- Function export code was erroneously generated for 'extern' functions
declared in a .pxd file. [Sebastian Sable]
- The 'api' option was not recognised with 'ctypedef public class'.
- MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET is no longer set unless the undocumented -X
option is being used. Hopefully this will prevent complaints about it
from distutils. [Martin Field]
- Dependency files (.dep) are only created when compiling with timestamp
checking or recursion enabled.
- The features introducted in 0.9.8 and 0.9.8.1 for cross-forward-declaring
extension types between .pxd files turn out to be unnecessary, since
the circular import problems they are aimed at can be avoided using
ordinary forward delcarations in the .pxd files ahead of any cimports.
- Incorrect code generated for Python indexing with an unsigned int.
- Compiling multiple source files at once should work as advertised
- Assignment of a nogil function to a non-nogil function pointer
is now allowed.
- Applying += or -= to a pointer and an integer did not work.
- Compiling a .pyx file whose name is not a valid module name now
reports an error instead of generating invalid C code.
- Integer indexing optimisation now performed only for signed
index types, to avoid change of semantics with index values
greater than the maximum positive signed int value. [Robert
- Non-void function declared 'except *' could produce C compiler
warning about uninitialised variable. [Lisandro Dalcin]
- A block of external functions can be declared nogil at once.
cdef extern from "somewhere.h" nogil:
- The nogil attribute was not being checked for a match when
comparing function signatures.
- Improved error message for C method signature mismatch between
a class and its base class.
- Multiple source files passed to Main.compile are being compiled
in separate contexts for the time being until I can sort out a
problem. You probably won't notice any difference except that
there will be no speed advantage over compiling them separately.
- It is no longer necessary to specify the base class of an
extension type in a forward declaration. Also, if the class is
defined in a .pxd file, the base class only needs to be specified
in the .pxd file, not the .pyx file.
- There's now an even easier way to forward-declare a struct, union
or extension type in another module:
from blarg cimport class Foo
This simultaneously cimports the name Foo and forward-declares
it as an extension type. As well as 'class', you can also use
'struct' or 'union'.
- Casting a non-Python pointer type to a Python type no longer
generates an incref, unless one is required for other reasons.
- More checks added for gil-requiring operations performed without
holding the gil.
* Augmented assignment operators (+=, etc.) are now supported.
* Package directories
Modules in packages no longer need to have dotted names. Instead,
a Python-like package directory structure can be used, with
package dirs marked by containing an __init__.py or __init__.pyx.
Top-level package directories are found by searching the include
directories specified by -I options (analogous to PYTHONPATH).
* Dependency tracking
The Pyrex compiler records information about other source files cimported
or included, and can automatically compile all the modules a given module
depends on, with timestamp checking.
This is enabled by a -r (recursive) option to the compiler, e.g.
pyrexc -r mainmodule.pyx
There are also two other new command-line options:
-t Enable timestamp checking. This is implied with -r.
-f Overrides implied -t when using -r and forces all
dependent modules to be compiled regardless of timestamps.
* Nogil restrictions relaxed
C functions declared nogil can now have Python objects as arguments.
The argument names are read-only inside the function when this is done.
Among other things, this allows C methods to be declared nogil (this
couldn't be done before because 'self' is always an object argument).
* Circular cimports
There is now a way of forward-declaring a struct, union or extension type
into another module. This allows two .pxd files to define extension types
that refer to each other without running into circular import problems.
cdef class blarg.Blarg # Forward declaration
cdef class Foo:
cdef blarg.Blarg blg
- Another integer indexing problem fixed.
- The optimisation for indexing using a C int failed when the
object being indexed was a mapping rather than a sequence.
- Old integer for-loop syntax is no longer deprecated.
- Builtin constants and types are known, and are referenced directly
with no dictionary lookup.
- Direct calls are made to certain methods of lists and dicts when
their type is statically known.
- New builtin functions 'typecheck' and 'issubtype' added, providing
safer type checking than isinstance and issubclass (which can be
- Redundant type test eliminated when assigning the result of an
extension type constructor call to a variable of the same type.
- No tp_traverse and tp_clear functions generated for types
without Python attributes.
- Safer code generated in tp_clear. [Stefan Behnel]
- Indexing with a C int type generates calls to PySequence_GetItem
- Integer for-loop syntax streamlined to 'for x < i < y'.
- Appropriate C code generated for compile-time expressions
evaluating to float nan, inf and -inf. [Stefan Behnel]
- Value raised by assert statement now only evaluated if the
assertion fails. [Stefan Behnel]
- Comparing a value of an enum type with another value of a type
which is ctypedefed to the same enum type gave a spurious type
error. [Matt Hammond]
- Comparing an int with a float resulted in the float being cast
to an int before comparison. [Robin Becker]
- Compiler crashed on an invalid argument to a 'with nogil' statement.
