editing your <filename>~/."
"hgrc</filename> file."
msgstr ""
"要啟用這個擴充元件,可以透過一般的方法:編輯 <filename>~./hgrc</filename> 這個"
"檔案。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:59
msgid ""
"This will make a <command>hg convert</command> command available.  The "
"command is easy to use.  For instance, this command will import the "
"Subversion history for the Nose unit testing framework into Mercurial."
msgstr ""
"這麼做之後,我們就可以使用 <command>hg convert</command> 命令了。這個命令的使"
"用方式很簡單。舉例來說,下面段指令可以匯入 Nose 這個單元測試框架的 Subversion "
"歷程:"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><screen><prompt>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:64 ../en/appA-svn.xml:207 ../en/appA-svn.xml:212
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:213 ../en/appA-svn.xml:218 ../en/appA-svn.xml:224
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:229 ../en/appA-svn.xml:532
msgid "$"
msgstr "$"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><screen><userinput>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:64
msgid "hg convert http://python-nose.googlecode.com/svn/trunk"
msgstr "hg convert http://python-nose.googlecode.com/svn/trunk"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:66
msgid ""
"The <literal>convert</literal> extension operates incrementally.  In other "
"words, after you have run <command>hg convert</command> once, running it "
"again will import any new revisions committed after the first run began.  "
"Incremental conversion will only work if you run <command>hg convert</"
"command> in the same Mercurial repository that you originally used, because "
"the <literal>convert</literal> extension saves some private metadata in a non-"
"revision-controlled file named <filename>.hg/shamap</filename> inside the "
"target repository."
msgstr ""
"<literal>convert</literal> 是以累進式的方法運作的。換句話說,當我們執行過一次 "
"<command>hg convert</command> ,之後若是再執行同樣的命令,就只會匯入在第一次匯"
"入後新增的版次。累進式轉換只會發生在你執行過 <command>hg convert</command> 的 "
"Mercurial 儲存庫中,因為 <literal>convert</literal> 擴充元件把一些專屬的資訊記"
"錄在 <filename>.hg/shamap</filename> 這個不受版本控制的檔案中。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:78
msgid ""
"When you want to start making changes using Mercurial, it's best to clone the "
"tree in which you are doing your conversions, and leave the original tree for "
"future incremental conversions.  This is the safest way to let you pull and "
"merge future commits from the source revision control system into your newly "
"active Mercurial project."
msgstr ""
"當您準備要用 Mercurial 修改儲存庫內容前,建議您保留原始的儲存庫以供日後轉換之"
"用;同時另外 clone 一份儲存庫去修改。這是最保險的做法,以後還可以從原本的儲存"
"庫中拉取新的內容出來,合併到新的 Mercurial 專案中。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:86
msgid "Converting multiple branches"
msgstr "轉換多個分支"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:88
msgid ""
"The <command>hg convert</command> command given above converts only the "
"history of the <literal>trunk</literal> branch of the Subversion repository.  "
"If we instead use the URL <literal>http://python-nose.googlecode.com/svn</"
"literal>, Mercurial will automatically detect the <literal>trunk</literal>, "
"<literal>tags</literal> and <literal>branches</literal> layout that "
"Subversion projects usually use, and it will import each as a separate "
"Mercurial branch."
msgstr ""
"前面範例中的 <command>hg convert</command> 命令僅能轉換 Subversion 儲存庫中 "
"<literal>trunk</literal> 分支的歷程。如果我們把行命令中的 URL 改成 "
"<literal>http://python-nose.googlecode.com/svn</literal>,Mercurial 會自動偵"
"測 Subversion 專案中常用的佈局目錄(如:<literal>trunk</literal>、"
"<literal>tags</literal> 以及 <literal>branches</literal> 等),然後分別轉成不"
"同的 Mercurial 分支。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:98
msgid ""
"By default, each Subversion branch imported into Mercurial is given a branch "
"name.  After the conversion completes, you can get a list of the active "
"branch names in the Mercurial repository using <command>hg branches -a</"
"command>. If you would prefer to import the Subversion branches without "
"names, pass the <option>--config convert.hg.usebranchnames=false</option> "
"option to <command>hg convert</command>."
msgstr ""
"每一個 Subversion 的分支在匯入 Mercurial 時預設會被賦予一個分支的名稱。在整個"
"轉換作業完成後,利用 <command>hg branches -a</command> 可以列出 Mercurial 儲存"
"庫中所有活動中的分支(以前述的名稱表示)。如果您不希望匯入時加上名字,您可以"
"在 <command>hg convert</command> 後面加上 <option>--config  convert.hg."
"userbranchenames=false</option> 這個選項。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:107
msgid ""
"Once you have converted your tree, if you want to follow the usual Mercurial "
"practice of working in a tree that contains a single branch, you can clone "
"that single branch using <command>hg clone -r mybranchname</command>."
msgstr ""
"在完整轉換整個目錄結構後,若您希望依一般的 Mercurial 工作模式工作,也就是「一"
"個儲存庫只有單一的分支」的話,您可以利用 <command>hg clone -r mybranchname</"
"command> 這樣的語法 clone 其中的一個分支出來。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:114
msgid "Mapping user names"
msgstr "對應轉換使用者名稱"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:116
msgid ""
"Some revision control tools save only short usernames with commits, and these "
"can be difficult to interpret.  The norm with Mercurial is to save a "
"committer's name and email address, which is much more useful for talking to "
"them after the fact."
msgstr ""
"有些版本控制工具在提交時只記錄簡短的使用者名稱,有時令人難以辨識。Mercurial 的"
"規範是:提交時必需記錄使用者的姓名以及電子郵件地址,方便其他人辨識與進一步聯"
"絡。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:122
msgid ""
"If you are converting a tree from a revision control system that uses short "
"names, you can map those names to longer equivalents by passing a <option>--"
"authors</option> option to <command>hg convert</command>.  This option "
"accepts a file name that should contain entries of the following form."
msgstr ""
"若是要從「使用簡短名稱」的版本控制系統把儲存庫轉換過來,我們可以在 "
"<command>hg convert</command> 後面傳入 <option>--authors</option> 選項,把簡短"
"的使用者名稱對應到 Mercurial 所使用的標準使用者資訊。這個選項後面要接上一個檔"
"名,該檔案的內容格式應如下:"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:132
msgid ""
"Whenever <literal>convert</literal> encounters a commit with the username "
"<literal>arist</literal> in the source repository, it will use the name "
"<literal>Aristotle &lt;aristotle@phil.example.gr&gt;</literal> in the "
"converted Mercurial revision.  If no match is found for a name, it is used "
"verbatim."
msgstr ""
"只要 <literal>convert</literal> 在來源儲存庫中看到 <literal>artist</literal> "
"這個使用者名稱,它就會把這個名稱轉成 <literal>Aristotle &lt;aristotle@phil."
"example.gr&gt;</literal>,放進 Mercurial 的儲存庫中。如果對應表中找不到的話,"
"<literal>convert</literal> 就不會轉換,直接逐字將原本的名稱填入。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:141
msgid "Tidying up the tree"
msgstr "清理樹狀結構"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:143
msgid ""
"Not all projects have pristine history.  There may be a directory that should "
"never have been checked in, a file that is too big, or a whole hierarchy that "
"needs to be refactored."
msgstr ""
"並不是每個專案的歷程都完美無瑕。有時候會不小心把不該簽入的目錄簽入;有時候會出"
"現太大的檔案;有時候甚至整個架構都需要大翻修一下。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:148
msgid ""
"The <literal>convert</literal> extension supports the idea of a <quote>file "
"map</quote> that can reorganize the files and directories in a project as it "
"imports the project's history.  This is useful not only when importing "
"history from other revision control systems, but also to prune or refactor a "
"Mercurial tree."
msgstr ""
"<literal>convert</literal> 這個擴充元件支援一種叫做<quote>檔案對應</quote>的概"
"念,讓使用者在匯入專案的歷程時,可以重整檔案與目錄結構。這個功能不只在匯入其他"
"版本控制系統的歷程時有用,就算是拿來重整 Mercurial 本身的樹狀結構也非常有用。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:155
msgid ""
"To specify a file map, use the <option>--filemap</option> option and supply a "
"file name.  A file map contains lines of the following forms."
msgstr ""
"想要指定檔案的對應表,可以使用 <option>--filemap</option> 這個選項,後面再接上"
"一個檔名。檔案對應表的格式如下表:"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:169
msgid ""
"The <literal>include</literal> directive causes a file, or all files under a "
"directory, to be included in the destination repository.  This also excludes "
"all other files and dirs not explicitely included.  The <literal>exclude</"
"literal> directive causes files or directories to be omitted, and others not "
"explicitly mentioned to be included."
msgstr ""
"指示詞 <literal>include</literal> 表示該檔案(或是該目錄下的所有檔案)都要被包"
"含到目的地的儲存庫中,而其他未特別指定的檔案與目錄則會排除在外。相反地,指示"
"詞 <literal>exclude</literal> 表示該檔案(或是該目錄下的所有檔案)會被略過,而"
"其他未特別指定的則是會被包含在目的儲存庫之中。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:176
msgid ""
"To move a file or directory from one location to another, use the "
"<literal>rename</literal> directive.  If you need to move a file or directory "
"from a subdirectory into the root of the repository, use <literal>.</literal> "
"as the second argument to the <literal>rename</literal> directive."
msgstr ""
"使用 <literal>rename</literal> 指示詞可以移動檔案(或目錄)所在的位置。假設我"
"們要把一個檔案(或目錄)從某個子目錄中移到儲存庫的根目錄,可以使用 <literal>."
"</literal> 當作 <literal>rename</literal> 的第二個參數。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:184
msgid "Improving Subversion conversion performance"
msgstr "增進 Subversion 的轉換效能"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:186
msgid ""
"You will often need several attempts before you hit the perfect combination "
"of user map, file map, and other conversion parameters.  Converting a "
"Subversion repository over an access protocol like <literal>ssh</literal> or "
"<literal>http</literal> can proceed thousands of times more slowly than "
"Mercurial is capable of actually operating, due to network delays.  This can "
"make tuning that perfect conversion recipe very painful."
msgstr ""
"為了撰寫我們真的想要的使用者名稱對應表、檔案對應表,以及轉換參數,我們可能得重"
"覆試驗、執行 <literal>convert</literal> 很多遍。若是我們透過 <literal>ssh</"
"literal> 或是 <literal>http</literal> 等網路協定存取 Subversion 的儲存庫,由於"
"網路傳輸的關係,非常耗時,可能比 Mercurial 的處理能力慢上幾千倍。這會讓我們重"
"覆試驗的過程變得非常冗長、令人不耐。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:195
msgid ""
"The <ulink url=\"http://svn.collab.net/repos/svn/trunk/notes/svnsync.txt"
"\"><command>svnsync</command></ulink> command can greatly speed up the "
"conversion of a Subversion repository.  It is a read-only mirroring program "
"for Subversion repositories.  The idea is that you create a local mirror of "
"your Subversion tree, then convert the mirror into a Mercurial repository."
msgstr ""
"<ulink url=\"http://svn.collab.net/repos/svn/trunk/notes/svnsync.txt"
"\"><command>svnsync</command></ulink> 這個程式可以以唯讀的方式 mirror "
"Subversion 儲存庫。它能大幅降低轉換 Subversion 儲存庫所需的時間。首先,我們先 "
"mirror 一份 Subversion 儲存庫到本地端的機器上,然後再利用這份 mirror 的儲存庫"
"做轉換的工作。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:203
msgid ""
"Suppose we want to convert the Subversion repository for the popular "
"Memcached project into a Mercurial tree.  First, we create a local Subversion "
"repository."
msgstr ""
"假設我們想把知名的 Memcached 專案的 Subversion 儲存庫轉成 Mecurial 格式。首"
"先,我們建立一份本地端的 Subversion 儲存庫:"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><screen><userinput>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:207
msgid "svnadmin create memcached-mirror"
msgstr "svnadmin create memcached-mirror"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:209
msgid "Next, we set up a Subversion hook that <command>svnsync</command> needs."
msgstr "接下來,我們設定 <command>svnsync</command> 所需的 Subversion hook:"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><screen><userinput>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:212
msgid "echo '#!/bin/sh' > memcached-mirror/hooks/pre-revprop-change"
msgstr "echo '#!/bin/sh' > memcached-mirror/hooks/pre-revprop-change"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><screen><userinput>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:213
msgid "chmod +x memcached-mirror/hooks/pre-revprop-change"
msgstr "chmod +x memcached-mirror/hooks/pre-revprop-change"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:215
msgid "We then initialize <command>svnsync</command> in this repository."
msgstr "然後我們在這個儲存庫中初始化 <command>svnsync</command>:"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><screen><userinput>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:218
msgid ""
"svnsync --init file://`pwd`/memcached-mirror \\ http://code.sixapart.com/svn/"
"memcached"
msgstr ""
"svnsync --init file://`pwd`/memcached-mirror \\ http://code.sixapart.com/svn/"
"memcached"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:221
msgid ""
"Our next step is to begin the <command>svnsync</command> mirroring process."
msgstr "下一步就可以執行 <command>svnsync</command>,開始 mirror 的程序了:"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><screen><userinput>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:224
msgid "svnsync sync file://`pwd`/memcached-mirror"
msgstr "svnsync sync file://`pwd`/memcached-mirror"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:226
msgid ""
"Finally, we import the history of our local Subversion mirror into Mercurial."
msgstr "最後,我們把本地端 Subversion mirror 的歷程匯入 Mercurial:"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><screen><userinput>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:229
msgid "hg convert memcached-mirror"
msgstr "hg convert memcached-mirror"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:231
msgid ""
"We can use this process incrementally if the Subversion repository is still "
"in use.  We run <command>svnsync</command> to pull new changes into our "
"mirror, then <command>hg convert</command> to import them into our Mercurial "
"tree."
msgstr ""
"若是這個 Subversion 的儲存庫仍在使用的話,我們可以累進地使用上述的程序:使用 "
"<command>svnsync</command> 將新增的變更拉回本地端的 mirror 中,然後再用 "
"<command>hg convert</command> 把那些變更匯入 Mercurial 儲存庫。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:237
msgid ""
"There are two advantages to doing a two-stage import with <command>svnsync</"
"command>.  The first is that it uses more efficient Subversion network "
"syncing code than <command>hg convert</command>, so it transfers less data "
"over the network.  The second is that the import from a local Subversion tree "
"is so fast that you can tweak your conversion setup repeatedly without having "
"to sit through a painfully slow network-based conversion process each time."
msgstr ""
"利用 <command>svnsync</command> 做兩階段式的匯入程序有兩個好處。第一:"
"<command>svnsync</command> 是針對 Subversion 的網路同步設計的,因此執行上比 "
"<command>hg convert</command> 有較率、在網路上傳輸的資料量比較小。第二:由於從"
"本地端的 Subversion 儲存庫匯入資料非常快,因此您可以多做幾次實驗,仔細調整轉換"
"的設定,而不需要像透過網路轉換時、枯坐在電腦前面浪費光陰。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:249
msgid "Migrating from Subversion"
msgstr "從 Subversion 移入"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:251
msgid ""
"Subversion is currently the most popular open source revision control system. "
"Although there are many differences between Mercurial and Subversion, making "
"the transition from Subversion to Mercurial is not particularly difficult.  "
"The two have similar command sets and generally uniform interfaces."
msgstr ""
"Subversion 是目前最受歡迎的開放原始碼版本控制系統。雖然 Mecurial 和 "
"Subversion 之間有許多的不同,但從 Subversion 轉移到 Mercurial 並不會特別困難。"
"這兩者有相似的命令集,和相似的使用者界面。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:259
msgid "Philosophical differences"
msgstr "使用哲學上的差異"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:261
msgid ""
"The fundamental difference between Subversion and Mercurial is of course that "
"Subversion is centralized, while Mercurial is distributed.  Since Mercurial "
"stores all of a project's history on your local drive, it only needs to "
"perform a network access when you want to explicitly communicate with another "
"repository. In contrast, Subversion stores very little information locally, "
"and the client must thus contact its server for many common operations."
msgstr ""
"Subversion 和 Mercurial 最大的不同當然是:Subversion 使用中央集中式的儲存庫;"
"而 Mercurial 則是分散式的系統。因為 Mercurial 把整個專案的歷程存在本地端的硬碟"
"上,所以你只有在需要和其他的儲存庫交換資料時,才需要透過網路傳輸。相對的,"
"Subversion 存在本地端的資訊很少,因此使用者在執行許多常用的命令時,都需要連線"
"到伺服器上。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:270
msgid ""
"Subversion more or less gets away without a well-defined notion of a branch: "
"which portion of a server's namespace qualifies as a branch is a matter of "
"convention, with the software providing no enforcement.  Mercurial treats a "
"repository as the unit of branch management."
msgstr ""
"Subversion 在處理分支時多多少少有些不足之處:伺服器上哪一部份的命名空間指的是"
"分支,軟體規格上並無明確的規定,得仰賴使用者自行定義。Mercurial 則是把儲存庫視"
"作分支管理的單位。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><sect3><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:277
msgid "Scope of commands"
msgstr "命令作用範圍"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:279
msgid ""
"Since Subversion doesn't know what parts of its namespace are really "
"branches, it treats most commands as requests to operate at and below "
"whatever directory you are currently visiting.  For instance, if you run "
"<command>svn log</command>, you'll get the history of whatever part of the "
"tree you're looking at, not the tree as a whole."
msgstr ""
"因為 Subversion 不知道哪一部份的名命空間為分枝,因此它在執行大部份的命令時,會"
"認為這些命令是作用在「目前使用者所在、以及其下的所有目錄」之上的。舉例來說,若"
"是你執行了 <command>svn log</command> 這個命令,你會看到目前這個目錄(還有它所"
"有的子目錄)的歷程,而非整個專案樹狀結構的歷程。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:286
msgid ""
"Mercurial's commands behave differently, by defaulting to operating over an "
"entire repository.  Run <command>hg log</command> and it will tell you the "
"history of the entire tree, no matter what part of the working directory "
"you're visiting at the time.  If you want the history of just a particular "
"file or directory, simply supply it by name, e.g. <command>hg log src</"
"command>."
msgstr ""
"Mercurial 的命令行為不太一樣:所有的命令預設是對整個儲存庫執行的。不管你切到專"
"案中的哪個子目錄,執行 <command>hg log</command> 會顯示整個儲存庫的歷程。如果"
"你想要查看某個特定檔案或目錄的歷程,只要指定其檔名即可(例如:<command> hg "
"log src</command>)。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:294
msgid ""
"From my own experience, this difference in default behaviors is probably the "
"most likely to trip you up if you have to switch back and forth frequently "
"between the two tools."
msgstr ""
"根據我的經驗,若是你常需要在 Subversion 和 Mercurial 間切來切去,這個差異可能"
"會是最常發生的困擾。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><sect3><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:301
msgid "Multi-user operation and safety"
msgstr "多使用者操作與安全性"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:303
msgid ""
"With Subversion, it is normal (though slightly frowned upon) for multiple "
"people to collaborate in a single branch.  If Alice and Bob are working "
"together, and Alice commits some changes to their shared branch, Bob must "
"update his client's view of the branch before he can commit.  Since at this "
"time he has no permanent record of the changes he has made, he can corrupt or "
"lose his modifications during and after his update."
msgstr ""
"當我們使用 Subversion 的時候,我們常會遇到(雖然我們不太喜歡)好幾個使用者合作"
"同時修改一個分支的狀況。假設志明和春嬌一起工作,春嬌把一些變更提交到她和志明一"
"起修改的分支中;那麼志明在能夠提交之前,就必須要先把春嬌的變更捉下來,更新到他"
"的工作目錄中。問題是,這時候他還沒把他自己的變更提交到系統中,因此在他更新的過"
"程中,他自己的變更就有可能損壞或消失。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:312
msgid ""
"Mercurial encourages a commit-then-merge model instead.  Bob commits his "
"changes locally before pulling changes from, or pushing them to, the server "
"that he shares with Alice.  If Alice pushed her changes before Bob tries to "
"push his, he will not be able to push his changes until he pulls hers, merges "
"with them, and commits the result of the merge.  If he makes a mistake during "
"the merge, he still has the option of reverting to the commit that recorded "
"his changes."
msgstr ""
"Mercurial 則是建議採用「先提交、後合併」這樣的方式。志明在把春嬌提交的變更捉下"
"來、或是把自己的變更推送上去之前,會先把變更提交到本地端的儲存庫中。要是在志明"
"想要推送變更之前,春嬌就已經完成推送的話,那系統就不允許志明推送變更。他必須先"
"把春嬌的變更拉取下來、在本地端合併完成、提交之後,才能把最後的結果推送上去。如"
"果志明在合併的過程中犯了錯誤,至少他還有機會回復到合併前的版本。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:321
msgid ""
"It is worth emphasizing that these are the common ways of working with these "
"tools. Subversion supports a safer work-in-your-own-branch model, but it is "
"cumbersome enough in practice to not be widely used.  Mercurial can support "
"the less safe mode of allowing changes to be pulled in and merged on top of "
"uncommitted edits, but this is considered highly unusual."
msgstr ""
"值得一提的是:這些都是使用版本控制系統時常見的工作模式。Subversion 支援較為安"
"全的「每個人只修改自己的分支」這樣的模式,然而在實際應用上,這樣的要求太麻煩,"
"因此真的完全遵守的人不多。而 Mercurial 則允許使用者把別人的變更捉回來、蓋過本"
"地端未提交的變更,然後合併;看似較不安全,但這是很少發生的工作方式。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><sect3><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:331
msgid "Published vs local changes"
msgstr "「已發布的變更」與「本地端的變更」"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:333
msgid ""
"A Subversion <command>svn commit</command> command immediately publishes "
"changes to a server, where they can be seen by everyone who has read access."
msgstr ""
"在 Subversion 中,使用 <command>svn commit</command> 這個命令後,變更內容馬上"
"就會被送上伺服器了。對這個儲存庫擁有讀取權限的每一個人都可以立刻看到這些變更內"
"容。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:337
msgid ""
"With Mercurial, commits are always local, and must be published via a "
"<command>hg push</command> command afterwards."
msgstr ""
"在 Mercurial 中,<command>hg commit</command> 只會把變更提交到本地端的儲存庫"
"中。想要發佈這些變更,必須再用 <command>hg push</command> 命令推送。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:341
msgid ""
"Each approach has its advantages and disadvantages.  The Subversion model "
"means that changes are published, and hence reviewable and usable, "
"immediately.  On the other hand, this means that a user must have commit "
"access to a repository in order to use the software in a normal way, and "
"commit access is not lightly given out by most open source projects."
msgstr ""
"這兩種方法各有其優缺點。Subversion 中「提交」與發佈同義,代表了這些變更立刻就"
"能被其他人檢閱、使用。但換個角度來說,使用者必須要有「提交到儲存庫」的權限,才"
"能按照正常的使用方法(取出、修改、提交)使用 Subversion;然而,在大部份開放原"
"始碼的專案中,並不是隨隨便便就能取得提交的權限。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:349
msgid ""
"The Mercurial approach allows anyone who can clone a repository to commit "
"changes without the need for someone else's permission, and they can then "
"publish their changes and continue to participate however they see fit.  The "
"distinction between committing and pushing does open up the possibility of "
"someone committing changes to their laptop and walking away for a few days "
"having forgotten to push them, which in rare cases might leave collaborators "
"temporarily stuck."
