1. Raphael Das Gupta
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Dongsheng Song  committed 6b1577e

Update Chinese translation

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 msgid ""
 msgstr ""
 "Project-Id-Version: hgbook 1.2\n"
-"POT-Creation-Date: 2009-03-20 15:47+0800\n"
-"PO-Revision-Date: 2009-03-18 19:50+0800\n"
+"POT-Creation-Date: 2009-03-20 17:12+0800\n"
+"PO-Revision-Date: 2009-03-20 17:12+0800\n"
 "Last-Translator: \n"
 "Language-Team: Simplified Chinese <i18n-zh@googlegroups.com >\n"
 "MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
 
 #. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><title>
 #: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:43
-#, fuzzy
 msgid ""
 "<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qdelete</command>&emdash;delete a patch from the "
-"<filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file}"
-msgstr "<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qseries</command>&emdash;显示补丁序列"
+"<filename role=\"special\">series</filename> file"
+msgstr ""
+"<command role=\"hg-ext-mq\">qdelete</command>&emdash;从文件 <filename role="
+"\"special\">series</filename> 中删除补丁"
 
 #. type: Content of: <book><appendix><sect1><sect2><para>
 #: ../en/appB-mq-ref.xml:48
 "license reference or copy."
 msgstr ""
 
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><title>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:5
+msgid "Preface"
+msgstr "序言"
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><title>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:8
+msgid "Why revision control? Why Mercurial?"
+msgstr "为什么使用版本控制? 为什么使用 Mercurial?"
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:10
+msgid ""
+"Revision control is the process of managing multiple versions of a piece of "
+"information.  In its simplest form, this is something that many people do by "
+"hand: every time you modify a file, save it under a new name that contains a "
+"number, each one higher than the number of the preceding version."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:16
+msgid ""
+"Manually managing multiple versions of even a single file is an error-prone "
+"task, though, so software tools to help automate this process have long been "
+"available.  The earliest automated revision control tools were intended to "
+"help a single user to manage revisions of a single file.  Over the past few "
+"decades, the scope of revision control tools has expanded greatly; they now "
+"manage multiple files, and help multiple people to work together.  The best "
+"modern revision control tools have no problem coping with thousands of people "
+"working together on projects that consist of hundreds of thousands of files."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:27
+msgid ""
+"The arrival of distributed revision control is relatively recent, and so far "
+"this new field has grown due to people's willingness to explore ill-charted "
+"territory."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:31
+msgid ""
+"I am writing a book about distributed revision control because I believe that "
+"it is an important subject that deserves a field guide. I chose to write "
+"about Mercurial because it is the easiest tool to learn the terrain with, and "
+"yet it scales to the demands of real, challenging environments where many "
+"other revision control tools buckle."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><title>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:39
+msgid "Why use revision control?"
+msgstr "为什么使用版本控制?"
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:41
+msgid ""
+"There are a number of reasons why you or your team might want to use an "
+"automated revision control tool for a project."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:46
+msgid ""
+"It will track the history and evolution of your project, so you don't have "
+"to.  For every change, you'll have a log of <emphasis>who</emphasis> made it; "
+"<emphasis>why</emphasis> they made it; <emphasis>when</emphasis> they made "
+"it; and <emphasis>what</emphasis> the change was."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:53
+msgid ""
+"When you're working with other people, revision control software makes it "
+"easier for you to collaborate.  For example, when people more or less "
+"simultaneously make potentially incompatible changes, the software will help "
+"you to identify and resolve those conflicts."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:59
+msgid ""
+"It can help you to recover from mistakes.  If you make a change that later "
+"turns out to be in error, you can revert to an earlier version of one or more "
+"files.  In fact, a <emphasis>really</emphasis> good revision control tool "
+"will even help you to efficiently figure out exactly when a problem was "
+"introduced (see section <xref linkend=\"sec.undo.bisect\"/> for details)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:66
+msgid ""
+"It will help you to work simultaneously on, and manage the drift between, "
+"multiple versions of your project."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:71
+msgid ""
+"Most of these reasons are equally valid---at least in theory---whether you're "
+"working on a project by yourself, or with a hundred other people."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:75
+msgid ""
+"A key question about the practicality of revision control at these two "
+"different scales (<quote>lone hacker</quote> and <quote>huge team</quote>) is "
+"how its <emphasis>benefits</emphasis> compare to its <emphasis>costs</"
+"emphasis>.  A revision control tool that's difficult to understand or use is "
+"going to impose a high cost."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:83
+msgid ""
+"A five-hundred-person project is likely to collapse under its own weight "
+"almost immediately without a revision control tool and process. In this case, "
+"the cost of using revision control might hardly seem worth considering, since "
+"<emphasis>without</emphasis> it, failure is almost guaranteed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:90
+msgid ""
+"On the other hand, a one-person <quote>quick hack</quote> might seem like a "
+"poor place to use a revision control tool, because surely the cost of using "
+"one must be close to the overall cost of the project.  Right?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:95
+msgid ""
+"Mercurial uniquely supports <emphasis>both</emphasis> of these scales of "