- Incorrect code generated for function with keyword only args
and no * or ** args. [Stefan Behnel]
- GC type with non-GC base type caused crash due to trying to call
non-existent base tp_traverse and tp_clear functions. [Stefan Behnel]
- Compile-time IF with no ELSE clause crashed compiler. [Kirk McDonald]
- Values in enum declaration were not being checked for appropriate type.
- Improved the error message from attempting to declare a struct or
union member as a function. [Yong Sun]
- Referring to an undefined name in a compile-time constant crashed
the compiler. [Stefan Behnel]
- Errors in setup.py corrected.
- Incorrect error checking code generated for builtin functions
and type slots with return type Py_ssize_t. [Robert Bradshaw]
- A counted reference was not kept to the module, so if the entry
in sys.modules was replaced, the module was freed prematurely.
- A cimport statement inside a function crashed the compiler.
- __Pyx_ImportModule routine wasn't protected from multiple
definition when including _api.h files. [Stefan Behnel]
- Temp variables holding exception values were not being set to
NULL after use in an except clause. [Robert Bradshaw]
- Protect __stdcall and __cdecl from redefinition. [Jim Kleckner]
- A temp var was not being set to NULL after api function import
code. [Stefan Behnel]
- __Pyx_ImportFunction was incorrectly decrefing a borrowed
reference. [Stefan Behnel]
- Functions declared with_gil and external functions declared nogil
are now allowed to have Python arguments and return types.
- C API now only uses a single name in the module namespace
instead of one for each exported C function. [Stefan Behnel]
- Multiple declarations with the same visibility and api options
can now be grouped into a 'cdef' block.
- The 'api' keyword can now be used on extension types to cause
generation of an api.h file when there are no exported C functions.
- Added a getattr3() builtin for the three-argument form of getattr.
- Setup.py no longer uses an import to get the version number
being installed, to avoid a problem with setuptools.
- If a struct or union was forward-declared, certain types of error
message misleadingly referenced the source location of the forward
declaration rather than the definition.
- Calling convention specifier was being emitted in function
prototypes but not the corresponding definitions. [Atsuo Ishimoto]
- Added support for the --force option to Pyrex.Distutils.
- Compile-time "==" operator did not work. [Simon King]
- Header files generated for public and api declarations now
only contain types declared as 'public', instead of all types
defined in the module. [Stefan Behnel]
- Corrected a problem with declaration ordering in generated C
code involving forward-declared struct, union or extension types.
- New distutils extension: Only compile .pyx if it is newer
than the corresponding .c file.
- Changed os.uname to platform.uname for portability.
- Fixed C compiler warning about incompatible types in 2.5.
- Also fixed a few other 2.5 problems.
- Fixed problem with the Extension class in the new Pyrex.Distutils
- Top-level C functions defined in one module can now be used in
another via cimport, and a C API can be produced to allow them
to be used from C code without linking to the extension module.
See "Interfacing with External C Code" and "Sharing Declarations
between Pyrex Modules" in the Language Overview. [Stefan Behnel]
- Facilities added for releasing the GIL around a section of code
and acquiring it on entry to a C function. See "Acquiring and
Releasing the GIL under "Interfacing with External C Code" in
the Language Overview. [Ulisses Furquim, Stefan Behnel]
- Some conditional compilation facilities have been added. See
"Conditional Compilation" under "Language Basics" in the
Language Overview. [Sam Rushing]
- The __new__ special method of extension types is being renamed
to "__cinit__". For now, you will get a warning whenever you
declare a __new__ method for an extension type, and it will
automatically be renamed to __cinit__ for you. In the next
release, the warning will become an error and no renaming will
occur. In some later release, the __new__ method may be
re-introduced with different semantics. It is recommended that
you begin updating your sources now to use __cinit__.
- A 'raise' statement with no arguments (i.e. to re-raise the
last exception caught) is now required to be lexically within
the 'except' clause which caught the exception. This change was
necessary to efficiently support preserving the exception if an
intervening call raises and catches a different exception.
- The following new reserved words have been added:
with, DEF, IF, ELIF, ELSE
- Calls to many of the builtin functions are now compiled as
direct calls to Python/C API routines.
- A C type explicitly declared as 'signed' is represented as
such in the generated code, to acommodate platforms where
'char' is unsigned by default. [Francesc Altet]
- Python function can now have an argument of type "unsigned
char". [Alexander Belchenko]
- A new Pyrex.Distutils implementation has been added, which
exports an Extension type supporting the following options:
pyrex_include_dirs - list of dirs to search for Pyrex header files
pyrex_create_listing_file - bool - write errs to listing file
pyrex_cplus - bool - generate C++ code
pyrex_c_in_temp - bool - put generated C files in temp dir
pyrex_gen_pxi - bool - generate .pxi file for public declarations
[Contributed by Billie G. Allie]
- Assert statements can be compiled out by arranging for
PYREX_WITHOUT_ASSERTIONS to be #defined at C compilation time.
[Contributed by Stefan Behnel]
- Support for __index__ slot added to extension types.
- Exception types now properly checked according to pre or post
2.5 rules as appropriate.