msgstr ""
"Mercurial 的做法讓所有能拓製儲存庫的人都可以提交變更,不需要任何人的同意。然"
"後,等到時機成熟了,再把這些變更發佈出去,持續參與這個專案。當然,由於提交和推"
"送是分開的,因此也有可能會發生這樣的狀況:某人把變更提交到自己的筆記型電腦裡,"
"忘了推送出去,然後跑去休假,導致團隊中的其他人卡了好一陣子沒辦法工作。不過這種"
"情況很少發生。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:362
msgid "Quick reference"
msgstr "快速參考"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:365
msgid "Subversion commands and Mercurial equivalents"
msgstr "Subversion 與 Mercurial 的指令對照表"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><thead><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:371
msgid "Notes"
msgstr "備註"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:376
msgid "<command>svn add</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn add</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:377
msgid "<command>hg add</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg add</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:381
msgid "<command>svn blame</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn blame</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:382
msgid "<command>hg annotate</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg annotate</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:386
msgid "<command>svn cat</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn cat</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:387
msgid "<command>hg cat</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg cat</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:391
msgid "<command>svn checkout</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn checkout</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:392 ../en/appA-svn.xml:409
msgid "<command>hg clone</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg clone</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:396
msgid "<command>svn cleanup</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn cleanup</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:397 ../en/appA-svn.xml:472
msgid "n/a"
msgstr "n/a"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:398
msgid "No cleanup needed"
msgstr "不需要 cleanup"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:401
msgid "<command>svn commit</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn commit</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:402
msgid "<command>hg commit</command>; <command>hg push</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg commit</command>; <command>hg push</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:404
msgid "<command>hg push</command> publishes after commit"
msgstr "提交後使用 <command>hg push</command> 發佈"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:408 ../en/appA-svn.xml:413
msgid "<command>svn copy</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn copy</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:410
msgid "To create a new branch"
msgstr "建立新的 patch 檔案"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:414
msgid "<command>hg copy</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg copy</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:415
msgid "To copy files or directories"
msgstr "複製檔案或目錄"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:418
msgid "<command>svn delete</command> (<command>svn remove</command>)"
msgstr "<command>svn delete</command> (<command>svn remove</command>)"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:420
msgid "<command>hg remove</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg remove</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:424
msgid "<command>svn diff</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn diff</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:425
msgid "<command>hg diff</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg diff</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:429
msgid "<command>svn export</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn export</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:430
msgid "<command>hg archive</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg archive</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:434
msgid "<command>svn help</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn help</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:435
msgid "<command>hg help</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg help</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:439
msgid "<command>svn import</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn import</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:440
msgid "<command>hg addremove</command>; <command>hg commit</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg addremove</command>; <command>hg commit</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:445 ../en/appA-svn.xml:450
msgid "<command>svn info</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn info</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:446
msgid "<command>hg parents</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg parents</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:447
msgid "Shows what revision is checked out"
msgstr "顯示目前取出的版本為何"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:451
msgid "<command>hg showconfig paths.parent</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg showconfig paths.parent</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:453
msgid "Shows what URL is checked out"
msgstr "顯示目前從哪個 URL 取出"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:456
msgid "<command>svn list</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn list</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:457
msgid "<command>hg manifest</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg manifest</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:461
msgid "<command>svn log</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn log</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:462
msgid "<command>hg log</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg log</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:466
msgid "<command>svn merge</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn merge</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:467
msgid "<command>hg merge</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg merge</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:471
msgid "<command>svn mkdir</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn mkdir</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:473
msgid "Mercurial does not track directories"
msgstr "Mercurial 不會追蹤目錄"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:476
msgid "<command>svn move</command> (<command>svn rename</command>)"
msgstr "<command>svn move</command> (<command>svn rename</command>)"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:478
msgid "<command>hg rename</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg rename</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:482
msgid "<command>svn resolved</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn resolved</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:483
msgid "<command>hg resolve -m</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg resolve -m</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:487
msgid "<command>svn revert</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn revert</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:488
msgid "<command>hg revert</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg revert</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:492
msgid "<command>svn status</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn status</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:493
msgid "<command>hg status</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg status</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:497
msgid "<command>svn update</command>"
msgstr "<command>svn update</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><table><tgroup><tbody><row><entry>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:498
msgid "<command>hg pull -u</command>"
msgstr "<command>hg pull -u</command>"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><title>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:508
msgid "Useful tips for newcomers"
msgstr "給新手的一些實用技巧"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:510
msgid ""
"Under some revision control systems, printing a diff for a single committed "
"revision can be painful. For instance, with Subversion, to see what changed "
"in revision 104654, you must type <command>svn diff -r104653:104654</"
"command>. Mercurial eliminates the need to type the revision ID twice in this "
"common case. For a plain diff, <command>hg export 104654</command>. For a log "
"message followed by a diff, <command>hg log -r104654 -p</command>."
msgstr ""
"在某些版本控制系統中,想要印出某個版次和前一版次的 diff 結果是很麻煩的。舉例來"
"說,在 Subversion 中,若是你想看 104654 這個版次改了些什麼,你得輸入 "
"<command>svn diff -r104653:104654</command>。在 Mercurial,大部份的情況下你不"
"需要輸入兩個版次 ID。若你只想要看 diff,請輸入 <command>hg export 104654</"
"command>。想要顯示記錄訊息與 diff,請輸入 <command>hg log -r104654 -p</"
"command>。"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:519
msgid ""
"When you run <command>hg status</command> without any arguments, it prints "
"the status of the entire tree, with paths relative to the root of the "
"repository.  This makes it tricky to copy a file name from the output of "
"<command>hg status</command> into the command line.  If you supply a file or "
"directory name to <command>hg status</command>, it will print paths relative "
"to your current location instead.  So to get tree-wide status from "
"<command>hg status</command>, with paths that are relative to your current "
"directory and not the root of the repository, feed the output of <command>hg "
"root</command> into <command>hg status</command>.  You can easily do this as "
"follows on a Unix-like system:"
msgstr ""
"當你直接執行 <command>hg status</command> 不加任何參數時,Mercurial 會印出整個"
"工作目錄(包含子目錄)中檔案的狀態,而且每個檔名前面都會加上從「儲存庫的根目"
"錄」算起的相對路徑。這樣的特性使得「從 <command>hg status</command> 的結果中取"
"出檔名」變得有些微妙。如果你在 <command>hg status</command> 後面加上檔案或是目"
"錄名稱的話,Mercurial 印出來的檔名前面加的相對路徑,就會改由「目前所在的目錄」"
"算起。所以,若是你想取得整個工作目錄(包含子目錄)中檔案的狀態,又希望相對路徑"
"是由「目前所在的目錄」算起的話,你可以把 <command>hg root</command> 的結果丟"
"給 <command>hg status</command> 當參數。在 Unix-like 的系統中,你可以用下面這"
"行指令達到這樣的目的:"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><screen><userinput>
#: ../en/appA-svn.xml:532
msgid "hg status `hg root`"
msgstr "hg status `hg root`"

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:5
msgid "Mercurial Queues reference"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:8
msgid "MQ command reference"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:10
msgid ""
"For an overview of the commands provided by MQ, use the command <command role="
"\"hg-cmd\">hg help mq</command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:14
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qapplied</command>&emdash;print applied patches"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:17
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qapplied</command> command prints the current "
"stack of applied patches.  Patches are printed in oldest-to-newest order, so "
"the last patch in the list is the <quote>top</quote> patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:24
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qcommit</command>&emdash;commit changes in the "
"queue repository"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:27
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qcommit</command> command commits any "
"outstanding changes in the <filename role=\"special\" class=\"directory\">.hg/"
"patches</filename> repository.  This command only works if the <filename role="
"\"special\" class=\"directory\">.hg/patches</filename> directory is a "
"repository, i.e. you created the directory using <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg "
"qinit <option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qinit-opt\">-c</option></command> or ran "
"<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg init</command> in the directory after running "
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qinit</command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:39
msgid ""
"This command is shorthand for <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg commit --cwd .hg/"
"patches</command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:43
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qdelete</command>&emdash;delete a patch from the "
"<filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:48
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qdelete</command> command removes the entry "
"for a patch from the <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file in the "
"<filename role=\"special\" class=\"directory\">.hg/patches</filename> "
"directory.  It does not pop the patch if the patch is already applied.  By "
"default, it does not delete the patch file; use the <option role=\"hg-ext-mq-"
"cmd-qdel-opt\">-f</option> option to do that."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:57 ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:109 ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:167
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:207 ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:274
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:345 ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:414
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:492
msgid "Options:"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:59
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qdel-opt\">-f</option>: Delete the patch file."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:66
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qdiff</command>&emdash;print a diff of the "
"topmost applied patch"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:69
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qdiff</command> command prints a diff of the "
"topmost applied patch. It is equivalent to <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg diff -"
"r-2:-1</command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:75
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qfinish</command>&emdash;move applied patches "
"into repository history"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:78
msgid ""
"The <command>hg qfinish</command> command converts the specified applied "
"patches into permanent changes by moving them out of MQ's control so that "
"they will be treated as normal repository history."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:85
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qfold</command>&emdash;merge (<quote>fold</"
"quote>) several patches into one"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:88
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qfold</command> command merges multiple "
"patches into the topmost applied patch, so that the topmost applied patch "
"makes the union of all of the changes in the patches in question."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:93
msgid ""
"The patches to fold must not be applied; <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qfold</"
"command> will exit with an error if any is.  The order in which patches are "
"folded is significant; <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg qfold a b</command> means "
"<quote>apply the current topmost patch, followed by <literal>a</literal>, "
"followed by <literal>b</literal></quote>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:101
msgid ""
"The comments from the folded patches are appended to the comments of the "
"destination patch, with each block of comments separated by three asterisk "
"(<quote><literal>*</literal></quote>) characters.  Use the <option role=\"hg-"
"ext-mq-cmd-qfold-opt\">-e</option> option to edit the commit message for the "
"combined patch/changeset after the folding has completed."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:111
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qfold-opt\">-e</option>: Edit the commit message "
"and patch description for the newly folded patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:116
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qfold-opt\">-l</option>: Use the contents of the "
"given file as the new commit message and patch description for the folded "
"patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:121
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qfold-opt\">-m</option>: Use the given text as "
"the new commit message and patch description for the folded patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:129
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qheader</command>&emdash;display the header/"
"description of a patch"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:133
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qheader</command> command prints the header, "
"or description, of a patch.  By default, it prints the header of the topmost "
"applied patch. Given an argument, it prints the header of the named patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:140
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qimport</command>&emdash;import a third-party "
"patch into the queue"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:143
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qimport</command> command adds an entry for "
"an external patch to the <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file, "
"and copies the patch into the <filename role=\"special\" class=\"directory\">."
"hg/patches</filename> directory.  It adds the entry immediately after the "
"topmost applied patch, but does not push the patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:151
msgid ""
"If the <filename role=\"special\" class=\"directory\">.hg/patches</filename> "
"directory is a repository, <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qimport</command> "
"automatically does an <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg add</command> of the "
"imported patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:159
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qinit</command>&emdash;prepare a repository to "
"work with MQ"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:162
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qinit</command> command prepares a repository "
"to work with MQ.  It creates a directory called <filename role=\"special\" "
"class=\"directory\">.hg/patches</filename>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:169
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qinit-opt\">-c</option>: Create <filename role="
"\"special\" class=\"directory\">.hg/patches</filename> as a repository in its "
"own right.  Also creates a <filename role=\"special\">.hgignore</filename> "
"file that will ignore the <filename role=\"special\">status</filename> file."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:179
msgid ""
"When the <filename role=\"special\" class=\"directory\">.hg/patches</"
"filename> directory is a repository, the <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qimport</"
"command> and <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qnew</command> commands "
"automatically <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg add</command> new patches."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:188
msgid "<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qnew</command>&emdash;create a new patch"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:191
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qnew</command> command creates a new patch.  "
"It takes one mandatory argument, the name to use for the patch file.  The "
"newly created patch is created empty by default.  It is added to the "
"<filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file after the current topmost "
"applied patch, and is immediately pushed on top of that patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:199
msgid ""
"If <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qnew</command> finds modified files in the "
"working directory, it will refuse to create a new patch unless the <option "
"role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qnew-opt\">-f</option> option is used (see below).  This "
"behavior allows you to <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qrefresh</command> your "
"topmost applied patch before you apply a new patch on top of it."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:209
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qnew-opt\">-f</option>: Create a new patch if "
"the contents of the working directory are modified.  Any outstanding "
"modifications are added to the newly created patch, so after this command "
"completes, the working directory will no longer be modified."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:216
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qnew-opt\">-m</option>: Use the given text as "
"the commit message. This text will be stored at the beginning of the patch "
"file, before the patch data."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:225
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qnext</command>&emdash;print the name of the next "
"patch"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:228
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qnext</command> command prints the name name "
"of the next patch in the <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file "
"after the topmost applied patch.  This patch will become the topmost applied "
"patch if you run <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qpush</command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:237
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qpop</command>&emdash;pop patches off the stack"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:240
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qpop</command> command removes applied "
"patches from the top of the stack of applied patches.  By default, it removes "
"only one patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:244
msgid ""
"This command removes the changesets that represent the popped patches from "
"the repository, and updates the working directory to undo the effects of the "
"patches."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:248
msgid ""
"This command takes an optional argument, which it uses as the name or index "
"of the patch to pop to.  If given a name, it will pop patches until the named "
"patch is the topmost applied patch.  If given a number, <command role=\"hg-"
"ext-mq\">qpop</command> treats the number as an index into the entries in the "
"series file, counting from zero (empty lines and lines containing only "
"comments do not count).  It pops patches until the patch identified by the "
"given index is the topmost applied patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:258
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qpop</command> command does not read or write "
"patches or the <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file.  It is thus "
"safe to <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qpop</command> a patch that you have "
"removed from the <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file, or a "
"patch that you have renamed or deleted entirely.  In the latter two cases, "
"use the name of the patch as it was when you applied it."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:267
msgid ""
"By default, the <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qpop</command> command will not "
"pop any patches if the working directory has been modified.  You can override "
"this behavior using the <option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qpop-opt\">-f</option> "
"option, which reverts all modifications in the working directory."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:276
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qpop-opt\">-a</option>: Pop all applied "
"patches.  This returns the repository to its state before you applied any "
"patches."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:281
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qpop-opt\">-f</option>: Forcibly revert any "
"modifications to the working directory when popping."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:286
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qpop-opt\">-n</option>: Pop a patch from the "
"named queue."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:291
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qpop</command> command removes one line from "
"the end of the <filename role=\"special\">status</filename> file for each "
"patch that it pops."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:298
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qprev</command>&emdash;print the name of the "
"previous patch"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:301
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qprev</command> command prints the name of "
"the patch in the <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file that comes "
"before the topmost applied patch. This will become the topmost applied patch "
"if you run <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qpop</command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:310
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qpush</command>&emdash;push patches onto the stack"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:313
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qpush</command> command adds patches onto the "
"applied stack.  By default, it adds only one patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:317
msgid ""
"This command creates a new changeset to represent each applied patch, and "
"updates the working directory to apply the effects of the patches."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:321
msgid "The default data used when creating a changeset are as follows:"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:324
msgid ""
"The commit date and time zone are the current date and time zone.  Because "
"these data are used to compute the identity of a changeset, this means that "
"if you <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qpop</command> a patch and <command role="
"\"hg-ext-mq\">qpush</command> it again, the changeset that you push will have "
"a different identity than the changeset you popped."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:332
msgid ""
"The author is the same as the default used by the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg "
"commit</command> command."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:336
msgid ""
"The commit message is any text from the patch file that comes before the "
"first diff header.  If there is no such text, a default commit message is "
"used that identifies the name of the patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:341
msgid ""
"If a patch contains a Mercurial patch header, the information in the patch "
"header overrides these defaults."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:347
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qpush-opt\">-a</option>: Push all unapplied "
"patches from the <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file until "
"there are none left to push."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:353
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qpush-opt\">-l</option>: Add the name of the "
"patch to the end of the commit message."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:357
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qpush-opt\">-m</option>: If a patch fails to "
"apply cleanly, use the entry for the patch in another saved queue to compute "
"the parameters for a three-way merge, and perform a three-way merge using the "
"normal Mercurial merge machinery.  Use the resolution of the merge as the new "
"patch content."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:365
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qpush-opt\">-n</option>: Use the named queue if "
"merging while pushing."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:370
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qpush</command> command reads, but does not "
"modify, the <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file.  It appends "
"one line to the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg status</command> file for each "
"patch that it pushes."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:378
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qrefresh</command>&emdash;update the topmost "
"applied patch"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:382
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qrefresh</command> command updates the "
"topmost applied patch.  It modifies the patch, removes the old changeset that "
"represented the patch, and creates a new changeset to represent the modified "
"patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:388
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qrefresh</command> command looks for the "
"following modifications:"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:391
msgid ""
"Changes to the commit message, i.e. the text before the first diff header in "
"the patch file, are reflected in the new changeset that represents the patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:396
msgid ""
"Modifications to tracked files in the working directory are added to the "
"patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:399
msgid ""
"Changes to the files tracked using <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg add</command>, "
"<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg copy</command>, <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg "
"remove</command>, or <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg rename</command>.  Added "
"files and copy and rename destinations are added to the patch, while removed "
"files and rename sources are removed."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:408
msgid ""
"Even if <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qrefresh</command> detects no changes, it "
"still recreates the changeset that represents the patch.  This causes the "
"identity of the changeset to differ from the previous changeset that "
"identified the patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:416
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qrefresh-opt\">-e</option>: Modify the commit "
"and patch description, using the preferred text editor."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:421
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qrefresh-opt\">-m</option>: Modify the commit "
"message and patch description, using the given text."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:426
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qrefresh-opt\">-l</option>: Modify the commit "
"message and patch description, using text from the given file."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:434
msgid "<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qrename</command>&emdash;rename a patch"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:437
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qrename</command> command renames a patch, "
"and changes the entry for the patch in the <filename role=\"special\">series</"
"filename> file."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:441
msgid ""
"With a single argument, <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qrename</command> renames "
"the topmost applied patch.  With two arguments, it renames its first argument "
"to its second."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:448
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qseries</command>&emdash;print the entire patch "
"series"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:451
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qseries</command> command prints the entire "
"patch series from the <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file.  It "
"prints only patch names, not empty lines or comments.  It prints in order "
"from first to be applied to last."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:459
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qtop</command>&emdash;print the name of the "
"current patch"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:462
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qtop</command> prints the name of the topmost "
"currently applied patch."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:467
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qunapplied</command>&emdash;print patches not yet "
"applied"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:471
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qunapplied</command> command prints the names "
"of patches from the <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file that "
"are not yet applied.  It prints them in order from the next patch that will "
"be pushed to the last."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:479
msgid ""
"<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg strip</command>&emdash;remove a revision and "
"descendants"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:482
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg strip</command> command removes a revision, "
"and all of its descendants, from the repository.  It undoes the effects of "
"the removed revisions from the repository, and updates the working directory "
"to the first parent of the removed revision."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:488
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg strip</command> command saves a backup of the "
"removed changesets in a bundle, so that they can be reapplied if removed in "
"error."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:494
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-opt-strip\">-b</option>: Save unrelated changesets that are "
"intermixed with the stripped changesets in the backup bundle."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:498
msgid ""
"<option role=\"hg-opt-strip\">-f</option>: If a branch has multiple heads, "
"remove all heads."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:501
msgid "<option role=\"hg-opt-strip\">-n</option>: Do not save a backup bundle."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:508
msgid "MQ file reference"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:511
msgid "The <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:514
msgid ""
"The <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file contains a list of the "
"names of all patches that MQ can apply.  It is represented as a list of "
"names, with one name saved per line.  Leading and trailing white space in "
"each line are ignored."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:520
msgid ""
"Lines may contain comments.  A comment begins with the <quote><literal>#</"
"literal></quote> character, and extends to the end of the line.  Empty lines, "
"and lines that contain only comments, are ignored."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:525
msgid ""
"You will often need to edit the <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> "
"file by hand, hence the support for comments and empty lines noted above.  "
"For example, you can comment out a patch temporarily, and <command role=\"hg-"
"ext-mq\">qpush</command> will skip over that patch when applying patches.  "
"You can also change the order in which patches are applied by reordering "
"their entries in the <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:534
msgid ""
"Placing the <filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file under revision "
"control is also supported; it is a good idea to place all of the patches that "
"it refers to under revision control, as well.  If you create a patch "
"directory using the <option role=\"hg-ext-mq-cmd-qinit-opt\">-c</option> "
"option to <command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qinit</command>, this will be done for "
"you automatically."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:544
msgid "The <filename role=\"special\">status</filename> file"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:547
msgid ""
"The <filename role=\"special\">status</filename> file contains the names and "
"changeset hashes of all patches that MQ currently has applied.  Unlike the "
"<filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file, this file is not intended "
"for editing.  You should not place this file under revision control, or "
"modify it in any way.  It is used by MQ strictly for internal book-keeping."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><title>
#: ../en/appC-srcinstall.xml:5
msgid "Installing Mercurial from source"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><title>
#: ../en/appC-srcinstall.xml:8
msgid "On a Unix-like system"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appC-srcinstall.xml:10
msgid ""
"If you are using a Unix-like system that has a sufficiently recent version of "
"Python (2.3 or newer) available, it is easy to install Mercurial from source."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appC-srcinstall.xml:14
msgid ""
"Download a recent source tarball from <ulink url=\"http://www.selenic.com/"
"mercurial/download\">http://www.selenic.com/mercurial/download</ulink>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appC-srcinstall.xml:17
msgid "Unpack the tarball:"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appC-srcinstall.xml:20
msgid ""
"Go into the source directory and run the installer script.  This will build "
"Mercurial and install it in your home directory."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appC-srcinstall.xml:27
msgid ""
"Once the install finishes, Mercurial will be in the <literal>bin</literal> "
"subdirectory of your home directory.  Don't forget to make sure that this "
"directory is present in your shell's search path."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appC-srcinstall.xml:32
msgid ""
"You will probably need to set the <envar>PYTHONPATH</envar> environment "
"variable so that the Mercurial executable can find the rest of the Mercurial "
"packages.  For example, on my laptop, I have set it to <literal>/home/bos/lib/"
"python</literal>.  The exact path that you will need to use depends on how "
"Python was built for your system, but should be easy to figure out.  If "
"you're uncertain, look through the output of the installer script above, and "
"see where the contents of the <literal>mercurial</literal> directory were "
"installed to."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><title>
#: ../en/appC-srcinstall.xml:44
msgid "On Windows"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appC-srcinstall.xml:46
msgid ""
"Building and installing Mercurial on Windows requires a variety of tools, a "
"fair amount of technical knowledge, and considerable patience.  I very much "
"<emphasis>do not recommend</emphasis> this route if you are a <quote>casual "
"user</quote>.  Unless you intend to hack on Mercurial, I strongly suggest "
"that you use a binary package instead."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appC-srcinstall.xml:53
msgid ""
"If you are intent on building Mercurial from source on Windows, follow the "
"<quote>hard way</quote> directions on the Mercurial wiki at <ulink url="
"\"http://www.selenic.com/mercurial/wiki/index.cgi/WindowsInstall\">http://www."
"selenic.com/mercurial/wiki/index.cgi/WindowsInstall</ulink>, and expect the "
"process to involve a lot of fiddly work."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><title>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:5
msgid "Open Publication License"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:7
msgid "Version 1.0, 8 June 1999"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><title>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:10
msgid "Requirements on both unmodified and modified versions"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:13
msgid ""
"The Open Publication works may be reproduced and distributed in whole or in "
"part, in any medium physical or electronic, provided that the terms of this "
"license are adhered to, and that this license or an incorporation of it by "
"reference (with any options elected by the author(s) and/or publisher) is "
"displayed in the reproduction."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:20
msgid "Proper form for an incorporation by reference is as follows:"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><blockquote><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:24
msgid ""
"Copyright (c) <emphasis>year</emphasis> by <emphasis>author's name or "
"designee</emphasis>. This material may be distributed only subject to the "
"terms and conditions set forth in the Open Publication License, v<emphasis>x."
