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Michał Jaworski  committed 7e036cf

bitbucket now supports reStructuredText

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+=====================
+Django OAuth provider
+=====================
+
+The `OAuth protocol`_ enables websites or applications (Consumers) to access 
+Protected Resources from a web service (Service Provider) via an API, without 
+requiring Users to disclose their Service Provider credentials to the 
+Consumers. More generally, OAuth creates a freely-implementable and generic 
+methodology for API authentication.
+
+.. _`OAuth protocol`: http://oauth.net/core/1.0a
+
+
+Authenticating with OAuth
+=========================
+
+OAuth authentication is the process in which Users grant access to their 
+Protected Resources without sharing their credentials with the Consumer. 
+OAuth uses Tokens generated by the Service Provider instead of the User's 
+credentials in Protected Resources requests. The process uses two Token types:
+
+    * **Request Token:**
+      Used by the Consumer to ask the User to authorize access to the 
+      Protected Resources. The User-authorized Request Token is exchanged for 
+      an Access Token, MUST only be used once, and MUST NOT be used for any 
+      other purpose. It is RECOMMENDED that Request Tokens have a limited 
+      lifetime.
+    * **Access Token:**
+      Used by the Consumer to access the Protected Resources on behalf of the 
+      User. Access Tokens MAY limit access to certain Protected Resources, and 
+      MAY have a limited lifetime. Service Providers SHOULD allow Users to 
+      revoke Access Tokens. Only the Access Token SHALL be used to access the 
+      Protect Resources.
+
+OAuth Authentication is done in three steps:
+
+    * The Consumer obtains an unauthorized Request Token.
+    * The User authorizes the Request Token.
+    * The Consumer exchanges the Request Token for an Access Token.
+
+See the `OAuth Authentication Flow`_ if you need visual details.
+
+.. _`OAuth Authentication Flow`: http://oauth.net/core/diagram.png
+
+
+Django installation
+===================
+
+First, install dependencies through pip::
+
+    pip install -r requirements.txt
+
+You need to specify the OAuth provider application in your settings and to 
+sync your database thanks to the ``syncdb`` command. Then add it to your 
+URLs::
+
+    # urls.py
+    urlpatterns = patterns('',
+        url(r'^oauth/', include('oauth_provider.urls'))
+    )
+
+.. note::
+    The ``oauth`` prefix is not required, you can specify whatever you want.
+
+As a provider, you probably need to customize the view you display to the user
+in order to allow access. The ``OAUTH_AUTHORIZE_VIEW`` setting allow you to
+specify this view, for instance::
+
+    # settings.py
+    OAUTH_AUTHORIZE_VIEW = 'myapp.views.oauth_authorize'
+
+.. note::
+    See example below with a custom callback view (optional), which depends on
+    ``OAUTH_CALLBACK_VIEW`` setting.
+
+.. note::
+    This implementation set an ``oauth`` flag in session which certify that 
+    the validation had been done by the current user. Otherwise, the external 
+    service can directly POST the validation argument and validate the token 
+    without any action from the user if he is already logged in. Do not delete
+    it in your own view.
+
+There is another setting dedicated to OAuth ``OAUTH_REALM_KEY_NAME``, which
+allows you to specify a realm which will be used in headers::
+
+    # settings.py
+    OAUTH_REALM_KEY_NAME = 'http://photos.example.net'
+    
+    # response
+    WWW-Authenticate: OAuth realm="http://photos.example.net/"
+
+With this setup, your OAuth URLs will be:
+
+    * Request Token URL: /oauth/request_token/
+    * User Authorization URL: /oauth/authorize/, using HTTP GET.
+    * Access Token URL: /oauth/access_token/
+
+That is the only thing you need to document for external developers.
+
+.. note::
+    You can customize the length of your key/secret attributes with 
+    constants ``KEY_SIZE``, ``SECRET_SIZE`` and ``CONSUMER_KEY_SIZE`` defined 
+    in consts.py. Default is set to 16 characters for ``KEY_SIZE`` and 
+    ``SECRET_SIZE`` and 256 characters for ``CONSUMER_KEY_SIZE``.
+
+The ``OAUTH_BLACKLISTED_HOSTNAMES`` setting allows you to restrict callback
+URL hostnames, it must be a list of blacklisted ones. For example::
+
+    OAUTH_BLACKLISTED_HOSTNAMES = ['localhost', '127.0.0.1']
+
+Default is an empty list.
+
+The ``OAUTH_SIGNATURE_METHODS`` setting allows you to restrict signatures'
+methods you'd like to use. For example if you don't want plaintext signature::
+
+    OAUTH_SIGNATURE_METHODS = ['hmac-sha1',]
+
+Default is ``['plaintext', 'hmac-sha1']``.
