== Welcome to Rails

Rails is a web-application and persistance framework that includes everything
needed to create database-backed web-applications according to the
Model-View-Control pattern of separation. This pattern splits the view (also
called the presentation) into "dumb" templates that are primarily responsible
for inserting pre-build data in between HTML tags. The model contains the
"smart" domain objects (such as Account, Product, Person, Post) that holds all
the business logic and knows how to persist themselves to a database. The
controller handles the incoming requests (such as Save New Account, Update
Product, Show Post) by manipulating the model and directing data to the view.

In Rails, the model is handled by what's called a object-relational mapping
layer entitled Active Record. This layer allows you to present the data from
database rows as objects and embellish these data objects with business logic
methods. You can read more about Active Record in 

The controller and view is handled by the Action Pack, which handles both
layers by its two parts: Action View and Action Controller. These two layers
are bundled in a single package due to their heavy interdependence. This is
unlike the relationship between the Active Record and Action Pack that is much
more separate. Each of these packages can be used independently outside of
Rails.  You can read more about Action Pack in 

== Requirements

* Database and driver (MySQL, PostgreSQL, or SQLite)
* Rake[] for running tests and the generating documentation

== Optionals

* Apache 1.3.x or 2.x or lighttpd 1.3.11+ (or any FastCGI-capable webserver with a
  mod_rewrite-like module)
* FastCGI (or mod_ruby) for better performance on Apache

== Getting started

1. Run the WEBrick servlet: <tt>ruby script/server</tt>
   (run with --help for options)
2. Go to http://localhost:3000/ and get "Congratulations, you've put Ruby on Rails!"
3. Follow the guidelines on the "Congratulations, you've put Ruby on Rails!" screen

== Example for Apache conf

  <VirtualHost *:80>
    ServerName rails
    DocumentRoot /path/application/public/
    ErrorLog /path/application/log/server.log
    <Directory /path/application/public/>
      Options ExecCGI FollowSymLinks
      AllowOverride all
      Allow from all
      Order allow,deny

NOTE: Be sure that CGIs can be executed in that directory as well. So ExecCGI
should be on and ".cgi" should respond. All requests from goes
through CGI, so no Apache restart is necessary for changes. All other requests
goes through FCGI (or mod_ruby) that requires restart to show changes.

== Example for lighttpd conf (with FastCGI)

  server.port = 8080
  server.bind = ""
  # server.event-handler = "freebsd-kqueue" # needed on OS X
  server.modules = ( "mod_rewrite", "mod_fastcgi" )
  url.rewrite = ( "^/$" => "index.html", "^([^.]+)$" => "$1.html" )
  server.error-handler-404 = "/dispatch.fcgi"
  server.document-root = "/path/application/public"
  server.errorlog      = "/path/application/log/server.log"
  fastcgi.server = ( ".fcgi" =>
    ( "localhost" =>
          "min-procs" => 1, 
          "max-procs" => 5,
          "socket"   => "/tmp/application.fcgi.socket",
          "bin-path" => "/path/application/public/dispatch.fcgi",
          "bin-environment" => ( "RAILS_ENV" => "development" )

== Debugging Rails

Have "tail -f" commands running on both the server.log, production.log, and
test.log files. Rails will automatically display debugging and runtime
information to these files. Debugging info will also be shown in the browser
on requests from

== Breakpoints

Breakpoint support is available through the script/breakpointer client. This
means that you can break out of execution at any point in the code, investigate
and change the model, AND then resume execution! Example:

  class WeblogController < ActionController::Base
    def index
      @posts = Post.find_all
      breakpoint "Breaking out from the list"
So the controller will accept the action, run the first line, then present you
with a IRB prompt in the breakpointer window. Here you can do things like:

Executing breakpoint "Breaking out from the list" at .../webrick_server.rb:16 in 'breakpoint'

  >> @posts.inspect
  => "[#<Post:0x14a6be8 @attributes={\"title\"=>nil, \"body\"=>nil, \"id\"=>\"1\"}>, 
       #<Post:0x14a6620 @attributes={\"title\"=>\"Rails you know!\", \"body\"=>\"Only ten..\", \"id\"=>\"2\"}>]"
  >> @posts.first.title = "hello from a breakpoint"
  => "hello from a breakpoint"

...and even better is that you can examine how your runtime objects actually work:

  >> f = @posts.first 
  => #<Post:0x13630c4 @attributes={"title"=>nil, "body"=>nil, "id"=>"1"}>
  >> f.
  Display all 152 possibilities? (y or n)

Finally, when you're ready to resume execution, you press CTRL-D

== Console

You can interact with the domain model by starting the console through script/console. 
Here you'll have all parts of the application configured, just like it is when the
application is running. You can inspect domain models, change values, and save to the
database. Start the script without arguments will launch it in the development environment.
Passing an argument will specify a different environment, like <tt>console production</tt>.

== Description of contents

  Holds all the code that's specific to this particular application.

  Holds controllers that should be named like weblog_controller.rb for
  automated URL mapping. All controllers should descend from

  Holds models that should be named like post.rb.
  Most models will descent from ActiveRecord::Base.
  Holds the template files for the view that should be named like
  weblog/index.rhtml for the WeblogController#index action. All views uses eRuby
  syntax. This directory can also be used to keep stylesheets, images, and so on
  that can be symlinked to public.
  Holds view helpers that should be named like weblog_helper.rb.

  Configuration files for the Rails environment, the routing map, the database, and other dependencies.

  Self-contained mini-applications that can bundle controllers, models, and views together.

  Application specific libraries. Basically, any kind of custom code that doesn't
  belong controllers, models, or helpers. This directory is in the load path.
  The directory available for the web server. Contains sub-directories for images, stylesheets,
  and javascripts. Also contains the dispatchers and the default HTML files.

  Helper scripts for automation and generation.

  Unit and functional tests along with fixtures.

  External libraries that the application depend on. This directory is in the load path.