Source

djangofrdoc / ref / contrib / flatpages.txt

=================
The flatpages app
=================

.. module:: django.contrib.flatpages
   :synopsis: A framework for managing simple ?flat? HTML content in a database.

Django comes with an optional "flatpages" application. It lets you store simple
"flat" HTML content in a database and handles the management for you via
Django's admin interface and a Python API.

A flatpage is a simple object with a URL, title and content. Use it for
one-off, special-case pages, such as "About" or "Privacy Policy" pages, that
you want to store in a database but for which you don't want to develop a
custom Django application.

A flatpage can use a custom template or a default, systemwide flatpage
template. It can be associated with one, or multiple, sites.

The content field may optionally be left blank if you prefer to put your
content in a custom template.

Here are some examples of flatpages on Django-powered sites:

    * http://www.lawrence.com/about/contact/
    * http://www2.ljworld.com/site/rules/

Installation
============

To install the flatpages app, follow these steps:

    1. Install the :mod:`sites framework <django.contrib.sites>` by adding
       ``'django.contrib.sites'`` to your :setting:`INSTALLED_APPS` setting,
       if it's not already in there.

       Also make sure you've correctly set :setting:`SITE_ID` to the ID of the
       site the settings file represents. This will usually be ``1`` (i.e.
       ``SITE_ID = 1``, but if you're using the sites framework to manage
       multiple sites, it could be the ID of a different site.

    2. Add ``'django.contrib.flatpages'`` to your :setting:`INSTALLED_APPS`
       setting.

    3. Add ``'django.contrib.flatpages.middleware.FlatpageFallbackMiddleware'``
       to your :setting:`MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES` setting.

    4. Run the command :djadmin:`manage.py syncdb <syncdb>`.

.. currentmodule:: django.contrib.flatpages.middleware

How it works
============

``manage.py syncdb`` creates two tables in your database: ``django_flatpage``
and ``django_flatpage_sites``. ``django_flatpage`` is a simple lookup table
that simply maps a URL to a title and bunch of text content.
``django_flatpage_sites`` associates a flatpage with a site.

The :class:`~django.contrib.flatpages.middleware.FlatpageFallbackMiddleware`
does all of the work.

.. class:: FlatpageFallbackMiddleware

    Each time any Django application raises a 404 error, this middleware
    checks the flatpages database for the requested URL as a last resort.
    Specifically, it checks for a flatpage with the given URL with a site ID
    that corresponds to the :setting:`SITE_ID` setting.

    If it finds a match, it follows this algorithm:

        * If the flatpage has a custom template, it loads that template.
          Otherwise, it loads the template :file:`flatpages/default.html`.

        * It passes that template a single context variable, ``flatpage``,
          which is the flatpage object. It uses
          :class:`~django.template.RequestContext` in rendering the
          template.

    .. versionchanged:: 1.4
       The middleware will only add a trailing slash and redirect (by looking
       at the :setting:`APPEND_SLASH` setting) if the resulting URL refers to
       a valid flatpage. Previously requesting a non-existent flatpage
       would redirect to the same URL with an apppended slash first and
       subsequently raise a 404.

    .. versionchanged:: 1.4
       Redirects by the middlware are permanent (301 status code) instead of
       temporary (302) to match behavior of the
       :class:`~django.middleware.common.CommonMiddleware`.

    If it doesn't find a match, the request continues to be processed as usual.

    The middleware only gets activated for 404s -- not for 500s or responses
    of any other status code.

.. admonition:: Flatpages will not apply view middleware

   Because the ``FlatpageFallbackMiddleware`` is applied only after
   URL resolution has failed and produced a 404, the response it
   returns will not apply any :ref:`view middleware <view-middleware>`
   methods. Only requests which are successfully routed to a view via
   normal URL resolution apply view middleware.

Note that the order of :setting:`MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES` matters. Generally, you can
put :class:`~django.contrib.flatpages.middleware.FlatpageFallbackMiddleware` at
the end of the list, because it's a last resort.

For more on middleware, read the :doc:`middleware docs
</topics/http/middleware>`.