+
+A complete example is available in ``oauth_examples/provider/`` folder, you
+can run tests from this example with this command::
+
+    $ python manage.py test oauth_provider
+    ...
+    Ran 1 test in 0.264s
+    
+    OK
+    ...
+
+
+Protocol Example 1.0a
+=====================
+
+.. warning::
+    THIS IS THE RECOMMENDED WAY TO USE THIS APPLICATION.
+
+This example is exactly the same as 1.0 except it uses newly introduced
+arguments to be 1.0a compatible and fix the security issue.
+
+An account for Jane is necessary::
+
+    >>> from django.contrib.auth.models import User
+    >>> jane = User.objects.create_user('jane', 'jane@example.com', 'toto')
+
+
+Documentation and Registration
+------------------------------
+
+The Service Provider documentation explains how to register for a Consumer Key 
+and Consumer Secret, and declares the following URLs:
+
+    * Request Token URL:
+      http://photos.example.net/request_token, using HTTP POST
+    * User Authorization URL:
+      http://photos.example.net/authorize, using HTTP GET
+    * Access Token URL:
+      http://photos.example.net/access_token, using HTTP POST
+    * Photo (Protected Resource) URL:
+      http://photos.example.net/photo with required parameter file and 
+      optional parameter size
+
+The Service Provider declares support for the HMAC-SHA1 signature method for 
+all requests, and PLAINTEXT only for secure (HTTPS) requests.
+
+The Consumer printer.example.com already established a Consumer Key and 
+Consumer Secret with photos.example.net and advertizes its printing services 
+for photos stored on photos.example.net. The Consumer registration is:
+
+    * Consumer Key: dpf43f3p2l4k3l03
+    * Consumer Secret: kd94hf93k423kf44
+
+We need to create the Protected Resource and the Consumer first::
+
+    >>> from oauth_provider.models import Resource, Consumer
+    >>> resource = Resource(name='photos', url='/oauth/photo/')
+    >>> resource.save()
+    >>> CONSUMER_KEY = 'dpf43f3p2l4k3l03'
+    >>> CONSUMER_SECRET = 'kd94hf93k423kf44'
+    >>> consumer = Consumer(key=CONSUMER_KEY, secret=CONSUMER_SECRET, 
+    ...                     name='printer.example.com', user=jane)
+    >>> consumer.save()
+
+
+Obtaining a Request Token
+-------------------------
+
+After Jane informs printer.example.com that she would like to print her 
+vacation photo stored at photos.example.net, the printer website tries to 
+access the photo and receives HTTP 401 Unauthorized indicating it is private. 
+The Service Provider includes the following header with the response::
+
+    >>> from django.test.client import Client
+    >>> c = Client()
+    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/request_token/")
+    >>> response.status_code
+    401
+    >>> # depends on REALM_KEY_NAME Django setting
+    >>> response._headers['www-authenticate']
+    ('WWW-Authenticate', 'OAuth realm=""')
+    >>> response.content
+    'Invalid request parameters.'
+
+The Consumer sends the following HTTP POST request to the Service Provider::
+
+    >>> import time
+    >>> parameters = {
+    ...     'oauth_consumer_key': CONSUMER_KEY,
+    ...     'oauth_signature_method': 'PLAINTEXT',
+    ...     'oauth_signature': '%s&' % CONSUMER_SECRET,
+    ...     'oauth_timestamp': str(int(time.time())),
+    ...     'oauth_nonce': 'requestnonce',
+    ...     'oauth_version': '1.0',
+    ...     'oauth_callback': 'http://printer.example.com/request_token_ready',
+    ...     'scope': 'photos', # custom argument to specify Protected Resource
+    ... }
+    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/request_token/", parameters)
+
+The Service Provider checks the signature and replies with an unauthorized 
+Request Token in the body of the HTTP response::
+
+    >>> response.status_code
+    200
+    >>> response.content
+    'oauth_token_secret=...&oauth_token=...&oauth_callback_confirmed=true'
+    >>> from oauth_provider.models import Token
+    >>> token = list(Token.objects.all())[-1]
+    >>> token.key in response.content, token.secret in response.content
+    (True, True)
+    >>> token.callback, token.callback_confirmed
+    (u'http://printer.example.com/request_token_ready', True)
+
+If you try to access a resource with a wrong scope, it will return an error::
+
+    >>> parameters['scope'] = 'videos'
+    >>> parameters['oauth_nonce'] = 'requestnoncevideos'
+    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/request_token/", parameters)
+    >>> response.status_code
+    401
+    >>> response.content
+    'Resource videos does not exist.'
+    >>> parameters['scope'] = 'photos' # restore
+
+If you try to put a wrong callback, it will return an error::
+
+    >>> parameters['oauth_callback'] = 'wrongcallback'
+    >>> parameters['oauth_nonce'] = 'requestnoncewrongcallback'
+    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/request_token/", parameters)
+    >>> response.status_code
+    401
+    >>> response.content
+    'Invalid callback URL.'