- Py_ssize_t support added. [Stefan Behnel]
- Windows __stdcall and __cdecl qualifiers now supported.
[Suggested by Eric Devolder]
- Keyword-only argument support added. [Suggested by Stefan Behnel]
- An 'include' statement can now appear anywhere that another kind
of statement or declaration can appear, instead of being restricted
to the top level. [Caio Marcelo]
- Unnecessary PyErr_Occurred() call to check result of
PyString_AsString() no longer made.
- Complicated C types are displayed more readably in error messages.
- A Python function argument declared as "char" or "unsigned
char" now expects a Python integer rather than a string of
length 1, for consistency with the way automatic conversions
are done elsewhere.
- Support for string and tuple exceptions dropped.
- If an external ctypedef type was used as the type of an
argument to a Python function, a declaration was generated
using the underlying type rather than the typedef name.
- Some problems with int/enum and pointer/array compatibility
fixed. [Eric Huss, Stefan Behnel, Jiba]
- Eliminated C compiler warning when comparing an extension
type reference to None using 'is' or 'is not'
- Eliminated C compiler warnings about docstrings of C functions
and special methods being unused. [Francesc Altet]
- When compiling with -O, raising an exception in a C function
that couldn't propagate exceptions produced a compiler
warning about the return value possibly being uninitialised.
- Fixed warning about function declaration not being a prototype
caused by C method table initialisation code.
- Spurious initialisation was generated for unused local variable.
- Declaration of a non-extern C function without definition
was not detected. [Lenard Lindstrom]
- Applying ** directly to two C int types is now disallowed due
to ambiguity (it's not clear whether to use C pow() or convert
to Python ints). [Didier Deshommes]
- Traverse and clear code was being inadvertently generated for
the __weakref__ slot of a weakly-referenceable extension type.
- Statements other than def inside a property declaration were
crashing the compiler. [Sven Berkvens]
- Defining an extension type with different visibility from its
declaration in a .pxd file crashed the compiler.
- Instantiating an exception type whose base class __new__ method
raises an exception caused a segfault. [Gustavo Sverzut Barbieri]
- The 'import pkg.module as name' form of import statement did not
work correctly. [Dan]
- Fixed error-checking typo in __Pyx_GetStarArgs(). [Eric Huss]
- Trailing comma now allowed on argument list. [Jim Kleckner]
- Behaviour of reraise made to match Python more closely.
- An empty C variable declaration crashed the compiler.
- Now includes math.h instead of generating own declaration
of pow(). [Leif Strand]
- Missing import of sys in LinuxSystem.py added. [Scott Jackson]
- Typecasts using a ctypedef type were not using the ctypedef
name. [Alexander Belchenko]
- Workaround added to setup.py for a problem with bdist_wininst.
- Subtle error in parsing empty function declarators corrected.
- Checks added for some type combinations that are illegal in C:
array of functions, function returning function or array, cast
to a function.
- Package list now calculated dynamically in setup.py so that
it will work with or without the testing framework installed.
- Comparing two values of the same enum type incorrectly
produced an error. [Anders Gustafsson]
- Compiler crash caused by assigning a Python value to
a variable of an enum type. [Peter Johnson]
- Comparison between pointer and array incorrectly produced
a type mismatch error. [Helmut Jarausch]
- Unused local Python variable had spurious init/cleanup code
generated for it, causing C compilation errors. [Helmut Jarausch]
- Updated list of packages in setup.py.
- NULL in Pyrex source now translated into NULL instead of 0
in C code, to allow for the possibility of calling something
not defined with a prototype in an external header. [Adapted Cat]
- Exception return values may now be specified by arbitrary
constant expressions of appropriate type, not just literals.
- Redundant type check now omitted when passing a literal None
to a function expecting an extension type. [Patch by Sam Rushing]
- New-style classes now allowed as exceptions for compatibility
with Python 2.5 (inheritance from BaseException not currently
checked). [Stefan Behnel]
- Sequence unpacking is now done using the iterator protocol
instead of indexing.
- Allocation of an empty tuple is avoided when making a
Python call with no arguments. [Stefan Behnel]
- Most warnings about unused variables and labels have been
- Support for running the test suite on Linux added but not
yet fully tested. [Based in part on patch by Eric Wald].
- Makefile included for compiling the patched Carbon File module
used by the MacOSX test code.
- Type rules for enums tightened for compatibility with C++.
- Direct assignment from float to int disallowed to prevent
C++ compilation warnings.
- Hex literals left as hex in C code to avoid warnings from
the C compiler about decimal constants becoming unsigned.