+"development.  You can learn the basics in just a few minutes, and due to its "
+"low overhead, you can apply revision control to the smallest of projects with "
+"ease.  Its simplicity means you won't have a lot of abstruse concepts or "
+"command sequences competing for mental space with whatever you're "
+"<emphasis>really</emphasis> trying to do.  At the same time, Mercurial's high "
+"performance and peer-to-peer nature let you scale painlessly to handle large "
+"projects."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:105
+msgid ""
+"No revision control tool can rescue a poorly run project, but a good choice "
+"of tools can make a huge difference to the fluidity with which you can work "
+"on a project."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><title>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:112
+msgid "The many names of revision control"
+msgstr "版本控制的别名"
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:114
+msgid ""
+"Revision control is a diverse field, so much so that it is referred to by "
+"many names and acronyms.  Here are a few of the more common variations you'll "
+"encounter:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:118
+msgid "Revision control (RCS)"
+msgstr "版本控制(RCS)"
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:119
+msgid "Software configuration management (SCM), or configuration management"
+msgstr "软件配置管理(SCM),或配置管理"
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:121
+msgid "Source code management"
+msgstr "源代码管理"
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:122
+msgid "Source code control, or source control"
+msgstr "源代码控制,或源控制"
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:124
+msgid "Version control (VCS)"
+msgstr "版本控制(VCS)"
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:126
+msgid ""
+"Some people claim that these terms actually have different meanings, but in "
+"practice they overlap so much that there's no agreed or even useful way to "
+"tease them apart."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><title>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:134
+msgid "This book is a work in progress"
+msgstr "本书正在编写中"
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:136
+msgid ""
+"I am releasing this book while I am still writing it, in the hope that it "
+"will prove useful to others.  I am writing under an open license in the hope "
+"that you, my readers, will contribute feedback and perhaps content of your "
+"own."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><title>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:143
+msgid "About the examples in this book"
+msgstr "本书的例子"
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:145
+msgid ""
+"This book takes an unusual approach to code samples.  Every example is "
+"<quote>live</quote>---each one is actually the result of a shell script that "
+"executes the Mercurial commands you see.  Every time an image of the book is "
+"built from its sources, all the example scripts are automatically run, and "
+"their current results compared against their expected results."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:152
+msgid ""
+"The advantage of this approach is that the examples are always accurate; they "
+"describe <emphasis>exactly</emphasis> the behaviour of the version of "
+"Mercurial that's mentioned at the front of the book.  If I update the version "
+"of Mercurial that I'm documenting, and the output of some command changes, "
+"the build fails."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:159
+msgid ""
+"There is a small disadvantage to this approach, which is that the dates and "
+"times you'll see in examples tend to be <quote>squashed</quote> together in a "
+"way that they wouldn't be if the same commands were being typed by a human.  "
+"Where a human can issue no more than one command every few seconds, with any "
+"resulting timestamps correspondingly spread out, my automated example scripts "
+"run many commands in one second."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:167
+msgid ""
+"As an instance of this, several consecutive commits in an example can show up "
+"as having occurred during the same second.  You can see this occur in the "
+"<literal role=\"hg-ext\">bisect</literal> example in section <xref linkend="
+"\"sec.undo.bisect\"/>, for instance."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:173
+msgid ""
+"So when you're reading examples, don't place too much weight on the dates or "
+"times you see in the output of commands.  But <emphasis>do</emphasis> be "
+"confident that the behaviour you're seeing is consistent and reproducible."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><title>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:181
+msgid "Trends in the field"
+msgstr "版本控制的发展趋势"
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:183
+msgid ""
+"There has been an unmistakable trend in the development and use of revision "
+"control tools over the past four decades, as people have become familiar with "
+"the capabilities of their tools and constrained by their limitations."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:188
+msgid ""
+"The first generation began by managing single files on individual computers.  "
+"Although these tools represented a huge advance over ad-hoc manual revision "
+"control, their locking model and reliance on a single computer limited them "
+"to small, tightly-knit teams."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:194
+msgid ""
+"The second generation loosened these constraints by moving to network-"
+"centered architectures, and managing entire projects at a time.  As projects "
+"grew larger, they ran into new problems.  With clients needing to talk to "
+"servers very frequently, server scaling became an issue for large projects.  "
+"An unreliable network connection could prevent remote users from being able "
+"to talk to the server at all.  As open source projects started making read-"
+"only access available anonymously to anyone, people without commit privileges "
+"found that they could not use the tools to interact with a project in a "
+"natural way, as they could not record their changes."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:206
+msgid ""
+"The current generation of revision control tools is peer-to-peer in nature.  "
+"All of these systems have dropped the dependency on a single central server, "
+"and allow people to distribute their revision control data to where it's "
