|Author:||Josh VanderLinden <firstname.lastname@example.org>|
|Manual group:||system tools|
autotunnel [-k] [profile]
This program is intended to make it easy to establish a single or multiple tunnels between your machine and another machine running SSH. It also has the ability to create reverse tunnels and setup a SOCKS proxy.
One interesting option offered by autotunnel is that of profiles. You may have multiple profiles of tunnels, each to different systems with different settings. All profiles should be saved in /etc/autotunnel.d as .conf files. For example, the default profile is /etc/autotunnel.d/default.conf.
There are two ways to call autotunnel:
- to launch and create the tunnels
- to kill an existing set of tunnels for a given profile
- [-k] Kill the specified profile. If the profile is omitted, the
- default profile will be killed.
- [profile] The name of the profile to launch. If omitted, the default
- profile will be used.
If you're using multiple profiles, be sure to update the AUTOSSH_PORT value in each profile so there's no conflict. This is the port that is used to determine if a profile is already running or not. If two profiles have the same AUTOSSH_PORT, only one of the two profiles may be running at one time.
Start Tunnels Automatically At Boot
It's very important that you setup pre-shared key (PSK) authentication between your local system and the remote systems you plan to establish tunnels with if you want the tunnels to activate at boot time. You'll want to setup PSK authentication for your local root user to the remote system(s). Alternatively, you may edit the systemd unit files or supervisord configuration files to launch the tunnels as a user of your choice.
Setting up pre-shared key authentication is easy to do, and the Internet will be of much help to you if you're unfamiliar with it. However, I'll give a quick overview. As root, type this command:
Accept all defaults. Now copy your public key to the remote host. Again, as root, run this command:
Obviously, replace remote_user and remote_host with the appropriate information. Then enter the password for remote_user on remote_host. If all went well, you should now be able to SSH into remote_host as remote_user without entering a password. If not, Google is your friend.
You have two options for starting the tunnels automatically at boot time. The first, and recommended solution, is to use systemd. All you need to do is run the following command as root, and the tunnels defined in your default profile will be established the next time you reboot.
systemctl enable autotunnel
If you wish to have a specific tunnel profile launch at boot time, simply use the template unit file:
systemctl enable autotunnel@profile
If you're using supervisord, you should be able to just copy or symlink the default configuration to your /etc/supervisor.d directory:
cp /etc/autotunnel.d/autotunnel.ini /etc/supervisor.d/
If you wish for other profiles to be launched automatically, copy this file and replace this line:
Tunnels are very powerful. They allow you to access remote systems by using local ports. Likewise, reverse tunnels allow remote systems to access your system by using open ports on the remote system itself.
The profile template allows you to configure both of these types of tunnels.
You can configure your normal tunnels by specifying them in the TUNNELS array of your profile. Again, normal tunnels allow you to access ports on remote systems by using local ports on your system. They're formatted as:
[local port]:[host]:[remote port]
The most basic type of tunnel forwards a port on your remote system to the same port on your local system. A simple case is when you want to access MySQL running on a remote server. A tunnel like:
allows you to access MySQL on the remote server as though it were running locally.
Sometimes you may wish to create tunnels that need to use a different local port for whatever reason (usually that the port is already used by something else). The following will create a tunnel to a remote host that allows you to access remote port 3389 (RDP) on local port 33890 and to access remote port 5900 (VNC) on local port 59000.
TUNNELS=( '33890:localhost:3389' '59000:localhost:5900' )
Reverse tunnels allow you to access ports on your local machine by accessing open ports on the remote host when you're logged in on that system. This is a great way to create your own little VPN of sorts. It sometimes takes a few minutes to wrap your head around how reverse tunnels work. They're formatted as:
Where A is the port that will open up on the remote system, which will grant access to port B on the local system.
As another example, say your local system is "PC A" and your remote system is "PC B". When logged into PC B (either normally or via SSH), the following allows you to SSH into PC A. One would simply run a command like ssh pc_a_user@localhost -p 2222 on PC B.
REVERSE=( '2222:localhost:22' )
Slightly More Advanced Tunnels
There are a lot of neat things you can do with tunnels. I will leave it up to you to Google the more advanced things, but I would just like to mention something. You may have noticed that all of the above examples have localhost in them. This is not absolutely necessary--you can be the hostname or IP of another system on the network.
For example, say I have 3 PCs. PC A is my machine at work. PC B is my laptop at home. PC C is my desktop at home. My home router is configured to forward all traffic to PC B, but I want to access PC C from PC A.
To do this, I can setup a normal tunnel to PC B as such:
Then I can SSH into PC C from PC A by issuing a command like:
ssh pc_c_user@localhost -p 2222
SOCKS proxies are a way for you to proxy network traffic through an SSH connection. This is great because the traffic is encrypted, and it allows you to bypass things like stupid corporate Internet filters.
To establish a SOCKS proxy, configure your profile's SOCKS_PORT to something greater than 0. After that, it's just a matter of configuring your computer or browser to use the SOCKS proxy. Each WM and browser will have its own configuration. Another Google assignment for you!