+
+If you do not provide any callback (i.e. oob), the Service Provider SHOULD 
+display the value of the verification code::
+
+    >>> parameters['oauth_callback'] = 'oob'
+    >>> parameters['oauth_nonce'] = 'requestnonceoob'
+    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/request_token/", parameters)
+    >>> response.status_code
+    200
+    >>> response.content
+    'oauth_token_secret=...&oauth_token=...&oauth_callback_confirmed=true'
+    >>> oobtoken = list(Token.objects.all())[-1]
+    >>> oobtoken.key in response.content, oobtoken.secret in response.content
+    (True, True)
+    >>> oobtoken.callback, oobtoken.callback_confirmed
+    (None, False)
+
+
+Requesting User Authorization
+-----------------------------
+
+The Consumer redirects Jane's browser to the Service Provider User 
+Authorization URL to obtain Jane's approval for accessing her private photos.
+
+The Service Provider asks Jane to sign-in using her username and password::
+
+    >>> parameters = {
+    ...     'oauth_token': token.key,
+    ... }
+    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/authorize/", parameters)
+    >>> response.status_code
+    302
+    >>> response['Location']
+    'http://.../accounts/login/?next=/oauth/authorize/%3Foauth_token%3D...'
+    >>> token.key in response['Location']
+    True
+
+If successful, asks her if she approves granting printer.example.com access to 
+her private photos. If Jane approves the request, the Service Provider 
+redirects her back to the Consumer's callback URL::
+
+    >>> c.login(username='jane', password='toto')
+    True
+    >>> token.is_approved
+    0
+    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/authorize/", parameters)
+    >>> response.status_code
+    200
+    >>> response.content
+    'Fake authorize view for printer.example.com with params: oauth_token=...'
+    
+    >>> # fake authorization by the user
+    >>> parameters['authorize_access'] = 1
+    >>> response = c.post("/oauth/authorize/", parameters)
+    >>> response.status_code
+    302
+    >>> response['Location']
+    'http://printer.example.com/request_token_ready?oauth_verifier=...&oauth_token=...'
+    >>> token = Token.objects.get(key=token.key)
+    >>> token.key in response['Location']
+    True
+    >>> token.is_approved
+    1
+
+    >>> # without session parameter (previous POST removed it)
+    >>> response = c.post("/oauth/authorize/", parameters)
+    >>> response.status_code
+    401
+    >>> response.content
+    'Action not allowed.'
+    
+    >>> # fake access not granted by the user (set session parameter again)
+    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/authorize/", parameters)
+    >>> parameters['authorize_access'] = 0
+    >>> response = c.post("/oauth/authorize/", parameters)
+    >>> response.status_code
+    302
+    >>> response['Location']
+    'http://printer.example.com/request_token_ready?oauth_verifier=...&error=Access+not+granted+by+user.'
+    >>> c.logout()
+
+With OAuth 1.0a, the callback argument can be set to "oob" (out-of-band), 
+you can specify your own default callback view with the
+``OAUTH_CALLBACK_VIEW`` setting::
+
+    >>> from oauth_provider.consts import OUT_OF_BAND
+    >>> token.callback = OUT_OF_BAND
+    >>> token.save()
+    >>> parameters = {
+    ...     'oauth_token': token.key,
+    ... }
+    >>> c.login(username='jane', password='toto')
+    True
+    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/authorize/", parameters)
+    >>> parameters['authorize_access'] = 0
+    >>> response = c.post("/oauth/authorize/", parameters)
+    >>> response.status_code
+    200
+    >>> response.content
+    'Fake callback view.'
+    >>> c.logout()
+
+
+Obtaining an Access Token
+-------------------------
+
+Now that the Consumer knows Jane approved the Request Token, it asks the 
+Service Provider to exchange it for an Access Token::
+
+    >>> c = Client()
+    >>> parameters = {
+    ...     'oauth_consumer_key': CONSUMER_KEY,
+    ...     'oauth_token': token.key,
+    ...     'oauth_signature_method': 'PLAINTEXT',
+    ...     'oauth_signature': '%s&%s' % (CONSUMER_SECRET, token.secret),
+    ...     'oauth_timestamp': str(int(time.time())),
+    ...     'oauth_nonce': 'accessnonce',
+    ...     'oauth_version': '1.0',
+    ...     'oauth_verifier': token.verifier,
+    ...     'scope': 'photos',
+    ... }
+    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/access_token/", parameters)
+
+.. note::
+    You can use HTTP Authorization header, if you provide both, header will be
+    checked before parameters. It depends on your needs.
+
+The Service Provider checks the signature and replies with an Access Token in 
+the body of the HTTP response::
+
+    >>> response.status_code
+    200
+    >>> response.content
+    'oauth_token_secret=...&oauth_token=...'