.. admonition:: Ensure that your 404 template works

    Note that the
    :class:`~django.contrib.flatpages.middleware.FlatpageFallbackMiddleware`
    only steps in once another view has successfully produced a 404 response.
    If another view or middleware class attempts to produce a 404 but ends up
    raising an exception instead (such as a ``TemplateDoesNotExist``
    exception if your site does not have an appropriate template to
    use for HTTP 404 responses), the response will become an HTTP 500
    ("Internal Server Error") and the
    :class:`~django.contrib.flatpages.middleware.FlatpageFallbackMiddleware`
    will not attempt to serve a flat page.

.. currentmodule:: django.contrib.flatpages.models

How to add, change and delete flatpages
=======================================

Via the admin interface
-----------------------

If you've activated the automatic Django admin interface, you should see a
"Flatpages" section on the admin index page. Edit flatpages as you edit any
other object in the system.

Via the Python API
------------------

.. class:: FlatPage

    Flatpages are represented by a standard
    :doc:`Django model </topics/db/models>`,
    which lives in `django/contrib/flatpages/models.py`_. You can access
    flatpage objects via the :doc:`Django database API </topics/db/queries>`.

.. _django/contrib/flatpages/models.py: http://code.djangoproject.com/browser/django/trunk/django/contrib/flatpages/models.py

.. currentmodule:: django.contrib.flatpages

Flatpage templates
==================

By default, flatpages are rendered via the template
:file:`flatpages/default.html`, but you can override that for a
particular flatpage: in the admin, a collapsed fieldset titled
"Advanced options" (clicking will expand it) contains a field for
specifying a template name. If you're creating a flat page via the
Python API you can simply set the template name as the field
``template_name`` on the ``FlatPage`` object.

Creating the :file:`flatpages/default.html` template is your responsibility;
in your template directory, just create a :file:`flatpages` directory
containing a file :file:`default.html`.

Flatpage templates are passed a single context variable, ``flatpage``,
which is the flatpage object.

Here's a sample :file:`flatpages/default.html` template:

.. code-block:: html+django

    <!DOCTYPE html>
    <html>
    <head>
    <title>{{ flatpage.title }}</title>
    </head>
    <body>
    {{ flatpage.content }}
    </body>
    </html>

Since you're already entering raw HTML into the admin page for a flatpage,
both ``flatpage.title`` and ``flatpage.content`` are marked as **not**
requiring :ref:`automatic HTML escaping <automatic-html-escaping>` in the
template.

Getting a list of :class:`~django.contrib.flatpages.models.FlatPage` objects in your templates
==============================================================================================

.. versionadded:: 1.3

The flatpages app provides a template tag that allows you to iterate
over all of the available flatpages on the :ref:`current site
<hooking-into-current-site-from-views>`.

Like all custom template tags, you'll need to :ref:`load its custom
tag library <loading-custom-template-libraries>` before you can use
it. After loading the library, you can retrieve all current flatpages
via the :ttag:`get_flatpages` tag:

.. code-block:: html+django

    {% load flatpages %}
    {% get_flatpages as flatpages %}
    <ul>
        {% for page in flatpages %}
            <li><a href="{{ page.url }}">{{ page.title }}</a></li>
        {% endfor %}
    </ul>

.. templatetag:: get_flatpages

Displaying ``registration_required`` flatpages
----------------------------------------------

By default, the :ttag:`get_flatpages` templatetag will only show
flatpages that are marked ``registration_required = False``. If you
want to display registration-protected flatpages, you need to specify
an authenticated user using a``for`` clause.

For example:

.. code-block:: html+django

    {% get_flatpages for someuser as about_pages %}

If you provide an anonymous user, :ttag:`get_flatpages` will behave
the same as if you hadn't provided a user -- i.e., it will only show you
public flatpages.

Limiting flatpages by base URL
------------------------------

An optional argument, ``starts_with``, can be applied to limit the
returned pages to those beginning with a particular base URL. This
argument may be passed as a string, or as a variable to be resolved
from the context.

For example:

.. code-block:: html+django

    {% get_flatpages '/about/' as about_pages %}
    {% get_flatpages about_prefix as about_pages %}
    {% get_flatpages '/about/' for someuser as about_pages %}