- Exception raised during argument conversion could cause crash
due to uninitialised local variables. [Konrad Hinsen]
- Assignment to a C attribute of an extension type from a
different type could generate C code with a pointer type
mismatch. [Atsuo Ishimoto]
- Backslash in a string literal before a non-special character
was not handled correctly. [Yuan Mang]
- Temporary vars used by del statement not being properly
released, sometimes leading to double decrefs. [Jiba]
- A return statement whose expression raises an exception
inside a try-except that catches the exception could cause
a crash. [Anders Gustafsson]
- Fixed type compatibility checking problem between pointers
and arrays. [Lenard Lindstrom]
- Circular imports between modules defining extension types
caused unresolvable import order conflicts. [Mike Wyatt]
- Cimporting multiple submodules from the same package caused
a redefined name error for the top level name. [Martin Albrecht]
- Incorrect reference counting when assigning to an element of an
array that is a C attribute of an extension type. [Igor Khavkine]
- Weak-referenceable extension types were not implemented
properly. [Chris Perkins, Peter Johnson]
- Crash if C variable declared readonly outside an extension
type definition. [Eric Huss]
- Expanded discussion of the need for type declarations to enable
access to attributes of extension types.
- Added a section "Source Files and Compilation" explaining the
rules for naming of source files of modules residing in packages,
and instructions for using the compiler and distutils extension.
- Fixed indentation problem in Pyrex.Distutils.build_ext.
- All use of lvalue casts has been eliminated, for
compatibility with gcc4.
- PyMODINIT_FUNC now used to declare the module init function.
- Generated code should be compilable as either C or C++.
When compiling as C++, "extern C" is used where appropriate
to preserve linkage semantics.
- An extension type can be made weak-referenceable by
giving it a C attribute of type object called __weakref__.
- Source files opened in universal newlines mode.
- Support for public extension type C attributes of type
long long and unsigned long long added (but not tested).
- Distutils include directories now passed to Pyrex compiler.
- Integer constants with an "L" suffix are now allowed
and are converted to Python long integers. [Rainer Deyke]
- A broken .c file is no longer left behind if there are
- Using the result of a Python indexing or attribute access
operation as a char * is no longer considered an error in
most cases, as the former behaviour proved to be more
annoying than helpful.
- Fixed problems with conversion from Python integers to
C unsigned longs. Now use PyInt_AsUnsignedLongMask and
PyInt_AsUnsignedLongLongMask instead of the PyLong_*
functions (which only work on Python longs). [Wim Vree]
- C unsigned ints now converted to/from Python longs intead
of Python ints to avoid overflow problems. [Heiko Wundram]
- Correct PyArg_ParseTuple format characters now used for
unsigned types. [Jeff Bowden]
- Nonzero return value from a base class tp_traverse call
- Taking sizeof an incomplete type caused a crash while
producing an error message. [Drew Perttula]
- If a module cimported itself, definitions of global variables
were generated twice. [Parzival Herzog]
- Distutils extension updated to handle changed signature of
swig_sources(). [David M. Cooke]
- Incorrect C code generated for a raw string containing a double
quote preceded by a backslash. [Thomas Drake]
- Declaration of public C function with an exception value written
to generated .pxi file without the except clause. [Robby Dermody]
- __delitem__ method of an extension type with no __setitem__
did not get called. [Richard Boulton]
- A spurious Py_INCREF was generated when a return statement
required a type test. [Jonathan Doda]
- Casting a value to a function pointer and then immediately
calling it generated a cast to a function instead of a cast
to a function pointer. [Simon Burton]
- Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC was not being set on an extension type that
inherited from an external extension type that used GC but did
not itself have any PyObject* attributes.
- A return statement inside a for statement leaked a reference
to the loop's iterator.
- Full module name now appears in __module__ attribute of classes
and extension types, provided a correct dotted name is used
for the .pyx file. [Giovanni Bajo]
- Public extension type with no C attributes produced an
invalid .pxi file. [Simon Burton]
- Using a dict constructor as the second operand of a boolean
expression crashed the Pyrex compiler.
- A C declaration list ending with a comma resulted in invalid
C code being generated. [Alex Coventry]
- A raw string containing two consecutive backslashes produced
incorrect C code. [Helmut Jarausch]
- An error is reported if you attempt to declare a special
method of an extension type using 'cdef' instead of 'def'.
- Types defined with a ctypedef in a 'cdef extern from' block
are now referred to by the typedef name in generated C code,
so it is no longer necessary to match the type in the C
header file exactly.
- Conversion to/from unsigned long now done with
PyLong_AsUnsignedLong and PyLong_FromUnsignedLong. [Dug Song]
- A struct, union or enum definition in a 'cdef extern from'
block may now be left empty (using 'pass'). This can be useful
if you need to declare a variable of that type, but don't need
to refer to any of its members.
- More flexible about ordering of qualifiers such as 'long' and
'unsigned'. ["John (J5) Palmieri"]
- Non-interned string literals used in a Python class
definition did not work. [Atsuo Ishimoto, Andreas Kostyrka]
- Return types of the buffer interface functions for extension
types have been corrected. [Dug Song]
- Added 'static' to declarations of string literals. [Phil Frost]
- Float literals are now copied directly to the C code as written,
to avoid problems with loss of precision. [Mario Pernici]
- Inheriting from an extension type with C methods defined in
another Pyrex module did not work. [Itamar Shtull-Trauring]
- Corrected an import statement setup.py, and made it
check for a unix platform in a more reliable way.