+    >>> access_token = list(Token.objects.filter(token_type=Token.ACCESS))[-1]
+    >>> access_token.key in response.content
+    True
+    >>> access_token.secret in response.content
+    True
+    >>> access_token.user.username
+    u'jane'
+
+The Consumer will not be able to request another Access Token with the same
+parameters because the Request Token has been deleted once Access Token is
+created::
+
+    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/access_token/", parameters)
+    >>> response.status_code
+    400
+    >>> response.content
+    'Invalid request token.'
+
+The Consumer will not be able to request another Access Token with a missing
+or invalid verifier::
+
+    >>> new_request_token = Token.objects.create_token(
+    ...     token_type=Token.REQUEST,
+    ...     timestamp=str(int(time.time())),
+    ...     consumer=Consumer.objects.get(key=CONSUMER_KEY),
+    ...     user=jane,
+    ...     resource=Resource.objects.get(name='photos'))
+    >>> new_request_token.is_approved = True
+    >>> new_request_token.save()
+    >>> parameters['oauth_token'] = new_request_token.key
+    >>> parameters['oauth_signature'] = '%s&%s' % (CONSUMER_SECRET, new_request_token.secret)
+    >>> parameters['oauth_verifier'] = 'invalidverifier'
+    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/access_token/", parameters)
+    >>> response.status_code
+    400
+    >>> response.content
+    'Invalid OAuth verifier.'
+    >>> parameters['oauth_verifier'] = new_request_token.verifier # restore
+
+The Consumer will not be able to request an Access Token if the token is not
+approved::
+
+    >>> new_request_token.is_approved = False
+    >>> new_request_token.save()
+    >>> parameters['oauth_nonce'] = 'anotheraccessnonce'
+    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/access_token/", parameters)
+    >>> response.status_code
+    400
+    >>> response.content
+    'Request Token not approved by the user.'
+
+
+Accessing Protected Resources
+-----------------------------
+
+The Consumer is now ready to request the private photo. Since the photo URL is 
+not secure (HTTP), it must use HMAC-SHA1.
+
+Generating Signature Base String
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+To generate the signature, it first needs to generate the Signature Base 
+String. The request contains the following parameters (oauth_signature 
+excluded) which are ordered and concatenated into a normalized string::
+
+    >>> parameters = {
+    ...     'oauth_consumer_key': CONSUMER_KEY,
+    ...     'oauth_token': access_token.key,
+    ...     'oauth_signature_method': 'HMAC-SHA1',
+    ...     'oauth_timestamp': str(int(time.time())),
+    ...     'oauth_nonce': 'accessresourcenonce',
+    ...     'oauth_version': '1.0',
+    ... }
+
+
+Calculating Signature Value
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+HMAC-SHA1 produces the following digest value as a base64-encoded string 
+(using the Signature Base String as text and kd94hf93k423kf44&pfkkdhi9sl3r4s00 
+as key)::
+
+    >>> import oauth2 as oauth
+    >>> oauth_request = oauth.Request.from_token_and_callback(access_token,
+    ...     http_url='http://testserver/oauth/photo/', parameters=parameters)
+    >>> signature_method = oauth.SignatureMethod_HMAC_SHA1()
+    >>> signature = signature_method.sign(oauth_request, consumer, access_token)
+
+
+Requesting Protected Resource
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+All together, the Consumer request for the photo is::
+
+    >>> parameters['oauth_signature'] = signature
+    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/photo/", parameters)
+    >>> response.status_code
+    200
+    >>> response.content
+    'Protected Resource access!'
+
+Otherwise, an explicit error will be raised::
+
+    >>> parameters['oauth_signature'] = 'wrongsignature'
+    >>> parameters['oauth_nonce'] = 'anotheraccessresourcenonce'
+    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/photo/", parameters)
+    >>> response.status_code
+    401
+    >>> response.content
+    'Invalid signature. Expected signature base string: GET&http%3A%2F%2F...%2Foauth%2Fphoto%2F&oauth_...'
+
+    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/photo/")
+    >>> response.status_code
+    401
+    >>> response.content
+    'Invalid request parameters.'
+
+
+Revoking Access
+---------------
+
+If Jane deletes the Access Token of printer.example.com, the Consumer will not 
+be able to access the Protected Resource anymore::
+
+    >>> access_token.delete()
+    >>> # Note that an "Invalid signature" error will be raised here if the
+    >>> # token is not revoked by Jane because we reuse a previously used one.
+    >>> parameters['oauth_signature'] = signature
+    >>> parameters['oauth_nonce'] = 'yetanotheraccessresourcenonce'
+    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/photo/", parameters)
+    >>> response.status_code
+    401
+    >>> response.content
+    'Invalid access token: ...'