+"actually needed.  Collaboration over the Internet has moved from constrained "
+"by technology to a matter of choice and consensus.  Modern tools can operate "
+"offline indefinitely and autonomously, with a network connection only needed "
+"when syncing changes with another repository."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><title>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:218
+msgid "A few of the advantages of distributed revision control"
+msgstr "分布版本控制的优点"
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:221
+msgid ""
+"Even though distributed revision control tools have for several years been as "
+"robust and usable as their previous-generation counterparts, people using "
+"older tools have not yet necessarily woken up to their advantages.  There are "
+"a number of ways in which distributed tools shine relative to centralised "
+"ones."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:228
+msgid ""
+"For an individual developer, distributed tools are almost always much faster "
+"than centralised tools.  This is for a simple reason: a centralised tool "
+"needs to talk over the network for many common operations, because most "
+"metadata is stored in a single copy on the central server.  A distributed "
+"tool stores all of its metadata locally.  All else being equal, talking over "
+"the network adds overhead to a centralised tool.  Don't underestimate the "
+"value of a snappy, responsive tool: you're going to spend a lot of time "
+"interacting with your revision control software."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:239
+msgid ""
+"Distributed tools are indifferent to the vagaries of your server "
+"infrastructure, again because they replicate metadata to so many locations.  "
+"If you use a centralised system and your server catches fire, you'd better "
+"hope that your backup media are reliable, and that your last backup was "
+"recent and actually worked.  With a distributed tool, you have many backups "
+"available on every contributor's computer."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:247
+msgid ""
+"The reliability of your network will affect distributed tools far less than "
+"it will centralised tools.  You can't even use a centralised tool without a "
+"network connection, except for a few highly constrained commands.  With a "
+"distributed tool, if your network connection goes down while you're working, "
+"you may not even notice.  The only thing you won't be able to do is talk to "
+"repositories on other computers, something that is relatively rare compared "
+"with local operations.  If you have a far-flung team of collaborators, this "
+"may be significant."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><title>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:258
+msgid "Advantages for open source projects"
+msgstr "开源项目的优点"
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:260
+msgid ""
+"If you take a shine to an open source project and decide that you would like "
+"to start hacking on it, and that project uses a distributed revision control "
+"tool, you are at once a peer with the people who consider themselves the "
+"<quote>core</quote> of that project.  If they publish their repositories, you "
+"can immediately copy their project history, start making changes, and record "
+"your work, using the same tools in the same ways as insiders.  By contrast, "
+"with a centralised tool, you must use the software in a <quote>read only</"
+"quote> mode unless someone grants you permission to commit changes to their "
+"central server.  Until then, you won't be able to record changes, and your "
+"local modifications will be at risk of corruption any time you try to update "
+"your client's view of the repository."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><sect3><title>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:276
+msgid "The forking non-problem"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:278
+msgid ""
+"It has been suggested that distributed revision control tools pose some sort "
+"of risk to open source projects because they make it easy to <quote>fork</"
+"quote> the development of a project.  A fork happens when there are "
+"differences in opinion or attitude between groups of developers that cause "
+"them to decide that they can't work together any longer.  Each side takes a "
+"more or less complete copy of the project's source code, and goes off in its "
+"own direction."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:288
+msgid ""
+"Sometimes the camps in a fork decide to reconcile their differences. With a "
+"centralised revision control system, the <emphasis>technical</emphasis> "
+"process of reconciliation is painful, and has to be performed largely by "
+"hand.  You have to decide whose revision history is going to <quote>win</"
+"quote>, and graft the other team's changes into the tree somehow. This "
+"usually loses some or all of one side's revision history."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:297
+msgid ""
+"What distributed tools do with respect to forking is they make forking the "
+"<emphasis>only</emphasis> way to develop a project.  Every single change that "
+"you make is potentially a fork point.  The great strength of this approach is "
+"that a distributed revision control tool has to be really good at "
+"<emphasis>merging</emphasis> forks, because forks are absolutely fundamental: "
+"they happen all the time."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:306
+msgid ""
+"If every piece of work that everybody does, all the time, is framed in terms "
+"of forking and merging, then what the open source world refers to as a "
+"<quote>fork</quote> becomes <emphasis>purely</emphasis> a social issue.  If "
+"anything, distributed tools <emphasis>lower</emphasis> the likelihood of a "
+"fork:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><sect3><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:313
+msgid ""
+"They eliminate the social distinction that centralised tools impose: that "
+"between insiders (people with commit access) and outsiders (people without)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><sect3><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:317
+msgid ""
+"They make it easier to reconcile after a social fork, because all that's "
+"involved from the perspective of the revision control software is just "
+"another merge."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:322
