virtualenvwrapper |release|

virtualenvwrapper is a set of extensions to Ian Bicking's virtualenv tool. The extensions include wrappers for creating and deleting virtual environments and otherwise managing your development workflow, making it easier to work on more than one project at a time without introducing conflicts in their dependencies.

Features

1. Organizes all of your virtual environments in one place.
2. Wrappers for managing your virtual environments (create, delete, copy).
3. Use a single command to switch between environments.
4. Tab completion for commands that take a virtual environment as argument.
5. User-configurable hooks for all operations (see :ref:scripts).
6. Plugin system for more creating sharable extensions (see :ref:plugins).

Introduction

The best way to explain the features virtualenvwrapper gives you is to show it in use.

First, some initialization steps. Most of this only needs to be done one time. You will want to add the command to source /usr/local/bin/virtualenvwrapper.sh to your shell startup file, changing the path to virtualenvwrapper.sh depending on where it was installed by pip.

$pip install virtualenvwrapper ...$ export WORKON_HOME=~/Envs
$mkdir -p$WORKON_HOME
$source /usr/local/bin/virtualenvwrapper.sh$ mkvirtualenv env1
Installing
distribute..........................................
....................................................
....................................................
...............................done.
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts Creating /Users/dhellmann/Envs/env1/bin/predeactivate
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts Creating /Users/dhellmann/Envs/env1/bin/postdeactivate
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts Creating /Users/dhellmann/Envs/env1/bin/preactivate
virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts Creating /Users/dhellmann/Envs/env1/bin/postactivate  New python executable in env1/bin/python
(env1)$ls$WORKON_HOME
env1 hook.log


Now we can install some software into the environment.

(env1)$pip install django Downloading/unpacking django Downloading Django-1.1.1.tar.gz (5.6Mb): 5.6Mb downloaded Running setup.py egg_info for package django Installing collected packages: django Running setup.py install for django changing mode of build/scripts-2.6/django-admin.py from 644 to 755 changing mode of /Users/dhellmann/Envs/env1/bin/django-admin.py to 755 Successfully installed django  We can see the new package with lssitepackages: (env1)$ lssitepackages
Django-1.1.1-py2.6.egg-info     easy-install.pth
distribute-0.6.10-py2.6.egg     pip-0.6.3-py2.6.egg
django                          setuptools.pth


Of course we are not limited to a single virtualenv:

(env1)$ls$WORKON_HOME
env1            hook.log
(env1)$mkvirtualenv env2 Installing distribute............................... .................................................... .................................................... ........... ...............................done. virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts Creating /Users/dhellmann/Envs/env2/bin/predeactivate virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts Creating /Users/dhellmann/Envs/env2/bin/postdeactivate virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts Creating /Users/dhellmann/Envs/env2/bin/preactivate virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts Creating /Users/dhellmann/Envs/env2/bin/postactivate New python executable in env2/bin/python (env2)$ ls $WORKON_HOME env1 env2 hook.log  Switch between environments with workon: (env2)$ workon env1
(env1)$echo$VIRTUAL_ENV
/Users/dhellmann/Envs/env1
(env1)$ The workon command also includes tab completion for the environment names, and invokes customization scripts as an environment is activated or deactivated (see :ref:scripts). (env1)$ echo 'cd $VIRTUAL_ENV' >>$WORKON_HOME/postactivate
(env1)$workon env2 (env2)$ pwd
/Users/dhellmann/Envs/env2


:ref:scripts-postmkvirtualenv is run when a new environment is created, letting you automatically install commonly-used tools.

(env2)$echo 'pip install sphinx' >>$WORKON_HOME/postmkvirtualenv
(env3)$mkvirtualenv env3 New python executable in env3/bin/python Installing distribute............................... .................................................... .................................................... ........... ...............................done. virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts Creating /Users/dhellmann/Envs/env3/bin/predeactivate virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts Creating /Users/dhellmann/Envs/env3/bin/postdeactivate virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts Creating /Users/dhellmann/Envs/env3/bin/preactivate virtualenvwrapper.user_scripts Creating /Users/dhellmann/Envs/env3/bin/postactivate Downloading/unpacking sphinx Downloading Sphinx-0.6.5.tar.gz (972Kb): 972Kb downloaded Running setup.py egg_info for package sphinx no previously-included directories found matching 'doc/_build' Downloading/unpacking Pygments>=0.8 (from sphinx) Downloading Pygments-1.3.1.tar.gz (1.1Mb): 1.1Mb downloaded Running setup.py egg_info for package Pygments Downloading/unpacking Jinja2>=2.1 (from sphinx) Downloading Jinja2-2.4.tar.gz (688Kb): 688Kb downloaded Running setup.py egg_info for package Jinja2 warning: no previously-included files matching '*' found under directory 'docs/_build/doctrees' Downloading/unpacking docutils>=0.4 (from sphinx) Downloading docutils-0.6.tar.gz (1.4Mb): 1.4Mb downloaded Running setup.py egg_info for package docutils Installing collected packages: docutils, Jinja2, Pygments, sphinx Running setup.py install for docutils Running setup.py install for Jinja2 Running setup.py install for Pygments Running setup.py install for sphinx no previously-included directories found matching 'doc/_build' Installing sphinx-build script to /Users/dhellmann/Envs/env3/bin Installing sphinx-quickstart script to /Users/dhellmann/Envs/env3/bin Installing sphinx-autogen script to /Users/dhellmann/Envs/env3/bin Successfully installed docutils Jinja2 Pygments sphinx (env3)$
(venv3)\$ which sphinx-build
/Users/dhellmann/Envs/env3/bin/sphinx-build


Through a combination of the existing functions defined by the core package (see :ref:command), third-party plugins (see :ref:plugins), and user-defined scripts (see :ref:scripts) virtualenvwrapper gives you a wide variety of opportunities to automate repetitive operations.

References

virtualenv, from Ian Bicking, is a pre-requisite to using these extensions.

For more details, refer to the column I wrote for the May 2008 issue of Python Magazine: virtualenvwrapper | And Now For Something Completely Different.

Rich Leland has created a short screencast showing off the features of virtualenvwrapper.

Manuel Kaufmann has translated this documentation into Spanish.

Tetsuya Morimoto has translated this documentation into Japanese.

Support

Join the virtualenvwrapper Google Group to discuss issues and features.

Report bugs via the bug tracker on BitBucket.

Shell Aliases

Since virtualenvwrapper is largely a shell script, it uses shell commands for a lot of its actions. If your environment makes heavy use of shell aliases or other customizations, you may encounter issues. Before reporting bugs in the bug tracker, please test without your aliases enabled. If you can identify the alias causing the problem, that will help make virtualenvwrapper more robust.

Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of Doug Hellmann not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific, written prior permission.

DOUG HELLMANN DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS, IN NO EVENT SHALL DOUG HELLMANN BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.