File Home.wiki

-{{{
-#!parserest
-
-=====================
-Django OAuth provider
-=====================
-
-The `OAuth protocol`_ enables websites or applications (Consumers) to access 
-Protected Resources from a web service (Service Provider) via an API, without 
-requiring Users to disclose their Service Provider credentials to the 
-Consumers. More generally, OAuth creates a freely-implementable and generic 
-methodology for API authentication.
-
-.. _`OAuth protocol`: http://oauth.net/core/1.0a
-
-
-Authenticating with OAuth
-=========================
-
-OAuth authentication is the process in which Users grant access to their 
-Protected Resources without sharing their credentials with the Consumer. 
-OAuth uses Tokens generated by the Service Provider instead of the User's 
-credentials in Protected Resources requests. The process uses two Token types:
-
-    * **Request Token:**
-      Used by the Consumer to ask the User to authorize access to the 
-      Protected Resources. The User-authorized Request Token is exchanged for 
-      an Access Token, MUST only be used once, and MUST NOT be used for any 
-      other purpose. It is RECOMMENDED that Request Tokens have a limited 
-      lifetime.
-    * **Access Token:**
-      Used by the Consumer to access the Protected Resources on behalf of the 
-      User. Access Tokens MAY limit access to certain Protected Resources, and 
-      MAY have a limited lifetime. Service Providers SHOULD allow Users to 
-      revoke Access Tokens. Only the Access Token SHALL be used to access the 
-      Protect Resources.
-
-OAuth Authentication is done in three steps:
-
-    * The Consumer obtains an unauthorized Request Token.
-    * The User authorizes the Request Token.
-    * The Consumer exchanges the Request Token for an Access Token.
-
-See the `OAuth Authentication Flow`_ if you need visual details.
-
-.. _`OAuth Authentication Flow`: http://oauth.net/core/diagram.png
-
-
-Django installation
-===================
-
-First, install dependencies through pip::
-
-    pip install -r requirements.txt
-
-You need to specify the OAuth provider application in your settings and to 
-sync your database thanks to the ``syncdb`` command. Then add it to your 
-URLs::
-
-    # urls.py
-    urlpatterns = patterns('',
-        url(r'^oauth/', include('oauth_provider.urls'))
-    )
-
-.. note::
-    The ``oauth`` prefix is not required, you can specify whatever you want.
-
-As a provider, you probably need to customize the view you display to the user
-in order to allow access. The ``OAUTH_AUTHORIZE_VIEW`` setting allow you to
-specify this view, for instance::
-
-    # settings.py
-    OAUTH_AUTHORIZE_VIEW = 'myapp.views.oauth_authorize'
-
-.. note::
-    See example below with a custom callback view (optional), which depends on
-    ``OAUTH_CALLBACK_VIEW`` setting.
-
-.. note::
-    This implementation set an ``oauth`` flag in session which certify that 
-    the validation had been done by the current user. Otherwise, the external 
-    service can directly POST the validation argument and validate the token 
-    without any action from the user if he is already logged in. Do not delete
-    it in your own view.
-
-There is another setting dedicated to OAuth ``OAUTH_REALM_KEY_NAME``, which
-allows you to specify a realm which will be used in headers::
-
-    # settings.py
-    OAUTH_REALM_KEY_NAME = 'http://photos.example.net'
-    
-    # response
-    WWW-Authenticate: OAuth realm="http://photos.example.net/"
-
-With this setup, your OAuth URLs will be:
-
-    * Request Token URL: /oauth/request_token/
-    * User Authorization URL: /oauth/authorize/, using HTTP GET.
-    * Access Token URL: /oauth/access_token/
-
-That is the only thing you need to document for external developers.
-
-.. note::
-    You can customize the length of your key/secret attributes with 
-    constants ``KEY_SIZE``, ``SECRET_SIZE`` and ``CONSUMER_KEY_SIZE`` defined 
-    in consts.py. Default is set to 16 characters for ``KEY_SIZE`` and 
-    ``SECRET_SIZE`` and 256 characters for ``CONSUMER_KEY_SIZE``.
-
-The ``OAUTH_BLACKLISTED_HOSTNAMES`` setting allows you to restrict callback
-URL hostnames, it must be a list of blacklisted ones. For example::
-
-    OAUTH_BLACKLISTED_HOSTNAMES = ['localhost', '127.0.0.1']
-
-Default is an empty list.
-
-The ``OAUTH_SIGNATURE_METHODS`` setting allows you to restrict signatures'
-methods you'd like to use. For example if you don't want plaintext signature::
-
-    OAUTH_SIGNATURE_METHODS = ['hmac-sha1',]
-
-Default is ``['plaintext', 'hmac-sha1']``.
-
-A complete example is available in ``oauth_examples/provider/`` folder, you
-can run tests from this example with this command::
-
-    $ python manage.py test oauth_provider
-    ...