+msgid ""
+"Some people resist distributed tools because they want to retain tight "
+"control over their projects, and they believe that centralised tools give "
+"them this control.  However, if you're of this belief, and you publish your "
+"CVS or Subversion repositories publicly, there are plenty of tools available "
+"that can pull out your entire project's history (albeit slowly) and recreate "
+"it somewhere that you don't control.  So while your control in this case is "
+"illusory, you are forgoing the ability to fluidly collaborate with whatever "
+"people feel compelled to mirror and fork your history."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><title>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:337
+msgid "Advantages for commercial projects"
+msgstr "商业项目的优点"
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:339
+msgid ""
+"Many commercial projects are undertaken by teams that are scattered across "
+"the globe.  Contributors who are far from a central server will see slower "
+"command execution and perhaps less reliability.  Commercial revision control "
+"systems attempt to ameliorate these problems with remote-site replication add-"
+"ons that are typically expensive to buy and cantankerous to administer.  A "
+"distributed system doesn't suffer from these problems in the first place.  "
+"Better yet, you can easily set up multiple authoritative servers, say one per "
+"site, so that there's no redundant communication between repositories over "
+"expensive long-haul network links."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:351
+msgid ""
+"Centralised revision control systems tend to have relatively low "
+"scalability.  It's not unusual for an expensive centralised system to fall "
+"over under the combined load of just a few dozen concurrent users.  Once "
+"again, the typical response tends to be an expensive and clunky replication "
+"facility.  Since the load on a central server---if you have one at all---is "
+"many times lower with a distributed tool (because all of the data is "
+"replicated everywhere), a single cheap server can handle the needs of a much "
+"larger team, and replication to balance load becomes a simple matter of "
+"scripting."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:363
+msgid ""
+"If you have an employee in the field, troubleshooting a problem at a "
+"customer's site, they'll benefit from distributed revision control. The tool "
+"will let them generate custom builds, try different fixes in isolation from "
+"each other, and search efficiently through history for the sources of bugs "
+"and regressions in the customer's environment, all without needing to connect "
+"to your company's network."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><title>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:374
+msgid "Why choose Mercurial?"
+msgstr "为什么选择 Mercurial?"
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:376
+msgid ""
+"Mercurial has a unique set of properties that make it a particularly good "
+"choice as a revision control system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:379
+msgid "It is easy to learn and use."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:380
+msgid "It is lightweight."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:381
+msgid "It scales excellently."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:382
+msgid "It is easy to customise."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:385
+msgid ""
+"If you are at all familiar with revision control systems, you should be able "
+"to get up and running with Mercurial in less than five minutes.  Even if not, "
+"it will take no more than a few minutes longer.  Mercurial's command and "
+"feature sets are generally uniform and consistent, so you can keep track of a "
+"few general rules instead of a host of exceptions."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:392
+msgid ""
+"On a small project, you can start working with Mercurial in moments. Creating "
+"new changes and branches; transferring changes around (whether locally or "
+"over a network); and history and status operations are all fast.  Mercurial "
+"attempts to stay nimble and largely out of your way by combining low "
+"cognitive overhead with blazingly fast operations."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:399
+msgid ""
+"The usefulness of Mercurial is not limited to small projects: it is used by "
+"projects with hundreds to thousands of contributors, each containing tens of "
+"thousands of files and hundreds of megabytes of source code."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:404
+msgid ""
+"If the core functionality of Mercurial is not enough for you, it's easy to "
+"build on.  Mercurial is well suited to scripting tasks, and its clean "
+"internals and implementation in Python make it easy to add features in the "
+"form of extensions.  There are a number of popular and useful extensions "
+"already available, ranging from helping to identify bugs to improving "
+"performance."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><title>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:414
+msgid "Mercurial compared with other tools"
+msgstr "Mercurial 与其它工具的比较"
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:416
+msgid ""
+"Before you read on, please understand that this section necessarily reflects "
+"my own experiences, interests, and (dare I say it) biases.  I have used every "
+"one of the revision control tools listed below, in most cases for several "
+"years at a time."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:424 ../en/ch00-preface.xml:635
+msgid "Subversion"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:426
+msgid ""
+"Subversion is a popular revision control tool, developed to replace CVS.  It "
+"has a centralised client/server architecture."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:430
+msgid ""
+"Subversion and Mercurial have similarly named commands for performing the "
+"same operations, so if you're familiar with one, it is easy to learn to use "
+"the other.  Both tools are portable to all popular operating systems."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:435
+msgid ""
+"Prior to version 1.5, Subversion had no useful support for merges. At the "
+"time of writing, its merge tracking capability is new, and known to be <ulink "
+"url=\"http://svnbook.red-bean.com/nightly/en/svn.branchmerge.advanced."