"y</emphasis> or later (the latest version is presently available at <ulink "
"url=\"http://www.opencontent.org/openpub/\">http://www.opencontent.org/"
"openpub/</ulink>)."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:33
msgid ""
"The reference must be immediately followed with any options elected by the "
"author(s) and/or publisher of the document (see <xref linkend=\"sec:opl:"
"options\"/>)."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:37
msgid ""
"Commercial redistribution of Open Publication-licensed material is permitted."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:40
msgid ""
"Any publication in standard (paper) book form shall require the citation of "
"the original publisher and author. The publisher and author's names shall "
"appear on all outer surfaces of the book. On all outer surfaces of the book "
"the original publisher's name shall be as large as the title of the work and "
"cited as possessive with respect to the title."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><title>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:49
msgid "Copyright"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:51
msgid ""
"The copyright to each Open Publication is owned by its author(s) or designee."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><title>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:56
msgid "Scope of license"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:58
msgid ""
"The following license terms apply to all Open Publication works, unless "
"otherwise explicitly stated in the document."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:62
msgid ""
"Mere aggregation of Open Publication works or a portion of an Open "
"Publication work with other works or programs on the same media shall not "
"cause this license to apply to those other works. The aggregate work shall "
"contain a notice specifying the inclusion of the Open Publication material "
"and appropriate copyright notice."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:69
msgid ""
"<emphasis role=\"bold\">Severability</emphasis>. If any part of this license "
"is found to be unenforceable in any jurisdiction, the remaining portions of "
"the license remain in force."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:74
msgid ""
"<emphasis role=\"bold\">No warranty</emphasis>. Open Publication works are "
"licensed and provided <quote>as is</quote> without warranty of any kind, "
"express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of "
"merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose or a warranty of non-"
"infringement."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><title>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:83
msgid "Requirements on modified works"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:85
msgid ""
"All modified versions of documents covered by this license, including "
"translations, anthologies, compilations and partial documents, must meet the "
"following requirements:"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:90
msgid "The modified version must be labeled as such."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:93
msgid ""
"The person making the modifications must be identified and the modifications "
"dated."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:96
msgid ""
"Acknowledgement of the original author and publisher if applicable must be "
"retained according to normal academic citation practices."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:100
msgid "The location of the original unmodified document must be identified."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:103
msgid ""
"The original author's (or authors') name(s) may not be used to assert or "
"imply endorsement of the resulting document without the original author's (or "
"authors')  permission."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><title>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:111
msgid "Good-practice recommendations"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:113
msgid ""
"In addition to the requirements of this license, it is requested from and "
"strongly recommended of redistributors that:"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:118
msgid ""
"If you are distributing Open Publication works on hardcopy or CD-ROM, you "
"provide email notification to the authors of your intent to redistribute at "
"least thirty days before your manuscript or media freeze, to give the authors "
"time to provide updated documents. This notification should describe "
"modifications, if any, made to the document."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:125
msgid ""
"All substantive modifications (including deletions) be either clearly marked "
"up in the document or else described in an attachment to the document."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:129
msgid ""
"Finally, while it is not mandatory under this license, it is considered good "
"form to offer a free copy of any hardcopy and CD-ROM expression of an Open "
"Publication-licensed work to its author(s)."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><title>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:137
msgid "License options"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:139
msgid ""
"The author(s) and/or publisher of an Open Publication-licensed document may "
"elect certain options by appending language to the reference to or copy of "
"the license.  These options are considered part of the license instance and "
"must be included with the license (or its incorporation by reference) in "
"derived works."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:147
msgid ""
"To prohibit distribution of substantively modified versions without the "
"explicit permission of the author(s). <quote>Substantive modification</quote> "
"is defined as a change to the semantic content of the document, and excludes "
"mere changes in format or typographical corrections."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:154
msgid ""
"To accomplish this, add the phrase <quote>Distribution of substantively "
"modified versions of this document is prohibited without the explicit "
"permission of the copyright holder.</quote> to the license reference or copy."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:160
msgid ""
"To prohibit any publication of this work or derivative works in whole or in "
"part in standard (paper)  book form for commercial purposes is prohibited "
"unless prior permission is obtained from the copyright holder."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/appD-license.xml:165
msgid ""
"To accomplish this, add the phrase <quote>Distribution of the work or "
"derivative of the work in any standard (paper) book form is prohibited unless "
"prior permission is obtained from the copyright holder.</quote> to the "
"license reference or copy."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><title>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:5
msgid "Preface"
msgstr "前言"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:8
msgid "Technical storytelling"
msgstr "說故事,談技術"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:10
msgid ""
"A few years ago, when I wanted to explain why I believed that distributed "
"revision control is important, the field was then so new that there was "
"almost no published literature to refer people to."
msgstr ""
"幾年前,當我想要解釋為什麼我相信「分散式版本控制」非常重要的時候,這個領域實在"
"是太年輕了,因此幾乎找不到什麼公開的文獻給人們參考。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:15
msgid ""
"Although at that time I spent some time working on the internals of Mercurial "
"itself, I switched to writing this book because that seemed like the most "
"effective way to help the software to reach a wide audience, along with the "
"idea that revision control ought to be distributed in nature.  I publish the "
"book online under a liberal license for the same reason: to get the word out."
msgstr ""
"雖然當時,我花了些時間在 Mercurial 的開發工作上,但不久後我就轉而開始撰寫這本"
"書。因此我認為這麼做是讓更多使用者接受這套軟體最好的方法,同時也能讓大家接受"
"「以分散式管理是版本控制最自然的方法」這樣的觀念。我用自由授權的方式在網路上出"
"版這本書,也是基於同樣的理由:希望這些想法能廣為散播。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:23
msgid ""
"There's a familiar rhythm to a good software book that closely resembles "
"telling a story: What is this thing? Why does it matter? How will it help me? "
"How do I use it? In this book, I try to answer those questions for "
"distributed revision control in general, and for Mercurial in particular."
msgstr ""
"一本講軟體的好書和講故事有相似的節奏:這是什麼東西?它為什麼值得重視?它能幫我"
"什麼忙?我該如何使用它?在這本書中,我會以宏觀的角度去解釋分散式管理系統在這些"
"問題中會怎麼做;再從微觀的角度去解釋 Mercurial 該怎麼做。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:31
msgid "Thank you for supporting Mercurial"
msgstr "感謝您支持 Mercurial"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:33
msgid ""
"By purchasing a copy of this book, you are supporting the continued "
"development and freedom of Mercurial in particular, and of open source and "
"free software in general. O'Reilly Media and I are donating my royalties on "
"the sales of this book to the Software Freedom Conservancy (<ulink url="
"\"http://www.softwarefreedom.org/\">http://www.softwarefreedom.org/</ulink>)  "
"which provides clerical and legal support to Mercurial and a number of other "
"prominent and worthy open source software projects."
msgstr ""
"當您購買了這本書,就等於實值地支持了 Mecurial、以及開放原始碼與自由軟體運動的"
"自由與發展。O'Reilly Media 和我將這本書的收益捐給 Software Freedom "
"Conservancy (<ulink url=\"http://www.softwarefreedom.org/\">http://www."
"softwarefreedom.org/</ulink>) -- 他們提供 Mercurial(以及其他數個卓越而傑出的"
"開放原始碼專案)文書及法律上的支援。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:45
msgid "Acknowledgments"
msgstr "致謝"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:47
msgid ""
"This book would not exist were it not for the efforts of Matt Mackall, the "
"author and project lead of Mercurial.  He is ably assisted by hundreds of "
"volunteer contributors across the world."
msgstr ""
"若是沒有 Matt Mackall(Mercurial 的作者/專案領導人)的努力,這本書不可能存"
"在。他也得到了來自全球許多志願者的協助。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:52
msgid ""
"My children, Cian and Ruairi, always stood ready to help me to unwind with "
"wonderful, madcap little-boy games.  I'd also like to thank my ex-wife, "
"Shannon, for her support."
msgstr ""
"我的孩子 Cian 與 Ruairi,總是圍繞在我身邊,陪我一起玩些小男生的瘋狂遊戲。同"
"時,我也要謝謝前妻 Shannon 的協助。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:56
msgid ""
"My colleagues and friends provided help and support in innumerable ways.  "
"This list of people is necessarily very incomplete: Stephen Hahn, Karyn "
"Ritter, Bonnie Corwin, James Vasile, Matt Norwood, Eben Moglen, Bradley Kuhn, "
"Robert Walsh, Jeremy Fitzhardinge, Rachel Chalmers."
msgstr ""
"我的同事和朋友以各種不同的方式給了我許多協助:Stephen Hahn、Karyn Ritter、"
"Bonnie Corwin、James Vasile、Matt Norwood、Eben Moglen、Bradley Kuhn、Robert "
"Walsh、Jeremy Fitzhardinge、Rachel Chalmers... 嗯,我一定還漏掉了很多人。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:62
msgid ""
"I developed this book in the open, posting drafts of chapters to the book web "
"site as I completed them.  Readers then submitted feedback using a web "
"application that I developed.  By the time I finished writing the book, more "
"than 100 people had submitted comments, an amazing number considering that "
"the comment system was live for only about two months towards the end of the "
"writing process."
msgstr ""
"我用開放模式撰寫此書:當我完成了草稿後,就把這些章節放在這本書的網站上。接下"
"來,讀者可以利用我開發的一套網頁程式回應意見給我。直到我完成此書的時候,一共有"
"超過 100 人曾經發表他們的看法。從回應系統開放後到完全書完成只有兩個月的時間,"
"因此這個數量是相當驚人的。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:70
msgid ""
"I would particularly like to recognize the following people, who between them "
"contributed over a third of the total number of comments.  I would like to "
"thank them for their care and effort in providing so much detailed feedback."
msgstr ""
"我要特別提到下列的人員,因為他們貼出的意見就佔了總數的三分之一。我要感些他們的"
"關之,以及提供這麼多回饋意見的努力。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:75
msgid ""
"Martin Geisler, Damien Cassou, Alexey Bakhirkin, Till Plewe, Dan Himes, Paul "
"Sargent, Gokberk Hamurcu, Matthijs van der Vleuten, Michael Chermside, John "
"Mulligan, Jordi Fita, Jon Parise."
msgstr ""
"Martin Geisler、Damien Cassou、Alexey Bakhirkin、Till Plewe、Dan Himes、Paul "
"Sargent、Gokberk Hamurcu、Matthijs van der Vleuten、Michael Chermside、John "
"Mulligan、Jordi Fita、Jon Parise。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:80
msgid ""
"I also want to acknowledge the help of the many people who caught errors and "
"provided helpful suggestions throughout the book."
msgstr "我還想要感謝許多幫忙捉本書臭蟲、以及提出寶貴意見的人們。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:84
msgid ""
"Jeremy W. Sherman, Brian Mearns, Vincent Furia, Iwan Luijks, Billy Edwards, "
"Andreas Sliwka, Paweł Sołyga, Eric Hanchrow, Steve Nicolai, Michał Masłowski, "
"Kevin Fitch, Johan Holmberg, Hal Wine, Volker Simonis, Thomas P Jakobsen, Ted "
"Stresen-Reuter, Stephen Rasku, Raphael Das Gupta, Ned Batchelder, Lou Keeble, "
"Li Linxiao, Kao Cardoso Félix, Joseph Wecker, Jon Prescot, Jon Maken, John "
"Yeary, Jason Harris, Geoffrey Zheng, Fredrik Jonson, Ed Davies, David "
"Zumbrunnen, David Mercer, David Cabana, Ben Karel, Alan Franzoni, Yousry "
"Abdallah, Whitney Young, Vinay Sajip, Tom Towle, Tim Ottinger, Thomas "
"Schraitle, Tero Saarni, Ted Mielczarek, Svetoslav Agafonkin, Shaun Rowland, "
"Rocco Rutte, Polo-Francois Poli, Philip Jenvey, Petr Tesałék, Peter R. "
"Annema, Paul Bonser, Olivier Scherler, Olivier Fournier, Nick Parker, Nick "
"Fabry, Nicholas Guarracino, Mike Driscoll, Mike Coleman, Mietek Bák, Michael "
"Maloney, László Nagy, Kent Johnson, Julio Nobrega, Jord Fita, Jonathan March, "
"Jonas Nockert, Jim Tittsler, Jeduan Cornejo Legorreta, Jan Larres, James "
"Murphy, Henri Wiechers, Hagen Möbius, Gábor Farkas, Fabien Engels, Evert Rol, "
"Evan Willms, Eduardo Felipe Castegnaro, Dennis Decker Jensen, Deniz Dogan, "
"David Smith, Daed Lee, Christine Slotty, Charles Merriam, Guillaume Catto, "
"Brian Dorsey, Bob Nystrom, Benoit Boissinot, Avi Rosenschein, Andrew Watts, "
"Andrew Donkin, Alexey Rodriguez, Ahmed Chaudhary."
msgstr ""
"Jeremy W. Sherman, Brian Mearns, Vincent Furia, Iwan Luijks, Billy Edwards, "
"Andreas Sliwka, Paweł Sołyga, Eric Hanchrow, Steve Nicolai, Michał Masłowski, "
"Kevin Fitch, Johan Holmberg, Hal Wine, Volker Simonis, Thomas P Jakobsen, Ted "
"Stresen-Reuter, Stephen Rasku, Raphael Das Gupta, Ned Batchelder, Lou Keeble, "
"Li Linxiao, Kao Cardoso Félix, Joseph Wecker, Jon Prescot, Jon Maken, John "
"Yeary, Jason Harris, Geoffrey Zheng, Fredrik Jonson, Ed Davies, David "
"Zumbrunnen, David Mercer, David Cabana, Ben Karel, Alan Franzoni, Yousry "
"Abdallah, Whitney Young, Vinay Sajip, Tom Towle, Tim Ottinger, Thomas "
"Schraitle, Tero Saarni, Ted Mielczarek, Svetoslav Agafonkin, Shaun Rowland, "
"Rocco Rutte, Polo-Francois Poli, Philip Jenvey, Petr Tesałék, Peter R. "
"Annema, Paul Bonser, Olivier Scherler, Olivier Fournier, Nick Parker, Nick "
"Fabry, Nicholas Guarracino, Mike Driscoll, Mike Coleman, Mietek Bák, Michael "
"Maloney, László Nagy, Kent Johnson, Julio Nobrega, Jord Fita, Jonathan March, "
"Jonas Nockert, Jim Tittsler, Jeduan Cornejo Legorreta, Jan Larres, James "
"Murphy, Henri Wiechers, Hagen Möbius, Gábor Farkas, Fabien Engels, Evert Rol, "
"Evan Willms, Eduardo Felipe Castegnaro, Dennis Decker Jensen, Deniz Dogan, "
"David Smith, Daed Lee, Christine Slotty, Charles Merriam, Guillaume Catto, "
"Brian Dorsey, Bob Nystrom, Benoit Boissinot, Avi Rosenschein, Andrew Watts, "
"Andrew Donkin, Alexey Rodriguez, Ahmed Chaudhary."

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:111
msgid "Conventions Used in This Book"
msgstr "本書慣例"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:113
msgid "The following typographical conventions are used in this book:"
msgstr "下列為本書的印刷慣例"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:118
msgid "Italic"
msgstr "斜體"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:121
msgid ""
"Indicates new terms, URLs, email addresses, filenames, and file extensions."
msgstr "用來表示新的名詞、URL、電子郵件地址、檔案名稱以及副檔名。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:127
msgid "<literal>Constant width</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>定寬字</literal>"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:130
msgid ""
"Used for program listings, as well as within paragraphs to refer to program "
"elements such as variable or function names, databases, data types, "
"environment variables, statements, and keywords."
msgstr ""
"用來表示程式碼,以及段落中和程式碼相關的元素,例如:變數、函式名稱、資料庫、資"
"料型別、環境變數、陳述式,以及關鍵字等。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:138
msgid "<userinput>Constant width bold</userinput>"
msgstr "<userinput>定寬粗體字</userinput>"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:141
msgid "Shows commands or other text that should be typed literally by the user."
msgstr "用來表示使用者要逐字輸入的指令,或其他的文字。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><variablelist><varlistentry><term>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:147
msgid "<replaceable>Constant width italic</replaceable>"
msgstr "<replaceable>定寬斜體字</replaceable>"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><variablelist><varlistentry><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:150
msgid ""
"Shows text that should be replaced with user-supplied values or by values "
"determined by context."
msgstr "其標示的文字應該要代換為自行提供的值。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><tip><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:157
msgid "This icon signifies a tip, suggestion, or general note."
msgstr "這個圖示表示提示、建議,或是一般的註釋。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><caution><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:162
msgid "This icon indicates a warning or caution."
msgstr "這個圖示表示警告或是注意。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:167
msgid "Using Code Examples"
msgstr "使用範例程式碼"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:169
msgid ""
"This book is here to help you get your job done. In general, you may use the "
"code in this book in your programs and documentation. You do not need to "
"contact us for permission unless you’re reproducing a significant portion of "
"the code. For example, writing a program that uses several chunks of code "
"from this book does not require permission. Selling or distributing a CD-ROM "
"of examples from O’Reilly books does require permission.  Answering a "
"question by citing this book and quoting example code does not require "
"permission. Incorporating a significant amount of example code from this book "
"into your product’s documentation does require permission."
msgstr ""
"這本書是為了能幫你完成工作而存在的。一般來說,你可以在你的程式或是文件中引用書"
"中的程式碼,毋需特別取得我們的許可——除非你引用的程度超過「一般合理使用範圍」。"
"例如:寫一個程式,當中使用了書中的一小段程式碼,不需取得我們的同意;但是,把 "
"O'reilly 書籍的程式範例燒成光碟販賣或散佈,就需要取得授權。引用本書的文句和範"
"例程式碼來回答問題,不需要取得許可;把本書大量的程式範例整合到你產品的說明文件"
"中時,則需要取得授權。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:181
msgid ""
"We appreciate, but do not require, attribution. An attribution usually "
"includes the title, author, publisher, and ISBN. For example: “<emphasis>Book "
"Title</emphasis> by Some Author. Copyright 2008 O’Reilly Media, Inc., "
"978-0-596-xxxx-x.”"
msgstr ""
"雖然不是必要,但若是能註明來,我們會很感謝。註明來源通常包括書名、作者、出版商"
"以及 ISBN。例如:「<emphasis>Mercurial: The Definitive Guide</emphasis> by "
"Bryan O'Sullivan. Copyright 2008 O’Reilly Media, Inc., 978-0-596-xxxx-x。”"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:187
msgid ""
"If you feel your use of code examples falls outside fair use or the "
"permission given above, feel free to contact us at <email>permissions@oreilly."
"com</email>."
msgstr ""
"如果你覺得,你對書中程式範例的使用情況,有別於上述情況,不用客氣,儘管和我們連"
"絡:<email>permissions@oreilly.com</email>。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:193
msgid "Safari® Books Online"
msgstr "Safari® Books Online"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><note><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:196
msgid ""
"When you see a Safari® Books Online icon on the cover of your favorite "
"technology book, that means the book is available online through the O’Reilly "
"Network Safari Bookshelf."
msgstr ""
"當你在喜歡的技術書籍封面上看到 Safari® Books Online 的圖示時,表示你可以透過 "
"O'Reilly Network Safari Bookshelf 在網路上找到這本書。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:202
msgid ""
"Safari offers a solution that’s better than e-books. It’s a virtual library "
"that lets you easily search thousands of top tech books, cut and paste code "
"samples, download chapters, and find quick answers when you need the most "
"accurate, current information. Try it for free at <ulink role=\"orm:hideurl:"
"ital\" url=\"http://my.safaribooksonline.com/?portal=oreilly\">http://my."
"safaribooksonline.com</ulink>."
msgstr ""
"Safari 提供了一個比電子書還要好的解決方案。Safari 是間虛擬圖書館,讓你可以在數"
"千本頂尖的技術圖書中輕鬆地搜尋想要的內容、剪貼想要的程式碼範例、下載特定的章"
"節,還能在最正確、最新的資訊中迅速地找到解答。想要免費試用,可以連到下面的這個"
"網址:<ulink role=\"orm:hideurl:ital\" url=\"http://my.safaribooksonline.com/?"
"portal=oreilly\">http://my.safaribooksonline.com</ulink>。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:211
msgid "How to Contact Us"
msgstr "和我們聯絡"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:213
msgid ""
"Please address comments and questions concerning this book to the publisher:"
msgstr "若您對本書有任何的問題或意見,請透過下面的電子郵件地址和我們聯絡:"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><simplelist><member>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:217
msgid "O’Reilly Media, Inc."
msgstr "O’Reilly Media, Inc."

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><simplelist><member>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:219
msgid "1005 Gravenstein Highway North"
msgstr "1005 Gravenstein Highway North"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><simplelist><member>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:221
msgid "Sebastopol, CA 95472"
msgstr "Sebastopol, CA 95472"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><simplelist><member>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:223
msgid "800-998-9938 (in the United States or Canada)"
msgstr "800-998-9938(美加地區)"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><simplelist><member>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:225
msgid "707-829-0515 (international or local)"
msgstr "707-829-0515(其他國家或本地)"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><simplelist><member>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:227
msgid "707 829-0104 (fax)"
msgstr "707 829-0104(傳真)"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:230
msgid ""
"We have a web page for this book, where we list errata, examples, and any "
"additional information. You can access this page at:"
msgstr ""
"我們建立了一個關於這本書的網頁,裡面有勘誤表、範例,以及一些額外的資訊。網址如"
"下:"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><simplelist><member>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:235
msgid ""
"<ulink url=\"http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/&lt;catalog page&gt;\"></ulink>"
msgstr ""
"<ulink url=\"http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/&lt;catalog page&gt;\"></ulink>"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><remark>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:239
msgid "Don’t forget to update the &lt;url&gt; attribute, too."
msgstr "別忘了要同步更新 &lt;url&gt; 屬性。"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:242
msgid "To comment or ask technical questions about this book, send email to:"
msgstr "若您有技術相關的問題或意見,您可以寄到下列的電子郵件信箱:"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><simplelist><member>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:246
msgid "<email>bookquestions@oreilly.com</email>"
msgstr "<email>bookquestions@oreilly.com</email>"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:249
msgid ""
"For more information about our books, conferences, Resource Centers, and the "
"O’Reilly Network, see our web site at:"
msgstr ""
"若您想獲得更多關於我們的圖書、研討會、Resource Centers 以及 O'Reilly Network "
"更多的資訊,您可以瀏覽下列的網站:"

#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><simplelist><member>
#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:253
msgid "<ulink url=\"http://www.oreilly.com\"></ulink>"
msgstr "<ulink url=\"http://www.oreilly.com\"></ulink>"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:5
msgid "How did we get here?"
msgstr "這本書的意義何在?"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:8
msgid "Why revision control? Why Mercurial?"
msgstr "為什麼要做版本控制?為什麼要用 Mercurial?"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:10
msgid ""
"Revision control is the process of managing multiple versions of a piece of "
"information.  In its simplest form, this is something that many people do by "
"hand: every time you modify a file, save it under a new name that contains a "
"number, each one higher than the number of the preceding version."
msgstr ""
"「版本控制」指的是:管理某段訊息的各個版本的過程。舉例來說,許多人可能隨手都會"
"這樣做最簡單的版本控制:修改一個檔案的內容,然後每次要存檔的時候,都在檔名中加"
"上流水號,每修改一次就加一,代表它的版號。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:16
msgid ""
"Manually managing multiple versions of even a single file is an error-prone "
"task, though, so software tools to help automate this process have long been "
"available.  The earliest automated revision control tools were intended to "
"help a single user to manage revisions of a single file.  Over the past few "
"decades, the scope of revision control tools has expanded greatly; they now "
"manage multiple files, and help multiple people to work together.  The best "
"modern revision control tools have no problem coping with thousands of people "
"working together on projects that consist of hundreds of thousands of files."
msgstr ""
"然而,若是用這種純手工的方式管理,就算要管理的檔案只有一個,也是很容易出錯的。"
"因此,用來輔助自動管理的軟體,很早就出現了。最早的自動化版本控制工具是針對「單"
"一使用者,管理單一檔案」這樣的情境來設計的。經過了數十年的發展,版本控制工具的"
"功能也有長足的進步。現在,這些工具可以同時管理很多的檔案,同時也讓很多的人能共"
"同合作。目前最好的版本控制工具可以讓數千人同時修改有數萬個檔案的專案工作,不會"
"發生任何問題。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:27
msgid ""
"The arrival of distributed revision control is relatively recent, and so far "
"this new field has grown due to people's willingness to explore ill-charted "
"territory."
msgstr ""
"「分散式版本控制」是最近這幾年才出現的名詞。由於人們勇於探索未知的領域,這個新"
"技術已經發展得相當成熟了。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:31
msgid ""
"I am writing a book about distributed revision control because I believe that "
"it is an important subject that deserves a field guide. I chose to write "
"about Mercurial because it is the easiest tool to learn the terrain with, and "
"yet it scales to the demands of real, challenging environments where many "
"other revision control tools buckle."
msgstr ""
"我之所以寫這本關於「分散式版本控制」的書,是因為我相信這是個動要的主題,應該要"
"有一本指南。我選擇了 Mercurial,是因為它是這個領域中最容易學習的,同時也能面對"
"實際的應用中,充滿挑戰的環境(有些版本控制工具就缺乏也這樣的能耐)。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:39
msgid "Why use revision control?"
msgstr "為什麼要使用版本控制工具?"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:41
msgid ""
"There are a number of reasons why you or your team might want to use an "
"automated revision control tool for a project."
