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swish / src / Swish / GraphClass.hs

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{-# LANGUAGE CPP #-}
{-# LANGUAGE MultiParamTypeClasses #-}
{-# LANGUAGE DeriveFunctor #-}
{-# LANGUAGE DeriveFoldable #-}
{-# LANGUAGE DeriveTraversable #-}

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--  See end of this file for licence information.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- |
--  Module      :  GraphClass
--  Copyright   :  (c) 2003, Graham Klyne, 2009 Vasili I Galchin,
--                 2011, 2012 Douglas Burke
--  License     :  GPL V2
--
--  Maintainer  :  Douglas Burke
--  Stability   :  experimental
--  Portability :  CPP, DeriveFunctor, DeriveFoldable, DeriveTraversable, MultiParamTypeClasses
--
--  This module defines a Labelled Directed Graph and Label classes,
--  and the Arc datatype.
--
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------------------
-- Define LDGraph, arc and related classes and types
------------------------------------------------------------

module Swish.GraphClass
    ( LDGraph(..)
    , Label(..)
    , Arc(..)
    , ArcSet
    , Selector
    , arc, arcToTriple, arcFromTriple
    , hasLabel, arcLabels -- , arcNodes
    , getComponents
    )
where

import Data.Hashable (Hashable(..))
import Data.List (foldl')
import Data.Ord (comparing)

import qualified Data.Foldable as F
import qualified Data.Set as S
import qualified Data.Traversable as T

--  NOTE:  I wanted to declare this as a subclass of Functor, but
--  the constraint on the label type seems to prevent that.
--  So I've just declared specific instances to be Functors.
--

{-|
Labelled Directed Graph class.

Minimum required implementation: 
'emptyGraph', 'setArcs', and 'getArcs'.
-}

class LDGraph lg lb where

    -- | Create the empty graph.
    emptyGraph  :: lg lb
      
    -- | Replace the existing arcs in the graph.
    setArcs     :: lg lb -> ArcSet lb -> lg lb
    
    -- | Extract all the arcs from a graph
    getArcs     :: lg lb -> ArcSet lb
    
    -- | Extract those arcs that match the given `Selector`.
    extract     :: (Ord lb) => Selector lb -> lg lb -> lg lb
    extract sel = update (S.filter sel)
    
    -- | Add the two graphs
    addGraphs         :: (Ord lb) => lg lb -> lg lb -> lg lb
    addGraphs    addg = update (S.union (getArcs addg))
    
    -- | Remove those arcs in the first graph from the second
    -- graph
    delete :: 
        (Ord lb) =>
        lg lb    -- ^ g1
        -> lg lb -- ^ g2
        -> lg lb -- ^ g2 - g1 -> g3
    delete g1 g2 = setArcs g2 (getArcs g2 `S.difference` getArcs g1)
    
    -- | Enumerate the distinct labels contained in a graph;
    -- that is, any label that appears in the subject,
    -- predicate or object position of an `Arc`.
    labels      :: (Ord lb) => lg lb -> S.Set lb
    labels = getComponents arcLabels . getArcs
    
    -- | Enumerate the distinct nodes contained in a graph;
    -- that is, any label that appears in the subject
    -- or object position of an `Arc`.
    nodes       :: (Ord lb) => lg lb -> S.Set lb
    nodes = getComponents arcNodes . getArcs
    
    -- | Update the arcs in a graph using a supplied function.
    update      :: (ArcSet lb -> ArcSet lb) -> lg lb -> lg lb
    update f g  = setArcs g ( f (getArcs g) )

-- | Extract components from a set.
getComponents :: (Ord a, Ord b) => (a -> [b]) -> S.Set a -> S.Set b
getComponents f = 
    let ins sgr = foldl' (flip S.insert) sgr . f
    in S.foldl' ins S.empty 