+"html#svn.branchmerge.advanced.finalword\">complicated and buggy</ulink>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:441
+msgid ""
+"Mercurial has a substantial performance advantage over Subversion on every "
+"revision control operation I have benchmarked.  I have measured its advantage "
+"as ranging from a factor of two to a factor of six when compared with "
+"Subversion 1.4.3's <emphasis>ra_local</emphasis> file store, which is the "
+"fastest access method available.  In more realistic deployments involving a "
+"network-based store, Subversion will be at a substantially larger "
+"disadvantage.  Because many Subversion commands must talk to the server and "
+"Subversion does not have useful replication facilities, server capacity and "
+"network bandwidth become bottlenecks for modestly large projects."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:454
+msgid ""
+"Additionally, Subversion incurs substantial storage overhead to avoid network "
+"transactions for a few common operations, such as finding modified files "
+"(<literal>status</literal>) and displaying modifications against the current "
+"revision (<literal>diff</literal>).  As a result, a Subversion working copy "
+"is often the same size as, or larger than, a Mercurial repository and working "
+"directory, even though the Mercurial repository contains a complete history "
+"of the project."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:464
+msgid ""
+"Subversion is widely supported by third party tools.  Mercurial currently "
+"lags considerably in this area.  This gap is closing, however, and indeed "
+"some of Mercurial's GUI tools now outshine their Subversion equivalents.  "
+"Like Mercurial, Subversion has an excellent user manual."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:470
+msgid ""
+"Because Subversion doesn't store revision history on the client, it is well "
+"suited to managing projects that deal with lots of large, opaque binary "
+"files.  If you check in fifty revisions to an incompressible 10MB file, "
+"Subversion's client-side space usage stays constant The space used by any "
+"distributed SCM will grow rapidly in proportion to the number of revisions, "
+"because the differences between each revision are large."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:479
+msgid ""
+"In addition, it's often difficult or, more usually, impossible to merge "
+"different versions of a binary file.  Subversion's ability to let a user lock "
+"a file, so that they temporarily have the exclusive right to commit changes "
+"to it, can be a significant advantage to a project where binary files are "
+"widely used."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:486
+msgid ""
+"Mercurial can import revision history from a Subversion repository. It can "
+"also export revision history to a Subversion repository.  This makes it easy "
+"to <quote>test the waters</quote> and use Mercurial and Subversion in "
+"parallel before deciding to switch.  History conversion is incremental, so "
+"you can perform an initial conversion, then small additional conversions "
+"afterwards to bring in new changes."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:498 ../en/ch00-preface.xml:637
+msgid "Git"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:500
+msgid ""
+"Git is a distributed revision control tool that was developed for managing "
+"the Linux kernel source tree.  Like Mercurial, its early design was somewhat "
+"influenced by Monotone."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:505
+msgid ""
+"Git has a very large command set, with version 1.5.0 providing 139 individual "
+"commands.  It has something of a reputation for being difficult to learn.  "
+"Compared to Git, Mercurial has a strong focus on simplicity."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:510
+msgid ""
+"In terms of performance, Git is extremely fast.  In several cases, it is "
+"faster than Mercurial, at least on Linux, while Mercurial performs better on "
+"other operations.  However, on Windows, the performance and general level of "
+"support that Git provides is, at the time of writing, far behind that of "
+"Mercurial."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:517
+msgid ""
+"While a Mercurial repository needs no maintenance, a Git repository requires "
+"frequent manual <quote>repacks</quote> of its metadata.  Without these, "
+"performance degrades, while space usage grows rapidly.  A server that "
+"contains many Git repositories that are not rigorously and frequently "
+"repacked will become heavily disk-bound during backups, and there have been "
+"instances of daily backups taking far longer than 24 hours as a result.  A "
+"freshly packed Git repository is slightly smaller than a Mercurial "
+"repository, but an unpacked repository is several orders of magnitude larger."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:528
+msgid ""
+"The core of Git is written in C.  Many Git commands are implemented as shell "
+"or Perl scripts, and the quality of these scripts varies widely. I have "
+"encountered several instances where scripts charged along blindly in the "
+"presence of errors that should have been fatal."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:534
+msgid "Mercurial can import revision history from a Git repository."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:540 ../en/ch00-preface.xml:636
+msgid "CVS"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:542
