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File pep-0427.txt

-PEP: 426
+PEP: 427
 Title: The Wheel Binary Package Format 1.0
 Version: $Revision$
 Last-Modified: $Date$
-This PEP describes a binary format for Python called wheel.
+This PEP describes a built-package format for Python called wheel.
+A wheel is a ZIP-format archive with a specially formatted file name and
+the .whl extension. It contains a single distribution nearly as it would
+be installed according to PEP 376 with a particular installation scheme.
+A wheel file may be installed by simply unpacking into site-packages
+with the standard ‘unzip’ tool, while preserving enough information
+to spread its contents out onto their final paths at any later time.
+Python needs a package format that is easier to install than sdist.
+Python’s sdist packages are defined by and require the distutils and
+setuptools build systems, running arbitrary code to build-and-install,
+and re-compile, code just so it can be installed into a new virtualenv.
+This system of conflating build-install is slow, hard to maintain, and
+hinders innovation in both build systems and installers.
+Wheel attempts to remedy these problems by providing a simpler interface
+between the build system and the installer. The wheel binary package
+format frees installers from having to know about the build system,
+saves time by amortizing compile time over many installations, and
+removes the need to install a build system in the target environment.
+Installing a wheel ‘distribution-1.0.py32.none.any.whl’
+#. Unpack.
+    a. Parse distribution-1.0.dist-info/WHEEL.
+    b. Check that installer is compatible with Wheel-Version. Warn if minor
+       version is greater, abort if major version is greater.
+    c. If Root-Is-Purelib == ‘true’, unpack archive into purelib
+       (site-packages).
+    d. Else unpack archive into platlib (site-packages).
+#. Spread.
+    a. Unpacked archive includes distribution-1.0.dist-info/ and (if there
+       is data)
+    b. Move each subtree of onto its destination
+       path. Each subdirectory of is a key into
+       sysconfig.get\_paths(), such as
+       See` <>`_` <>`_
+    c. If applicable, update scripts starting with “#!python” to point to
+       the correct interpreter.
+    d. Update with the installed paths.
+    e. Remove empty directory.
+File Format
+File name convention
+The wheel filename is {distribution}-{version}(-{build tag})?-{python
+tag}-{abi tag}-{platform tag}.whl
+    Distribution name, e.g. ‘django’, ‘pyramid’
+    PEP-386 compliant version, e.g. 1.0
+build tag
+    Optional build number. Must start with a digit. A tie breaker if two
+    wheels have the same version. Sort as None if unspecified, else sort
+    the initial digits as a number, and the remainder lexicographically.
+language implementation and version tag
+    ‘py27’ ‘py2’ ‘py3’
+abi tag
+    ‘cp33m’, ‘abi3’, ‘none’
+platform tag
+    ‘linux\_x86\_64’, ‘any’
+For example, distribution-1.0-1-py27-none-any.whl is the first build
+of a package called 'distribution', and is compatible with Python 2.7
+(any Python 2.7 implementation), with no abi (pure Python), on any CPU
+The last three components of the filename before the extension are
+called “compatibility tags.” The compatibility tags express
+the package’s basic interpreter requirements and are detailed
+in `PEP 425 <>`_.
+File contents
+#. Wheel files contain a folder {distribution}-{version}.dist-info/ with
+   the PEP 426 metadata (Metadata version 1.3 or greater) and an
+   additional file WHEEL with metadata about the archive itself.
+#. The root of a .whl is installed into one of purelib or platlib.
+#. Wheel files contain metadata about the wheel format itself in
+   {distribution}-{version}.dist-info/WHEEL::
+    Wheel-Version: 1.0
+    Generator: bdist_wheel 0.7
+    Root-Is-Purelib: true
+#. Wheel-Version is the version number of the Wheel specification.
+   Generator is the name and optionally the version of the software that
+   produced the archive. Root-Is-Purelib is true if the top level
+   directory of the archive should be installed into purelib; otherwise
+   the root should be installed into platlib.
+#. A wheel installer should warn if Wheel-Version is greater than the
+   version it supports, and fail if Wheel-Version has a greater major
+   version than the version it supports.
+#. If a .whl contains scripts, both purelib and platlib, or any other
+   files that are not installed on sys.path, they are found in
+   {distribution}-{version}.data/{key}, where {key} is an index into
+   sysconfig.get\_paths().
+#. Wheel, being an installation format that is intended to work across
+   multiple versions of Python, does not generally include .pyc files.
+#. Wheel does not contain or setup.cfg.
+The .dist-info directory
+#. Wheel .dist-info directories include at a minimum METADATA, WHEEL,
+   and RECORD.
+#. METADATA is the PEP 426 metadata (Metadata version 1.3 or greater)
+#. WHEEL is the wheel metadata, specific to a build of the package.
+#. RECORD is a list of (almost) all the files in the wheel and their
+   secure hashes. Unlike PEP 376, every file except RECORD, which cannot
+   contain a hash of itself, must include its hash. The hash algorithm
+   must be sha256 or better; specifically, md5 and sha1 are not
+   permitted, as signed wheel files rely on the strong hashes in RECORD to
+   validate the integrity of the archive.