- Names of Python global variables and attributes are now
interned, and PyObject_GetAttr/SetAttr are used instead
of PyObject_GetAttrString/SetAttrString. String literals
which resemble Python identifiers are also interned.
- String literals are now converted to Python objects only
once instead of every time they are used.
- NUL characters are now allowed in Python string literals.
- Added some missing error checking code to the beginning
of module init functions. It's unlikely the operations
involved would ever fail, but you never know.
- Corrected some problems introduced by moving the Plex
- Corrected a problem in the setup.py (pyrexc script incorrectly
- Updated the distutils extension to match changes in the
Pyrex compiler calling interface.
- Doing 'make clean' in Demos/callback was removing a little too
much (that's why cheesefinder.c kept disappearing).
- A C method can now call an inherited C method by the usual
Python technique. [Jiba]
- The __modname__ of a Python class is now set correctly. [Paul Prescod]
- A MANIFEST.in file has been added to the distribution to
facilitate building rpms. [contributed by Konrad Hinsen]
- Conditional code now generated to allow for the renaming of LONG_LONG
to PY_LONG_LONG that occurred between Python 2.2 and 2.3.
- Header files referenced in cimported modules were not being included.
- References to C functions and variables in a cimported module were
not being recognised if made from within a local scope. [Tom Popovich]
- Spurious declarations in code generated for a "finally" block.
- Attempting to return a value from a __contains__ method didn't work.
- Incorrect code generated for an extension type with C methods
inheriting from a base type with no C methods. [Robin Becker]
- Failure to report an error if a C method was defined in the
implementation part of an extension type that was not declared
in the corresponding definition part. Documentation also updated
to explain that this is necessary. [Jiba]
- Made it an error to forward-declare an extension type with
a different base class specification from its subsequent
- C attributes of an extension type were not being propagated
through more than one level of inheritance. [Jiba]
- If a garbage collection occurred early enough in the __new__
method of an extension type with Python-valued C attributes,
a crash could occur in its tp_traverse function.
[reported by Jiba, fix suggested by Paul Prescod]
- An empty vtable struct is no longer generated for extension
types with no C methods. [Robin Becker]
- Memory was leaked in the sq_item function of an extension
type with a __getitem__ method. [Atsuo Ishimoto]
- Code generated to work around a bug in some versions of Python
2.2 which fails to initialise the tp_free slot correctly in
some circumstances. [Matthias Baas]
- Compiler crash when defining an extension type with a base
class specified by a dotted name. [Alain Pointdexter]
- Referencing an extension type defined in a cimported module
at run time did not work correctly. [Alain Pointdexter]
- Incorrect object struct code generated for an extension type
whose base class was defined in a .pxd file. [Alain Pointdexter]
- Redeclaring a type that wasn't previously an extension type
as an extension type caused a compiler crash. [Scott Robinson]
- Incorrect code was generated for return statements in a
special method with no return value. [Gary Bishop]
- Single-line def statement did not work. [Francois Pinard]
- Only the last pathname component of the .pyx file is reported in
backtraces now. [Bryan Weingarten]
- Documentation corrected to remove the erroneous statement that
extension classes can have a __del__ method. [Bryan Weingarten]
- Note added to documentation explaining that it is not possible
for an extension type's __new__ method to explicitly call the
inherited __new__ method.
- The version of Plex included with Pyrex is now installed
as a subpackage of the Pyrex package, rather than as a
top-level package, so as not to interfere with any other
version of Plex the user may have installed.
- Extension types can have properties. See the new "Properties"
section in the "Extension Types" page.
- An extension type can inherit from a builtin type or another
extension type. See "Subclassing" in the "Extension Types" page.
- Extension types can have C methods, which can be overridden
in derived extension types. See "C Methods" in the "Extension Types"
- Conversion is now performed between C long longs and Python
long integers without chopping to the size of a C long.
Also the Python PY_LONG_LONG type is now used for long longs
for greater portability.
- Names were sometimes being generated that were insufficiently
unique in the presence of cimported declarations.
- Changed the way the included filename table is declared from
char * to char **, to stop MSVC from complaining about it
having an unknown size. [Alexander A Naanou]
- Second argument of assert statement was not being coerced
to a Python value. [Francois Pinard]
- Return statement without value wasn't accepted in some
extension type special methods when it should have been.
- Attempting to call a non-function C value crashed the
compiler. [John J Lee]
- Functions declared as "except *" were not returning exceptions.
[John J Lee]
- A syntax warning from Plex about assignment to None has
been eliminated. [Gordon Williams]
- Public function declaration with empty argument list was
producing (void) in .pxi file. [Michael P. Dubner]
- Incorrect error signalling code was being generated in the
__hash__ special method of an extension type.
- Names of structs, unions and enums in external header
files were getting mangled when they shouldn't have been.