-    Ran 1 test in 0.264s
-    
-    OK
-    ...
-
-
-Protocol Example 1.0a
-=====================
-
-.. warning::
-    THIS IS THE RECOMMENDED WAY TO USE THIS APPLICATION.
-
-This example is exactly the same as 1.0 except it uses newly introduced
-arguments to be 1.0a compatible and fix the security issue.
-
-An account for Jane is necessary::
-
-    >>> from django.contrib.auth.models import User
-    >>> jane = User.objects.create_user('jane', 'jane@example.com', 'toto')
-
-
-Documentation and Registration
-------------------------------
-
-The Service Provider documentation explains how to register for a Consumer Key 
-and Consumer Secret, and declares the following URLs:
-
-    * Request Token URL:
-      http://photos.example.net/request_token, using HTTP POST
-    * User Authorization URL:
-      http://photos.example.net/authorize, using HTTP GET
-    * Access Token URL:
-      http://photos.example.net/access_token, using HTTP POST
-    * Photo (Protected Resource) URL:
-      http://photos.example.net/photo with required parameter file and 
-      optional parameter size
-
-The Service Provider declares support for the HMAC-SHA1 signature method for 
-all requests, and PLAINTEXT only for secure (HTTPS) requests.
-
-The Consumer printer.example.com already established a Consumer Key and 
-Consumer Secret with photos.example.net and advertizes its printing services 
-for photos stored on photos.example.net. The Consumer registration is:
-
-    * Consumer Key: dpf43f3p2l4k3l03
-    * Consumer Secret: kd94hf93k423kf44
-
-We need to create the Protected Resource and the Consumer first::
-
-    >>> from oauth_provider.models import Resource, Consumer
-    >>> resource = Resource(name='photos', url='/oauth/photo/')
-    >>> resource.save()
-    >>> CONSUMER_KEY = 'dpf43f3p2l4k3l03'
-    >>> CONSUMER_SECRET = 'kd94hf93k423kf44'
-    >>> consumer = Consumer(key=CONSUMER_KEY, secret=CONSUMER_SECRET, 
-    ...                     name='printer.example.com', user=jane)
-    >>> consumer.save()
-
-
-Obtaining a Request Token
--------------------------
-
-After Jane informs printer.example.com that she would like to print her 
-vacation photo stored at photos.example.net, the printer website tries to 
-access the photo and receives HTTP 401 Unauthorized indicating it is private. 
-The Service Provider includes the following header with the response::
-
-    >>> from django.test.client import Client
-    >>> c = Client()
-    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/request_token/")
-    >>> response.status_code
-    401
-    >>> # depends on REALM_KEY_NAME Django setting
-    >>> response._headers['www-authenticate']
-    ('WWW-Authenticate', 'OAuth realm=""')
-    >>> response.content
-    'Invalid request parameters.'
-
-The Consumer sends the following HTTP POST request to the Service Provider::
-
-    >>> import time
-    >>> parameters = {
-    ...     'oauth_consumer_key': CONSUMER_KEY,
-    ...     'oauth_signature_method': 'PLAINTEXT',
-    ...     'oauth_signature': '%s&' % CONSUMER_SECRET,
-    ...     'oauth_timestamp': str(int(time.time())),
-    ...     'oauth_nonce': 'requestnonce',
-    ...     'oauth_version': '1.0',
-    ...     'oauth_callback': 'http://printer.example.com/request_token_ready',
-    ...     'scope': 'photos', # custom argument to specify Protected Resource
-    ... }
-    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/request_token/", parameters)
-
-The Service Provider checks the signature and replies with an unauthorized 
-Request Token in the body of the HTTP response::
-
-    >>> response.status_code
-    200
-    >>> response.content
-    'oauth_token_secret=...&oauth_token=...&oauth_callback_confirmed=true'
-    >>> from oauth_provider.models import Token
-    >>> token = list(Token.objects.all())[-1]
-    >>> token.key in response.content, token.secret in response.content
-    (True, True)
-    >>> token.callback, token.callback_confirmed
-    (u'http://printer.example.com/request_token_ready', True)
-
-If you try to access a resource with a wrong scope, it will return an error::
-
-    >>> parameters['scope'] = 'videos'
-    >>> parameters['oauth_nonce'] = 'requestnoncevideos'
-    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/request_token/", parameters)
-    >>> response.status_code
-    401
-    >>> response.content
-    'Resource videos does not exist.'
-    >>> parameters['scope'] = 'photos' # restore
-
-If you try to put a wrong callback, it will return an error::
-
-    >>> parameters['oauth_callback'] = 'wrongcallback'
-    >>> parameters['oauth_nonce'] = 'requestnoncewrongcallback'
-    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/request_token/", parameters)
-    >>> response.status_code
-    401
-    >>> response.content
-    'Invalid callback URL.'