msgstr ""
"為什麼你(或是你的團隊)會想在專案中使用自動化的版本控制工具呢?可能有下列的理"
"由:"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:46
msgid ""
"It will track the history and evolution of your project, so you don't have "
"to.  For every change, you'll have a log of <emphasis>who</emphasis> made it; "
"<emphasis>why</emphasis> they made it; <emphasis>when</emphasis> they made "
"it; and <emphasis>what</emphasis> the change was."
msgstr ""
"它能夠幫你記錄專案的修改歷程及演進過程,不用自己手動記錄。每當我們修改其中的內"
"容時,我們必須要記錄:是<emphasis>誰</emphasis>修改的?<emphasis>為什麼</"
"emphasis>要修改?是<emphasis>什麼時候</emphasis>改的?修改了<emphasis>哪些</"
"emphasis>內容?"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:53
msgid ""
"When you're working with other people, revision control software makes it "
"easier for you to collaborate.  For example, when people more or less "
"simultaneously make potentially incompatible changes, the software will help "
"you to identify and resolve those conflicts."
msgstr ""
"當許多人一起工作的時候,版本控制軟體讓團隊合作更容易。比方說:團隊成員們常會同"
"時進行可能會互相衝突的修改。這樣的軟體可以幫助團隊發現、並解決衝突的地方。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:59
msgid ""
"It can help you to recover from mistakes.  If you make a change that later "
"turns out to be in error, you can revert to an earlier version of one or more "
"files.  In fact, a <emphasis>really</emphasis> good revision control tool "
"will even help you to efficiently figure out exactly when a problem was "
"introduced (see <xref linkend=\"sec:undo:bisect\"/> for details)."
msgstr ""
"它能幫助你修復錯誤。若是你做了個修改,但測試的時候發現這不可行,你可以把一個"
"(或多個)檔案恢復到任何一個之前記錄的版本。事實上,一套<emphasis>真的</"
"emphasis>夠好的版本控制工具甚至可以幫你很快地找到問題是什麼時候發生的(詳細說"
"明請參閱<xref linkend=\"sec:undo:bisect\"/>)。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:66
msgid ""
"It will help you to work simultaneously on, and manage the drift between, "
"multiple versions of your project."
msgstr ""
"當你要同時在數個版本間工作、管理它們的差異時,版本控制工具可以幫你很大的忙。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:71
msgid ""
"Most of these reasons are equally valid&emdash;at least in theory&emdash;"
"whether you're working on a project by yourself, or with a hundred other "
"people."
msgstr ""
"不管你要進行的是一人專案,或者是要跟好幾百個人合作,上述的這些理由大部份都是"
"(或至少理論上是)通用的。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:76
msgid ""
"A key question about the practicality of revision control at these two "
"different scales (<quote>lone hacker</quote> and <quote>huge team</quote>) is "
"how its <emphasis>benefits</emphasis> compare to its <emphasis>costs</"
"emphasis>.  A revision control tool that's difficult to understand or use is "
"going to impose a high cost."
msgstr ""
"在面對這兩種不同的專案等級(<quote>享受孤獨的駭客</quote>和<quote>超級龐大的團"
"隊</quote>)時,考量要使用的版本控制工具有個關鍵的因素:它能帶給專案的"
"<emphasis>利益</emphasis>比上它的<emphasis>成本</emphasis>。難以理解或使用的版"
"本控制工具,帶給專案團隊的成本是很高的。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:84
msgid ""
"A five-hundred-person project is likely to collapse under its own weight "
"almost immediately without a revision control tool and process. In this case, "
"the cost of using revision control might hardly seem worth considering, since "
"<emphasis>without</emphasis> it, failure is almost guaranteed."
msgstr ""
"一個 500 人的團隊,要是沒有制定使用的版本控制工具與流程,很快就會完蛋了。在這"
"個情況下,使用版本控制工具的成本幾乎不需要考慮,因為要是<emphasis>沒有使用</"
"emphasis>的話,我們幾乎可以保證這個專案一定會失敗。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:91
msgid ""
"On the other hand, a one-person <quote>quick hack</quote> might seem like a "
"poor place to use a revision control tool, because surely the cost of using "
"one must be close to the overall cost of the project.  Right?"
msgstr ""
"換個角度說,要是這個案子只有一個人在做,看起來不太需要版本控制工具,因為使用這"
"類工具的成本接近整個專案的成本,對不對?"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:96
msgid ""
"Mercurial uniquely supports <emphasis>both</emphasis> of these scales of "
"development.  You can learn the basics in just a few minutes, and due to its "
"low overhead, you can apply revision control to the smallest of projects with "
"ease.  Its simplicity means you won't have a lot of abstruse concepts or "
"command sequences competing for mental space with whatever you're "
"<emphasis>really</emphasis> trying to do.  At the same time, Mercurial's high "
"performance and peer-to-peer nature let you scale painlessly to handle large "
"projects."
msgstr ""
"Mercurial 最獨特的地方就是它<emphasis>同時</emphasis>支援這兩種規模的專案。只"
"需要幾分鐘,你就可以學會基本的觀念與操作方法。因為它的學習成本很低,你可以很輕"
"易地用在最小規模的專案中。因為它很簡單,所以不用花很大的心思去研究各種深奧的觀"
"念、命令語法,就能完成你<emphasis>真正</emphasis>想做的事。同時,Mercurial 的"
"高效能與「點對點」的特性,處理規模很大的專案也毫不費力。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:106
msgid ""
"No revision control tool can rescue a poorly run project, but a good choice "
"of tools can make a huge difference to the fluidity with which you can work "
"on a project."
msgstr ""
"要是專案的進行流程很糟糕,再好的版本控制工具也束手無策;但選擇好的工具可以讓專"
"案的進行效率大大提昇。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:113
msgid "The many names of revision control"
msgstr "版本控制工具的其他名稱"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:115
msgid ""
"Revision control is a diverse field, so much so that it is referred to by "
"many names and acronyms.  Here are a few of the more common variations you'll "
"encounter:"
msgstr ""
"版本控制是個各自發展的領域,因此發展出了許多的名稱與縮寫。底下列出一些常見的名"
"稱:"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:119
msgid "Revision control (RCS)"
msgstr "版本控制 (revision control, RCS)"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:120
msgid "Software configuration management (SCM), or configuration management"
msgstr ""
"軟體設定管理 (software configuration management, SCM),或設定管理 "
"(configuration management)"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:122
msgid "Source code management"
msgstr "程式碼管理 (source code mangement)"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:123
msgid "Source code control, or source control"
msgstr "程式碼控制 (source code control/source control)"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:125
msgid "Version control (VCS)"
msgstr "版本控制 (version control, VCS)"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:127
msgid ""
"Some people claim that these terms actually have different meanings, but in "
"practice they overlap so much that there's no agreed or even useful way to "
"tease them apart."
msgstr ""
"有些人會說這些名詞其實各有不同的意義;但實際上來說,他們所代表的意義多半重疊,"
"因此沒有一個公認或有用的方式分別這些名詞的不同。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:135
msgid "About the examples in this book"
msgstr "本書中的範例"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:137
msgid ""
"This book takes an unusual approach to code samples.  Every example is "
"<quote>live</quote>&emdash;each one is actually the result of a shell script "
"that executes the Mercurial commands you see.  Every time an image of the "
"book is built from its sources, all the example scripts are automatically "
"run, and their current results compared against their expected results."
msgstr ""
"這本書用一種不太一樣的方式編寫範例。每個範例都是<quote>活的</quote>&emdash;每"
"個範例都是一個 shell 腳本程式執行 Mecurial 命令後所輸出的結果。每當這本書從原"
"始碼開始處理的時候,所有的腳本程式都會被自動執行一次,然後執行的結果就會和預期"
"的結果比較。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:144
msgid ""
"The advantage of this approach is that the examples are always accurate; they "
"describe <emphasis>exactly</emphasis> the behavior of the version of "
"Mercurial that's mentioned at the front of the book.  If I update the version "
"of Mercurial that I'm documenting, and the output of some command changes, "
"the build fails."
msgstr ""
"這種方法的優點是:範例的內容永遠都是正確的。它們是用我在書的最前面所提到的 "
"Mercurial 版本所<emphasis>實際</emphasis>執行的結果。如果我升級了 Mercurial,"
"而且新版的 Mercurial 修改了某些命令執行的結果,那麼建立文件的過程就會失敗。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:151
msgid ""
"There is a small disadvantage to this approach, which is that the dates and "
"times you'll see in examples tend to be <quote>squashed</quote> together in a "
"way that they wouldn't be if the same commands were being typed by a human.  "
"Where a human can issue no more than one command every few seconds, with any "
"resulting timestamps correspondingly spread out, my automated example scripts "
"run many commands in one second."
msgstr ""
"當然這種方法也有個小缺點:範例中的日期和時間都被<quote>擠</quote>在一起了,看"
"起來不像是人類執行的。我的範例產生腳本程式一秒鐘之內可以執行好幾個命令;但正常"
"的人類在執行不同命令時至少會隔個幾秒,對應的日期和時間至少會有幾秒鐘的差距。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:159
msgid ""
"As an instance of this, several consecutive commits in an example can show up "
"as having occurred during the same second.  You can see this occur in the "
"<literal role=\"hg-ext\">bisect</literal> example in <xref linkend=\"sec:undo:"
"bisect\"/>, for instance."
msgstr ""
"舉例來說,<xref linkend=\"sec:undo:bisect\"/> 中關於<literal role=\"hg-ext"
"\">bisect</literal> 的範例,好幾個連續的提交都發生在同一秒鐘之內。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:165
msgid ""
"So when you're reading examples, don't place too much weight on the dates or "
"times you see in the output of commands.  But <emphasis>do</emphasis> be "
"confident that the behavior you're seeing is consistent and reproducible."
msgstr ""
"因此,當閱讀這些範例時,請不要太在意命令所輸出的時期和時間;但請<emphasis>一定"
"要</emphasis>確認看到的結果是一致且可以再重現的。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:173
msgid "Trends in the field"
msgstr "這個領域的發展趨勢"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:175
msgid ""
"There has been an unmistakable trend in the development and use of revision "
"control tools over the past four decades, as people have become familiar with "
"the capabilities of their tools and constrained by their limitations."
msgstr ""
"在過去的四十年間,隨著人們越來越熟悉工具的能力與限制,版本控制工具的發展與使用"
"已經有了明確的趨勢。 "

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:180
msgid ""
"The first generation began by managing single files on individual computers.  "
"Although these tools represented a huge advance over ad-hoc manual revision "
"control, their locking model and reliance on a single computer limited them "
"to small, tightly-knit teams."
msgstr ""
"第一代的工具著重在個人使用的電腦上管理單一的檔案。雖然比起「手動版本控管」,這"
"些工具已經算是革命性的進展;但它們使用的「鎖定模型」,以及只能在單一電腦上使用"
"限制,讓它們適用的範圍儘限於小型、互動緊密的團隊。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:186
msgid ""
"The second generation loosened these constraints by moving to network-"
"centered architectures, and managing entire projects at a time.  As projects "
"grew larger, they ran into new problems.  With clients needing to talk to "
"servers very frequently, server scaling became an issue for large projects.  "
"An unreliable network connection could prevent remote users from being able "
"to talk to the server at all.  As open source projects started making read-"
"only access available anonymously to anyone, people without commit privileges "
"found that they could not use the tools to interact with a project in a "
"natural way, as they could not record their changes."
msgstr ""
"第二代工具的架構以網路為中心,並且可以管理整個專案,解除了第一代工具的限制。但"
"隨著專案規模日益增長,第二代的工具又遇到了新的問題。由於客戶端的程式需要不斷地"
"向伺服器收發資料,伺服器的能力就成了大型專案的重要問題。另外,在網路連線不穩定"
"的時候,遠端的使用者可能完全無法和伺服器溝通。再者,在開放原始碼的專案中,儲存"
"庫僅以唯讀的方式開放給一般匿名使用者,沒有提交的權限,因此這些匿名的使用者無法"
"使用這些工具儲存他們所做的修改,不符合自然的使用習慣。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:198
msgid ""
"The current generation of revision control tools is peer-to-peer in nature.  "
"All of these systems have dropped the dependency on a single central server, "
"and allow people to distribute their revision control data to where it's "
"actually needed.  Collaboration over the Internet has moved from constrained "
"by technology to a matter of choice and consensus.  Modern tools can operate "
"offline indefinitely and autonomously, with a network connection only needed "
"when syncing changes with another repository."
msgstr ""
"最新一代的版本控制工具是以「點對點」做為基礎的。這些系統都捨棄了必須依賴單一中"
"央伺服的架構,讓使用者可以將他們真正需要的版本控制資訊分散到他們想要的地方。透"
"過網路的合作模式已經擺脫了技術的限制,只剩下選擇和審核所需要的變更。現代的工具"
"可以離線獨立運作,不受網路的限制。只有在需要和其他的儲存庫同步的時候,才需要網"
"路連線。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:210
msgid "A few of the advantages of distributed revision control"
msgstr "分散式版本控制的優點"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:213
msgid ""
"Even though distributed revision control tools have for several years been as "
"robust and usable as their previous-generation counterparts, people using "
"older tools have not yet necessarily woken up to their advantages.  There are "
"a number of ways in which distributed tools shine relative to centralised "
"ones."
msgstr ""
"雖然分散式版本控制工具已經發展了好些年,他們的穩定度和可用性已經和前一代的工具"
"差不多了,但前一代工具的使用者們還沒辦法完全了解這類工具的優點。和集權式的工具"
"比較,分散式的工具有很多相對的優點。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:220
msgid ""
"For an individual developer, distributed tools are almost always much faster "
"than centralised tools.  This is for a simple reason: a centralised tool "
"needs to talk over the network for many common operations, because most "
"metadata is stored in a single copy on the central server.  A distributed "
"tool stores all of its metadata locally.  All else being equal, talking over "
"the network adds overhead to a centralised tool.  Don't underestimate the "
"value of a snappy, responsive tool: you're going to spend a lot of time "
"interacting with your revision control software."
msgstr ""
"對於單一開發者來說,分散式版本控制工具幾乎一定比集權式的快得多。理由很簡單:在"
"執行許多指令時,集權式的工具必須透過網路和儲存庫溝通,因為大部份的版本資訊都只"
"有一份,只儲存在中央伺服器中。分散式的工具把這些資訊全部都存在本地端的機器中。"
"在其他條件都相同下,透過網路存取資料增加了集權式系統的額外負擔。請不要低估快速"
"反應工具的價值:和版本控制軟體互動的時間是很可觀的。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:231
msgid ""
"Distributed tools are indifferent to the vagaries of your server "
"infrastructure, again because they replicate metadata to so many locations.  "
"If you use a centralised system and your server catches fire, you'd better "
"hope that your backup media are reliable, and that your last backup was "
"recent and actually worked.  With a distributed tool, you have many backups "
"available on every contributor's computer."
msgstr ""
"分散式的工具不在意你的伺服器發生什麼問題,因為他們把控制資訊複製到很多地方。要"
"是你使用集權式的系統,然後伺服器機房失火了,你最好祈禱你用來備份儲存庫的磁帶沒"
"事,而且你最近才剛備份過,而且還能順利還原。若是改用分散式工具的話,每個專案成"
"員的電腦裡都有一份備份。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:239
msgid ""
"The reliability of your network will affect distributed tools far less than "
"it will centralised tools.  You can't even use a centralised tool without a "
"network connection, except for a few highly constrained commands.  With a "
"distributed tool, if your network connection goes down while you're working, "
"you may not even notice.  The only thing you won't be able to do is talk to "
"repositories on other computers, something that is relatively rare compared "
"with local operations.  If you have a far-flung team of collaborators, this "
"may be significant."
msgstr ""
"網路是否可靠對於分散式工具的影響遠小於集權式的工具。除了幾個功能有限的指令外,"
"沒有網路你甚至根本不能用集權式系統。若是使用分散式工具,然後你工作的時候網路掛"
"了,你甚至可能不會發現。沒有了網路,你唯一不能做的事情是和別的儲存庫溝通;而使"
"用這個功能的機會,和其他可以單機作業的功能比起來,算是非常少的。如果某些團隊成"
"員位在世界上其他很遠的地方,這個問題就很重要了。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:250
msgid "Advantages for open source projects"
msgstr "開放原始碼專案所能享受的好處"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:252
msgid ""
"If you take a shine to an open source project and decide that you would like "
"to start hacking on it, and that project uses a distributed revision control "
"tool, you are at once a peer with the people who consider themselves the "
"<quote>core</quote> of that project.  If they publish their repositories, you "
"can immediately copy their project history, start making changes, and record "
"your work, using the same tools in the same ways as insiders.  By contrast, "
"with a centralised tool, you must use the software in a <quote>read only</"
"quote> mode unless someone grants you permission to commit changes to their "
"central server.  Until then, you won't be able to record changes, and your "
"local modifications will be at risk of corruption any time you try to update "
"your client's view of the repository."
msgstr ""
"如果你覺得某個開放原始碼的專案很不錯,決定開始鑽研、修改它的程式碼,而且這個專"
"案使用分散式版本控制工具的話,你馬上就可以和那些專案<quote>核心成員</quote>站"
"在平等的位置了。如果他們發佈了他們的儲存庫,你可以使用和他們一樣的工具,立刻複"
"製他們的專案歷程、修改原始碼、記錄你修改的地方。反過來說,若他們用的是集權管理"
"式的工具,除非有人幫你取得中央伺服器的寫入權限,否則你只能以<quote>唯讀模式</"
"quote>使用程式碼管理工具。你沒辦法記錄自己修改的地方,而且,當你想要從伺器上捉"
"別人更新的內容下來時,還要冒著自己修改的內容可能會被蓋掉不見的風險。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:268
msgid "The forking non-problem"
msgstr "分支不是錯"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:270
msgid ""
"It has been suggested that distributed revision control tools pose some sort "
"of risk to open source projects because they make it easy to <quote>fork</"
"quote> the development of a project.  A fork happens when there are "
"differences in opinion or attitude between groups of developers that cause "
"them to decide that they can't work together any longer.  Each side takes a "
"more or less complete copy of the project's source code, and goes off in its "
"own direction."
msgstr ""
"有人說:分散式版本控制工具會帶給開放原始碼專案某種程度的風險,因為使用這類的工"
"具很容易讓專案開發過程出現<quote>分支</quote>。當兩派人馬有不同的做法或態度"
"時,兩方都覺得無法和對方再繼續工作下去,分支就出現了。兩邊都拿了專案原本的程式"
"碼,然後朝不同方向發展。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:280
msgid ""
"Sometimes the camps in a fork decide to reconcile their differences. With a "
"centralised revision control system, the <emphasis>technical</emphasis> "
"process of reconciliation is painful, and has to be performed largely by "
"hand.  You have to decide whose revision history is going to <quote>win</"
"quote>, and graft the other team's changes into the tree somehow. This "
"usually loses some or all of one side's revision history."
msgstr ""
"有時候,雙分陣營會想要整合兩邊某些不同的地方。若他們使用的是集權式的版本控制系"
"統,那麼這個過程在<emphasis>技術上</emphasis>就不是件簡單的事了,通常需要人工"
"手動去修改。首先必須決定要以哪邊的修改歷程為主,然後再把另一邊的修改內容轉接到"
"這邊來。通常某一邊的版本歷程會部份(甚至完全)被捨棄。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:289
msgid ""
"What distributed tools do with respect to forking is they make forking the "
"<emphasis>only</emphasis> way to develop a project.  Every single change that "
"you make is potentially a fork point.  The great strength of this approach is "
"that a distributed revision control tool has to be really good at "
"<emphasis>merging</emphasis> forks, because forks are absolutely fundamental: "
"they happen all the time."
msgstr ""
"對於分支這件事,分散式工具的原則是:分支是專案發展的<emphasis>唯一</emphasis>"
"分法。每個單獨的變更點都可能會產生新的分支。這麼做所產生的最大好處是:分散式版"
"本控制工具處理<emphasis>合併 (merging)</emphasis>及分支的功能非常強大,因它們"
"就是整個系統的基礎:隨時都可能會分支、合併。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:298
msgid ""
"If every piece of work that everybody does, all the time, is framed in terms "
"of forking and merging, then what the open source world refers to as a "
"<quote>fork</quote> becomes <emphasis>purely</emphasis> a social issue.  If "
"anything, distributed tools <emphasis>lower</emphasis> the likelihood of a "
"fork:"
msgstr ""
"假設每人每天在做的每一件工作都可以視作許多的合併和分支,那麼<quote>分支</"
"quote>這件事情就沒有嚴重到「兩派人馬不合」這種程度,而就只是<emphasis>單純的</"
"emphasis>社群問題 (social issue)了。若真要說有什麼影響,那就是分散式工具"
"<emphasis>降低</emphasis>了分支的可能性:"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:305
msgid ""
"They eliminate the social distinction that centralised tools impose: that "
"between insiders (people with commit access) and outsiders (people without)."
msgstr ""
"分散式工具消除了集權式工具所面對的「核心(擁有提交權限)成員」與「外部(沒有提"
"交權限)成員」之間的社群區別。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:309
msgid ""
"They make it easier to reconcile after a social fork, because all that's "
"involved from the perspective of the revision control software is just "
"another merge."
msgstr ""
"在社群性分支之後,想要整合兩邊的不同很容易,因為從版本控制軟體的角度來看,就只"
"是進行「合併」而已。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:314
msgid ""
"Some people resist distributed tools because they want to retain tight "
"control over their projects, and they believe that centralised tools give "
"them this control.  However, if you're of this belief, and you publish your "
"CVS or Subversion repositories publicly, there are plenty of tools available "
"that can pull out your entire project's history (albeit slowly) and recreate "
"it somewhere that you don't control.  So while your control in this case is "
"illusory, you are forgoing the ability to fluidly collaborate with whatever "
"people feel compelled to mirror and fork your history."
msgstr ""
"有些人抗拒使用分散式工具,因為他們保有對專案的絕對掌控權。他們相信集權式工具可"
"以給他們這樣的權力。然而,要是你這麼想,然後利用 CVS 或是 Subversion 公開了你"
"的儲存庫;那麼其他人還是可能用各種工具捉取你專案的完整歷程(雖然可能會多花些時"
"間),然後在另一個你控制不了的地方重建整個專案。此時,不但你的「完全掌控」只是"
"個幻影,你同時也失去了和這些被迫分支你的專案的人合作的機會。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:329
msgid "Advantages for commercial projects"
msgstr "帶給商業專案的好處"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:331
msgid ""
"Many commercial projects are undertaken by teams that are scattered across "
"the globe.  Contributors who are far from a central server will see slower "
"command execution and perhaps less reliability.  Commercial revision control "
"systems attempt to ameliorate these problems with remote-site replication add-"
"ons that are typically expensive to buy and cantankerous to administer.  A "
"distributed system doesn't suffer from these problems in the first place.  "
"Better yet, you can easily set up multiple authoritative servers, say one per "
"site, so that there's no redundant communication between repositories over "
"expensive long-haul network links."
msgstr ""
"有許多商業專案的團隊是分散在世界各處的。離中央伺服器較遠的開發人員得花更多的時"
"間執行命令,而且還可能會因為網路不穩而失敗。商業的版本控制系統供應商可能會兜售"
"附加套件,利用本地端複本的方式解決這個問題;然而這件附加套件不但昂貴,而且還會"
"增加網管的困擾。分散式系統首兒是不會發生這樣的問題。再者,你可以很輕鬆地建立數"
"個認證過的伺服器(可能每個開發中心一個),就可以省下許多在昂貴的網路上進行的不"
"必要資料傳輸。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:343
msgid ""
"Centralised revision control systems tend to have relatively low "
"scalability.  It's not unusual for an expensive centralised system to fall "
"over under the combined load of just a few dozen concurrent users.  Once "
"again, the typical response tends to be an expensive and clunky replication "
"facility.  Since the load on a central server&emdash;if you have one at "
"all&emdash;is many times lower with a distributed tool (because all of the "
"data is replicated everywhere), a single cheap server can handle the needs of "
"a much larger team, and replication to balance load becomes a simple matter "
"of scripting."