+msgid ""
+"CVS is probably the most widely used revision control tool in the world.  Due "
+"to its age and internal untidiness, it has been only lightly maintained for "
+"many years."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:546
+msgid ""
+"It has a centralised client/server architecture.  It does not group related "
+"file changes into atomic commits, making it easy for people to <quote>break "
+"the build</quote>: one person can successfully commit part of a change and "
+"then be blocked by the need for a merge, causing other people to see only a "
+"portion of the work they intended to do.  This also affects how you work with "
+"project history.  If you want to see all of the modifications someone made as "
+"part of a task, you will need to manually inspect the descriptions and "
+"timestamps of the changes made to each file involved (if you even know what "
+"those files were)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:558
+msgid ""
+"CVS has a muddled notion of tags and branches that I will not attempt to even "
+"describe.  It does not support renaming of files or directories well, making "
+"it easy to corrupt a repository.  It has almost no internal consistency "
+"checking capabilities, so it is usually not even possible to tell whether or "
+"how a repository is corrupt.  I would not recommend CVS for any project, "
+"existing or new."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:566
+msgid ""
+"Mercurial can import CVS revision history.  However, there are a few caveats "
+"that apply; these are true of every other revision control tool's CVS "
+"importer, too.  Due to CVS's lack of atomic changes and unversioned "
+"filesystem hierarchy, it is not possible to reconstruct CVS history "
+"completely accurately; some guesswork is involved, and renames will usually "
+"not show up.  Because a lot of advanced CVS administration has to be done by "
+"hand and is hence error-prone, it's common for CVS importers to run into "
+"multiple problems with corrupted repositories (completely bogus revision "
+"timestamps and files that have remained locked for over a decade are just two "
+"of the less interesting problems I can recall from personal experience)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:580
+msgid "Mercurial can import revision history from a CVS repository."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><title>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:586
+msgid "Commercial tools"
+msgstr "商业工具"
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:588
+msgid ""
+"Perforce has a centralised client/server architecture, with no client-side "
+"caching of any data.  Unlike modern revision control tools, Perforce requires "
+"that a user run a command to inform the server about every file they intend "
+"to edit."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:594
+msgid ""
+"The performance of Perforce is quite good for small teams, but it falls off "
+"rapidly as the number of users grows beyond a few dozen. Modestly large "
+"Perforce installations require the deployment of proxies to cope with the "
+"load their users generate."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><title>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:603
+msgid "Choosing a revision control tool"
+msgstr "选择版本控制工具"
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:605
+msgid ""
+"With the exception of CVS, all of the tools listed above have unique "
+"strengths that suit them to particular styles of work.  There is no single "
+"revision control tool that is best in all situations."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:610
+msgid ""
+"As an example, Subversion is a good choice for working with frequently edited "
+"binary files, due to its centralised nature and support for file locking."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><sect2><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:614
+msgid ""
+"I personally find Mercurial's properties of simplicity, performance, and good "
+"merge support to be a compelling combination that has served me well for "
+"several years."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><title>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:622
+msgid "Switching from another tool to Mercurial"
+msgstr "从其它工具切换到 Mercurial"
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:624
+msgid ""
+"Mercurial is bundled with an extension named <literal role=\"hg-ext"
+"\">convert</literal>, which can incrementally import revision history from "
+"several other revision control tools.  By <quote>incremental</quote>, I mean "
+"that you can convert all of a project's history to date in one go, then rerun "
+"the conversion later to obtain new changes that happened after the initial "
+"conversion."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:632
+msgid ""
+"The revision control tools supported by <literal role=\"hg-ext\">convert</"
+"literal> are as follows:"
+msgstr "<literal role=\"hg-ext\">convert</literal> 支持的版本控制工具有:"
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><itemizedlist><listitem><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:638
+msgid "Darcs"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:640
+msgid ""
+"In addition, <literal role=\"hg-ext\">convert</literal> can export changes "
+"from Mercurial to Subversion.  This makes it possible to try Subversion and "
+"Mercurial in parallel before committing to a switchover, without risking the "