- Modified distutils extension so that it will stop before
compiling the C file if the Pyrex compiler reports errors.
[John J Lee]
- INCOMPATIBLE CHANGE: The type object of an external extension
type is now imported at run time using the Python import
mechanism. To make this possible, an 'extern' extension type
declaration must DECLARE THE MODULE from which the extension
type originates. See the new version of the "Extension Types"
documentation for details.
This change was made to eliminate the need for Pyrex to be
told the C name of the type object, or for the Pyrex module
to be linked against the object code providing the type object.
You will have to update any existing external extension type
declarations that you are using. I'm sorry about that, but it
was too hard to support both the old and new ways.
- Compile-time importing: A Pyrex module can now import declarations
from another Pyrex module using the new 'cimport' statement. See
the new section on "Sharing Declarations Between Pyrex Modules" in
- An error is reported if you declare a struct, union or
extension type using 'cdef' in one place and 'ctypedef'
- Struct, union and extension types can only be forward-
declared using 'cdef', not 'ctypedef' (otherwise invalid
C code would be generated).
- The 'global' statement can be used at the module level to
declare that a name is a module-level name rather than a
builtin. This can be used to access module attributes such
as __name__ that would otherwise be assumed to be builtins.
- The 'assert' statement now accepts a second argument.
- When using Python 2.3, "True" or "False" could sometimes
turn up in generated code instead of "1" or "0". [Adam Hixson]
- Function return value not always converted to or from a
Python object when it should have been.
- Certain kinds of error in a function call expression
could crash the compiler. ["Edward C. Jones"]
- Fixed memory leak in functions with * or ** args. [Alexander A Naanou]
- Calling a function declared as returning an extension
type could crash the compiler.
- A function call with type errors in the argument list
could crash the compiler.
- An 'else' clause on a for-from statement could crash
- Incorrect casting code was generated when a generic
object argument of a special method was declared as
being of an extension type. [Phillip J. Eby]
- A blank line that couldn't be interpreted wholly as
a valid indentation sequence caused a syntax error.
In particular, a formfeed character on an otherwise
blank line wasn't accepted. [Francois Pinard]
- Parallel assignments were incorrectly optimised.
- A bare tuple constructor with an extra comma at the
end of a line caused a syntax error.
- Attributes of extension types can be exposed to Python
code, either read/write or read-only.
- Different internal and external names can be specified
for C entities.
- None is a compile-time constant, and more efficient code
is generated to reference it.
- Command line options for specifying directories to
search for include files.
- More efficient code is generated for access to Python
valued C attributes of extension types.
- Cosmetic code improvement: Less casting back and forth
between extension types and PyObject * when referencing
C members of the object struct.
- C arguments and variables declared as an extension type
can take the value None.
- Form feed characters are accepted as whitespace.
- Function names in tracebacks are qualified with
module name and class name.
- A sufficiently complex expression in a boolean context
could cause code to be generated twice for the same
- Incorrect casting code was generated when passing an
extension type to a function expecting a generic Python
- Executable statements are now disallowed inside a
cdef class block (previously they silently caused
crazy C code to be generated).
- Tracebacks should now report the correct filename for
functions defined in files included with the 'include'
- The documentation incorrectly claimed that an extension
type can't have a __del__ method. In fact, it can, and
it behaves as expected.
- Fixed broken distutils extension.
- Command line options for reporting version number,
requesting a listing file and specifying the name of
the generated C file.
- An 'include' statement allows inclusion of declarations
from other Pyrex source files.
- If there are any public declarations, a Pyrex include
file is generated (as well as a .h file) containing
declarations for them.
- Extension types can be declared public, so their C
attributes are visible to other Pyrex and C code.
- Try-except statements can now have an 'else' clause.
- Multiple simple statements can be placed on one line
separated by semicolons.
- A suite consisting of a simple statement list can now
be placed on the same line after the colon in most
cases. [Francois Pinard]
- The automatic coercion of a C string to a C char has
been removed (it proved to be too error-prone).
Instead, there is a new form of literal for C
character constants: c'X'
- The __get__ special method (used by descriptor objects)
now allows for the possibility of the 2nd or 3rd
arguments being NULL. Also the __set__ method has been
split into two methods, __set__ and __delete__.
[Phillip J. Eby]
- Values unpacked into a non-Python destination variable
were not being converted before assignment. [Gareth Watts]
- Hex constants greater than 0x7fffffff caused compiler
to crash. [Gareth Watts]
- Type slots are no longer statically initialised with
extern function pointers, to avoid problems with
some compilers. The hack in the distutils extension
to work around this by compiling as C++ has been
disabled. [Phillip J. Eby]
- Fixed several more instances of the error-reporting
routine being called with arguments in the wrong
order. Hoping I've *finally* got all of them now...
- Nested for-from loops used the same control variable.