msgstr ""
"集權式版本控制系統的擴充性相對來說並不是很好。常見的狀況是:只要數十個使用者同"
"時存取,就可以把一台昂貴的中央伺服器搞垮了。解決的方法,一樣是再加上又貴又笨重"
"的複製機制。分散式系統的中央伺服器(如果你有的話)的負載比集權式的低很多(因為"
"所有的資料都已經被複製到各處了),因此一台便宜的伺服器就可以滿足更大的團隊的需"
"求,而且只要簡單的腳本程式,就可做到「產生儲存庫複本以平衡負載」的任務了。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:355
msgid ""
"If you have an employee in the field, troubleshooting a problem at a "
"customer's site, they'll benefit from distributed revision control. The tool "
"will let them generate custom builds, try different fixes in isolation from "
"each other, and search efficiently through history for the sources of bugs "
"and regressions in the customer's environment, all without needing to connect "
"to your company's network."
msgstr ""
"如果你有員工需要到廠商那兒去解決問題,分散式版本控制系統對他們來說也是很有用"
"的。分散式工具讓他們可以寫某個客戶的專屬版本、嘗試各種不同的解決方案(而不會混"
"在一起)、有效率地找尋各個版本的程式碼,逐一放入客戶的環境中測試——完全不需要連"
"接公司的網路。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:366
msgid "Why choose Mercurial?"
msgstr "為什麼選擇 Mercurial?"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:368
msgid ""
"Mercurial has a unique set of properties that make it a particularly good "
"choice as a revision control system."
msgstr "Mercurial 擁有許多獨特的優點,使它成為一套優秀的版本控制系統。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:371
msgid "It is easy to learn and use."
msgstr "易學易用。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:372
msgid "It is lightweight."
msgstr "不占太多系統資源。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:373
msgid "It scales excellently."
msgstr "適用各種規模大小不同的場合。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:374
msgid "It is easy to customise."
msgstr "容易客制化。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:377
msgid ""
"If you are at all familiar with revision control systems, you should be able "
"to get up and running with Mercurial in less than five minutes.  Even if not, "
"it will take no more than a few minutes longer.  Mercurial's command and "
"feature sets are generally uniform and consistent, so you can keep track of a "
"few general rules instead of a host of exceptions."
msgstr ""
"如果你已經很熟悉版本控制系統,大概在五分鐘之內你就會用 Mercurial 了。就算不是"
"很熟,也不用再多花你幾分鐘的時間。Mercurial 的命令和功能相當一致,因此你只要記"
"得幾個一般規則就行了,不需要死背一堆例外狀況。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:384
msgid ""
"On a small project, you can start working with Mercurial in moments. Creating "
"new changes and branches; transferring changes around (whether locally or "
"over a network); and history and status operations are all fast.  Mercurial "
"attempts to stay nimble and largely out of your way by combining low "
"cognitive overhead with blazingly fast operations."
msgstr ""
"專案不大的話,你馬上就可以利用 Mercurial 工作了。不管是建立新的變更或分支、"
"(在本機或是透過網路)傳送修改內容、瀏覽歷程或狀態等,速度都非常快。Mercurial "
"儘可能地保持小巧靈活,降低不需要的操作,一眨眼間就完成命令。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:391
msgid ""
"The usefulness of Mercurial is not limited to small projects: it is used by "
"projects with hundreds to thousands of contributors, each containing tens of "
"thousands of files and hundreds of megabytes of source code."
msgstr ""
"Mercurial 不是只能用在小型的專案上:有很多使用 Mercurial 管理的專案有上千個參"
"與的成員,專案的程式碼有萬個檔案,全部加起有上百 MB。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:396
msgid ""
"If the core functionality of Mercurial is not enough for you, it's easy to "
"build on.  Mercurial is well suited to scripting tasks, and its clean "
"internals and implementation in Python make it easy to add features in the "
"form of extensions.  There are a number of popular and useful extensions "
"already available, ranging from helping to identify bugs to improving "
"performance."
msgstr ""
"如果你覺得 Mercurial 的核心功能不夠用,要加上新的擴充功能也很容易。Mercurial "
"很適合放在 script 中執行。它是用 Python 寫成的,而且程式碼也很簡潔,很輕易地就"
"能利用延伸套件的方式加上新功能。目前已經有許多熱門且好用的延伸套件了,從協助找"
"到問題到增進效能的套件都有。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:406
msgid "Mercurial compared with other tools"
msgstr "Mercurial 和其他工具的比較"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:408
msgid ""
"Before you read on, please understand that this section necessarily reflects "
"my own experiences, interests, and (dare I say it) biases.  I have used every "
"one of the revision control tools listed below, in most cases for several "
"years at a time."
msgstr ""
"話先說在前頭:這一節的內容反應了我個人的經驗、興趣以及(我得承認)偏見。下列的"
"每一種版本控制工具我都用過,至少都用了好幾年。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:418
msgid ""
"Subversion is a popular revision control tool, developed to replace CVS.  It "
"has a centralised client/server architecture."
msgstr ""
"Subversion 是一套非常流行的版本控制工具,是為了取代 CVS 而生的。它的儲存庫採集"
"權式的架構,操作則是主從式 (client/server) 的。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:422
msgid ""
"Subversion and Mercurial have similarly named commands for performing the "
"same operations, so if you're familiar with one, it is easy to learn to use "
"the other.  Both tools are portable to all popular operating systems."
msgstr ""
"Subversion 和 Mercurial 有許多功能相同的命令名稱非常相似,因此,若是你熟悉其中"
"一套的話,要學會另一套就不是什麼問題。兩套工具在各大主流作業系統中都有移植版"
"本。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:427
msgid ""
"Prior to version 1.5, Subversion had no useful support for merges. At the "
"time of writing, its merge tracking capability is new, and known to be <ulink "
"url=\"http://svnbook.red-bean.com/nightly/en/svn.branchmerge.advanced."
"html#svn.branchmerge.advanced.finalword\">complicated and buggy</ulink>."
msgstr ""
"Subversion 在 1.5 版以前的合併功能幾乎沒什麼用。在寫這本書的同時,Subversion "
"重新設計了合併追踪的功能,大家普偏認為它<ulink url=\"http://svnbook.red-bean."
"com/nightly/en/svn.branchmerge.advanced.html#svn.branchmerge.advanced."
"finalword\">又複雜又難用</ulink>。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:433
msgid ""
"Mercurial has a substantial performance advantage over Subversion on every "
"revision control operation I have benchmarked.  I have measured its advantage "
"as ranging from a factor of two to a factor of six when compared with "
"Subversion 1.4.3's <emphasis>ra_local</emphasis> file store, which is the "
"fastest access method available.  In more realistic deployments involving a "
"network-based store, Subversion will be at a substantially larger "
"disadvantage.  Because many Subversion commands must talk to the server and "
"Subversion does not have useful replication facilities, server capacity and "
"network bandwidth become bottlenecks for modestly large projects."
msgstr ""
"在我所比較過的所有版本控制命令中,Mercurial 的執行效率都要比 Subversion 好得多"
"(快上二倍到六倍不等),而且我用來比較的還是 Subversion 1.4.3 版的 "
"<emphasis>ra_local</emphasis> 檔案儲存方式,已經是最快的存取方式了。在一般常見"
"的應用場合(透過網路存取),Subversion 還會明顯地再慢上好幾倍。因為 "
"Subversion 的許多命令都必須和伺服器溝通,再加上 Subversion 沒有有效的複本機"
"制,伺服器的速度和網路的頻寬會成為大部分大型專案的瓶頸。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:446
msgid ""
"Additionally, Subversion incurs substantial storage overhead to avoid network "
"transactions for a few common operations, such as finding modified files "
"(<literal>status</literal>) and displaying modifications against the current "
"revision (<literal>diff</literal>).  As a result, a Subversion working copy "
"is often the same size as, or larger than, a Mercurial repository and working "
"directory, even though the Mercurial repository contains a complete history "
"of the project."
msgstr ""
"另外,Subversion 會在本地端的硬碟中存放某些資料,以減少進行某些常用操作(像是"
"列出檔案修改狀態的 <literal>status</literal> 命令、顯示修改內容的 "
"<literal>diff</literal> 命令……等)時的網路存取動作。因此,縱使 Mercurial 的工"
"作目錄還包含了完整的儲存庫/修改歷程,Subversion 的工作目錄卻往往和 Mercurial "
"的工作目錄差不多大,甚至占用更多的空間。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:456
msgid ""
"Subversion is widely supported by third party tools.  Mercurial currently "
"lags considerably in this area.  This gap is closing, however, and indeed "
"some of Mercurial's GUI tools now outshine their Subversion equivalents.  "
"Like Mercurial, Subversion has an excellent user manual."
msgstr ""
"Subversion 廣泛地受到許多第三方工具的支援。Mercirial 在這方面相對落後許多。然"
"而,這個差距正在縮小中,而且有些 Mercuarial 的圖型化介面程式比起 Subversion 的"
"程式出色許多。和 Mercurial 一樣,Subversion 的使用者手冊也寫得很不錯。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:462
msgid ""
"Because Subversion doesn't store revision history on the client, it is well "
"suited to managing projects that deal with lots of large, opaque binary "
"files.  If you check in fifty revisions to an incompressible 10MB file, "
"Subversion's client-side space usage stays constant The space used by any "
"distributed SCM will grow rapidly in proportion to the number of revisions, "
"because the differences between each revision are large."
msgstr ""
"因為 Subversion 不會在本地端儲存版本歷程,因此若是專案中有許多很肥的二進位檔案"
"的話,就很適合用 Subversion 管理。如果你的專案裡面有一個大小約 10MB、而且無法"
"壓縮的檔案,然後你提交了 50 個版本。對於 Subversion 來說,不管你提交了幾次,在"
"本地端所占用的硬碟大小不會差太多。但若是改用分散式的版本控制系統,所占用的空間"
"就會隨著提交次數而快速增長,因為每個版本之間的差異資料是很大的。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:471
msgid ""
"In addition, it's often difficult or, more usually, impossible to merge "
"different versions of a binary file.  Subversion's ability to let a user lock "
"a file, so that they temporarily have the exclusive right to commit changes "
"to it, can be a significant advantage to a project where binary files are "
"widely used."
msgstr ""
"此外,不同版本的二進位程式是很難(甚至是不可能)合併的。Subversion 有能力讓使"
"用者鎖定檔案,暫時不讓其他使用者提交修改的檔案。這對大量使用二進位檔案格式的專"
"案來說,是非常有利的。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:478
msgid ""
"Mercurial can import revision history from a Subversion repository. It can "
"also export revision history to a Subversion repository.  This makes it easy "
"to <quote>test the waters</quote> and use Mercurial and Subversion in "
"parallel before deciding to switch.  History conversion is incremental, so "
"you can perform an initial conversion, then small additional conversions "
"afterwards to bring in new changes."
msgstr ""
"Mercurial 可以從 Subversion 儲存庫中匯入版本歷程,也可以反過來把版本歷程匯回 "
"Subversion 的儲存庫。這讓我們可以在決定要不要全面轉用 Mercurial 前,可以先同時"
"使用兩套系統,<quote>試試水溫</quote>。轉換歷程這個動作是累進示的,所以你可以"
"在一開始的時候轉換整個儲存庫,之後有新的變更時再一點一點地轉換。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:490 ../en/ch01-intro.xml:629
msgid "Git"
msgstr "Git"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:492
msgid ""
"Git is a distributed revision control tool that was developed for managing "
"the Linux kernel source tree.  Like Mercurial, its early design was somewhat "
"influenced by Monotone."
msgstr ""
"Git 也是分散式的版本控制工具,最早是為了管理 Linux 的核心程式碼而開發的。和 "
"Mercurial 一樣,Git 最早的設計或多或少參考了 Monotone 的架構。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:497
msgid ""
"Git has a very large command set, with version 1.5.0 providing 139 individual "
"commands.  It has something of a reputation for being difficult to learn.  "
"Compared to Git, Mercurial has a strong focus on simplicity."
msgstr ""
"Git 的命令非常多,例如 1.5.0 版就提供了 139 個不同的命令 。Git 以難學聞名。相"
"較之下,Mercurial 在易用性方面就下了不少工夫。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:502
msgid ""
"In terms of performance, Git is extremely fast.  In several cases, it is "
"faster than Mercurial, at least on Linux, while Mercurial performs better on "
"other operations.  However, on Windows, the performance and general level of "
"support that Git provides is, at the time of writing, far behind that of "
"Mercurial."
msgstr ""
"以執行效率來說,Git 真的非常快。有些命令(至少在 Linux 下)比 Mercurial 快,有"
"些比較慢。然而,若是要在 Windows 平台上測試的話,不管是執行效率或是支援的程"
"度,就目前來說,Git 是遠遠落後 Mercurial 的。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:509
msgid ""
"While a Mercurial repository needs no maintenance, a Git repository requires "
"frequent manual <quote>repacks</quote> of its metadata.  Without these, "
"performance degrades, while space usage grows rapidly.  A server that "
"contains many Git repositories that are not rigorously and frequently "
"repacked will become heavily disk-bound during backups, and there have been "
"instances of daily backups taking far longer than 24 hours as a result.  A "
"freshly packed Git repository is slightly smaller than a Mercurial "
"repository, but an unpacked repository is several orders of magnitude larger."
msgstr ""
"Mercurial 的儲存庫不需要特別的維護;但 Git 的儲存庫常常需要手動去<quote>重新打"
"包 (repack)</quote>。要是沒有這麼做,執行效率會下降,占用的儲存空間也會增加地"
"很快。若是伺服器上放了很多 Git 的儲存庫,卻又沒有積極而頻繁地去重新打包的話,"
"它所占用的硬碟空間將成為備份時最大的問題(我曾經遇過因為這個原因,備份程序跑了"
"整整 24 小時還跑不完)。剛打包完的 Git 儲存庫比 Mercurial 儲存庫稍微小一點,但"
"未打包的就有可能會大上好幾個數量級!"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:520
msgid ""
"The core of Git is written in C.  Many Git commands are implemented as shell "
"or Perl scripts, and the quality of these scripts varies widely. I have "
"encountered several instances where scripts charged along blindly in the "
"presence of errors that should have been fatal."
msgstr ""
"Git 的核心是用 C 寫成的。許多 Git 的命令是以 shell 或是 Perl 腳本程式寫成的。"
"這些腳本程式的品質 好壞差異很大。我曾經遇遇過好幾次明明已經遇上致命的錯誤、腳"
"本程式卻仍繼續執行的情況。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:526
msgid "Mercurial can import revision history from a Git repository."
msgstr "Mercurial 可以從 Git 儲存庫中匯入版本歷程。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:534
msgid ""
"CVS is probably the most widely used revision control tool in the world.  Due "
"to its age and internal untidiness, it has been only lightly maintained for "
"many years."
msgstr ""
"CVS 可能是目前世界上最多人用的版本控制工具了。由於它已經有一把年紀了,再加上內"
"部的程式碼有些混亂,因此這幾年已經幾乎沒什麼在維護了。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:538
msgid ""
"It has a centralised client/server architecture.  It does not group related "
"file changes into atomic commits, making it easy for people to <quote>break "
"the build</quote>: one person can successfully commit part of a change and "
"then be blocked by the need for a merge, causing other people to see only a "
"portion of the work they intended to do.  This also affects how you work with "
"project history.  If you want to see all of the modifications someone made as "
"part of a task, you will need to manually inspect the descriptions and "
"timestamps of the changes made to each file involved (if you even know what "
"those files were)."
msgstr ""
"CVS 的架構採集權式儲存庫加上主從式操作。它並不會把一整群相關的檔案變更整個成單"
"一的單元再提交,因此在使用時很容易造成<quote>專案無法編譯</quote>的問題:某個"
"使用者可能成功地提交了部份的程式碼後,因為要處理合併的問題而停下來。此時其他人"
"就只能看到整個修改的一部份,造成無法編譯的問題。這個問題也影響到檢閱專案歷程的"
"方式。如果你想要知道某件工作到底做了哪些修改,你必須手動去檢查所有修改到的檔案"
"的描述和時間(而且你還得要知道哪些檔案被修改了)。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:550
msgid ""
"CVS has a muddled notion of tags and branches that I will not attempt to even "
"describe.  It does not support renaming of files or directories well, making "
"it easy to corrupt a repository.  It has almost no internal consistency "
"checking capabilities, so it is usually not even possible to tell whether or "
"how a repository is corrupt.  I would not recommend CVS for any project, "
"existing or new."
msgstr ""
"CVS 對於標籤和分支的處理方法實在是太雜亂,亂到我連提都不想提。而且 CVS 也不支"
"援檔案或是目錄更名,使得儲存庫內的資料很容易錯亂。同時它也缺乏檢查內部資料是否"
"正確的能力,因此一旦錯亂,就很難找到錯亂的原因。不管是現存的專案或是新開的專"
"案,我都不會推薦使用 CVS 管理。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:558
msgid ""
"Mercurial can import CVS revision history.  However, there are a few caveats "
"that apply; these are true of every other revision control tool's CVS "
"importer, too.  Due to CVS's lack of atomic changes and unversioned "
"filesystem hierarchy, it is not possible to reconstruct CVS history "
"completely accurately; some guesswork is involved, and renames will usually "
"not show up.  Because a lot of advanced CVS administration has to be done by "
"hand and is hence error-prone, it's common for CVS importers to run into "
"multiple problems with corrupted repositories (completely bogus revision "
"timestamps and files that have remained locked for over a decade are just two "
"of the less interesting problems I can recall from personal experience)."
msgstr ""
"Mercurial 可以匯入 CVS 的版本歷程。不過有些限制(所有可以匯入 CVS 的版本控制工"
"具都會遇上相同的問題,並非  Mercurial 所獨有)。由於 CVS 缺乏將一次的變更視作"
"單一單位處理的能力,而且也沒有記錄檔案系統結構版本的能力,因此要完全正確地重"
"現 CVS 的歷是不可能的。有些地方必須要用猜的,若是檔案有更名的話也不會顯示出"
"來。因為 CVS 需要手動做很多的進階管理,儲存庫中無可避免地會有一些小錯誤,因此 "
"CVS 的匯入程式在處理已經錯亂的儲存庫時,發生好幾個錯誤是很常見的事情(「檔案的"
"時間戳記完全是偽造出來的」,以及「被鎖定了超過十年的檔案」,是兩個我個人遇過的"
"不怎麼有趣的例子)。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:572
msgid "Mercurial can import revision history from a CVS repository."
msgstr "Mercurial 可以從 CVS 的儲存庫中匯入版本歷程。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:578
msgid "Commercial tools"
msgstr "商業工具"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:580
msgid ""
"Perforce has a centralised client/server architecture, with no client-side "
"caching of any data.  Unlike modern revision control tools, Perforce requires "
"that a user run a command to inform the server about every file they intend "
"to edit."
msgstr ""
"Perforce 也是集權式加上主從式的架構,客戶端沒有任何的暫存資料。和新一代的版本"
"控制工具不同,Perforce 的使用在想要修改任何一個檔案之前,都必須透過某個命令知"
"會伺服器。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:586
msgid ""
"The performance of Perforce is quite good for small teams, but it falls off "
"rapidly as the number of users grows beyond a few dozen. Modestly large "
"Perforce installations require the deployment of proxies to cope with the "
"load their users generate."
msgstr ""
"對於較小的團隊來說,Perforce 的執行效率還算不錯;但一旦使用者的人數增加到數十"
"人時,效能就會急速下滑。若是安裝的數量在一定程度以上,就必須要有代理伺服器來應"
"付使用者所產生的負載。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:595
msgid "Choosing a revision control tool"
msgstr "選擇版本控制工具"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:597
msgid ""
"With the exception of CVS, all of the tools listed above have unique "
"strengths that suit them to particular styles of work.  There is no single "
"revision control tool that is best in all situations."
msgstr ""
"除了 CVS 之外,上述的每一套工具都具有特有的能力,可以配合合種不同型態的工作方"
"式。沒有哪一套版本控制工具是萬用的。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:602
msgid ""
"As an example, Subversion is a good choice for working with frequently edited "
"binary files, due to its centralised nature and support for file locking."
msgstr ""
"舉例來說,Subversion 就很適合用在經常要編輯二進位格式的專案,因為它具有集權式"
"的儲存庫,而且又有鎖定檔案的功能。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:606
msgid ""
"I personally find Mercurial's properties of simplicity, performance, and good "
"merge support to be a compelling combination that has served me well for "
"several years."
msgstr ""
"我個人是覺得 Mercurial 具有簡單、高效能,以及強大的合併能力,算是很不錯的組"
"合,讓我用它用了很多年。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:614
msgid "Switching from another tool to Mercurial"
msgstr "從另一套工具轉換到 Mercurial"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:616
msgid ""
"Mercurial is bundled with an extension named <literal role=\"hg-ext"
"\">convert</literal>, which can incrementally import revision history from "
"several other revision control tools.  By <quote>incremental</quote>, I mean "
"that you can convert all of a project's history to date in one go, then rerun "
"the conversion later to obtain new changes that happened after the initial "
"conversion."
msgstr ""
"Mercurial 內建一個名為 <literal role=\"hg-ext\">conver</literal> 的延伸套件,"
"可以以累進的方式匯入其他版本控制工具的版本歷程。<quote>累進</quote>的意思是"
"說:你可以把到某一天為止的專案歷程一次全部轉換完畢,然後過一陣子可以再執行一"
"次,把第一次執行到現在所有的新增變更再加進來。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:624
msgid ""
"The revision control tools supported by <literal role=\"hg-ext\">convert</"
"literal> are as follows:"
msgstr "<literal role=\"hg-ext\">convert</literal> 所支援的版本控制工具如下:"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:632
msgid ""
"In addition, <literal role=\"hg-ext\">convert</literal> can export changes "
"from Mercurial to Subversion.  This makes it possible to try Subversion and "
"Mercurial in parallel before committing to a switchover, without risking the "
"loss of any work."
msgstr ""
"此外,<literal role=\"hg-ext\">convert</literal> 也可以把 Mercurial 的變更匯出"
"到 Subversion 的儲存庫中。如此一來,你就可以在正式切換使用 Mercurial 之前,先"
"同時併用 Subversion 和 Mercurial,工作成果也不會就此遺失。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:638
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-ext-convert\">convert</command> command is easy to "
"use.  Simply point it at the path or URL of the source repository, optionally "
"give it the name of the destination repository, and it will start working.  "
"After the initial conversion, just run the same command again to import new "
"changes."
msgstr ""
"<literal role=\"hg-ext\">convert</literal> 的用法很簡單。你只要把來源儲存庫的 "
"URL 餵給它,還有目的儲存庫的名稱(可加可不加),就可以了。以後想把新的變更再匯"
"入,只要再執行一次一樣的命令就可以了。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:647
msgid "A short history of revision control"
msgstr "版本控制的簡史"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:649
msgid ""
"The best known of the old-time revision control tools is SCCS (Source Code "
"Control System), which Marc Rochkind wrote at Bell Labs, in the early 1970s.  "
"SCCS operated on individual files, and required every person working on a "
"project to have access to a shared workspace on a single system.  Only one "
"person could modify a file at any time; arbitration for access to files was "
"via locks.  It was common for people to lock files, and later forget to "
"unlock them, preventing anyone else from modifying those files without the "
"help of an administrator."
msgstr ""
"最早出現又最為人所知的版本控制工具應該非 SCCS(程式碼控制系統,Source Code "
"Control System),是由貝爾實驗室的 Marc Rochkind 在 1970 年代早期完成的。SCCS "
"只能操作單一的檔案,而且專案的每個成員都必須在同一個系統中有對某個共享空間的存"
"取權限。同一時間只有一個人可以修改這個檔案,利用鎖定檔案的方式來取得修改權。常"
"常發生某個使用者把檔案鎖定了、卻忘了解除,導致其他想要修改檔案的人得找系統管理"
"員幫忙。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:660
msgid ""
"Walter Tichy developed a free alternative to SCCS in the early 1980s; he "
"called his program RCS (Revision Control System).  Like SCCS, RCS required "
"developers to work in a single shared workspace, and to lock files to prevent "
"multiple people from modifying them simultaneously."
msgstr ""
"Walter Tichy 在 1980 年代早期開發了一套自由軟體,用來取代 SCCS,叫做 RCS"
"(Revision Control System,版本控制系統)。和 SCCS 一樣,RCS 的使用者也必須在"
"同一個共享的空間中工作,而且也是利用鎖定檔案的方式防止不同的使用者同時修改檔"
"案。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:666
msgid ""
"Later in the 1980s, Dick Grune used RCS as a building block for a set of "
"shell scripts he initially called cmt, but then renamed to CVS (Concurrent "
"Versions System).  The big innovation of CVS was that it let developers work "
"simultaneously and somewhat independently in their own personal workspaces.  "
"The personal workspaces prevented developers from stepping on each other's "
"toes all the time, as was common with SCCS and RCS. Each developer had a copy "
"of every project file, and could modify their copies independently.  They had "
"to merge their edits prior to committing changes to the central repository."