+"loss of any work."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:646
+msgid ""
+"The <command role=\"hg-ext-convert\">convert</command> command is easy to "
+"use.  Simply point it at the path or URL of the source repository, optionally "
+"give it the name of the destination repository, and it will start working.  "
+"After the initial conversion, just run the same command again to import new "
+"changes."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><title>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:655
+msgid "A short history of revision control"
+msgstr "版本控制简史"
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:657
+msgid ""
+"The best known of the old-time revision control tools is SCCS (Source Code "
+"Control System), which Marc Rochkind wrote at Bell Labs, in the early 1970s.  "
+"SCCS operated on individual files, and required every person working on a "
+"project to have access to a shared workspace on a single system.  Only one "
+"person could modify a file at any time; arbitration for access to files was "
+"via locks.  It was common for people to lock files, and later forget to "
+"unlock them, preventing anyone else from modifying those files without the "
+"help of an administrator."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:668
+msgid ""
+"Walter Tichy developed a free alternative to SCCS in the early 1980s; he "
+"called his program RCS (Revision Control System).  Like SCCS, RCS required "
+"developers to work in a single shared workspace, and to lock files to prevent "
+"multiple people from modifying them simultaneously."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:674
+msgid ""
+"Later in the 1980s, Dick Grune used RCS as a building block for a set of "
+"shell scripts he initially called cmt, but then renamed to CVS (Concurrent "
+"Versions System).  The big innovation of CVS was that it let developers work "
+"simultaneously and somewhat independently in their own personal workspaces.  "
+"The personal workspaces prevented developers from stepping on each other's "
+"toes all the time, as was common with SCCS and RCS. Each developer had a copy "
+"of every project file, and could modify their copies independently.  They had "
+"to merge their edits prior to committing changes to the central repository."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:685
+msgid ""
+"Brian Berliner took Grune's original scripts and rewrote them in C, releasing "
+"in 1989 the code that has since developed into the modern version of CVS.  "
+"CVS subsequently acquired the ability to operate over a network connection, "
+"giving it a client/server architecture.  CVS's architecture is centralised; "
+"only the server has a copy of the history of the project. Client workspaces "
+"just contain copies of recent versions of the project's files, and a little "
+"metadata to tell them where the server is.  CVS has been enormously "
+"successful; it is probably the world's most widely used revision control "
+"system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:696
+msgid ""
+"In the early 1990s, Sun Microsystems developed an early distributed revision "
+"control system, called TeamWare.  A TeamWare workspace contains a complete "
+"copy of the project's history.  TeamWare has no notion of a central "
+"repository.  (CVS relied upon RCS for its history storage; TeamWare used "
+"SCCS.)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:703
+msgid ""
+"As the 1990s progressed, awareness grew of a number of problems with CVS.  It "
+"records simultaneous changes to multiple files individually, instead of "
+"grouping them together as a single logically atomic operation.  It does not "
+"manage its file hierarchy well; it is easy to make a mess of a repository by "
+"renaming files and directories.  Worse, its source code is difficult to read "
+"and maintain, which made the <quote>pain level</quote> of fixing these "
+"architectural problems prohibitive."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:713
+msgid ""
+"In 2001, Jim Blandy and Karl Fogel, two developers who had worked on CVS, "
+"started a project to replace it with a tool that would have a better "
+"architecture and cleaner code.  The result, Subversion, does not stray from "
+"CVS's centralised client/server model, but it adds multi-file atomic commits, "
+"better namespace management, and a number of other features that make it a "
+"generally better tool than CVS. Since its initial release, it has rapidly "
+"grown in popularity."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:722
+msgid ""
+"More or less simultaneously, Graydon Hoare began working on an ambitious "
+"distributed revision control system that he named Monotone. While Monotone "
+"addresses many of CVS's design flaws and has a peer-to-peer architecture, it "
+"goes beyond earlier (and subsequent) revision control tools in a number of "
+"innovative ways.  It uses cryptographic hashes as identifiers, and has an "
+"integral notion of <quote>trust</quote> for code from different sources."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:731
+msgid ""
+"Mercurial began life in 2005.  While a few aspects of its design are "
+"influenced by Monotone, Mercurial focuses on ease of use, high performance, "
+"and scalability to very large projects."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><title>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:739
+msgid "Colophon&emdash;this book is Free"
+msgstr "后记&emdash;本书是自由的!"