-
-If you do not provide any callback (i.e. oob), the Service Provider SHOULD 
-display the value of the verification code::
-
-    >>> parameters['oauth_callback'] = 'oob'
-    >>> parameters['oauth_nonce'] = 'requestnonceoob'
-    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/request_token/", parameters)
-    >>> response.status_code
-    200
-    >>> response.content
-    'oauth_token_secret=...&oauth_token=...&oauth_callback_confirmed=true'
-    >>> oobtoken = list(Token.objects.all())[-1]
-    >>> oobtoken.key in response.content, oobtoken.secret in response.content
-    (True, True)
-    >>> oobtoken.callback, oobtoken.callback_confirmed
-    (None, False)
-
-
-Requesting User Authorization
------------------------------
-
-The Consumer redirects Jane's browser to the Service Provider User 
-Authorization URL to obtain Jane's approval for accessing her private photos.
-
-The Service Provider asks Jane to sign-in using her username and password::
-
-    >>> parameters = {
-    ...     'oauth_token': token.key,
-    ... }
-    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/authorize/", parameters)
-    >>> response.status_code
-    302
-    >>> response['Location']
-    'http://.../accounts/login/?next=/oauth/authorize/%3Foauth_token%3D...'
-    >>> token.key in response['Location']
-    True
-
-If successful, asks her if she approves granting printer.example.com access to 
-her private photos. If Jane approves the request, the Service Provider 
-redirects her back to the Consumer's callback URL::
-
-    >>> c.login(username='jane', password='toto')
-    True
-    >>> token.is_approved
-    0
-    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/authorize/", parameters)
-    >>> response.status_code
-    200
-    >>> response.content
-    'Fake authorize view for printer.example.com with params: oauth_token=...'
-    
-    >>> # fake authorization by the user
-    >>> parameters['authorize_access'] = 1
-    >>> response = c.post("/oauth/authorize/", parameters)
-    >>> response.status_code
-    302
-    >>> response['Location']
-    'http://printer.example.com/request_token_ready?oauth_verifier=...&oauth_token=...'
-    >>> token = Token.objects.get(key=token.key)
-    >>> token.key in response['Location']
-    True
-    >>> token.is_approved
-    1
-
-    >>> # without session parameter (previous POST removed it)
-    >>> response = c.post("/oauth/authorize/", parameters)
-    >>> response.status_code
-    401
-    >>> response.content
-    'Action not allowed.'
-    
-    >>> # fake access not granted by the user (set session parameter again)
-    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/authorize/", parameters)
-    >>> parameters['authorize_access'] = 0
-    >>> response = c.post("/oauth/authorize/", parameters)
-    >>> response.status_code
-    302
-    >>> response['Location']
-    'http://printer.example.com/request_token_ready?oauth_verifier=...&error=Access+not+granted+by+user.'
-    >>> c.logout()
-
-With OAuth 1.0a, the callback argument can be set to "oob" (out-of-band), 
-you can specify your own default callback view with the
-``OAUTH_CALLBACK_VIEW`` setting::
-
-    >>> from oauth_provider.consts import OUT_OF_BAND
-    >>> token.callback = OUT_OF_BAND
-    >>> token.save()
-    >>> parameters = {
-    ...     'oauth_token': token.key,
-    ... }
-    >>> c.login(username='jane', password='toto')
-    True
-    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/authorize/", parameters)
-    >>> parameters['authorize_access'] = 0
-    >>> response = c.post("/oauth/authorize/", parameters)
-    >>> response.status_code
-    200
-    >>> response.content
-    'Fake callback view.'
-    >>> c.logout()
-
-
-Obtaining an Access Token
--------------------------
-
-Now that the Consumer knows Jane approved the Request Token, it asks the 
-Service Provider to exchange it for an Access Token::
-
-    >>> c = Client()
-    >>> parameters = {
-    ...     'oauth_consumer_key': CONSUMER_KEY,
-    ...     'oauth_token': token.key,
-    ...     'oauth_signature_method': 'PLAINTEXT',
-    ...     'oauth_signature': '%s&%s' % (CONSUMER_SECRET, token.secret),
-    ...     'oauth_timestamp': str(int(time.time())),
-    ...     'oauth_nonce': 'accessnonce',
-    ...     'oauth_version': '1.0',
-    ...     'oauth_verifier': token.verifier,
-    ...     'scope': 'photos',
-    ... }
-    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/access_token/", parameters)
-
-.. note::
-    You can use HTTP Authorization header, if you provide both, header will be
-    checked before parameters. It depends on your needs.
-
-The Service Provider checks the signature and replies with an Access Token in 
-the body of the HTTP response::
-
-    >>> response.status_code
-    200
-    >>> response.content
-    'oauth_token_secret=...&oauth_token=...'