msgstr ""
"後來,同樣也是在 1980 年代,Dick Grune 以 RCS 為基礎,開發了一系列的 shell 腳"
"本程式。他本來想把這個命令集合取名為 cmt 的,不過後來他把名稱改為 CVS"
"(Concurrent Versions System,併行版本系統)。CVS 的最大突破是它可以讓不同的開"
"發人員同時進行工作,而且在某種程度上可以在他們各自的空間工作。由於開發人員可以"
"在個人的空間中工作,因此就如同 SCCS 和 RCS 一樣,可以避免改到別人修改的地方。"
"每個開發人員都有一份完整的專案檔案,各自修改他們手上的那份拷貝。等到要提交到中"
"央儲存庫之前,他們得先把各自修改的地方合併起來。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:677
msgid ""
"Brian Berliner took Grune's original scripts and rewrote them in C, releasing "
"in 1989 the code that has since developed into the modern version of CVS.  "
"CVS subsequently acquired the ability to operate over a network connection, "
"giving it a client/server architecture.  CVS's architecture is centralised; "
"only the server has a copy of the history of the project. Client workspaces "
"just contain copies of recent versions of the project's files, and a little "
"metadata to tell them where the server is.  CVS has been enormously "
"successful; it is probably the world's most widely used revision control "
"system."
msgstr ""
"Brian Berliner 參考了 Grune 的原始腳本程式,用 C 語言改寫,在 1989 年釋出,成"
"了現代版本的 CVS 的基礎。接下來 CVS 以主從式架構改寫,加入了透過網路操作的功"
"能。CVS 是採集權式架構,整個專案的歷程只在伺服器上有一份。客戶端的工作空間中只"
"存有專案最新版本的程式碼,以及很少量的描述資訊,存放伺服器的位置資訊。CVS 非常"
"成功,可能是世界上最廣為被使用的版本控制系統。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:688
msgid ""
"In the early 1990s, Sun Microsystems developed an early distributed revision "
"control system, called TeamWare.  A TeamWare workspace contains a complete "
"copy of the project's history.  TeamWare has no notion of a central "
"repository.  (CVS relied upon RCS for its history storage; TeamWare used "
"SCCS.)"
msgstr ""
"在 1990 年代早期,昇陽公司 (Sun Microsystem) 開發了一套早期的分散式版本控制系"
"統,叫做 TeamWare。每個開發人員的 TeamWare 工作空間中都有一份完整的專案歷程。"
"TeamWare 沒有所謂的中央儲存庫。(CVS 是靠 RCS 儲存歷程記錄的;而 TeamWare 則是"
"使用 SCCS。)"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:695
msgid ""
"As the 1990s progressed, awareness grew of a number of problems with CVS.  It "
"records simultaneous changes to multiple files individually, instead of "
"grouping them together as a single logically atomic operation.  It does not "
"manage its file hierarchy well; it is easy to make a mess of a repository by "
"renaming files and directories.  Worse, its source code is difficult to read "
"and maintain, which made the <quote>pain level</quote> of fixing these "
"architectural problems prohibitive."
msgstr ""
"在 1990 年代,隨著時間的進行,CVS 暴露出了很多的問題。它用將同一次修改的檔案用"
"各自獨立的方式儲存,而非將它們劃成單一的邏輯單位去操作。它也無法合併檔案系統架"
"構,因此在檔案或目錄更名的時候很容易造成儲存庫的混亂。更糟的是,想要讀懂它的原"
"始碼很難,要維護更難,因此想要修正這些架構上的問題幾乎是不可能的是。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:705
msgid ""
"In 2001, Jim Blandy and Karl Fogel, two developers who had worked on CVS, "
"started a project to replace it with a tool that would have a better "
"architecture and cleaner code.  The result, Subversion, does not stray from "
"CVS's centralised client/server model, but it adds multi-file atomic commits, "
"better namespace management, and a number of other features that make it a "
"generally better tool than CVS. Since its initial release, it has rapidly "
"grown in popularity."
msgstr ""
"2001 年時,Jim Blandy 和 Karl Fogel 這兩位曾經參與 CVS 的開發人員,發起了一個"
"新的專案,目標是以更好的架構及較易維護的程式碼,取代現有的 CVS。其成果即為 "
"Subversion。Subversion 並沒有改變 CVS 原有的集權式、主從式的架構,但加入了許"
"多 CVS 缺乏的功能,例如:將多個檔案的修改包成單一的單位去提交、更好的命名空間"
"管理……等等。Subversion 開始發佈後,使用者就很快地增加。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:714
msgid ""
"More or less simultaneously, Graydon Hoare began working on an ambitious "
"distributed revision control system that he named Monotone. While Monotone "
"addresses many of CVS's design flaws and has a peer-to-peer architecture, it "
"goes beyond earlier (and subsequent) revision control tools in a number of "
"innovative ways.  It uses cryptographic hashes as identifiers, and has an "
"integral notion of <quote>trust</quote> for code from different sources."
msgstr ""
"差不多在同一時間,Graydon Hoare 也開始著手進行一項野心很大的分散式版本控制系"
"統,叫做 Monetone。Monotone 不但試圖修正 CVS 的缺點、改用點對點式的架構,而且"
"還加上了許多早期(甚至之後的)版本控制工具所沒有的創新功能。它使用加密的雜湊"
"值 (cryptographic hashes) 當作版次的識別碼,而且還整合了<quote>可信任的</"
"quote>這樣的概念,用來管理來源不同的程式碼。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch01-intro.xml:723
msgid ""
"Mercurial began life in 2005.  While a few aspects of its design are "
"influenced by Monotone, Mercurial focuses on ease of use, high performance, "
"and scalability to very large projects."
msgstr ""
"Mercurial 專案始於 2005 年,許多設計概念深受 Monotone 的影響,不過著重的目標是"
"易學易用、高效能,以及可擴展用在非常大型的專案上。"

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:5
msgid "A tour of Mercurial: the basics"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:8
msgid "Installing Mercurial on your system"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:10
msgid ""
"Prebuilt binary packages of Mercurial are available for every popular "
"operating system.  These make it easy to start using Mercurial on your "
"computer immediately."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:15
msgid "Windows"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:17
msgid ""
"The best version of Mercurial for Windows is TortoiseHg, which can be found "
"at <ulink url=\"http://tortoisehg.org\">http://tortoisehg.org</ulink>.  This "
"package has no external dependencies; it <quote>just works</quote>.  It "
"provides both command line and graphical user interfaces."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:27
msgid "Mac OS X"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:29
msgid ""
"Lee Cantey publishes an installer of Mercurial for Mac OS X at <ulink url="
"\"http://mercurial.berkwood.com\">http://mercurial.berkwood.com</ulink>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:35
msgid "Linux"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:37
msgid ""
"Because each Linux distribution has its own packaging tools, policies, and "
"rate of development, it's difficult to give a comprehensive set of "
"instructions on how to install Mercurial binaries.  The version of Mercurial "
"that you will end up with can vary depending on how active the person is who "
"maintains the package for your distribution."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:44
msgid ""
"To keep things simple, I will focus on installing Mercurial from the command "
"line under the most popular Linux distributions.  Most of these distributions "
"provide graphical package managers that will let you install Mercurial with a "
"single click; the package name to look for is <literal>mercurial</literal>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:52
msgid "Ubuntu and Debian:"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:54
msgid "Fedora:"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:56
msgid "OpenSUSE:"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:58
msgid "Gentoo:"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:64
msgid "Solaris"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:66
msgid ""
"SunFreeWare, at <ulink url=\"http://www.sunfreeware.com\">http://www."
"sunfreeware.com</ulink>, provides prebuilt packages of Mercurial."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:75
msgid "Getting started"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:77
msgid ""
"To begin, we'll use the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg version</command> command "
"to find out whether Mercurial is installed properly.  The actual version "
"information that it prints isn't so important; we simply care whether the "
"command runs and prints anything at all."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:86
msgid "Built-in help"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:88
msgid ""
"Mercurial provides a built-in help system.  This is invaluable for those "
"times when you find yourself stuck trying to remember how to run a command.  "
"If you are completely stuck, simply run <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg help</"
"command>; it will print a brief list of commands, along with a description of "
"what each does.  If you ask for help on a specific command (as below), it "
"prints more detailed information."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:99
msgid ""
"For a more impressive level of detail (which you won't usually need) run "
"<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg help <option role=\"hg-opt-global\">-v</option></"
"command>.  The <option role=\"hg-opt-global\">-v</option> option is short for "
"<option role=\"hg-opt-global\">--verbose</option>, and tells Mercurial to "
"print more information than it usually would."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:110
msgid "Working with a repository"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:112
msgid ""
"In Mercurial, everything happens inside a <emphasis>repository</emphasis>.  "
"The repository for a project contains all of the files that <quote>belong to</"
"quote> that project, along with a historical record of the project's files."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:118
msgid ""
"There's nothing particularly magical about a repository; it is simply a "
"directory tree in your filesystem that Mercurial treats as special. You can "
"rename or delete a repository any time you like, using either the command "
"line or your file browser."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:125
msgid "Making a local copy of a repository"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:127
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Copying</emphasis> a repository is just a little bit special.  "
"While you could use a normal file copying command to make a copy of a "
"repository, it's best to use a built-in command that Mercurial provides.  "
"This command is called <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg clone</command>, because "
"it makes an identical copy of an existing repository."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:136
msgid ""
"One advantage of using <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg clone</command> is that, "
"as we can see above, it lets us clone repositories over the network.  Another "
"is that it remembers where we cloned from, which we'll find useful soon when "
"we want to fetch new changes from another repository."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:142
msgid ""
"If our clone succeeded, we should now have a local directory called <filename "
"class=\"directory\">hello</filename>.  This directory will contain some files."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:148
msgid ""
"These files have the same contents and history in our repository as they do "
"in the repository we cloned."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:151
msgid ""
"Every Mercurial repository is complete, self-contained, and independent.  It "
"contains its own private copy of a project's files and history.  As we just "
"mentioned, a cloned repository remembers the location of the repository it "
"was cloned from, but Mercurial will not communicate with that repository, or "
"any other, unless you tell it to."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:158
msgid ""
"What this means for now is that we're free to experiment with our repository, "
"safe in the knowledge that it's a private <quote>sandbox</quote> that won't "
"affect anyone else."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:164
msgid "What's in a repository?"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:166
msgid ""
"When we take a more detailed look inside a repository, we can see that it "
"contains a directory named <filename class=\"directory\">.hg</filename>.  "
"This is where Mercurial keeps all of its metadata for the repository."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:173
msgid ""
"The contents of the <filename class=\"directory\">.hg</filename> directory "
"and its subdirectories are private to Mercurial.  Every other file and "
"directory in the repository is yours to do with as you please."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:179
msgid ""
"To introduce a little terminology, the <filename class=\"directory\">.hg</"
"filename> directory is the <quote>real</quote> repository, and all of the "
"files and directories that coexist with it are said to live in the "
"<emphasis>working directory</emphasis>.  An easy way to remember the "
"distinction is that the <emphasis>repository</emphasis> contains the "
"<emphasis>history</emphasis> of your project, while the <emphasis>working "
"directory</emphasis> contains a <emphasis>snapshot</emphasis> of your project "
"at a particular point in history."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:194
msgid "A tour through history"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:196
msgid ""
"One of the first things we might want to do with a new, unfamiliar repository "
"is understand its history.  The <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command> "
"command gives us a view of the history of changes in the repository."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:203
msgid ""
"By default, this command prints a brief paragraph of output for each change "
"to the project that was recorded.  In Mercurial terminology, we call each of "
"these recorded events a <emphasis>changeset</emphasis>, because it can "
"contain a record of changes to several files."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:209
msgid ""
"The fields in a record of output from <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</"
"command> are as follows."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:213
msgid ""
"<literal>changeset</literal>: This field has the format of a number, followed "
"by a colon, followed by a hexadecimal (or <emphasis>hex</emphasis>)  string.  "
"These are <emphasis>identifiers</emphasis> for the changeset.  The hex string "
"is a unique identifier: the same hex string will always refer to the same "
"changeset in every copy of this repository. The number is shorter and easier "
"to type than the hex string, but it isn't unique: the same number in two "
"different clones of a repository may identify different changesets."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:224
msgid ""
"<literal>user</literal>: The identity of the person who created the "
"changeset.  This is a free-form field, but it most often contains a person's "
"name and email address."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:228
msgid ""
"<literal>date</literal>: The date and time on which the changeset was "
"created, and the timezone in which it was created.  (The date and time are "
"local to that timezone; they display what time and date it was for the person "
"who created the changeset.)"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:233
msgid ""
"<literal>summary</literal>: The first line of the text message that the "
"creator of the changeset entered to describe the changeset."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:237
msgid ""
"Some changesets, such as the first in the list above, have a <literal>tag</"
"literal> field.  A tag is another way to identify a changeset, by giving it "
"an easy-to-remember name. (The tag named <literal>tip</literal> is special: "
"it always refers to the newest change in a repository.)"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:245
msgid ""
"The default output printed by <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command> is "
"purely a summary; it is missing a lot of detail."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:249
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"fig:tour-basic:history\"/> provides a graphical "
"representation of the history of the <filename class=\"directory\">hello</"
"filename> repository, to make it a little easier to see which direction "
"history is <quote>flowing</quote> in.  We'll be returning to this figure "
"several times in this chapter and the chapter that follows."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><figure><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:258
msgid ""
"Graphical history of the <filename class=\"directory\">hello</filename> "
"repository"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><figure>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:260 ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:61
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:207 ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:290
msgid "<placeholder type=\"mediaobject\" id=\"0\"/>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><figure><mediaobject>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:261
msgid ""
"<imageobject><imagedata fileref=\"figs/tour-history.png\"/></imageobject>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><mediaobject><textobject><phrase>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:262 ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:63
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:95 ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:182
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:209 ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:279
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:59 ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:108
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:198 ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:292
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:347 ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:362
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:403 ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:423
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:469 ../en/ch06-collab.xml:316
#: ../en/ch09-undo.xml:344 ../en/ch09-undo.xml:391 ../en/ch09-undo.xml:464
#: ../en/ch09-undo.xml:502 ../en/ch09-undo.xml:658 ../en/ch09-undo.xml:682
#: ../en/ch09-undo.xml:700 ../en/ch09-undo.xml:714 ../en/ch09-undo.xml:727
#: ../en/ch12-mq.xml:413
msgid "XXX add text"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:267
msgid "Changesets, revisions, and talking to other people"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:270
msgid ""
"As English is a notoriously sloppy language, and computer science has a "
"hallowed history of terminological confusion (why use one term when four will "
"do?), revision control has a variety of words and phrases that mean the same "
"thing.  If you are talking about Mercurial history with other people, you "
"will find that the word <quote>changeset</quote> is often compressed to "
"<quote>change</quote> or (when written)  <quote>cset</quote>, and sometimes a "
"changeset is referred to as a <quote>revision</quote> or a <quote>rev</quote>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:280
msgid ""
"While it doesn't matter what <emphasis>word</emphasis> you use to refer to "
"the concept of <quote>a changeset</quote>, the <emphasis>identifier</"
"emphasis> that you use to refer to <quote>a <emphasis>specific</emphasis> "
"changeset</quote> is of great importance. Recall that the <literal>changeset</"
"literal> field in the output from <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command> "
"identifies a changeset using both a number and a hexadecimal string."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:289
msgid ""
"The revision number is a handy notation that is <emphasis>only valid in that "
"repository</emphasis>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:292
msgid ""
"The hexadecimal string is the <emphasis>permanent, unchanging identifier</"
"emphasis> that will always identify that exact changeset in <emphasis>every</"
"emphasis> copy of the repository."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:298
msgid ""
"This distinction is important.  If you send someone an email talking about "
"<quote>revision 33</quote>, there's a high likelihood that their revision 33 "
"will <emphasis>not be the same</emphasis> as yours.  The reason for this is "
"that a revision number depends on the order in which changes arrived in a "
"repository, and there is no guarantee that the same changes will happen in "
"the same order in different repositories. Three changes <literal>a,b,c</"
"literal> can easily appear in one repository as <literal>0,1,2</literal>, "
"while in another as <literal>0,2,1</literal>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:310
msgid ""
"Mercurial uses revision numbers purely as a convenient shorthand.  If you "
"need to discuss a changeset with someone, or make a record of a changeset for "
"some other reason (for example, in a bug report), use the hexadecimal "
"identifier."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:318
msgid "Viewing specific revisions"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:320
msgid ""
"To narrow the output of <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command> down to a "
"single revision, use the <option role=\"hg-opt-log\">-r</option> (or <option "
"role=\"hg-opt-log\">--rev</option>) option.  You can use either a revision "
"number or a hexadecimal identifier, and you can provide as many revisions as "
"you want."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:329
msgid ""
"If you want to see the history of several revisions without having to list "
"each one, you can use <emphasis>range notation</emphasis>; this lets you "
"express the idea <quote>I want all revisions between <literal>abc</literal> "
"and <literal>def</literal>, inclusive</quote>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:337
msgid ""
"Mercurial also honours the order in which you specify revisions, so <command "
"role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log -r 2:4</command> prints 2, 3, and 4. while <command "
"role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log -r 4:2</command> prints 4, 3, and 2."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:344
msgid "More detailed information"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:346
msgid ""
"While the summary information printed by <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</"
"command> is useful if you already know what you're looking for, you may need "
"to see a complete description of the change, or a list of the files changed, "
"if you're trying to decide whether a changeset is the one you're looking for. "
"The <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command> command's <option role=\"hg-opt-"
"global\">-v</option> (or <option role=\"hg-opt-global\">--verbose</option>) "
"option gives you this extra detail."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:358
msgid ""
"If you want to see both the description and content of a change, add the "
"<option role=\"hg-opt-log\">-p</option> (or <option role=\"hg-opt-log\">--"
"patch</option>) option.  This displays the content of a change as a "
"<emphasis>unified diff</emphasis> (if you've never seen a unified diff "
"before, see <xref linkend=\"sec:mq:patch\"/> for an overview)."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:368
msgid ""
"The <option role=\"hg-opt-log\">-p</option> option is tremendously useful, so "
"it's well worth remembering."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:375
msgid "All about command options"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:377
msgid ""
"Let's take a brief break from exploring Mercurial commands to discuss a "
"pattern in the way that they work; you may find this useful to keep in mind "
"as we continue our tour."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:381
msgid ""
"Mercurial has a consistent and straightforward approach to dealing with the "
"options that you can pass to commands.  It follows the conventions for "
"options that are common to modern Linux and Unix systems."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:388
msgid ""
"Every option has a long name.  For example, as we've already seen, the "
"<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command> command accepts a <option role=\"hg-"
"opt-log\">--rev</option> option."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:394
msgid ""
"Most options have short names, too.  Instead of <option role=\"hg-opt-log\">--"
"rev</option>, we can use <option role=\"hg-opt-log\">-r</option>.  (The "
"reason that some options don't have short names is that the options in "
"question are rarely used.)"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:401
msgid ""
"Long options start with two dashes (e.g.  <option role=\"hg-opt-log\">--rev</"
"option>), while short options start with one (e.g. <option role=\"hg-opt-log"
"\">-r</option>)."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:407
msgid ""
"Option naming and usage is consistent across commands.  For example, every "
"command that lets you specify a changeset ID or revision number accepts both "
"<option role=\"hg-opt-log\">-r</option> and <option role=\"hg-opt-log\">--"
"rev</option> arguments."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:414
msgid ""
"If you are using short options, you can save typing by running them together. "
"For example, the command <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log -v -p -r 2</command> "
"can be written as <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log -vpr2</command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:421
msgid ""
"In the examples throughout this book, I usually use short options instead of "
"long.  This simply reflects my own preference, so don't read anything "
"significant into it."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:425
msgid ""
"Most commands that print output of some kind will print more output when "
"passed a <option role=\"hg-opt-global\">-v</option> (or <option role=\"hg-opt-"
"global\">--verbose</option>) option, and less when passed <option role=\"hg-"
"opt-global\">-q</option> (or <option role=\"hg-opt-global\">--quiet</option>)."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><note><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:432
msgid "Option naming consistency"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><note><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:434
msgid ""
"Almost always, Mercurial commands use consistent option names to refer to the "
"same concepts.  For instance, if a command deals with changesets, you'll "
"always identify them with <option role=\"hg-opt-log\">--rev</option> or "
"<option role=\"hg-opt-log\">-r</option>.  This consistent use of option names "
"makes it easier to remember what options a particular command takes."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:445
msgid "Making and reviewing changes"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:447
msgid ""
"Now that we have a grasp of viewing history in Mercurial, let's take a look "
"at making some changes and examining them."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:451
msgid ""
"The first thing we'll do is isolate our experiment in a repository of its "
"own.  We use the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg clone</command> command, but we "
"don't need to clone a copy of the remote repository.  Since we already have a "
"copy of it locally, we can just clone that instead.  This is much faster than "
"cloning over the network, and cloning a local repository uses less disk space "
"in most cases, too<placeholder type=\"footnote\" id=\"0\"/>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para><footnote><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:458
msgid ""
"The saving of space arises when source and destination repositories are on "
"the same filesystem, in which case Mercurial will use hardlinks to do copy-on-"
"write sharing of its internal metadata.  If that explanation meant nothing to "
"you, don't worry: everything happens transparently and automatically, and you "
"don't need to understand it."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:468
msgid ""
"As an aside, it's often good practice to keep a <quote>pristine</quote> copy "
"of a remote repository around, which you can then make temporary clones of to "
"create sandboxes for each task you want to work on.  This lets you work on "
"multiple tasks in parallel, each isolated from the others until it's complete "
"and you're ready to integrate it back.  Because local clones are so cheap, "
"there's almost no overhead to cloning and destroying repositories whenever "
"you want."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:477
msgid ""
"In our <filename class=\"directory\">my-hello</filename> repository, we have "
"a file <filename>hello.c</filename> that contains the classic <quote>hello, "
"world</quote> program."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:483
msgid "Let's edit this file so that it prints a second line of output."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:488
msgid ""
"Mercurial's <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg status</command> command will tell us "
"what Mercurial knows about the files in the repository."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:494
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg status</command> command prints no output for "
"some files, but a line starting with <quote><literal>M</literal></quote> for "
"<filename>hello.c</filename>.  Unless you tell it to, <command role=\"hg-cmd"
"\">hg status</command> will not print any output for files that have not been "
"modified."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:501
msgid ""
"The <quote><literal>M</literal></quote> indicates that Mercurial has noticed "
"that we modified <filename>hello.c</filename>.  We didn't need to "
"<emphasis>inform</emphasis> Mercurial that we were going to modify the file "
"before we started, or that we had modified the file after we were done; it "
"was able to figure this out itself."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:509
msgid ""
"It's somewhat helpful to know that we've modified <filename>hello.c</"
"filename>, but we might prefer to know exactly <emphasis>what</emphasis> "
"changes we've made to it.  To do this, we use the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg "
"diff</command> command."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:518 ../en/ch12-mq.xml:187
msgid "Understanding patches"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><tip><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:520
msgid ""
"Remember to take a look at <xref linkend=\"sec:mq:patch\"/> if you don't know "
"how to read output above."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:526
msgid "Recording changes in a new changeset"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:528
msgid ""
"We can modify files, build and test our changes, and use <command role=\"hg-"
"cmd\">hg status</command> and <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg diff</command> to "
"review our changes, until we're satisfied with what we've done and arrive at "
"a natural stopping point where we want to record our work in a new changeset."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:535
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg commit</command> command lets us create a new "
"changeset; we'll usually refer to this as <quote>making a commit</quote> or "
"<quote>committing</quote>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:541
msgid "Setting up a username"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:543
msgid ""
"When you try to run <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg commit</command> for the "
"first time, it is not guaranteed to succeed.  Mercurial records your name and "
"address with each change that you commit, so that you and others will later "
"be able to tell who made each change.  Mercurial tries to automatically "
"figure out a sensible username to commit the change with.  It will attempt "
"each of the following methods, in order:"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:552
msgid ""
"If you specify a <option role=\"hg-opt-commit\">-u</option> option to the "
"<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg commit</command> command on the command line, "
"followed by a username, this is always given the highest precedence."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:557
msgid ""
"If you have set the <envar>HGUSER</envar> environment variable, this is "
"checked next."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:560
msgid ""
"If you create a file in your home directory called <filename role=\"special"
"\">.hgrc</filename>, with a <envar role=\"rc-item-ui\">username</envar> "
"entry, that will be used next.  To see what the contents of this file should "
"look like, refer to <xref linkend=\"sec:tour-basic:username\"/> below."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:568
msgid ""
"If you have set the <envar>EMAIL</envar> environment variable, this will be "
"used next."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><orderedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:571
msgid ""
"Mercurial will query your system to find out your local user name and host "
"name, and construct a username from these components. Since this often "
"results in a username that is not very useful, it will print a warning if it "
"has to do this."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:578
msgid ""
"If all of these mechanisms fail, Mercurial will fail, printing an error "
"message.  In this case, it will not let you commit until you set up a "
"username."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:582
msgid ""
"You should think of the <envar>HGUSER</envar> environment variable and the "
"<option role=\"hg-opt-commit\">-u</option> option to the <command role=\"hg-"
"cmd\">hg commit</command> command as ways to <emphasis>override</emphasis> "
"Mercurial's default selection of username.  For normal use, the simplest and "
"most robust way to set a username for yourself is by creating a <filename "
"role=\"special\">.hgrc</filename> file; see below for details."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:591
msgid "Creating a Mercurial configuration file"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:593
msgid ""
"To set a user name, use your favorite editor to create a file called "
"<filename role=\"special\">.hgrc</filename> in your home directory.  "
"Mercurial will use this file to look up your personalised configuration "
"settings.  The initial contents of your <filename role=\"special\">.hgrc</"
"filename> should look like this."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><tip><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:602
msgid "<quote>Home directory</quote> on Windows"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><tip><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:604
msgid ""
"When we refer to your home directory, on an English language installation of "
"Windows this will usually be a folder named after your user name in "