[Sebastien de Menten]
- Fixed some other error message related bugs. [Francois Pinard]
- Assigning to slice didn't work. [Francois Pinard]
- Temp variables were being declared as extension
types and then being assigned PyObject *'s. All
Python temp vars are now declared as PyObject *.
- Algorithm for allocating temp variables redesigned
to fix various errors concerning temp
variable re-use. [Mark Rowe]
- Memory leak occured sometimes when an implicit
type test was applied to the result of an
expression. [Christoph Wiedemann]
- __set__ method of extension types had wrong
signature. [Josh Littlefield]
- Indexing multi-dimensional C arrays didn't
work. [Gary Dietachmayer]
- There is now a 'public' declaration for
making Pyrex-defined variables and functions
available to external C code. A .h file is
also generated if there are any public
- Defining __len__/__getitem__ methods in an
extension class fills sq_length/sq_item slots
as well as mp_length/mp_subscript. [Matthias Baas]
- The Distutils extension now allows .c files
to be incorporated along with .pyx files.
[Modification to Distutils extension contributed
by Darrell Gallion]
- Float literals without a decimal point
work again now. [Mike Rovner, Peter Lepage]
- Compiler crashed if exception value didn't
match function return type. [Michael JasonSmith]
- The setup.py file should now install the
Lexicon.pickle file in the right place.
[Patch supplied by David M. Cooke]
- Compiler crashed when compiling a C function that
returned an extension type.
[David M. Cooke]
- Anonymous enum types did not have C code
suppressed inside an extern-from block. [Matthew Mueller]
- Tracebacks now extend into Pyrex function
calls and show line numbers in the Pyrex
- Syntax for float literals made more lenient
(no longer requires digits both before and
after the point). [Peter Lepage]
- Method calls can be made on string literals
(e.g. ",".join(x)). [Pedro Rodriguez]
- Incorrect refcount code generated when a
Python function needing argument type tests
had local Python variables. [Matthias Baas]
- 'self' parameter of __getitem__ method of
extension type had wrong implicit type. [Peter Lepage]
- Repaired breakage introduced by trying to
allow an empty parameter list to be written
as (void). No longer attempting to allow
this (too hard to parse correctly). [Peter Lepage]
- Found bug in Plex 1.1.2 which was the *real*
cause of the two-newlines-in-a-row problem.
Removed the Opt(Eol)+Str("\n") hacks in
the scanner which were working around this
before. [Pedro Rodriguez]
- __call__ special method of extension types
had wrong signature. [Peter Lepage]
New language features:
- For-from loop for iterating over integer
ranges, using pure C loop where possible.
- sizeof() can now be applied to types as
well as variables.
- Improved handling of forward-declared
- Two newlines in a row in a triple quoted
string caused a parse error on some
platforms. [Matthias Baas]
- Fixed problem with break and continue in
the else-clause of a loop.
New language features:
- C functions can be declared as having an
exception return value, which is checked
whenever the function is called. If an
exception is detected inside a C function
for which no exception value is declared,
a warning message is printed and the
exception is cleared.
- Cascaded assignments (i.e. a = b = c
are now supported.
- Anonymous enum declarations are allowed,
for when you just want to declare constants.
- The C types "long long" and "long double"
are now understood. Also, "int" is optional
after "short" or "long".
- A * argument in a function call can now be
any sequence, not just a tuple.
- A C char* or char will be turned into
a char by taking its first character if
used in a context where a char is required,
thus allowing a string literal to be used as
a char literal.
- C string * C int or vice versa is now
interpreted as Python string replication.
- Function arguments are checked for void or
- Non-external extension types show up in the
module dict once more (this got broken in
- A spurious decref has been removed from the
runtime support code for the "import" statement.
Hopefully this will prevent the crashes some
people have been experiencing when importing
builtin modules. [Mathew Yeates]
New language features:
- "ctypedef struct/union/enum/class" statements
added, for use in extern-from blocks when a
header file uses a ctypedef to declare a
tagless struct, union or enum type.
- "pass" allowed in an extern-from block.
- "cdef extern from *" for when you don't want
to specify an include file name.
- Argument names may be omitted in function
signatures when they're not needed.
- New reserved word NULL for the null C pointer.
- Lexicon is now picked in binary format, so
startup should be much faster on slower
- If Pyrex decides to rebuild the lexicon and
then finds that it can't write a pickle file,
it now prints a warning and carries on
instead of crashing.
- Chat about hash codes and lexicon pickling
now turned off by default except when creating
a new lexicon (which ought never happen now
unless you change the scanner).
- Modified the runtime support code for "import"
statements, hopefully fixing problem with using
a Pyrex module in conjunction with py2exe.
- DL_EXPORT now used in both the prototype and
definition of the module init function.
- Exception state is now saved and restored around
calls to an extension type __dealloc__ method,
to avoid screwing up if the object is deallocated
while an exception is being propagated.
- Making an attribute reference to a method of
an extension type caused a compiler crash.
- Doc string in new-style class definition
caused a run-time error.