+#. INSTALLER and REQUESTED are not included in the archive.
+#. RECORD.jws is used for digital signatures. It is not mentioned in
+#. RECORD.p7s is reserved as a courtesy to anyone who would prefer to
+   use s/mime signatures to secure their wheel files. It is not
+   mentioned in RECORD.
+#. During extraction, wheel installers verify all the hashes in RECORD
+   against the file contents. Apart from RECORD and its signatures,
+   installation will fail if any file in the archive is not both
+   mentioned and correctly hashed in RECORD.
+The .data directory
+Any file that is not normally installed inside site-packages goes into
+the .data directory, named as the .dist-info directory but with the extension::
+    distribution-1.0.dist-info/
+The .data directory contains subdirectories named after the keys of
+sysconfig.get\_paths(), and those subdirectories contain the scripts,
+headers, documentation and so forth from the distribution. During
+installation the contents of these subdirectories are moved onto their
+destination paths.
+Signed wheel files
+Wheel files include an extended RECORD that enables digital signatures.
+PEP 376’s RECORD is altered to include
+digestname=urlsafe\_b64encode\_nopad(digest) (urlsafe base64 encoding
+with no trailing = characters) as the second column instead of an
+md5sum. All possible entries are hashed, including any generated files
+such as .pyc files, but not RECORD. For example::
+    distribution-1.0.dist-info/RECORD,,
+RECORD.jws is not mentioned in RECORD at all. Every other file in the
+archive must have a correct hash in RECORD, or the installation will
+The signature is one or more JSON Web Signature JSON Serialization
+(JWS-JS) signatures stored in a file RECORD.jws adjacent to RECORD.
+A signature-aware installer can be instructed to check for a particular
+Ed25519 public key by using an extended “extras” syntax.::
+    # request a normal optional feature "extra", and indicate
+    # the package should be signed by a particular 
+    # urlsafe-b64encode-nopad encoded ed25519 public key:
+    package[extra, ed25519=ouBJlTJJ4SJXoy8Bi1KRlewWLU6JW7HUXTgvU1YRuiA]
+An application could distribute a requires.txt file with many such lines
+for all its dependencies and their public keys. By installing from this
+file an application’s users would know whether the applicaton’s
+dependencies came from the correct publishers.
+Applications that wish to “fail open” for backwards compatibility with
+non-signature-aware installers should specify that their package
+provides the extra ed25519=(key) with no associated dependencies.
+Key distribution is outside the scope of this spec. Public wheel signing
+keys could be signed with the packager’s GPG key or stored at
+an https://-protected URL.
+JSON Web Signatures Extensions
+The Ed25519 algorithm is used as an extension to the JSON Web Signatures
+specification. Wheel uses alg="Ed25519" in the header. The key attribute
+holds the signature’s public JSON Web Key. For JSON Web Key / JSON
+Private Key the verifying (public) key is called vk and the signing
+(private) key is called sk.
+Example header::
+    {
+     "alg": "Ed25519",
+     "typ": "JWT",
+     "key": {
+     "alg": "Ed25519",
+     "vk": "tmAYCrSfj8gtJ10v3VkvW7jOndKmQIYE12hgnFu3cvk"
+     }
+    }
+A future version of wheel may omit typ.
+Example payload::
+    { "hash": "sha256=ADD-r2urObZHcxBW3Cr-vDCu5RJwT4CaRTHiFmbcIYY" }
+A future version of wheel may include timestamps in the payload or in
+the signature.
+Comparison to .egg
+#. Wheel is an installation format; egg is importable. Wheel archives do
+   not need to include .pyc and are less tied to a specific Python
+   version or implementation. Wheel can install (pure Python) packages
+   built with previous versions of Python so you don’t always have to
+   wait for the packager to catch up.
+#. Wheel uses .dist-info directories; egg uses .egg-info. Wheel is
+   compatible with the new world of Python packaging and the new
+   concepts it brings.
+#. Wheel has a richer file naming convention for today’s
+   multi-implementation world. A single wheel archive can indicate its
+   compatibility with a number of Python language versions and
+   implementations, ABIs, and system architectures. Historically the ABI
+   has been specific to a CPython release, wheel is ready for the stable
+   ABI.
+#. Wheel is lossless. The first wheel implementation bdist\_wheel always
+   generates egg-info, and then converts it to a .whl. It is also
+   possible to convert existing eggs and bdist\_wininst distributions.
+#. Wheel is versioned. Every wheel file contains the version of the
+   wheel specification and the implementation that packaged it.
+   Hopefully the next migration can simply be to Wheel 2.0.
+#. Wheel is a reference to the other Python.
+Wheel defines a .data directory. Should I put all my data there?
+    No. The word 'data' is used only because it is short, and is only
+    meant to indicate files that are not installed into site-packages.
+    This specification does not have an opinion on how you should organize
+    your code.
-This document has been placed in the public domain.
+This document has been placed into the public domain.
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