"<filename>C:\\Documents and Settings</filename>.  You can find out the exact "
"name of your home directory by opening a command prompt window and running "
"the following command."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><tip><screen><prompt>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:612
msgid "C:\\>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><tip><screen><userinput>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:612
msgid "echo %UserProfile%"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:619
msgid ""
"The <quote><literal>[ui]</literal></quote> line begins a <emphasis>section</"
"emphasis> of the config file, so you can read the <quote><literal>username "
"= ...</literal></quote> line as meaning <quote>set the value of the "
"<literal>username</literal> item in the <literal>ui</literal> section</"
"quote>. A section continues until a new section begins, or the end of the "
"file.  Mercurial ignores empty lines and treats any text from "
"<quote><literal>#</literal></quote> to the end of a line as a comment."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:632
msgid "Choosing a user name"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:634
msgid ""
"You can use any text you like as the value of the <literal>username</literal> "
"config item, since this information is for reading by other people, but will "
"not be interpreted by Mercurial.  The convention that most people follow is "
"to use their name and email address, as in the example above."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><note><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:641
msgid ""
"Mercurial's built-in web server obfuscates email addresses, to make it more "
"difficult for the email harvesting tools that spammers use. This reduces the "
"likelihood that you'll start receiving more junk email if you publish a "
"Mercurial repository on the web."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:650
msgid "Writing a commit message"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:652
msgid ""
"When we commit a change, Mercurial drops us into a text editor, to enter a "
"message that will describe the modifications we've made in this changeset.  "
"This is called the <emphasis>commit message</emphasis>.  It will be a record "
"for readers of what we did and why, and it will be printed by <command role="
"\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command> after we've finished committing."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:662
msgid ""
"The editor that the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg commit</command> command "
"drops us into will contain an empty line or two, followed by a number of "
"lines starting with <quote><literal>HG:</literal></quote>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:676
msgid ""
"Mercurial ignores the lines that start with <quote><literal>HG:</literal></"
"quote>; it uses them only to tell us which files it's recording changes to.  "
"Modifying or deleting these lines has no effect."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:682
msgid "Writing a good commit message"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:684
msgid ""
"Since <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command> only prints the first line of "
"a commit message by default, it's best to write a commit message whose first "
"line stands alone.  Here's a real example of a commit message that "
"<emphasis>doesn't</emphasis> follow this guideline, and hence has a summary "
"that is not readable."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:697
msgid ""
"As far as the remainder of the contents of the commit message are concerned, "
"there are no hard-and-fast rules.  Mercurial itself doesn't interpret or care "
"about the contents of the commit message, though your project may have "
"policies that dictate a certain kind of formatting."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:702
msgid ""
"My personal preference is for short, but informative, commit messages that "
"tell me something that I can't figure out with a quick glance at the output "
"of <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log --patch</command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:706
msgid ""
"If we run the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg commit</command> command without "
"any arguments, it records all of the changes we've made, as reported by "
"<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg status</command> and <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg "
"diff</command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><note><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:713
msgid "A surprise for Subversion users"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><note><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:715
msgid ""
"Like other Mercurial commands, if we don't supply explicit names to commit to "
"the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg commit</command>, it will operate across a "
"repository's entire working directory.  Be wary of this if you're coming from "
"the Subversion or CVS world, since you might expect it to operate only on the "
"current directory that you happen to be visiting and its subdirectories."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:726
msgid "Aborting a commit"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:728
msgid ""
"If you decide that you don't want to commit while in the middle of editing a "
"commit message, simply exit from your editor without saving the file that "
"it's editing.  This will cause nothing to happen to either the repository or "
"the working directory."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:736
msgid "Admiring our new handiwork"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:738
msgid ""
"Once we've finished the commit, we can use the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg "
"tip</command> command to display the changeset we just created.  This command "
"produces output that is identical to <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</"
"command>, but it only displays the newest revision in the repository."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:746
msgid ""
"We refer to the newest revision in the repository as the <emphasis>tip "
"revision</emphasis>, or simply the <emphasis>tip</emphasis>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:750
msgid ""
"By the way, the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg tip</command> command accepts "
"many of the same options as <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg log</command>, so "
"<option role=\"hg-opt-global\">-v</option> above indicates <quote>be verbose</"
"quote>, <option role=\"hg-opt-tip\">-p</option> specifies <quote>print a "
"patch</quote>.  The use of <option role=\"hg-opt-tip\">-p</option> to print "
"patches is another example of the consistent naming we mentioned earlier."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:762
msgid "Sharing changes"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:764
msgid ""
"We mentioned earlier that repositories in Mercurial are self-contained.  This "
"means that the changeset we just created exists only in our <filename class="
"\"directory\">my-hello</filename> repository.  Let's look at a few ways that "
"we can propagate this change into other repositories."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:772
msgid "Pulling changes from another repository"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:774
msgid ""
"To get started, let's clone our original <filename class=\"directory\">hello</"
"filename> repository, which does not contain the change we just committed.  "
"We'll call our temporary repository <filename class=\"directory\">hello-pull</"
"filename>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:782
msgid ""
"We'll use the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command> command to bring "
"changes from <filename class=\"directory\">my-hello</filename> into <filename "
"class=\"directory\">hello-pull</filename>.  However, blindly pulling unknown "
"changes into a repository is a somewhat scary prospect.  Mercurial provides "
"the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg incoming</command> command to tell us what "
"changes the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command> command "
"<emphasis>would</emphasis> pull into the repository, without actually pulling "
"the changes in."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:795
msgid ""
"Bringing changes into a repository is a simple matter of running the <command "
"role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command> command, and optionally telling it which "
"repository to pull from."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:801
msgid ""
"As you can see from the before-and-after output of <command role=\"hg-cmd"
"\">hg tip</command>, we have successfully pulled changes into our "
"repository.  However, Mercurial separates pulling changes in from updating "
"the working directory. There remains one step before we will see the changes "
"that we just pulled appear in the working directory."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><tip><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:810
msgid "Pulling specific changes"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><tip><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:812
msgid ""
"It is possible that due to the delay between running <command role=\"hg-cmd"
"\">hg incoming</command> and <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command>, you "
"may not see all changesets that will be brought from the other repository. "
"Suppose you're pulling changes from a repository on the network somewhere. "
"While you are looking at the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg incoming</command> "
"output, and before you pull those changes, someone might have committed "
"something in the remote repository. This means that it's possible to pull "
"more changes than you saw when using <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg incoming</"
"command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><tip><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:824
msgid ""
"If you only want to pull precisely the changes that were listed by <command "
"role=\"hg-cmd\">hg incoming</command>, or you have some other reason to pull "
"a subset of changes, simply identify the change that you want to pull by its "
"changeset ID, e.g. <command>hg pull -r7e95bb</command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:834
msgid "Updating the working directory"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:836
msgid ""
"We have so far glossed over the relationship between a repository and its "
"working directory.  The <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command> command "
"that we ran in <xref linkend=\"sec:tour:pull\"/> brought changes into the "
"repository, but if we check, there's no sign of those changes in the working "
"directory.  This is because <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command> does "
"not (by default) touch the working directory.  Instead, we use the <command "
"role=\"hg-cmd\">hg update</command> command to do this."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:848
msgid ""
"It might seem a bit strange that <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command> "
"doesn't update the working directory automatically.  There's actually a good "
"reason for this: you can use <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg update</command> to "
"update the working directory to the state it was in at <emphasis>any "
"revision</emphasis> in the history of the repository.  If you had the working "
"directory updated to an old revision&emdash;to hunt down the origin of a bug, "
"say&emdash;and ran a <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command> which "
"automatically updated the working directory to a new revision, you might not "
"be terribly happy."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:860
msgid ""
"Since pull-then-update is such a common sequence of operations, Mercurial "
"lets you combine the two by passing the <option role=\"hg-opt-pull\">-u</"
"option> option to <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:865
msgid ""
"If you look back at the output of <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command> "
"in <xref linkend=\"sec:tour:pull\"/> when we ran it without <option role=\"hg-"
"opt-pull\">-u</option>, you can see that it printed a helpful reminder that "
"we'd have to take an explicit step to update the working directory."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:872
msgid ""
"To find out what revision the working directory is at, use the <command role="
"\"hg-cmd\">hg parents</command> command."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:878
msgid ""
"If you look back at <xref linkend=\"fig:tour-basic:history\"/>, you'll see "
"arrows connecting each changeset.  The node that the arrow leads "
"<emphasis>from</emphasis> in each case is a parent, and the node that the "
"arrow leads <emphasis>to</emphasis> is its child.  The working directory has "
"a parent in just the same way; this is the changeset that the working "
"directory currently contains."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:887
msgid ""
"To update the working directory to a particular revision, give a revision "
"number or changeset ID to the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg update</command> "
"command."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:893
msgid ""
"If you omit an explicit revision, <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg update</"
"command> will update to the tip revision, as shown by the second call to "
"<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg update</command> in the example above."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:901
msgid "Pushing changes to another repository"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:903
msgid ""
"Mercurial lets us push changes to another repository, from the repository "
"we're currently visiting. As with the example of <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg "
"pull</command> above, we'll create a temporary repository to push our changes "
"into."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:911
msgid ""
"The <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg outgoing</command> command tells us what "
"changes would be pushed into another repository."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:917
msgid ""
"And the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg push</command> command does the actual "
"push."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:922
msgid ""
"As with <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command>, the <command role=\"hg-cmd"
"\">hg push</command> command does not update the working directory in the "
"repository that it's pushing changes into. Unlike <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg "
"pull</command>, <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg push</command> does not provide a "
"<literal>-u</literal> option that updates the other repository's working "
"directory.  This asymmetry is deliberate: the repository we're pushing to "
"might be on a remote server and shared between several people.  If we were to "
"update its working directory while someone was working in it, their work "
"would be disrupted."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:934
msgid ""
"What happens if we try to pull or push changes and the receiving repository "
"already has those changes? Nothing too exciting."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:942
msgid "Default locations"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:944
msgid ""
"When we clone a repository, Mercurial records the location of the repository "
"we cloned in the <filename>.hg/hgrc</filename> file of the new repository.  "
"If we don't supply a location to <command>hg pull</command> from or "
"<command>hg push</command> to, those commands will use this location as a "
"default.  The <command>hg incoming</command> and <command>hg outgoing</"
"command> commands do so too."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:952
msgid ""
"If you open a repository's <filename>.hg/hgrc</filename> file in a text "
"editor, you will see contents like the following."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:959
msgid ""
"It is possible&emdash;and often useful&emdash;to have the default location "
"for <command>hg push</command> and <command>hg outgoing</command> be "
"different from those for <command>hg pull</command> and <command>hg incoming</"
"command>.  We can do this by adding a <literal>default-push</literal> entry "
"to the <literal>[paths]</literal> section of the <filename>.hg/hgrc</"
"filename> file, as follows."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:973
msgid "Sharing changes over a network"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:975
msgid ""
"The commands we have covered in the previous few sections are not limited to "
"working with local repositories.  Each works in exactly the same fashion over "
"a network connection; simply pass in a URL instead of a local path."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:983
msgid ""
"In this example, we can see what changes we could push to the remote "
"repository, but the repository is understandably not set up to let anonymous "
"users push to it."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:993
msgid "Starting a new project"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:995
msgid ""
"It is just as easy to begin a new project as to work on one that already "
"exists.  The <command>hg init</command> command creates a new, empty "
"Mercurial repository."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:1001
msgid ""
"This simply creates a repository named <filename>myproject</filename> in the "
"current directory."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:1006
msgid ""
"We can tell that <filename>myproject</filename> is a Mercurial repository, "
"because it contains a <filename>.hg</filename> directory."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:1012
msgid ""
"If we want to add some pre-existing files to the repository, we copy them "
"into place, and tell Mercurial to start tracking them using the <command>hg "
"add</command> command."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:1018
msgid ""
"Once we are satisfied that our project looks right, we commit our changes."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch02-tour-basic.xml:1023
msgid ""
"It takes just a few moments to start using Mercurial on a new project, which "
"is part of its appeal. Revision control is now so easy to work with, we can "
"use it on the smallest of projects that we might not have considered with a "
"more complicated tool."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:5
msgid "A tour of Mercurial: merging work"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:7
msgid ""
"We've now covered cloning a repository, making changes in a repository, and "
"pulling or pushing changes from one repository into another.  Our next step "
"is <emphasis>merging</emphasis> changes from separate repositories."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:13
msgid "Merging streams of work"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:15
msgid ""
"Merging is a fundamental part of working with a distributed revision control "
"tool.  Here are a few cases in which the need to merge work arises."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:20
msgid ""
"Alice and Bob each have a personal copy of a repository for a project they're "
"collaborating on.  Alice fixes a bug in her repository; Bob adds a new "
"feature in his.  They want the shared repository to contain both the bug fix "
"and the new feature."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:27
msgid ""
"Cynthia frequently works on several different tasks for a single project at "
"once, each safely isolated in its own repository. Working this way means that "
"she often needs to merge one piece of her own work with another."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:35
msgid ""
"Because we need to merge often, Mercurial makes the process easy.  Let's walk "
"through a merge.  We'll begin by cloning yet another repository (see how "
"often they spring up?)  and making a change in it."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:42
msgid ""
"We should now have two copies of <filename>hello.c</filename> with different "
"contents.  The histories of the two repositories have also diverged, as "
"illustrated in <xref linkend=\"fig:tour-merge:sep-repos\"/>.  Here is a copy "
"of our file from one repository."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:51
msgid "And here is our slightly different version from the other repository."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><figure><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:57
msgid ""
"Divergent recent histories of the <filename class=\"directory\">my-hello</"
"filename> and <filename class=\"directory\">my-new-hello</filename> "
"repositories"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><figure><mediaobject>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:62
msgid ""
"<imageobject><imagedata fileref=\"figs/tour-merge-sep-repos.png\"/></"
"imageobject>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:67
msgid ""
"We already know that pulling changes from our <filename class=\"directory"
"\">my-hello</filename> repository will have no effect on the working "
"directory."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:73
msgid ""
"However, the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command> command says "
"something about <quote>heads</quote>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:77
msgid "Head changesets"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:79
msgid ""
"Remember that Mercurial records what the parent of each change is.  If a "
"change has a parent, we call it a child or descendant of the parent.  A head "
"is a change that has no children.  The tip revision is thus a head, because "
"the newest revision in a repository doesn't have any children.  There are "
"times when a repository can contain more than one head."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:88
msgid ""
"Repository contents after pulling from <filename class=\"directory\">my-"
"hello</filename> into <filename class=\"directory\">my-new-hello</filename>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:91 ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:178
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:275 ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:57
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:106 ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:196
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:345 ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:360
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:401 ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:421
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:465 ../en/ch06-collab.xml:314
#: ../en/ch09-undo.xml:342 ../en/ch09-undo.xml:389 ../en/ch09-undo.xml:462
#: ../en/ch09-undo.xml:500 ../en/ch09-undo.xml:656 ../en/ch09-undo.xml:680
#: ../en/ch09-undo.xml:698 ../en/ch09-undo.xml:712 ../en/ch09-undo.xml:725
#: ../en/ch12-mq.xml:411
msgid "  <placeholder type=\"mediaobject\" id=\"0\"/>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><mediaobject>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:92
msgid ""
"<imageobject> <imagedata fileref=\"figs/tour-merge-pull.png\"/> </imageobject>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:99
msgid ""
"In <xref linkend=\"fig:tour-merge:pull\"/>, you can see the effect of the "
"pull from <filename class=\"directory\">my-hello</filename> into <filename "
"class=\"directory\">my-new-hello</filename>.  The history that was already "
"present in <filename class=\"directory\">my-new-hello</filename> is "
"untouched, but a new revision has been added.  By referring to <xref linkend="
"\"fig:tour-merge:sep-repos\"/>, we can see that the <emphasis>changeset ID</"
"emphasis> remains the same in the new repository, but the <emphasis>revision "
"number</emphasis> has changed.  (This, incidentally, is a fine example of why "
"it's not safe to use revision numbers when discussing changesets.)  We can "
"view the heads in a repository using the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg heads</"
"command> command."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:118
msgid "Performing the merge"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:120
msgid ""
"What happens if we try to use the normal <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg update</"
"command> command to update to the new tip?"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:126
msgid ""
"Mercurial is telling us that the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg update</command> "
"command won't do a merge; it won't update the working directory when it "
"thinks we might want to do a merge, unless we force it to do so.  "
"(Incidentally, forcing the update with <command>hg update -C</command> would "
"revert any uncommitted changes in the working directory.)"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:134
msgid ""
"To start a merge between the two heads, we use the <command role=\"hg-cmd"
"\">hg merge</command> command."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:139
msgid ""
"We resolve the contents of <filename>hello.c</filename> This updates the "
"working directory so that it contains changes from <emphasis>both</emphasis> "
"heads, which is reflected in both the output of <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg "
"parents</command> and the contents of <filename>hello.c</filename>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:151
msgid "Committing the results of the merge"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:153
msgid ""
"Whenever we've done a merge, <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg parents</command> "
"will display two parents until we <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg commit</"
"command> the results of the merge."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:160
msgid ""
"We now have a new tip revision; notice that it has <emphasis>both</emphasis> "
"of our former heads as its parents.  These are the same revisions that were "
"previously displayed by <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg parents</command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:167
msgid ""
"In <xref linkend=\"fig:tour-merge:merge\"/>, you can see a representation of "
"what happens to the working directory during the merge, and how this affects "
"the repository when the commit happens.  During the merge, the working "
"directory has two parent changesets, and these become the parents of the new "
"changeset."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:176
msgid "Working directory and repository during merge, and following commit"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><mediaobject>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:179
msgid ""
"<imageobject> <imagedata fileref=\"figs/tour-merge-merge.png\"/> </"
"imageobject>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:186
msgid ""
"We sometimes talk about a merge having <emphasis>sides</emphasis>: the left "
"side is the first parent in the output of <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg "
"parents</command>, and the right side is the second.  If the working "
"directory was at e.g. revision 5 before we began a merge, that revision will "
"become the left side of the merge."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:196
msgid "Merging conflicting changes"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:198
msgid ""
"Most merges are simple affairs, but sometimes you'll find yourself merging "
"changes where each side modifies the same portions of the same files.  Unless "
"both modifications are identical, this results in a <emphasis>conflict</"
"emphasis>, where you have to decide how to reconcile the different changes "
"into something coherent."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><figure><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:206
msgid "Conflicting changes to a document"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><figure><mediaobject>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:208
msgid ""
"<imageobject><imagedata fileref=\"figs/tour-merge-conflict.png\"/></"
"imageobject>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:213
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"fig:tour-merge:conflict\"/> illustrates an instance of two "
"conflicting changes to a document.  We started with a single version of the "
"file; then we made some changes; while someone else made different changes to "
"the same text.  Our task in resolving the conflicting changes is to decide "
"what the file should look like."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:220
msgid ""
"Mercurial doesn't have a built-in facility for handling conflicts. Instead, "
"it runs an external program, usually one that displays some kind of graphical "
"conflict resolution interface.  By default, Mercurial tries to find one of "
"several different merging tools that are likely to be installed on your "
"system.  It first tries a few fully automatic merging tools; if these don't "
"succeed (because the resolution process requires human guidance) or aren't "
"present, it tries a few different graphical merging tools."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:230
msgid ""
"It's also possible to get Mercurial to run a specific program or script, by "
"setting the <envar>HGMERGE</envar> environment variable to the name of your "
"preferred program."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:236
msgid "Using a graphical merge tool"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:238
msgid ""
"My preferred graphical merge tool is <command>kdiff3</command>, which I'll "
"use to describe the features that are common to graphical file merging "
"tools.  You can see a screenshot of <command>kdiff3</command> in action in "
"<xref linkend=\"fig:tour-merge:kdiff3\"/>.  The kind of merge it is "
"performing is called a <emphasis>three-way merge</emphasis>, because there "
"are three different versions of the file of interest to us.  The tool thus "
"splits the upper portion of the window into three panes:"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:248
msgid ""
"At the left is the <emphasis>base</emphasis> version of the file, i.e. the "
"most recent version from which the two versions we're trying to merge are "
"descended."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:253
msgid ""
"In the middle is <quote>our</quote> version of the file, with the contents "
"that we modified."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:256
msgid ""
"On the right is <quote>their</quote> version of the file, the one that from "
"the changeset that we're trying to merge with."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:260
msgid ""
"In the pane below these is the current <emphasis>result</emphasis> of the "
"merge. Our task is to replace all of the red text, which indicates unresolved "
"conflicts, with some sensible merger of the <quote>ours</quote> and "
"<quote>theirs</quote> versions of the file."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:267
msgid ""
"All four of these panes are <emphasis>locked together</emphasis>; if we "
"scroll vertically or horizontally in any of them, the others are updated to "
"display the corresponding sections of their respective files."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:273
msgid "Using <command>kdiff3</command> to merge versions of a file"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><mediaobject>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:276
msgid ""
"<imageobject> <imagedata width=\"100%\" fileref=\"figs/kdiff3.png\"/></"
"imageobject>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:284
msgid ""
"For each conflicting portion of the file, we can choose to resolve the "
"conflict using some combination of text from the base version, ours, or "
"theirs.  We can also manually edit the merged file at any time, in case we "
"need to make further modifications."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:290
msgid ""
"There are <emphasis>many</emphasis> file merging tools available, too many to "
"cover here.  They vary in which platforms they are available for, and in "
"their particular strengths and weaknesses.  Most are tuned for merging files "
"containing plain text, while a few are aimed at specialised file formats "
"(generally XML)."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:299
msgid "A worked example"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:301
msgid ""
"In this example, we will reproduce the file modification history of <xref "
"linkend=\"fig:tour-merge:conflict\"/> above.  Let's begin by creating a "
"repository with a base version of our document."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:308
msgid "We'll clone the repository and make a change to the file."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:313
msgid ""
"And another clone, to simulate someone else making a change to the file. "
"(This hints at the idea that it's not all that unusual to merge with yourself "
"when you isolate tasks in separate repositories, and indeed to find and "
"resolve conflicts while doing so.)"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:321
msgid ""
"Having created two different versions of the file, we'll set up an "
"environment suitable for running our merge."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:327
msgid ""
"In this example, I'll set <envar>HGMERGE</envar> to tell Mercurial to use the "
"non-interactive <command>merge</command> command.  This is bundled with many "
"Unix-like systems. (If you're following this example on your computer, don't "
"bother setting <envar>HGMERGE</envar>.  You'll get dropped into a GUI file "
"merge tool instead, which is much preferable.)"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:337
msgid ""
"Because <command>merge</command> can't resolve the conflicting changes, it "
"leaves <emphasis>merge markers</emphasis> inside the file that has conflicts, "
"indicating which lines have conflicts, and whether they came from our version "