- Insufficient parentheses were put around C type
- Constructors for extension types are now read-only
C global variables instead of entries in the
module dict. This change was needed to prevent
Numeric from blowing up due to touching its
typeobject before import_numeric() could be called.
- "cdef extern from" statement allows inclusion
of C header files to be specified, solving
a number of problems including:
- Clashes between Pyrex and C declarations,
due to "const" and other reasons
- Windows-specific features required in
- Helping deal with types such as "size_t"
- Helping deal with functions defined as
- Access to internals of pre-existing extension
types is now possible by placing an extension
type declaration inside a "cdef extern from"
- Error not reported properly when passing
wrong number of args to certain special
methods of extension types. [Mitch Chapman]
- Compile-time crash when defining an extension
type with a __hash__ method.
- Hashing of the scanner source file made more
platform-independent, making spurious regeneration
of the pickle less likely.
- Runtime crash when using * or ** args in
a method of an extension type fixed. [Matthew Mueller]
- Compiler crash when using default argument
values in a method of a Python class. [Mike Rovner]
- Type slots filled with functions from outside
the extension module are now initialised dynamically,
which should eliminate at least some of the
"initialiser is not constant" problems experienced
on Windows. [Marek Baczek]
- On Windows, __declspec(dllexport) is now used for
the module init func declaration (or should be --
I haven't tested this). [Marek Baczek]
- The compiler shouldn't attempt to rewrite the
Lexicon.pickle file unless the source has been
changed (hashing is used now instead of comparing
timestamps). So there should be no problem any more
with installing Pyrex read-only.
* A void * can be assigned from any other
* File names in error messages no longer
quoted (this was apparently confusing some
editors). [Matthew Mueller]
* Reference to a struct member which is an
array is coerced to a pointer. [Matthew Mueller]
* Default argument values did not work
in methods of an extension type. [Matthew Mueller]
* Single or double quote characters in a
triple-quoted string didn't work. [Matthew Mueller]
* Using *args in a function definition
sometimes caused a crash at runtime. [Matthew Mueller]
* A hack is included which tries to make
functions in Python.h which use 'const'
accessible from Pyrex. But it doesn't
work on all platforms. Thinking about a
* Comment containing Pyrex version number
and date/time at top of generated C file. [Matthias Baas]
* The & operator works again. [Matthias Baas]
* The & operator had incorrect precedence.
* "SystemError: 'finally' pops bad exception"
under some circumstances when raising an
exception. [Matthias Baas]
* Calling a Python function sometimes leaked
* Crash under some circumstances when casting
a Python object reference to a C pointer type.
* Crash when redeclaring a function. [Matthias Baas]
* Crash when using a string constant inside
a Python class definition. [Mike Rovner]
* 2-element slice indexing expressions. [Mike Rovner]
* Crash when encountering mixed tabs and
spaces. [Mike Rovner]
* A wider variety of constant expressions is
now accepted for enum values, array
dimensions, etc. [Mike Rovner]
* More special methods for extension types:
__delitem__, __delslice__, __getattr__,
* Module-level variable of a Python object type
declared with 'cdef' is private to the module, and
held in a C variable instead of the module dict.
* External C functions with variable argument lists
can be declared and called.
* Pyrex-defined Python functions can have default
argument values and * and ** arguments, and can be
called with keyword arguments.
* Pointer-to-function types can be declared.
* Pyrex now supports a declaration syntax that
C doesn't! Example:
cdef (int (*)()) foo() # function returning a function ptr
* There is now a ctypedef statement.
* Extension types can now be forward-declared.
* All permutations of (non-Unicode) string literals
and escape codes should work now.
* Hex and octal integer literals.
* Imaginary number literals.
* Docstrings are now supported.
* Type tests are performed when using a Python object
in a context requiring a particular extension type.
* Module-level variable holding the type object
of an extension type had incorrect type.
* Extension types! Yay!
* Fixed error message generation again after a previous
bug was accidentally re-indroduced.
* Removed the declaration of isspace() from the code
generated for print statement support (it's not needed
and was conflicting with the system-supplied one on
* Executable statements are now allowed at the
top level of a module.
* Python class definitions are now supported, with
the following limitations:
- Class definitions are only allowed at the top
level of a module, not inside a control structure
or function or another class definition.
- Assigning a Pyrex-defined Python function to a
class attribute outside of the class definition
will not create a method (because it's not an
interpreted Python function and therefore
won't trigger the bound-method creation magic).
- The __metaclass__ mechanism and the creation of
new-style classes is not (yet) supported.
* Casting between Python and non-Python types is
* Fixed bug preventing for-loops from working.
* I've discovered a flaw in my algorithm for releasing
temp variables. Fixing this properly will require some
extensive reworking; I've put in a hack in the meantime
which should work at the cost of using more temp variables
than are strictly necessary.
* Fixed bug preventing access to builtin names from
working. This should also have fixed the import
statement, but I haven't tested it.
* Fixed some errors in __Pyx_GetExcValue.
* Fixed bug causing boolean expressions to malfunction