-- | Label class.
--
--  A label may have a fixed binding, which means that the label identifies (is) a
--  particular graph node, and different such labels are always distinct nodes.
--  Alternatively, a label may be unbound (variable), which means that it is a
--  placeholder for an unknown node label.  Unbound node labels are used as
--  graph-local identifiers for indicating when the same node appears in
--  several arcs.
--
--  For the purposes of graph-isomorphism testing, fixed labels are matched when they
--  are the same.  Variable labels may be matched with any other variable label.
--  Our definition of isomorphism (for RDF graphs) does not match variable labels
--  with fixed labels.
--

-- We do not need Ord/Show constraints here, but it means we can just use
-- Label as a short-form for Ord/Show in code

class (Ord lb, Show lb) => Label lb where
  
  -- | Does this node have a variable binding?
  labelIsVar  :: lb -> Bool           
    
  -- | Calculate the hash of the label using the supplied seed.
  labelHash   :: Int -> lb -> Int     
  
  -- could provide a default of 
  --   labelHash = hashWithSalt
  -- but this would then force a Hashable constraint
    
  -- | Extract the local id from a variable node.                 
  getLocal    :: lb -> String
    
  -- | Make a label value from a local id.  
  makeLabel   :: String -> lb
    
-- | Arc type.
--
-- Prior to @0.7.0.0@ you could also use @asubj@, @apred@ and @aobj@
-- to access the elements of the arc.
--
data Arc lb = Arc 
              { arcSubj :: lb  -- ^ The subject of the arc.
              , arcPred :: lb  -- ^ The predicate (property) of the arc.
              , arcObj :: lb   -- ^ The object of the arc.
              }
            deriving (Eq, Functor, F.Foldable, T.Traversable)

-- | A set - or graph - of arcs.
type ArcSet lb = S.Set (Arc lb)

instance (Hashable lb) => Hashable (Arc lb) where
#if MIN_VERSION_hashable(1,2,0) 
#else
  hash (Arc s p o) = hash s `hashWithSalt` p `hashWithSalt` o
#endif
  hashWithSalt salt (Arc s p o) = salt `hashWithSalt` s `hashWithSalt` p `hashWithSalt` o

-- | Create an arc.
arc :: lb      -- ^ The subject of the arc.
       -> lb   -- ^ The predicate of the arc.
       -> lb   -- ^ The object of the arc.
       -> Arc lb
arc = Arc

-- | Convert an Arc into a tuple.
arcToTriple :: Arc lb -> (lb,lb,lb)
arcToTriple (Arc s p o) = (s, p, o)

-- | Create an Arc from a tuple.
arcFromTriple :: (lb,lb,lb) -> Arc lb
arcFromTriple (s,p,o) = Arc s p o

instance Ord lb => Ord (Arc lb) where
    compare = comparing arcToTriple

instance (Show lb) => Show (Arc lb) where
    show (Arc lb1 lb2 lb3) =
        "("++ show lb1 ++","++ show lb2 ++","++ show lb3 ++")"

-- | Identify arcs.
type Selector lb = Arc lb -> Bool

-- | Does the arc contain the label in any position (subject, predicate, or object)?
hasLabel :: (Eq lb) => lb -> Arc lb -> Bool
hasLabel lbv lb = lbv `elem` arcLabels lb

-- | Return all the labels in an arc.
arcLabels :: Arc lb -> [lb]
arcLabels (Arc lb1 lb2 lb3) = [lb1,lb2,lb3]

-- | Return just the subject and object labels in the arc.
arcNodes :: Arc lb -> [lb]
arcNodes (Arc lb1 _ lb3) = [lb1,lb3]

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
--  Copyright (c) 2003, Graham Klyne, 2009 Vasili I Galchin,
--    2011, 2012 Douglas Burke
--  All rights reserved.
--
--  This file is part of Swish.
--
--  Swish is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
--  it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
--  the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
--  (at your option) any later version.
--
--  Swish is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
--  but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
--  MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
--  GNU General Public License for more details.
--
--  You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
--  along with Swish; if not, write to:
--    The Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
--    59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA
--
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------