-    >>> access_token = list(Token.objects.filter(token_type=Token.ACCESS))[-1]
-    >>> access_token.key in response.content
-    True
-    >>> access_token.secret in response.content
-    True
-    >>> access_token.user.username
-    u'jane'
-
-The Consumer will not be able to request another Access Token with the same
-parameters because the Request Token has been deleted once Access Token is
-created::
-
-    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/access_token/", parameters)
-    >>> response.status_code
-    400
-    >>> response.content
-    'Invalid request token.'
-
-The Consumer will not be able to request another Access Token with a missing
-or invalid verifier::
-
-    >>> new_request_token = Token.objects.create_token(
-    ...     token_type=Token.REQUEST,
-    ...     timestamp=str(int(time.time())),
-    ...     consumer=Consumer.objects.get(key=CONSUMER_KEY),
-    ...     user=jane,
-    ...     resource=Resource.objects.get(name='photos'))
-    >>> new_request_token.is_approved = True
-    >>> new_request_token.save()
-    >>> parameters['oauth_token'] = new_request_token.key
-    >>> parameters['oauth_signature'] = '%s&%s' % (CONSUMER_SECRET, new_request_token.secret)
-    >>> parameters['oauth_verifier'] = 'invalidverifier'
-    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/access_token/", parameters)
-    >>> response.status_code
-    400
-    >>> response.content
-    'Invalid OAuth verifier.'
-    >>> parameters['oauth_verifier'] = new_request_token.verifier # restore
-
-The Consumer will not be able to request an Access Token if the token is not
-approved::
-
-    >>> new_request_token.is_approved = False
-    >>> new_request_token.save()
-    >>> parameters['oauth_nonce'] = 'anotheraccessnonce'
-    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/access_token/", parameters)
-    >>> response.status_code
-    400
-    >>> response.content
-    'Request Token not approved by the user.'
-
-
-Accessing Protected Resources
------------------------------
-
-The Consumer is now ready to request the private photo. Since the photo URL is 
-not secure (HTTP), it must use HMAC-SHA1.
-
-Generating Signature Base String
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-
-To generate the signature, it first needs to generate the Signature Base 
-String. The request contains the following parameters (oauth_signature 
-excluded) which are ordered and concatenated into a normalized string::
-
-    >>> parameters = {
-    ...     'oauth_consumer_key': CONSUMER_KEY,
-    ...     'oauth_token': access_token.key,
-    ...     'oauth_signature_method': 'HMAC-SHA1',
-    ...     'oauth_timestamp': str(int(time.time())),
-    ...     'oauth_nonce': 'accessresourcenonce',
-    ...     'oauth_version': '1.0',
-    ... }
-
-
-Calculating Signature Value
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-
-HMAC-SHA1 produces the following digest value as a base64-encoded string 
-(using the Signature Base String as text and kd94hf93k423kf44&pfkkdhi9sl3r4s00 
-as key)::
-
-    >>> import oauth2 as oauth
-    >>> oauth_request = oauth.Request.from_token_and_callback(access_token,
-    ...     http_url='http://testserver/oauth/photo/', parameters=parameters)
-    >>> signature_method = oauth.SignatureMethod_HMAC_SHA1()
-    >>> signature = signature_method.sign(oauth_request, consumer, access_token)
-
-
-Requesting Protected Resource
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-
-All together, the Consumer request for the photo is::
-
-    >>> parameters['oauth_signature'] = signature
-    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/photo/", parameters)
-    >>> response.status_code
-    200
-    >>> response.content
-    'Protected Resource access!'
-
-Otherwise, an explicit error will be raised::
-
-    >>> parameters['oauth_signature'] = 'wrongsignature'
-    >>> parameters['oauth_nonce'] = 'anotheraccessresourcenonce'
-    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/photo/", parameters)
-    >>> response.status_code
-    401
-    >>> response.content
-    'Invalid signature. Expected signature base string: GET&http%3A%2F%2F...%2Foauth%2Fphoto%2F&oauth_...'
-
-    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/photo/")
-    >>> response.status_code
-    401
-    >>> response.content
-    'Invalid request parameters.'
-
-
-Revoking Access
----------------
-
-If Jane deletes the Access Token of printer.example.com, the Consumer will not 
-be able to access the Protected Resource anymore::
-
-    >>> access_token.delete()
-    >>> # Note that an "Invalid signature" error will be raised here if the
-    >>> # token is not revoked by Jane because we reuse a previously used one.
-    >>> parameters['oauth_signature'] = signature
-    >>> parameters['oauth_nonce'] = 'yetanotheraccessresourcenonce'
-    >>> response = c.get("/oauth/photo/", parameters)
-    >>> response.status_code
-    401
-    >>> response.content
-    'Invalid access token: ...'
-
-}}}