"of the file or theirs."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:343
msgid ""
"Mercurial can tell from the way <command>merge</command> exits that it wasn't "
"able to merge successfully, so it tells us what commands we'll need to run if "
"we want to redo the merging operation.  This could be useful if, for example, "
"we were running a graphical merge tool and quit because we were confused or "
"realised we had made a mistake."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:350
msgid ""
"If automatic or manual merges fail, there's nothing to prevent us from "
"<quote>fixing up</quote> the affected files ourselves, and committing the "
"results of our merge:"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><note><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:357
msgid "Where is the <command>hg resolve</command> command?"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><note><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:359
msgid ""
"The <command>hg resolve</command> command was introduced in Mercurial 1.1, "
"which was released in December 2008. If you are using an older version of "
"Mercurial (run <command>hg version</command> to see), this command will not "
"be present.  If your version of Mercurial is older than 1.1, you should "
"strongly consider upgrading to a newer version before trying to tackle "
"complicated merges."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:371
msgid "Simplifying the pull-merge-commit sequence"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:373
msgid ""
"The process of merging changes as outlined above is straightforward, but "
"requires running three commands in sequence."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:379
msgid ""
"In the case of the final commit, you also need to enter a commit message, "
"which is almost always going to be a piece of uninteresting "
"<quote>boilerplate</quote> text."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:383
msgid ""
"It would be nice to reduce the number of steps needed, if this were "
"possible.  Indeed, Mercurial is distributed with an extension called <literal "
"role=\"hg-ext\">fetch</literal> that does just this."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:388
msgid ""
"Mercurial provides a flexible extension mechanism that lets people extend its "
"functionality, while keeping the core of Mercurial small and easy to deal "
"with.  Some extensions add new commands that you can use from the command "
"line, while others work <quote>behind the scenes,</quote> for example adding "
"capabilities to Mercurial's built-in server mode."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:395
msgid ""
"The <literal role=\"hg-ext\">fetch</literal> extension adds a new command "
"called, not surprisingly, <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg fetch</command>.  This "
"extension acts as a combination of <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull -u</"
"command>, <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg merge</command> and <command role=\"hg-"
"cmd\">hg commit</command>.  It begins by pulling changes from another "
"repository into the current repository.  If it finds that the changes added a "
"new head to the repository, it updates to the new head, begins a merge, then "
"(if the merge succeeded) commits the result of the merge with an "
"automatically-generated commit message.  If no new heads were added, it "
"updates the working directory to the new tip changeset."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:409
msgid ""
"Enabling the <literal role=\"hg-ext\">fetch</literal> extension is easy.  "
"Edit the <filename role=\"special\">.hgrc</filename> file in your home "
"directory, and either go to the <literal role=\"rc-extensions\">extensions</"
"literal> section or create an <literal role=\"rc-extensions\">extensions</"
"literal> section. Then add a line that simply reads <quote><literal>fetch=</"
"literal></quote>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:421
msgid ""
"(Normally, the right-hand side of the <quote><literal>=</literal></quote> "
"would indicate where to find the extension, but since the <literal role=\"hg-"
"ext\">fetch</literal> extension is in the standard distribution, Mercurial "
"knows where to search for it.)"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:429
msgid "Renaming, copying, and merging"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:431
msgid ""
"During the life of a project, we will often want to change the layout of its "
"files and directories. This can be as simple as renaming a single file, or as "
"complex as restructuring the entire hierarchy of files within the project."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:436
msgid ""
"Mercurial supports these kinds of complex changes fluently, provided we tell "
"it what we're doing.  If we want to rename a file, we should use the "
"<command>hg rename</command><placeholder type=\"footnote\" id=\"0\"/> command "
"to rename it, so that Mercurial can do the right thing later when we merge."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para><footnote><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:439
msgid ""
"If you're a Unix user, you'll be glad to know that the <command>hg rename</"
"command> command can be abbreviated as <command>hg mv</command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch03-tour-merge.xml:445
msgid ""
"We will cover the use of these commands in more detail in <xref linkend="
"\"chap:daily.copy\"/>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:5
msgid "Behind the scenes"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:7
msgid ""
"Unlike many revision control systems, the concepts upon which Mercurial is "
"built are simple enough that it's easy to understand how the software really "
"works.  Knowing these details certainly isn't necessary, so it is certainly "
"safe to skip this chapter.  However, I think you will get more out of the "
"software with a <quote>mental model</quote> of what's going on."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:14
msgid ""
"Being able to understand what's going on behind the scenes gives me "
"confidence that Mercurial has been carefully designed to be both "
"<emphasis>safe</emphasis> and <emphasis>efficient</emphasis>.  And just as "
"importantly, if it's easy for me to retain a good idea of what the software "
"is doing when I perform a revision control task, I'm less likely to be "
"surprised by its behavior."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:22
msgid ""
"In this chapter, we'll initially cover the core concepts behind Mercurial's "
"design, then continue to discuss some of the interesting details of its "
"implementation."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:27
msgid "Mercurial's historical record"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:30
msgid "Tracking the history of a single file"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:32
msgid ""
"When Mercurial tracks modifications to a file, it stores the history of that "
"file in a metadata object called a <emphasis>filelog</emphasis>.  Each entry "
"in the filelog contains enough information to reconstruct one revision of the "
"file that is being tracked.  Filelogs are stored as files in the <filename "
"role=\"special\" class=\"directory\">.hg/store/data</filename> directory.  A "
"filelog contains two kinds of information: revision data, and an index to "
"help Mercurial to find a revision efficiently."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:43
msgid ""
"A file that is large, or has a lot of history, has its filelog stored in "
"separate data (<quote><literal>.d</literal></quote> suffix) and index "
"(<quote><literal>.i</literal></quote> suffix) files.  For small files without "
"much history, the revision data and index are combined in a single "
"<quote><literal>.i</literal></quote> file.  The correspondence between a file "
"in the working directory and the filelog that tracks its history in the "
"repository is illustrated in <xref linkend=\"fig:concepts:filelog\"/>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:55
msgid ""
"Relationships between files in working directory and filelogs in repository"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><mediaobject>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:58
msgid "<imageobject><imagedata fileref=\"figs/filelog.png\"/></imageobject>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:65
msgid "Managing tracked files"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:67
msgid ""
"Mercurial uses a structure called a <emphasis>manifest</emphasis> to collect "
"together information about the files that it tracks.  Each entry in the "
"manifest contains information about the files present in a single changeset.  "
"An entry records which files are present in the changeset, the revision of "
"each file, and a few other pieces of file metadata."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:77
msgid "Recording changeset information"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:79
msgid ""
"The <emphasis>changelog</emphasis> contains information about each "
"changeset.  Each revision records who committed a change, the changeset "
"comment, other pieces of changeset-related information, and the revision of "
"the manifest to use."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:87
msgid "Relationships between revisions"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:89
msgid ""
"Within a changelog, a manifest, or a filelog, each revision stores a pointer "
"to its immediate parent (or to its two parents, if it's a merge revision).  "
"As I mentioned above, there are also relationships between revisions "
"<emphasis>across</emphasis> these structures, and they are hierarchical in "
"nature."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:96
msgid ""
"For every changeset in a repository, there is exactly one revision stored in "
"the changelog.  Each revision of the changelog contains a pointer to a single "
"revision of the manifest.  A revision of the manifest stores a pointer to a "
"single revision of each filelog tracked when that changeset was created.  "
"These relationships are illustrated in <xref linkend=\"fig:concepts:metadata"
"\"/>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:105
msgid "Metadata relationships"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><mediaobject>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:107
msgid "<imageobject><imagedata fileref=\"figs/metadata.png\"/></imageobject>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:112
msgid ""
"As the illustration shows, there is <emphasis>not</emphasis> a <quote>one to "
"one</quote> relationship between revisions in the changelog, manifest, or "
"filelog. If a file that Mercurial tracks hasn't changed between two "
"changesets, the entry for that file in the two revisions of the manifest will "
"point to the same revision of its filelog<placeholder type=\"footnote\" id="
"\"0\"/>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para><footnote><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:119
msgid ""
"It is possible (though unusual) for the manifest to remain the same between "
"two changesets, in which case the changelog entries for those changesets will "
"point to the same revision of the manifest."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:128
msgid "Safe, efficient storage"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:130
msgid ""
"The underpinnings of changelogs, manifests, and filelogs are provided by a "
"single structure called the <emphasis>revlog</emphasis>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:135
msgid "Efficient storage"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:137
msgid ""
"The revlog provides efficient storage of revisions using a <emphasis>delta</"
"emphasis> mechanism.  Instead of storing a complete copy of a file for each "
"revision, it stores the changes needed to transform an older revision into "
"the new revision.  For many kinds of file data, these deltas are typically a "
"fraction of a percent of the size of a full copy of a file."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:145
msgid ""
"Some obsolete revision control systems can only work with deltas of text "
"files.  They must either store binary files as complete snapshots or encoded "
"into a text representation, both of which are wasteful approaches.  Mercurial "
"can efficiently handle deltas of files with arbitrary binary contents; it "
"doesn't need to treat text as special."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:154
msgid "Safe operation"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:156
msgid ""
"Mercurial only ever <emphasis>appends</emphasis> data to the end of a revlog "
"file. It never modifies a section of a file after it has written it.  This is "
"both more robust and efficient than schemes that need to modify or rewrite "
"data."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:162
msgid ""
"In addition, Mercurial treats every write as part of a <emphasis>transaction</"
"emphasis> that can span a number of files.  A transaction is "
"<emphasis>atomic</emphasis>: either the entire transaction succeeds and its "
"effects are all visible to readers in one go, or the whole thing is undone.  "
"This guarantee of atomicity means that if you're running two copies of "
"Mercurial, where one is reading data and one is writing it, the reader will "
"never see a partially written result that might confuse it."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:172
msgid ""
"The fact that Mercurial only appends to files makes it easier to provide this "
"transactional guarantee.  The easier it is to do stuff like this, the more "
"confident you should be that it's done correctly."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:179
msgid "Fast retrieval"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:181
msgid ""
"Mercurial cleverly avoids a pitfall common to all earlier revision control "
"systems: the problem of <emphasis>inefficient retrieval</emphasis>. Most "
"revision control systems store the contents of a revision as an incremental "
"series of modifications against a <quote>snapshot</quote>.  (Some base the "
"snapshot on the oldest revision, others on the newest.)  To reconstruct a "
"specific revision, you must first read the snapshot, and then every one of "
"the revisions between the snapshot and your target revision.  The more "
"history that a file accumulates, the more revisions you must read, hence the "
"longer it takes to reconstruct a particular revision."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:195
msgid "Snapshot of a revlog, with incremental deltas"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><mediaobject>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:197
msgid "<imageobject><imagedata fileref=\"figs/snapshot.png\"/></imageobject>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:202
msgid ""
"The innovation that Mercurial applies to this problem is simple but "
"effective.  Once the cumulative amount of delta information stored since the "
"last snapshot exceeds a fixed threshold, it stores a new snapshot "
"(compressed, of course), instead of another delta.  This makes it possible to "
"reconstruct <emphasis>any</emphasis> revision of a file quickly.  This "
"approach works so well that it has since been copied by several other "
"revision control systems."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:211
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"fig:concepts:snapshot\"/> illustrates the idea.  In an entry "
"in a revlog's index file, Mercurial stores the range of entries from the data "
"file that it must read to reconstruct a particular revision."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:217
msgid "Aside: the influence of video compression"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:219
msgid ""
"If you're familiar with video compression or have ever watched a TV feed "
"through a digital cable or satellite service, you may know that most video "
"compression schemes store each frame of video as a delta against its "
"predecessor frame."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:225
msgid ""
"Mercurial borrows this idea to make it possible to reconstruct a revision "
"from a snapshot and a small number of deltas."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:232
msgid "Identification and strong integrity"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:234
msgid ""
"Along with delta or snapshot information, a revlog entry contains a "
"cryptographic hash of the data that it represents.  This makes it difficult "
"to forge the contents of a revision, and easy to detect accidental corruption."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:239
msgid ""
"Hashes provide more than a mere check against corruption; they are used as "
"the identifiers for revisions.  The changeset identification hashes that you "
"see as an end user are from revisions of the changelog.  Although filelogs "
"and the manifest also use hashes, Mercurial only uses these behind the scenes."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:246
msgid ""
"Mercurial verifies that hashes are correct when it retrieves file revisions "
"and when it pulls changes from another repository.  If it encounters an "
"integrity problem, it will complain and stop whatever it's doing."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:251
msgid ""
"In addition to the effect it has on retrieval efficiency, Mercurial's use of "
"periodic snapshots makes it more robust against partial data corruption.  If "
"a revlog becomes partly corrupted due to a hardware error or system bug, it's "
"often possible to reconstruct some or most revisions from the uncorrupted "
"sections of the revlog, both before and after the corrupted section.  This "
"would not be possible with a delta-only storage model."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:263
msgid "Revision history, branching, and merging"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:265
msgid ""
"Every entry in a Mercurial revlog knows the identity of its immediate "
"ancestor revision, usually referred to as its <emphasis>parent</emphasis>.  "
"In fact, a revision contains room for not one parent, but two.  Mercurial "
"uses a special hash, called the <quote>null ID</quote>, to represent the idea "
"<quote>there is no parent here</quote>.  This hash is simply a string of "
"zeroes."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:273
msgid ""
"In <xref linkend=\"fig:concepts:revlog\"/>, you can see an example of the "
"conceptual structure of a revlog.  Filelogs, manifests, and changelogs all "
"have this same structure; they differ only in the kind of data stored in each "
"delta or snapshot."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:279
msgid ""
"The first revision in a revlog (at the bottom of the image)  has the null ID "
"in both of its parent slots.  For a <quote>normal</quote> revision, its first "
"parent slot contains the ID of its parent revision, and its second contains "
"the null ID, indicating that the revision has only one real parent.  Any two "
"revisions that have the same parent ID are branches.  A revision that "
"represents a merge between branches has two normal revision IDs in its parent "
"slots."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><figure><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:289
msgid "The conceptual structure of a revlog"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><figure><mediaobject>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:291
msgid "<imageobject><imagedata fileref=\"figs/revlog.png\"/></imageobject>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:298
msgid "The working directory"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:300
msgid ""
"In the working directory, Mercurial stores a snapshot of the files from the "
"repository as of a particular changeset."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:303
msgid ""
"The working directory <quote>knows</quote> which changeset it contains.  When "
"you update the working directory to contain a particular changeset, Mercurial "
"looks up the appropriate revision of the manifest to find out which files it "
"was tracking at the time that changeset was committed, and which revision of "
"each file was then current.  It then recreates a copy of each of those files, "
"with the same contents it had when the changeset was committed."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:312
msgid ""
"The <emphasis>dirstate</emphasis> is a special structure that contains "
"Mercurial's knowledge of the working directory.  It is maintained as a file "
"named <filename>.hg/dirstate</filename> inside a repository.  The dirstate "
"details which changeset the working directory is updated to, and all of the "
"files that Mercurial is tracking in the working directory. It also lets "
"Mercurial quickly notice changed files, by recording their checkout times and "
"sizes."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:322
msgid ""
"Just as a revision of a revlog has room for two parents, so that it can "
"represent either a normal revision (with one parent)  or a merge of two "
"earlier revisions, the dirstate has slots for two parents.  When you use the "
"<command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg update</command> command, the changeset that you "
"update to is stored in the <quote>first parent</quote> slot, and the null ID "
"in the second. When you <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg merge</command> with "
"another changeset, the first parent remains unchanged, and the second parent "
"is filled in with the changeset you're merging with.  The <command role=\"hg-"
"cmd\">hg parents</command> command tells you what the parents of the dirstate "
"are."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:336
msgid "What happens when you commit"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:338
msgid ""
"The dirstate stores parent information for more than just book-keeping "
"purposes.  Mercurial uses the parents of the dirstate as <emphasis>the "
"parents of a new changeset</emphasis> when you perform a commit."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:344
msgid "The working directory can have two parents"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><mediaobject>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:346
msgid "<imageobject><imagedata fileref=\"figs/wdir.png\"/></imageobject>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:351
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"fig:concepts:wdir\"/> shows the normal state of the working "
"directory, where it has a single changeset as parent.  That changeset is the "
"<emphasis>tip</emphasis>, the newest changeset in the repository that has no "
"children."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:358
msgid "The working directory gains new parents after a commit"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><mediaobject>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:361
msgid ""
"<imageobject><imagedata fileref=\"figs/wdir-after-commit.png\"/></imageobject>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:366
msgid ""
"It's useful to think of the working directory as <quote>the changeset I'm "
"about to commit</quote>.  Any files that you tell Mercurial that you've "
"added, removed, renamed, or copied will be reflected in that changeset, as "
"will modifications to any files that Mercurial is already tracking; the new "
"changeset will have the parents of the working directory as its parents."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:374
msgid ""
"After a commit, Mercurial will update the parents of the working directory, "
"so that the first parent is the ID of the new changeset, and the second is "
"the null ID.  This is shown in <xref linkend=\"fig:concepts:wdir-after-commit"
"\"/>. Mercurial doesn't touch any of the files in the working directory when "
"you commit; it just modifies the dirstate to note its new parents."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:385
msgid "Creating a new head"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:387
msgid ""
"It's perfectly normal to update the working directory to a changeset other "
"than the current tip.  For example, you might want to know what your project "
"looked like last Tuesday, or you could be looking through changesets to see "
"which one introduced a bug.  In cases like this, the natural thing to do is "
"update the working directory to the changeset you're interested in, and then "
"examine the files in the working directory directly to see their contents as "
"they were when you committed that changeset.  The effect of this is shown in "
"<xref linkend=\"fig:concepts:wdir-pre-branch\"/>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:399
msgid "The working directory, updated to an older changeset"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><mediaobject>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:402
msgid ""
"<imageobject><imagedata fileref=\"figs/wdir-pre-branch.png\"/></imageobject>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:407
msgid ""
"Having updated the working directory to an older changeset, what happens if "
"you make some changes, and then commit? Mercurial behaves in the same way as "
"I outlined above.  The parents of the working directory become the parents of "
"the new changeset.  This new changeset has no children, so it becomes the new "
"tip.  And the repository now contains two changesets that have no children; "
"we call these <emphasis>heads</emphasis>.  You can see the structure that "
"this creates in <xref linkend=\"fig:concepts:wdir-branch\"/>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:419
msgid "After a commit made while synced to an older changeset"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><mediaobject>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:422
msgid "<imageobject><imagedata fileref=\"figs/wdir-branch.png\"/></imageobject>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><note><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:428
msgid ""
"If you're new to Mercurial, you should keep in mind a common <quote>error</"
"quote>, which is to use the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg pull</command> "
"command without any options.  By default, the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg "
"pull</command> command <emphasis>does not</emphasis> update the working "
"directory, so you'll bring new changesets into your repository, but the "
"working directory will stay synced at the same changeset as before the pull.  "
"If you make some changes and commit afterwards, you'll thus create a new "
"head, because your working directory isn't synced to whatever the current tip "
"is.  To combine the operation of a pull, followed by an update, run "
"<command>hg pull -u</command>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><note><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:442
msgid ""
"I put the word <quote>error</quote> in quotes because all that you need to do "
"to rectify the situation where you created a new head by accident is <command "
"role=\"hg-cmd\">hg merge</command>, then <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg commit</"
"command>.  In other words, this almost never has negative consequences; it's "
"just something of a surprise for newcomers.  I'll discuss other ways to avoid "
"this behavior, and why Mercurial behaves in this initially surprising way, "
"later on."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:455
msgid "Merging changes"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:457
msgid ""
"When you run the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg merge</command> command, "
"Mercurial leaves the first parent of the working directory unchanged, and "
"sets the second parent to the changeset you're merging with, as shown in "
"<xref linkend=\"fig:concepts:wdir-merge\"/>."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:464
msgid "Merging two heads"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><figure><mediaobject>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:466
msgid ""
"<imageobject> <imagedata fileref=\"figs/wdir-merge.png\"/> </imageobject>"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:473
msgid ""
"Mercurial also has to modify the working directory, to merge the files "
"managed in the two changesets.  Simplified a little, the merging process goes "
"like this, for every file in the manifests of both changesets."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:478
msgid "If neither changeset has modified a file, do nothing with that file."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:481
msgid ""
"If one changeset has modified a file, and the other hasn't, create the "
"modified copy of the file in the working directory."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:485
msgid ""
"If one changeset has removed a file, and the other hasn't (or has also "
"deleted it), delete the file from the working directory."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:489
msgid ""
"If one changeset has removed a file, but the other has modified the file, ask "
"the user what to do: keep the modified file, or remove it?"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:493
msgid ""
"If both changesets have modified a file, invoke an external merge program to "
"choose the new contents for the merged file.  This may require input from the "
"user."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:498
msgid ""
"If one changeset has modified a file, and the other has renamed or copied the "
"file, make sure that the changes follow the new name of the file."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:502
msgid ""
"There are more details&emdash;merging has plenty of corner cases&emdash;but "
"these are the most common choices that are involved in a merge.  As you can "
"see, most cases are completely automatic, and indeed most merges finish "
"automatically, without requiring your input to resolve any conflicts."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:509
msgid ""
"When you're thinking about what happens when you commit after a merge, once "
"again the working directory is <quote>the changeset I'm about to commit</"
"quote>.  After the <command role=\"hg-cmd\">hg merge</command> command "
"completes, the working directory has two parents; these will become the "
"parents of the new changeset."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:516
msgid ""
"Mercurial lets you perform multiple merges, but you must commit the results "
"of each individual merge as you go.  This is necessary because Mercurial only "
"tracks two parents for both revisions and the working directory.  While it "
"would be technically feasible to merge multiple changesets at once, Mercurial "
"avoids this for simplicity.  With multi-way merges, the risks of user "
"confusion, nasty conflict resolution, and making a terrible mess of a merge "
"would grow intolerable."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:529
msgid "Merging and renames"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:531
msgid ""
"A surprising number of revision control systems pay little or no attention to "
"a file's <emphasis>name</emphasis> over time.  For instance, it used to be "
"common that if a file got renamed on one side of a merge, the changes from "
"the other side would be silently dropped."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:537
msgid ""
"Mercurial records metadata when you tell it to perform a rename or copy. It "
"uses this metadata during a merge to do the right thing in the case of a "
"merge.  For instance, if I rename a file, and you edit it without renaming "
"it, when we merge our work the file will be renamed and have your edits "
"applied."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:547
msgid "Other interesting design features"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:549
msgid ""
"In the sections above, I've tried to highlight some of the most important "
"aspects of Mercurial's design, to illustrate that it pays careful attention "
"to reliability and performance.  However, the attention to detail doesn't "
"stop there.  There are a number of other aspects of Mercurial's construction "
"that I personally find interesting.  I'll detail a few of them here, separate "
"from the <quote>big ticket</quote> items above, so that if you're interested, "
"you can gain a better idea of the amount of thinking that goes into a well-"
"designed system."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:560
msgid "Clever compression"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:562
msgid ""
"When appropriate, Mercurial will store both snapshots and deltas in "
"compressed form.  It does this by always <emphasis>trying to</emphasis> "
"compress a snapshot or delta, but only storing the compressed version if it's "
"smaller than the uncompressed version."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:568
msgid ""
"This means that Mercurial does <quote>the right thing</quote> when storing a "
"file whose native form is compressed, such as a <literal>zip</literal> "
"archive or a JPEG image.  When these types of files are compressed a second "
"time, the resulting file is usually bigger than the once-compressed form, and "
"so Mercurial will store the plain <literal>zip</literal> or JPEG."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:576
msgid ""
"Deltas between revisions of a compressed file are usually larger than "
"snapshots of the file, and Mercurial again does <quote>the right thing</"
"quote> in these cases.  It finds that such a delta exceeds the threshold at "
"which it should store a complete snapshot of the file, so it stores the "
"snapshot, again saving space compared to a naive delta-only approach."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><title>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:585
msgid "Network recompression"
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
#: ../en/ch04-concepts.xml:587
msgid ""
"When storing revisions on disk, Mercurial uses the <quote>deflate</quote> "
"compression algorithm (the same one used by the popular <literal>zip</"
"literal> archive format), which balances good speed with a respectable "
"compression ratio.  However, when transmitting revision data over a network "
"connection, Mercurial uncompresses the compressed revision data."
msgstr ""

#. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sec