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:741
+msgid ""
+"This book is licensed under the Open Publication License, and is produced "
+"entirely using Free Software tools.  It is typeset with DocBook XML.  "
+"Illustrations are drawn and rendered with <ulink url=\"http://www.inkscape."
+"org/\">Inkscape</ulink>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Content of: <book><preface><sect1><para>
+#: ../en/ch00-preface.xml:746
+msgid ""
+"The complete source code for this book is published as a Mercurial "
+"repository, at <ulink url=\"http://hg.serpentine.com/mercurial/book\">http://"
+"hg.serpentine.com/mercurial/book</ulink>."
+msgstr ""
+
 #. type: Content of: <book><chapter><title>
 #: ../en/ch01-tour-basic.xml:5
 msgid "A tour of Mercurial: the basics"
 
 #. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><title>
 #: ../en/ch05-collab.xml:1405
-#, fuzzy
 msgid ""
 "Choosing the right <filename role=\"special\">~/.hgrc</filename> file to add "
 "<literal role=\"rc-web\">web</literal> items to"
 msgstr ""
-"选择正确的 <filename role=\"special\"> /.hgrc</filename> 文件增加到 <literal "
+"选择正确的 <filename role=\"special\"> ~/.hgrc</filename> 文件增加到 <literal "
 "role=\"rc-web\">web</literal> 条目"
 
 #. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
 
 #. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
 #: ../en/ch09-hook.xml:897
-#, fuzzy
 msgid ""
 "You should configure this hook in your server's <filename role=\"special\">~/."
 "hgrc</filename> as an <literal role=\"hook\">incoming</literal> hook, for "
 "example as follows:"
 msgstr ""
-"选择正确的 <filename role=\"special\"> /.hgrc</filename> 文件增加到 <literal "
-"role=\"rc-web\">web</literal> 条目"
 
 #. type: Content of: <book><chapter><sect1><sect2><sect3><para>
 #: ../en/ch09-hook.xml:905
 "the number of lines affected, and a histogram showing how much each file is "
 "modified.  This gives readers a qualitative glance at how complex a patch is."
 msgstr ""
-
-#~ msgid "Introduction"
-#~ msgstr "简介"
-
-#~ msgid "About revision control"
-#~ msgstr "关于版本控制"
-
-#~ msgid "Why use revision control?"
-#~ msgstr "为什么使用版本控制?"
-
-#~ msgid "The many names of revision control"
-#~ msgstr "版本控制的别名"
-
-#~ msgid "Revision control (RCS)"
-#~ msgstr "版本控制(RCS)"
-
-#~ msgid "Software configuration management (SCM), or configuration management"
-#~ msgstr "软件配置管理(SCM),或配置管理"
-
-#~ msgid "Source code management"
-#~ msgstr "源代码管理"
-
-#~ msgid "Source code control, or source control"
-#~ msgstr "源代码控制,或源控制"
-
-#~ msgid "Version control (VCS)"
-#~ msgstr "版本控制(VCS)"
-
-#~ msgid "A short history of revision control"
-#~ msgstr "版本控制简史"
-
-#~ msgid "Trends in revision control"
-#~ msgstr "版本控制的发展趋势"
-
-#~ msgid "A few of the advantages of distributed revision control"
-#~ msgstr "分布版本控制的优点"
-
-#~ msgid "Advantages for open source projects"
-#~ msgstr "开源项目的优点"
-
-#~ msgid "Advantages for commercial projects"
-#~ msgstr "商业项目的优点"
-
-#~ msgid "Why choose Mercurial?"
-#~ msgstr "为什么选择 Mercurial?"
-
-#~ msgid "Mercurial compared with other tools"
-#~ msgstr "Mercurial 与其它工具的比较"
-
-#~ msgid "Commercial tools"
-#~ msgstr "商业工具"
-
-#~ msgid "Choosing a revision control tool"
-#~ msgstr "选择版本控制工具"
-
-#~ msgid "Switching from another tool to Mercurial"
-#~ msgstr "从其它工具切换到 Mercurial"